org.texi 735 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include org-version.inc
  6. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  7. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  8. @set txicodequoteundirected
  9. @set txicodequotebacktick
  10. @c Version and Contact Info
  11. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers web page}
  12. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  13. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  15. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  16. @documentencoding UTF-8
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  20. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  21. @c =======================================
  22. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  23. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  24. @set cmdnames
  25. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  26. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  27. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  28. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  29. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  30. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  31. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  32. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  33. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  34. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  35. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  36. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  37. @c a key but no command
  38. @c Inserts: @item key
  39. @macro orgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @item @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @macro xorgkey{key}
  44. @kindex \key\
  45. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  46. @end macro
  47. @c one key with a command
  48. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  49. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  50. @ifset cmdnames
  51. @kindex \key\
  52. @findex \command\
  53. @iftex
  54. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  55. @end iftex
  56. @ifnottex
  57. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  58. @end ifnottex
  59. @end ifset
  60. @ifclear cmdnames
  61. @kindex \key\
  62. @item @kbd{\key\}
  63. @end ifclear
  64. @end macro
  65. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  66. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  67. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  68. @ifset cmdnames
  69. @kindex \key\
  70. @findex \command\
  71. @iftex
  72. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  73. @end iftex
  74. @ifnottex
  75. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  76. @end ifnottex
  77. @end ifset
  78. @ifclear cmdnames
  79. @kindex \key\
  80. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  81. @end ifclear
  82. @end macro
  83. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  84. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  85. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  86. @ifset cmdnames
  87. @findex \command\
  88. @iftex
  89. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  90. @end iftex
  91. @ifnottex
  92. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  93. @end ifnottex
  94. @end ifset
  95. @ifclear cmdnames
  96. @item @kbd{\key\}
  97. @end ifclear
  98. @end macro
  99. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  100. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  101. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  102. @ifset cmdnames
  103. @kindex \key\
  104. @findex \command\
  105. @iftex
  106. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  107. @end iftex
  108. @ifnottex
  109. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  110. @end ifnottex
  111. @end ifset
  112. @ifclear cmdnames
  113. @kindex \key\
  114. @item @kbd{\text\}
  115. @end ifclear
  116. @end macro
  117. @c two keys with one command
  118. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  119. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  120. @ifset cmdnames
  121. @kindex \key1\
  122. @kindex \key2\
  123. @findex \command\
  124. @iftex
  125. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  126. @end iftex
  127. @ifnottex
  128. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  129. @end ifnottex
  130. @end ifset
  131. @ifclear cmdnames
  132. @kindex \key1\
  133. @kindex \key2\
  134. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  135. @end ifclear
  136. @end macro
  137. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  138. @c @itemx
  139. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  140. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  141. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  142. @ifset cmdnames
  143. @kindex \key1\
  144. @kindex \key2\
  145. @findex \command\
  146. @iftex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  149. @end iftex
  150. @ifnottex
  151. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  152. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  153. @end ifnottex
  154. @end ifset
  155. @ifclear cmdnames
  156. @kindex \key1\
  157. @kindex \key2\
  158. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  159. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  160. @end ifclear
  161. @end macro
  162. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  163. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  164. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  165. @ifset cmdnames
  166. @kindex \key1\
  167. @kindex \key2\
  168. @findex \command\
  169. @iftex
  170. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  171. @end iftex
  172. @ifnottex
  173. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  174. @end ifnottex
  175. @end ifset
  176. @ifclear cmdnames
  177. @kindex \key1\
  178. @kindex \key2\
  179. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  180. @end ifclear
  181. @end macro
  182. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  183. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  184. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  185. @ifset cmdnames
  186. @kindex \key1\
  187. @kindex \key2\
  188. @findex \command\
  189. @iftex
  190. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  191. @end iftex
  192. @ifnottex
  193. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  194. @end ifnottex
  195. @end ifset
  196. @ifclear cmdnames
  197. @kindex \key1\
  198. @kindex \key2\
  199. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  200. @end ifclear
  201. @end macro
  202. @c two keys with two commands
  203. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  204. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  205. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  206. @ifset cmdnames
  207. @kindex \key1\
  208. @kindex \key2\
  209. @findex \command1\
  210. @findex \command2\
  211. @iftex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  214. @end iftex
  215. @ifnottex
  216. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  217. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  218. @end ifnottex
  219. @end ifset
  220. @ifclear cmdnames
  221. @kindex \key1\
  222. @kindex \key2\
  223. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  224. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  225. @end ifclear
  226. @end macro
  227. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  228. @iftex
  229. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  230. @end iftex
  231. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  232. @macro tsubheading{text}
  233. @ifinfo
  234. @subsubheading \text\
  235. @end ifinfo
  236. @ifnotinfo
  237. @item @b{\text\}
  238. @end ifnotinfo
  239. @end macro
  240. @copying
  241. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  242. Copyright @copyright{} 2004--2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  243. @quotation
  244. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  245. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  246. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  247. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  248. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  249. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  250. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  251. modify this GNU manual.''
  252. @end quotation
  253. @end copying
  254. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  255. @direntry
  256. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  257. @end direntry
  258. @titlepage
  259. @title The Org Manual
  260. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  261. @author by Carsten Dominik
  262. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan
  263. Davison, Eric Schulte, Thomas Dye, Jambunathan K and Nicolas Goaziou.
  264. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  265. @page
  266. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  267. @insertcopying
  268. @end titlepage
  269. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  270. @contents
  271. @ifnottex
  272. @c FIXME These hand-written next,prev,up node pointers make editing a lot
  273. @c harder. There should be no need for them, makeinfo can do it
  274. @c automatically for any document with a normal structure.
  275. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  276. @top Org Mode Manual
  277. @insertcopying
  278. @end ifnottex
  279. @menu
  280. * Introduction:: Getting started
  281. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  282. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  283. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  284. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  285. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  286. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  287. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  288. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  289. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  290. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  291. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing notes
  292. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  293. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  294. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  295. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  296. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  297. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  298. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
  299. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  300. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  301. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  302. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  303. @detailmenu
  304. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  305. Introduction
  306. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  307. * Installation:: Installing Org
  308. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  309. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  310. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  311. Document structure
  312. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  313. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  314. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  315. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  316. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  317. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  318. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  319. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  320. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  321. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  322. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  323. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  324. Visibility cycling
  325. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  326. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  327. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  328. Global and local cycling
  329. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  330. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  331. Tables
  332. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  333. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  334. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  335. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  336. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  337. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  338. The spreadsheet
  339. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  340. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  341. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  342. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  343. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  344. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  345. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  346. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  347. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  348. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  349. Hyperlinks
  350. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  351. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  352. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  353. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  354. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  355. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  356. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  357. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  358. Internal links
  359. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  360. TODO items
  361. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  362. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  363. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  364. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  365. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  366. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  367. Extended use of TODO keywords
  368. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  369. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  370. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  371. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  372. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  373. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  374. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  375. Progress logging
  376. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  377. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  378. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  379. Tags
  380. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  381. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  382. * Tag groups:: Use one tag to search for several tags
  383. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  384. Properties and columns
  385. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  386. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  387. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  388. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  389. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  390. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  391. Column view
  392. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  393. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  394. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  395. Defining columns
  396. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  397. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  398. Dates and times
  399. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  400. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  401. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  402. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  403. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  404. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  405. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  406. Creating timestamps
  407. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  408. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  409. Deadlines and scheduling
  410. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  411. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  412. Clocking work time
  413. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  414. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  415. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  416. Capture - Refile - Archive
  417. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  418. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  419. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  420. * Protocols:: External (e.g., Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  421. * Refile and copy:: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another
  422. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  423. Capture
  424. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  425. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  426. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  427. Capture templates
  428. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  429. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  430. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context
  431. Archiving
  432. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  433. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  434. Agenda views
  435. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  436. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  437. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  438. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  439. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  440. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  441. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  442. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  443. The built-in agenda views
  444. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  445. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  446. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  447. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  448. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  449. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  450. Presentation and sorting
  451. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  452. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  453. * Sorting agenda items:: The order of things
  454. * Filtering/limiting agenda items:: Dynamically narrow the agenda
  455. Custom agenda views
  456. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  457. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  458. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  459. Markup for rich export
  460. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  461. * Images and tables:: Images, tables and caption mechanism
  462. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  463. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  464. * Index entries:: Making an index
  465. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create templates
  466. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  467. * Special blocks:: Containers targeted at export back-ends
  468. Structural markup elements
  469. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  470. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  471. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  472. * Lists:: Lists
  473. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  474. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  475. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  476. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  477. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  478. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  479. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  480. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  481. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  482. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  483. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  484. Exporting
  485. * The Export Dispatcher:: The main exporter interface
  486. * Export back-ends:: Built-in export formats
  487. * Export settings:: Generic export settings
  488. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  489. * Beamer export:: Exporting as a Beamer presentation
  490. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  491. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  492. * Markdown export:: Exporting to Markdown
  493. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  494. * Org export:: Exporting to Org
  495. * iCalendar export:: Exporting to iCalendar
  496. * Other built-in back-ends:: Exporting to @code{Texinfo} or a man page
  497. * Export in foreign buffers:: Author tables and lists in Org syntax
  498. * Advanced configuration:: Fine-tuning the export output
  499. HTML export
  500. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  501. * HTML doctypes:: Org can export to various (X)HTML flavors
  502. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  503. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org mode
  504. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  505. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  506. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  507. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  508. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  509. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  510. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  511. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  512. * @LaTeX{} export commands:: How to export to LaTeX and PDF
  513. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  514. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  515. * @LaTeX{} specific attributes:: Controlling @LaTeX{} output
  516. OpenDocument Text export
  517. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: What packages ODT exporter relies on
  518. * ODT export commands:: How to invoke ODT export
  519. * Extending ODT export:: How to produce @samp{doc}, @samp{pdf} files
  520. * Applying custom styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  521. * Links in ODT export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  522. * Tables in ODT export:: How Tables are exported
  523. * Images in ODT export:: How to insert images
  524. * Math formatting in ODT export:: How @LaTeX{} fragments are formatted
  525. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: How captions are rendered
  526. * Literal examples in ODT export:: How source and example blocks are formatted
  527. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: Read this if you are a power user
  528. Math formatting in ODT export
  529. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: How to embed @LaTeX{} math fragments
  530. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: How to embed equations in native format
  531. Advanced topics in ODT export
  532. * Configuring a document converter:: How to register a document converter
  533. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Explore the internals
  534. * Creating one-off styles:: How to produce custom highlighting etc
  535. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: How to define and use Table templates
  536. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: How to debug corrupt OpenDocument files
  537. Publishing
  538. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  539. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  540. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  541. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  542. Configuration
  543. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  544. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  545. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  546. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  547. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  548. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  549. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  550. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  551. Sample configuration
  552. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  553. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  554. Working with source code
  555. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  556. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  557. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  558. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  559. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  560. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  561. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  562. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  563. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  564. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  565. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  566. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  567. Header arguments
  568. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  569. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  570. Using header arguments
  571. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  572. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  573. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  574. * Language-specific header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set language-specific default values for a buffer or heading
  575. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  576. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  577. Specific header arguments
  578. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  579. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  580. be collected and handled
  581. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  582. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  583. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  584. directory for code block execution
  585. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  586. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  587. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  588. files during tangling
  589. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  590. code files
  591. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  592. code files
  593. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  594. expansion during tangling
  595. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  596. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  597. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  598. * noweb-sep:: String used to separate noweb references
  599. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  600. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  601. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  602. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  603. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  604. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  605. * tangle-mode:: Set permission of tangled files
  606. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  607. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  608. * post:: Post processing of code block results
  609. * prologue:: Text to prepend to code block body
  610. * epilogue:: Text to append to code block body
  611. Miscellaneous
  612. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  613. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  614. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  615. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  616. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  617. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  618. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  619. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  620. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  621. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  622. * org-crypt:: Encrypting Org files
  623. Interaction with other packages
  624. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  625. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  626. Hacking
  627. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  628. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  629. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  630. * Adding export back-ends:: How to write new export back-ends
  631. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  632. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  633. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  634. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  635. * Speeding up your agendas:: Tips on how to speed up your agendas
  636. * Extracting agenda information:: Post-processing of agenda information
  637. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  638. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  639. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  640. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  641. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  642. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  643. * Radio lists:: Sending and receiving lists
  644. MobileOrg
  645. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  646. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  647. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  648. @end detailmenu
  649. @end menu
  650. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  651. @chapter Introduction
  652. @cindex introduction
  653. @menu
  654. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  655. * Installation:: Installing Org
  656. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  657. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  658. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  659. @end menu
  660. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  661. @section Summary
  662. @cindex summary
  663. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  664. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  665. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  666. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  667. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  668. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  669. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  670. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  671. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  672. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  673. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  674. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  675. For printing and sharing notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  676. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  677. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  678. linked web pages.
  679. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  680. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  681. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  682. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  683. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  684. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  685. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  686. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  687. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  688. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  689. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  690. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  691. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  692. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  693. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  694. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  695. ends, for example:
  696. @example
  697. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  698. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  699. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  700. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  701. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  702. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  703. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  704. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked web pages}
  705. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  706. @end example
  707. @cindex FAQ
  708. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  709. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  710. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc. This page is located at
  711. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  712. @cindex print edition
  713. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  714. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  715. Theory Ltd.}
  716. @page
  717. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  718. @section Installation
  719. @cindex installation
  720. @cindex XEmacs
  721. Org is part of recent distributions of GNU Emacs, so you normally don't need
  722. to install it. If, for one reason or another, you want to install Org on top
  723. of this pre-packaged version, there are three ways to do it:
  724. @itemize @bullet
  725. @item By using Emacs package system.
  726. @item By downloading Org as an archive.
  727. @item By using Org's git repository.
  728. @end itemize
  729. We @b{strongly recommend} to stick to a single installation method.
  730. @subsubheading Using Emacs packaging system
  731. Recent Emacs distributions include a packaging system which lets you install
  732. Elisp libraries. You can install Org with @kbd{M-x package-install RET org}.
  733. You need to do this in a session where no @code{.org} file has been visited.
  734. Then, to make sure your Org configuration is taken into account, initialize
  735. the package system with @code{(package-initialize)} in your @file{.emacs}
  736. before setting any Org option. If you want to use Org's package repository,
  737. check out the @uref{http://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}.
  738. @subsubheading Downloading Org as an archive
  739. You can download Org latest release from @uref{http://orgmode.org/, Org's
  740. website}. In this case, make sure you set the load-path correctly in your
  741. @file{.emacs}:
  742. @lisp
  743. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  744. @end lisp
  745. The downloaded archive contains contributed libraries that are not included
  746. in Emacs. If you want to use them, add the @file{contrib} directory to your
  747. load-path:
  748. @lisp
  749. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  750. @end lisp
  751. Optionally, you can compile the files and/or install them in your system.
  752. Run @code{make help} to list compilation and installation options.
  753. @subsubheading Using Org's git repository
  754. You can clone Org's repository and install Org like this:
  755. @example
  756. $ cd ~/src/
  757. $ git clone git://orgmode.org/org-mode.git
  758. $ make autoloads
  759. @end example
  760. Note that in this case, @code{make autoloads} is mandatory: it defines Org's
  761. version in @file{org-version.el} and Org's autoloads in
  762. @file{org-loaddefs.el}.
  763. Remember to add the correct load-path as described in the method above.
  764. You can also compile with @code{make}, generate the documentation with
  765. @code{make doc}, create a local configuration with @code{make config} and
  766. install Org with @code{make install}. Please run @code{make help} to get
  767. the list of compilation/installation options.
  768. For more detailed explanations on Org's build system, please check the Org
  769. Build System page on @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html,
  770. Worg}.
  771. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  772. @section Activation
  773. @cindex activation
  774. @cindex autoload
  775. @cindex ELPA
  776. @cindex global key bindings
  777. @cindex key bindings, global
  778. @findex org-agenda
  779. @findex org-capture
  780. @findex org-store-link
  781. @findex org-iswitchb
  782. Since Emacs 22.2, files with the @file{.org} extension use Org mode by
  783. default. If you are using an earlier version of Emacs, add this line to your
  784. @file{.emacs} file:
  785. @lisp
  786. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  787. @end lisp
  788. Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on: this is the default in
  789. Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer
  790. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  791. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  792. packages, please take the time to check the list (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  793. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  794. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  795. global keys (i.e., anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  796. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  797. liking.
  798. @lisp
  799. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  800. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  801. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  802. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  803. @end lisp
  804. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  805. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  806. into Org mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  807. like this:
  808. @example
  809. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  810. @end example
  811. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  812. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  813. the file's name is. See also the variable
  814. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  815. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  816. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  817. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  818. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  819. @lisp
  820. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  821. @end lisp
  822. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  823. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  824. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  825. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  826. @section Feedback
  827. @cindex feedback
  828. @cindex bug reports
  829. @cindex maintainer
  830. @cindex author
  831. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  832. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  833. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  834. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  835. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  836. moderators have to do.}.
  837. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  838. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  839. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  840. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  841. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  842. (@kbd{M-x org-version RET}), as well as the Org related setup in
  843. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  844. @example
  845. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report RET}
  846. @end example
  847. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  848. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  849. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  850. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  851. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  852. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  853. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  854. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  855. @example
  856. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  857. @end example
  858. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  859. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as
  860. @code{emacs -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  861. shown below.
  862. @lisp
  863. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'
  864. ;; activate debugging
  865. (setq debug-on-error t
  866. debug-on-signal nil
  867. debug-on-quit nil)
  868. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  869. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  870. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t))
  871. @end lisp
  872. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  873. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  874. about:
  875. @enumerate
  876. @item What exactly did you do?
  877. @item What did you expect to happen?
  878. @item What happened instead?
  879. @end enumerate
  880. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  881. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  882. @cindex backtrace of an error
  883. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  884. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  885. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  886. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  887. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  888. @enumerate
  889. @item
  890. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  891. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  892. To do this, use
  893. @example
  894. @kbd{C-u M-x org-reload RET}
  895. @end example
  896. @noindent
  897. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  898. menu.
  899. @item
  900. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  901. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  902. @item
  903. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  904. document the steps you take.
  905. @item
  906. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  907. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  908. attach it to your bug report.
  909. @end enumerate
  910. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  911. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  912. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  913. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  914. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  915. @table @code
  916. @item TODO
  917. @itemx WAITING
  918. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  919. user-defined.
  920. @item boss
  921. @itemx ARCHIVE
  922. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  923. meaning are written with all capitals.
  924. @item Release
  925. @itemx PRIORITY
  926. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  927. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  928. @end table
  929. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  930. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_HTML} to start a @code{HTML}
  931. environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to enhance its
  932. readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org files@footnote{Easy
  933. templates insert lowercase keywords and Babel dynamically inserts
  934. @code{#+results}.}.
  935. @subsubheading Keybindings and commands
  936. @kindex C-c a
  937. @findex org-agenda
  938. @kindex C-c c
  939. @findex org-capture
  940. The manual suggests two global keybindings: @kbd{C-c a} for @code{org-agenda}
  941. and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only suggestions, but the
  942. rest of the manual assumes that you are using these keybindings.
  943. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  944. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  945. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  946. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  947. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  948. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will
  949. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  950. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  951. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  952. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  953. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  954. @chapter Document structure
  955. @cindex document structure
  956. @cindex structure of document
  957. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  958. edit the structure of the document.
  959. @menu
  960. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  961. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  962. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  963. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  964. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  965. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  966. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  967. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  968. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  969. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  970. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  971. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  972. @end menu
  973. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  974. @section Outlines
  975. @cindex outlines
  976. @cindex Outline mode
  977. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  978. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  979. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  980. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  981. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  982. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  983. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  984. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  985. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  986. @section Headlines
  987. @cindex headlines
  988. @cindex outline tree
  989. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  990. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  991. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  992. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  993. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  994. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  995. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  996. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  997. headings indented less then 30 stars.}. For example:
  998. @example
  999. * Top level headline
  1000. ** Second level
  1001. *** 3rd level
  1002. some text
  1003. *** 3rd level
  1004. more text
  1005. * Another top level headline
  1006. @end example
  1007. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  1008. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  1009. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  1010. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  1011. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  1012. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  1013. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  1014. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  1015. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  1016. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  1017. @section Visibility cycling
  1018. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1019. @cindex visibility cycling
  1020. @cindex trees, visibility
  1021. @cindex show hidden text
  1022. @cindex hide text
  1023. @menu
  1024. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  1025. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  1026. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  1027. @end menu
  1028. @node Global and local cycling, Initial visibility, Visibility cycling, Visibility cycling
  1029. @subsection Global and local cycling
  1030. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1031. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1032. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1033. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1034. @cindex subtree cycling
  1035. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1036. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1037. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1038. @table @asis
  1039. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1040. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1041. @example
  1042. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1043. '-----------------------------------'
  1044. @end example
  1045. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1046. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1047. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1048. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1049. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1050. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1051. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1052. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1053. @cindex global visibility states
  1054. @cindex global cycling
  1055. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1056. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1057. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1058. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1059. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1060. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1061. @example
  1062. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1063. '--------------------------------------'
  1064. @end example
  1065. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1066. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1067. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1068. @cindex set startup visibility, command
  1069. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1070. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer (@pxref{Initial visibility}).
  1071. @cindex show all, command
  1072. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  1073. Show all, including drawers.
  1074. @cindex revealing context
  1075. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1076. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1077. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1078. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1079. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1080. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1081. entire subtree of the parent.
  1082. @cindex show branches, command
  1083. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1084. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1085. @cindex show children, command
  1086. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},show-children}
  1087. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1088. expose all children down to level N@.
  1089. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1090. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1091. buffer
  1092. @ifinfo
  1093. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1094. @end ifinfo
  1095. @ifnotinfo
  1096. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1097. @end ifnotinfo
  1098. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1099. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1100. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1101. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1102. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1103. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1104. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1105. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1106. @end table
  1107. @menu
  1108. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  1109. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  1110. @end menu
  1111. @node Initial visibility, Catching invisible edits, Global and local cycling, Visibility cycling
  1112. @subsection Initial visibility
  1113. @cindex visibility, initialize
  1114. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1115. @vindex org-agenda-inhibit-startup
  1116. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1117. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1118. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1119. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1120. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to OVERVIEW,
  1121. i.e., only the top level headlines are visible@footnote{When
  1122. @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} is non-@code{nil}, Org will not honor the default
  1123. visibility state when first opening a file for the agenda (@pxref{Speeding up
  1124. your agendas}).}. This can be configured through the variable
  1125. @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a per-file basis by adding one of the
  1126. following lines anywhere in the buffer:
  1127. @example
  1128. #+STARTUP: overview
  1129. #+STARTUP: content
  1130. #+STARTUP: showall
  1131. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1132. @end example
  1133. The startup visibility options are ignored when the file is open for the
  1134. first time during the agenda generation: if you want the agenda to honor
  1135. the startup visibility, set @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} to @code{nil}.
  1136. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1137. @noindent
  1138. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1139. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1140. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1141. @code{all}.
  1142. @table @asis
  1143. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1144. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e., whatever is
  1145. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1146. entries.
  1147. @end table
  1148. @node Catching invisible edits, , Initial visibility, Visibility cycling
  1149. @subsection Catching invisible edits
  1150. @vindex org-catch-invisible-edits
  1151. @cindex edits, catching invisible
  1152. Sometimes you may inadvertently edit an invisible part of the buffer and be
  1153. confused on what has been edited and how to undo the mistake. Setting
  1154. @code{org-catch-invisible-edits} to non-@code{nil} will help prevent this. See the
  1155. docstring of this option on how Org should catch invisible edits and process
  1156. them.
  1157. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1158. @section Motion
  1159. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1160. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1161. @cindex headline navigation
  1162. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1163. @table @asis
  1164. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1165. Next heading.
  1166. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1167. Previous heading.
  1168. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1169. Next heading same level.
  1170. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1171. Previous heading same level.
  1172. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1173. Backward to higher level heading.
  1174. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1175. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1176. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1177. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1178. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1179. @example
  1180. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1181. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1182. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1183. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1184. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1185. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1186. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1187. u @r{One level up.}
  1188. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1189. q @r{Quit}
  1190. @end example
  1191. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1192. @noindent
  1193. See also the option @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1194. @end table
  1195. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1196. @section Structure editing
  1197. @cindex structure editing
  1198. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1199. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1200. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1201. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1202. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1203. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1204. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1205. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1206. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1207. @table @asis
  1208. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1209. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1210. Insert a new heading/item with the same level than the one at point.
  1211. If the cursor is in a plain list item, a new item is created
  1212. (@pxref{Plain lists}). To prevent this behavior in lists, call the
  1213. command with a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1214. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes
  1215. the new item or headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be
  1216. split, customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If
  1217. the command is used at the @emph{beginning} of a headline, the new
  1218. headline is created before the current line. If the command is used
  1219. at the @emph{end} of a folded subtree (i.e., behind the ellipses at
  1220. the end of a headline), then a headline will be
  1221. inserted after the end of the subtree. Calling this command with
  1222. @kbd{C-u C-u} will unconditionally respect the headline's content and
  1223. create a new item at the end of the parent subtree.
  1224. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1225. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1226. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1227. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1228. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1229. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1230. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1231. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1232. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1233. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1234. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1235. subtree.
  1236. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1237. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1238. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1239. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1240. to the initial level.
  1241. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1242. Promote current heading by one level.
  1243. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1244. Demote current heading by one level.
  1245. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1246. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1247. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1248. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1249. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1250. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1251. level).
  1252. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1253. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1254. @orgcmd{M-h,org-mark-element}
  1255. Mark the element at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent elements
  1256. of the one just marked. E.g., hitting @key{M-h} on a paragraph will mark it,
  1257. hitting @key{M-h} immediately again will mark the next one.
  1258. @orgcmd{C-c @@,org-mark-subtree}
  1259. Mark the subtree at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent subtrees
  1260. of the same level than the marked subtree.
  1261. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1262. Kill subtree, i.e., remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1263. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1264. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1265. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1266. sequential subtrees.
  1267. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1268. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1269. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1270. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1271. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1272. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1273. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1274. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1275. Depending on the options @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1276. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1277. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1278. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1279. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1280. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1281. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1282. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1283. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1284. folding.
  1285. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1286. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1287. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1288. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1289. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1290. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1291. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1292. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1293. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refile and copy}.
  1294. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1295. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1296. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1297. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1298. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1299. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1300. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1301. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1302. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1303. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1304. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1305. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1306. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1307. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1308. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1309. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1310. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1311. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1312. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1313. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1314. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1315. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1316. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1317. @end table
  1318. @cindex region, active
  1319. @cindex active region
  1320. @cindex transient mark mode
  1321. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1322. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1323. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1324. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1325. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1326. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1327. functionality.
  1328. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1329. @section Sparse trees
  1330. @cindex sparse trees
  1331. @cindex trees, sparse
  1332. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1333. @cindex occur, command
  1334. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1335. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1336. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1337. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1338. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1339. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1340. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1341. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1342. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1343. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1344. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1345. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1346. Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1347. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1348. @table @asis
  1349. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1350. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1351. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1352. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1353. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1354. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1355. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1356. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1357. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1358. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1359. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1360. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1361. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1362. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1363. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1364. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1365. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1366. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1367. @end table
  1368. @noindent
  1369. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1370. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1371. use the option @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1372. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1373. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1374. For example:
  1375. @lisp
  1376. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1377. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1378. @end lisp
  1379. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1380. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1381. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1382. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1383. @kindex C-c C-e C-v
  1384. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1385. @cindex visible text, printing
  1386. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1387. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1388. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1389. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1390. Or you can use @kbd{C-c C-e C-v} to export only the visible part of
  1391. the document and print the resulting file.
  1392. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1393. @section Plain lists
  1394. @cindex plain lists
  1395. @cindex lists, plain
  1396. @cindex lists, ordered
  1397. @cindex ordered lists
  1398. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1399. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1400. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1401. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1402. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1403. @itemize @bullet
  1404. @item
  1405. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1406. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1407. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1408. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1409. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1410. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1411. bullets.
  1412. @item
  1413. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1414. @vindex org-list-allow-alphabetical
  1415. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1416. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1417. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1418. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1419. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-list-allow-alphabetical}. To minimize
  1420. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1421. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1422. list to start with a different value (e.g., 20), start the text of the item
  1423. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1424. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1425. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1426. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1427. @item
  1428. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1429. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1430. description.
  1431. @end itemize
  1432. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1433. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1434. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1435. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1436. than its bullet/number.
  1437. @vindex org-list-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1438. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1439. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1440. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-list-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}.
  1441. In that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1442. @example
  1443. @group
  1444. ** Lord of the Rings
  1445. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1446. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1447. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1448. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1449. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1450. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1451. - on DVD only
  1452. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1453. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1454. Important actors in this film are:
  1455. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1456. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1457. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1458. @end group
  1459. @end example
  1460. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1461. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1462. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1463. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1464. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1465. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1466. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1467. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1468. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1469. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1470. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1471. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1472. indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1473. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1474. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1475. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1476. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1477. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1478. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1479. to disable them individually.
  1480. @table @asis
  1481. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1482. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1483. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1484. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1485. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1486. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1487. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1488. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1489. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1490. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1491. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1492. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1493. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1494. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1495. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1496. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1497. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1498. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1499. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1500. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1501. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1502. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1503. one.
  1504. @end table
  1505. @table @kbd
  1506. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1507. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1508. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1509. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1510. @item S-up
  1511. @itemx S-down
  1512. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1513. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1514. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1515. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1516. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1517. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1518. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1519. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1520. similar effect.
  1521. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1522. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1523. @item M-up
  1524. @itemx M-down
  1525. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1526. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1527. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1528. is automatic.
  1529. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1530. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1531. @item M-left
  1532. @itemx M-right
  1533. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1534. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1535. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1536. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1537. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1538. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1539. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1540. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1541. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1542. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1543. motion or so.
  1544. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1545. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1546. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1547. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1548. @kindex C-c C-c
  1549. @item C-c C-c
  1550. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1551. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1552. consistency in the whole list.
  1553. @kindex C-c -
  1554. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1555. @item C-c -
  1556. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1557. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1558. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1559. and its indentation. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet
  1560. from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, selected
  1561. text will be changed into an item. With a prefix argument, all lines will be
  1562. converted to list items. If the first line already was a list item, any item
  1563. marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1564. region, a normal line will be converted into a list item.
  1565. @kindex C-c *
  1566. @item C-c *
  1567. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1568. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1569. @kindex C-c C-*
  1570. @item C-c C-*
  1571. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1572. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1573. (resp. checked).
  1574. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1575. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1576. @item S-left/right
  1577. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1578. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1579. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1580. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1581. @kindex C-c ^
  1582. @cindex sorting, of plain list
  1583. @item C-c ^
  1584. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1585. numerically, alphabetically, by time, by checked status for check lists,
  1586. or by a custom function.
  1587. @end table
  1588. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1589. @section Drawers
  1590. @cindex drawers
  1591. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1592. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1593. @vindex org-drawers
  1594. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  1595. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1596. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1597. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1598. Drawers need to be configured with the option @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You
  1599. can define additional drawers on a per-file basis with a line like
  1600. @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN STATE}}. Drawers look like this:
  1601. @example
  1602. ** This is a headline
  1603. Still outside the drawer
  1604. :DRAWERNAME:
  1605. This is inside the drawer.
  1606. :END:
  1607. After the drawer.
  1608. @end example
  1609. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1610. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1611. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1612. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add a
  1613. property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1614. keywords is also possible using @key{M-TAB}.
  1615. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1616. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1617. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1618. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1619. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1620. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1621. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1622. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1623. @table @kbd
  1624. @kindex C-c C-z
  1625. @item C-c C-z
  1626. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1627. @end table
  1628. @vindex org-export-with-drawers
  1629. You can select the name of the drawers which should be exported with
  1630. @code{org-export-with-drawers}. In that case, drawer contents will appear in
  1631. export output. Property drawers are not affected by this variable and are
  1632. never exported.
  1633. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1634. @section Blocks
  1635. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1636. @cindex blocks, folding
  1637. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1638. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1639. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1640. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1641. folded at startup by configuring the option @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1642. or on a per-file basis by using
  1643. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1644. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1645. @example
  1646. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1647. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1648. @end example
  1649. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1650. @section Footnotes
  1651. @cindex footnotes
  1652. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1653. @file{footnote.el} package, Org mode's footnotes are designed for work on
  1654. a larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails.
  1655. A footnote is started by a footnote marker in square brackets in column 0, no
  1656. indentation allowed. It ends at the next footnote definition, headline, or
  1657. after two consecutive empty lines. The footnote reference is simply the
  1658. marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1659. @example
  1660. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1661. ...
  1662. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1663. @end example
  1664. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1665. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1666. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1667. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1668. @LaTeX{}}). Here are the valid references:
  1669. @table @code
  1670. @item [1]
  1671. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1672. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1673. snippet.
  1674. @item [fn:name]
  1675. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1676. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1677. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1678. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1679. reference point.
  1680. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1681. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1682. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1683. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1684. @end table
  1685. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1686. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1687. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1688. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1689. for details.
  1690. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1691. @table @kbd
  1692. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1693. @item C-c C-x f
  1694. The footnote action command.
  1695. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1696. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1697. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1698. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1699. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1700. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the option
  1701. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1702. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1703. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1704. separately into the location determined by the option
  1705. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1706. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1707. options is offered:
  1708. @example
  1709. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1710. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1711. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1712. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1713. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1714. @r{option @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1715. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1716. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the option}
  1717. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1718. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1719. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1720. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1721. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1722. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g., sending}
  1723. @r{off an email).}
  1724. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1725. @r{to it.}
  1726. @end example
  1727. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1728. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1729. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1730. deletion.
  1731. @kindex C-c C-c
  1732. @item C-c C-c
  1733. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1734. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1735. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1736. @kindex C-c C-o
  1737. @kindex mouse-1
  1738. @kindex mouse-2
  1739. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1740. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1741. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1742. @end table
  1743. @node Orgstruct mode, Org syntax, Footnotes, Document Structure
  1744. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1745. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1746. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1747. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1748. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1749. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1750. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode RET}, or
  1751. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1752. @lisp
  1753. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1754. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1755. @end lisp
  1756. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1757. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1758. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1759. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1760. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows.
  1761. When you use @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and
  1762. autofill settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first
  1763. line of an item.
  1764. @vindex orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp
  1765. You can also use Org structure editing to fold and unfold headlines in
  1766. @emph{any} file, provided you defined @code{orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp}:
  1767. the regular expression must match the local prefix to use before Org's
  1768. headlines. For example, if you set this variable to @code{";; "} in Emacs
  1769. Lisp files, you will be able to fold and unfold headlines in Emacs Lisp
  1770. commented lines. Some commands like @code{org-demote} are disabled when the
  1771. prefix is set, but folding/unfolding will work correctly.
  1772. @node Org syntax, , Orgstruct mode, Document Structure
  1773. @section Org syntax
  1774. @cindex Org syntax
  1775. A reference document providing a formal description of Org's syntax is
  1776. available as @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-syntax.html, a draft on
  1777. Worg}, written and maintained by Nicolas Goaziou. It defines Org's core
  1778. internal concepts such as @code{headlines}, @code{sections}, @code{affiliated
  1779. keywords}, @code{(greater) elements} and @code{objects}. Each part of an Org
  1780. file falls into one of the categories above.
  1781. To explore the abstract structure of an Org buffer, run this in a buffer:
  1782. @lisp
  1783. M-: (org-element-parse-buffer) RET
  1784. @end lisp
  1785. It will output a list containing the buffer's content represented as an
  1786. abstract structure. The export engine relies on the information stored in
  1787. this list. Most interactive commands (e.g., for structure editing) also
  1788. rely on the syntactic meaning of the surrounding context.
  1789. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1790. @chapter Tables
  1791. @cindex tables
  1792. @cindex editing tables
  1793. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1794. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1795. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1796. @menu
  1797. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1798. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1799. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1800. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1801. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1802. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1803. @end menu
  1804. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1805. @section The built-in table editor
  1806. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1807. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII@. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1808. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1809. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1810. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1811. might look like this:
  1812. @example
  1813. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1814. |-------+-------+-----|
  1815. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1816. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1817. @end example
  1818. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1819. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1820. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1821. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1822. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1823. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1824. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1825. create the above table, you would only type
  1826. @example
  1827. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1828. |-
  1829. @end example
  1830. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1831. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1832. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1833. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1834. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1835. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1836. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1837. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1838. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1839. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1840. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1841. unpredictable for you, configure the options
  1842. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1843. @table @kbd
  1844. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1845. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1846. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1847. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1848. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1849. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1850. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1851. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1852. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1853. @*
  1854. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1855. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1856. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1857. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1858. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1859. Re-align the table and don't move to another field.
  1860. @c
  1861. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1862. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1863. necessary.
  1864. @c
  1865. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1866. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1867. @c
  1868. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1869. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1870. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1871. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1872. @c
  1873. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1874. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1875. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1876. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1877. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1878. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1879. Move the current column left/right.
  1880. @c
  1881. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1882. Kill the current column.
  1883. @c
  1884. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1885. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1886. @c
  1887. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1888. Move the current row up/down.
  1889. @c
  1890. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1891. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1892. @c
  1893. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1894. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1895. created below the current one.
  1896. @c
  1897. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1898. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1899. is created above the current line.
  1900. @c
  1901. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1902. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1903. below that line.
  1904. @c
  1905. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1906. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1907. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1908. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1909. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1910. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1911. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1912. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1913. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1914. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1915. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1916. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1917. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1918. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1919. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1920. @c
  1921. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1922. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1923. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1924. @c
  1925. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1926. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1927. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1928. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1929. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1930. lines.
  1931. @c
  1932. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1933. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1934. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1935. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1936. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1937. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1938. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1939. above.
  1940. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1941. @cindex formula, in tables
  1942. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1943. @cindex region, active
  1944. @cindex active region
  1945. @cindex transient mark mode
  1946. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1947. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1948. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1949. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1950. @c
  1951. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1952. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1953. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1954. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1955. Depending on the option @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1956. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1957. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1958. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1959. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1960. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1961. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1962. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1963. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1964. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1965. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1966. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1967. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1968. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1969. @c
  1970. @item M-x org-table-import RET
  1971. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1972. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1973. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1974. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1975. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1976. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1977. separator.
  1978. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1979. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1980. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1981. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1982. @c
  1983. @item M-x org-table-export RET
  1984. @findex org-table-export
  1985. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1986. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1987. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1988. used to export the file can be configured in the option
  1989. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1990. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1991. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1992. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1993. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1994. detailed description.
  1995. @end table
  1996. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1997. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1998. it off with
  1999. @lisp
  2000. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  2001. @end lisp
  2002. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  2003. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  2004. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  2005. @section Column width and alignment
  2006. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  2007. @cindex alignment in tables
  2008. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  2009. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  2010. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  2011. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  2012. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  2013. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  2014. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  2015. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  2016. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  2017. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  2018. @example
  2019. @group
  2020. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  2021. | | | | | <6> |
  2022. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  2023. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  2024. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  2025. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  2026. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  2027. @end group
  2028. @end example
  2029. @noindent
  2030. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  2031. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  2032. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  2033. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  2034. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  2035. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  2036. C-c}.
  2037. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  2038. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  2039. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  2040. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  2041. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  2042. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  2043. on a per-file basis with:
  2044. @example
  2045. #+STARTUP: align
  2046. #+STARTUP: noalign
  2047. @end example
  2048. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  2049. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  2050. @samp{<c>}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  2051. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  2052. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<r10>}.
  2053. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  2054. automatically when exporting the document.
  2055. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  2056. @section Column groups
  2057. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  2058. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  2059. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  2060. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  2061. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  2062. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  2063. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  2064. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  2065. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<}
  2066. and @samp{>}) to make a column
  2067. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  2068. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  2069. @example
  2070. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2071. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2072. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  2073. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  2074. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  2075. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  2076. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2077. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  2078. @end example
  2079. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  2080. every vertical line you would like to have:
  2081. @example
  2082. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2083. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2084. | / | < | | | < | |
  2085. @end example
  2086. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  2087. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2088. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2089. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2090. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  2091. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  2092. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  2093. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode RET}. To turn it on by default, for
  2094. example in Message mode, use
  2095. @lisp
  2096. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2097. @end lisp
  2098. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2099. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2100. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2101. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2102. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2103. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  2104. @section The spreadsheet
  2105. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2106. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2107. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2108. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2109. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2110. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2111. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2112. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2113. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2114. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2115. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2116. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2117. @menu
  2118. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2119. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2120. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2121. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2122. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2123. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2124. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  2125. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2126. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2127. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2128. @end menu
  2129. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  2130. @subsection References
  2131. @cindex references
  2132. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2133. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2134. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2135. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2136. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2137. @subsubheading Field references
  2138. @cindex field references
  2139. @cindex references, to fields
  2140. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2141. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2142. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2143. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2144. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2145. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2146. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the option
  2147. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2148. representation that looks like this:
  2149. @example
  2150. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2151. @end example
  2152. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2153. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e., the
  2154. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2155. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2156. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2157. column from the right.
  2158. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2159. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2160. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2161. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2162. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2163. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2164. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2165. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2166. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2167. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2168. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2169. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2170. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2171. after the third hline in the table.
  2172. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2173. i.e., to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2174. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2175. implied.
  2176. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2177. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2178. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2179. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2180. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2181. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2182. Here are a few examples:
  2183. @example
  2184. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2185. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2186. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2187. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2188. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2189. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2190. @end example
  2191. @subsubheading Range references
  2192. @cindex range references
  2193. @cindex references, to ranges
  2194. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2195. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2196. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2197. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2198. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2199. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2200. @example
  2201. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2202. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2203. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2204. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2205. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 fields in the row above, starting from 2 columns on the left}
  2206. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2207. @end example
  2208. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2209. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally suppressed,
  2210. so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields. For other options
  2211. with the mode switches @samp{E}, @samp{N} and examples @pxref{Formula syntax
  2212. for Calc}.
  2213. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2214. @cindex field coordinates
  2215. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2216. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2217. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2218. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2219. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2220. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2221. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2222. @example
  2223. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2224. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2225. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2226. @end example
  2227. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2228. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2229. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2230. number of rows.
  2231. @subsubheading Named references
  2232. @cindex named references
  2233. @cindex references, named
  2234. @cindex name, of column or field
  2235. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2236. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2237. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2238. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2239. constant. Constants are defined globally through the option
  2240. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2241. line like
  2242. @example
  2243. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2244. @end example
  2245. @noindent
  2246. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2247. @pindex constants.el
  2248. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2249. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2250. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2251. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2252. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2253. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2254. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2255. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2256. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2257. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2258. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2259. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2260. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2261. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2262. numbers.
  2263. @subsubheading Remote references
  2264. @cindex remote references
  2265. @cindex references, remote
  2266. @cindex references, to a different table
  2267. @cindex name, of column or field
  2268. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2269. @cindex #+NAME, for table
  2270. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2271. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2272. @example
  2273. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2274. @end example
  2275. @noindent
  2276. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2277. @code{#+NAME: Name} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2278. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2279. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2280. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2281. referenced table.
  2282. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2283. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2284. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2285. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2286. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs @file{Calc}
  2287. package. Note that @file{calc} has the non-standard convention that @samp{/}
  2288. has lower precedence than @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as
  2289. @samp{a/(b*c)}. Before evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc
  2290. from Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc,
  2291. GNU Emacs Calc Manual}), variable substitution takes place according to the
  2292. rules described above.
  2293. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2294. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2295. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2296. @cindex format specifier
  2297. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2298. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2299. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2300. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2301. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2302. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2303. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2304. compact. The default settings can be configured using the option
  2305. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2306. @noindent List of modes:
  2307. @table @asis
  2308. @item @code{p20}
  2309. Set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits.
  2310. @item @code{n3}, @code{s3}, @code{e2}, @code{f4}
  2311. Normal, scientific, engineering or fixed format of the result of Calc passed
  2312. back to Org. Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as long as the Calc
  2313. calculation precision is greater.
  2314. @item @code{D}, @code{R}
  2315. Degree and radian angle modes of Calc.
  2316. @item @code{F}, @code{S}
  2317. Fraction and symbolic modes of Calc.
  2318. @item @code{T}, @code{t}
  2319. Duration computations in Calc or Lisp, @pxref{Durations and time values}.
  2320. @item @code{E}
  2321. If and how to consider empty fields. Without @samp{E} empty fields in range
  2322. references are suppressed so that the Calc vector or Lisp list contains only
  2323. the non-empty fields. With @samp{E} the empty fields are kept. For empty
  2324. fields in ranges or empty field references the value @samp{nan} (not a
  2325. number) is used in Calc formulas and the empty string is used for Lisp
  2326. formulas. Add @samp{N} to use 0 instead for both formula types. For the
  2327. value of a field the mode @samp{N} has higher precedence than @samp{E}.
  2328. @item @code{N}
  2329. Interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers. See the next section
  2330. to see how this is essential for computations with Lisp formulas. In Calc
  2331. formulas it is used only occasionally because there number strings are
  2332. already interpreted as numbers without @samp{N}.
  2333. @item @code{L}
  2334. Literal, for Lisp formulas only. See the next section.
  2335. @end table
  2336. @noindent
  2337. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation and
  2338. -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2339. @samp{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2340. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2341. formatting@footnote{The @samp{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2342. because the value passed to it is converted into an @samp{integer} or
  2343. @samp{double}. The @samp{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2344. signed value to 32 bits. The @samp{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2345. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}. A
  2346. few examples:
  2347. @example
  2348. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2349. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2350. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2351. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2352. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2353. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2354. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2355. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2356. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2357. @end example
  2358. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations, (@pxref{Logical
  2359. Operations, , Logical Operations, calc, GNU Emacs Calc Manual}). For example
  2360. @table @code
  2361. @item if($1 < 20, teen, string(""))
  2362. "teen" if age $1 is less than 20, else the Org table result field is set to
  2363. empty with the empty string.
  2364. @item if("$1" == "nan" || "$2" == "nan", string(""), $1 + $2); E
  2365. Sum of the first two columns. When at least one of the input fields is empty
  2366. the Org table result field is set to empty.
  2367. @item if(typeof(vmean($1..$7)) == 12, string(""), vmean($1..$7); E
  2368. Mean value of a range unless there is any empty field. Every field in the
  2369. range that is empty is replaced by @samp{nan} which lets @samp{vmean} result
  2370. in @samp{nan}. Then @samp{typeof == 12} detects the @samp{nan} from
  2371. @samp{vmean} and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use this when
  2372. the sample set is expected to never have missing values.
  2373. @item if("$1..$7" == "[]", string(""), vmean($1..$7))
  2374. Mean value of a range with empty fields skipped. Every field in the range
  2375. that is empty is skipped. When all fields in the range are empty the mean
  2376. value is not defined and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use
  2377. this when the sample set can have a variable size.
  2378. @item vmean($1..$7); EN
  2379. To complete the example before: Mean value of a range with empty fields
  2380. counting as samples with value 0. Use this only when incomplete sample sets
  2381. should be padded with 0 to the full size.
  2382. @end table
  2383. You can add your own Calc functions defined in Emacs Lisp with @code{defmath}
  2384. and use them in formula syntax for Calc.
  2385. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2386. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2387. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2388. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be useful
  2389. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is
  2390. not enough.
  2391. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening parenthesis,
  2392. then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a
  2393. string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes
  2394. and a printf format after a semicolon.
  2395. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2396. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be
  2397. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If
  2398. you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers
  2399. (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without
  2400. quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated
  2401. literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted
  2402. as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in
  2403. double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated
  2404. fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax.
  2405. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2406. computations in Lisp:
  2407. @table @code
  2408. @item '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2409. Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1.
  2410. @item '(+ $1 $2);N
  2411. Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}.
  2412. @item '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2413. Compute the sum of columns 1 to 4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}.
  2414. @end table
  2415. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2416. @subsection Durations and time values
  2417. @cindex Duration, computing
  2418. @cindex Time, computing
  2419. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2420. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2421. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2422. @example
  2423. @group
  2424. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2425. |---------+----------+----------|
  2426. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2427. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2428. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2429. @end group
  2430. @end example
  2431. Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2432. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2433. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2434. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the option
  2435. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2436. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2437. example above).
  2438. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2439. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2440. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2441. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2442. @cindex field formula
  2443. @cindex range formula
  2444. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2445. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2446. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2447. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2448. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2449. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2450. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2451. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2452. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2453. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2454. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2455. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2456. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2457. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2458. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2459. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2460. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2461. of course not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2462. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2463. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2464. command
  2465. @table @kbd
  2466. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2467. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2468. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2469. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2470. @end table
  2471. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2472. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2473. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2474. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2475. directly.
  2476. @table @code
  2477. @item $2=
  2478. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2479. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2480. @item @@3=
  2481. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2482. the last row.
  2483. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2484. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2485. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2486. @item $name=
  2487. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2488. @end table
  2489. @node Column formulas, Lookup functions, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2490. @subsection Column formulas
  2491. @cindex column formula
  2492. @cindex formula, for table column
  2493. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2494. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2495. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2496. hlines with rows above and below, everything before the first such hline is
  2497. considered part of the table @emph{header} and will not be modified by column
  2498. formulas. Therefore a header is mandatory when you use column formulas and
  2499. want to add hlines to group rows, like for example to separate a total row at
  2500. the bottom from the summand rows above. (ii) Fields that already get a value
  2501. from a field/range formula will be left alone by column formulas. These
  2502. conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2503. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2504. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2505. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2506. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2507. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2508. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2509. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2510. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2511. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2512. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2513. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2514. following command:
  2515. @table @kbd
  2516. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2517. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2518. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2519. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2520. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g., @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2521. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2522. @end table
  2523. @node Lookup functions, Editing and debugging formulas, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2524. @subsection Lookup functions
  2525. @cindex lookup functions in tables
  2526. @cindex table lookup functions
  2527. Org has three predefined Emacs Lisp functions for lookups in tables.
  2528. @table @code
  2529. @item (org-lookup-first VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2530. @findex org-lookup-first
  2531. Searches for the first element @code{S} in list @code{S-LIST} for which
  2532. @lisp
  2533. (PREDICATE VAL S)
  2534. @end lisp
  2535. is @code{t}; returns the value from the corresponding position in list
  2536. @code{R-LIST}. The default @code{PREDICATE} is @code{equal}. Note that the
  2537. parameters @code{VAL} and @code{S} are passed to @code{PREDICATE} in the same
  2538. order as the corresponding parameters are in the call to
  2539. @code{org-lookup-first}, where @code{VAL} precedes @code{S-LIST}. If
  2540. @code{R-LIST} is @code{nil}, the matching element @code{S} of @code{S-LIST}
  2541. is returned.
  2542. @item (org-lookup-last VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2543. @findex org-lookup-last
  2544. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first} above, but searches for the @i{last}
  2545. element for which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}.
  2546. @item (org-lookup-all VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2547. @findex org-lookup-all
  2548. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first}, but searches for @i{all} elements for
  2549. which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}, and returns @i{all} corresponding
  2550. values. This function can not be used by itself in a formula, because it
  2551. returns a list of values. However, powerful lookups can be built when this
  2552. function is combined with other Emacs Lisp functions.
  2553. @end table
  2554. If the ranges used in these functions contain empty fields, the @code{E} mode
  2555. for the formula should usually be specified: otherwise empty fields will not be
  2556. included in @code{S-LIST} and/or @code{R-LIST} which can, for example, result
  2557. in an incorrect mapping from an element of @code{S-LIST} to the corresponding
  2558. element of @code{R-LIST}.
  2559. These three functions can be used to implement associative arrays, count
  2560. matching cells, rank results, group data etc. For practical examples
  2561. see @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-lookups.html, this
  2562. tutorial on Worg}.
  2563. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Lookup functions, The spreadsheet
  2564. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2565. @cindex formula editing
  2566. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2567. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2568. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the field.
  2569. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active formulas of a table.
  2570. When offering a formula for editing, Org converts references to the standard
  2571. format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&}) if possible. If you prefer to only work
  2572. with the internal format (like @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the
  2573. option @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2574. @table @kbd
  2575. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2576. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2577. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2578. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2579. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2580. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2581. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2582. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2583. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2584. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2585. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2586. @kindex C-c @}
  2587. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2588. @item C-c @}
  2589. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2590. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2591. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2592. @kindex C-c @{
  2593. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2594. @item C-c @{
  2595. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2596. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2597. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2598. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2599. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2600. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2601. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2602. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2603. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2604. @table @kbd
  2605. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2606. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2607. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2608. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2609. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2610. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2611. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2612. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2613. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2614. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2615. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2616. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2617. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2618. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2619. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2620. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2621. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2622. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2623. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2624. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2625. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2626. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2627. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2628. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2629. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2630. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2631. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2632. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2633. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2634. down.
  2635. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2636. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2637. @kindex C-c @}
  2638. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2639. @item C-c @}
  2640. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2641. @end table
  2642. @end table
  2643. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2644. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2645. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2646. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2647. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2648. @kindex C-c C-c
  2649. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2650. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2651. recalculation commands in the table.
  2652. @anchor{Using multiple #+TBLFM lines}
  2653. @subsubheading Using multiple #+TBLFM lines
  2654. @cindex #+TBLFM line, multiple
  2655. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2656. @cindex #+TBLFM, switching
  2657. @kindex C-c C-c
  2658. You may apply the formula temporarily. This is useful when you
  2659. switch the formula. Place multiple @samp{#+TBLFM} lines right
  2660. after the table, and then press @kbd{C-c C-c} on the formula to
  2661. apply. Here is an example:
  2662. @example
  2663. | x | y |
  2664. |---+---|
  2665. | 1 | |
  2666. | 2 | |
  2667. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2668. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2669. @end example
  2670. @noindent
  2671. Pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} in the line of @samp{#+TBLFM: $2=$1*2} yields:
  2672. @example
  2673. | x | y |
  2674. |---+---|
  2675. | 1 | 2 |
  2676. | 2 | 4 |
  2677. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2678. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2679. @end example
  2680. @noindent
  2681. Note: If you recalculate this table (with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, for example), you
  2682. will get the following result of applying only the first @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2683. @example
  2684. | x | y |
  2685. |---+---|
  2686. | 1 | 1 |
  2687. | 2 | 2 |
  2688. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2689. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2690. @end example
  2691. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2692. @cindex formula debugging
  2693. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2694. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2695. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2696. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2697. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2698. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2699. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2700. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2701. @subsection Updating the table
  2702. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2703. @cindex updating, table
  2704. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2705. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2706. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2707. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2708. following commands:
  2709. @table @kbd
  2710. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2711. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2712. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2713. @c
  2714. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2715. @item C-u C-c *
  2716. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2717. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2718. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2719. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2720. @c
  2721. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2722. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2723. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2724. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2725. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables RET
  2726. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2727. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2728. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables RET
  2729. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2730. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2731. dependencies.
  2732. @end table
  2733. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2734. @subsection Advanced features
  2735. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2736. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2737. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2738. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2739. special marking characters.
  2740. @table @kbd
  2741. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2742. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2743. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2744. change all marks in the region.
  2745. @end table
  2746. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2747. makes use of these features:
  2748. @example
  2749. @group
  2750. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2751. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2752. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2753. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2754. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2755. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2756. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2757. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2758. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2759. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2760. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2761. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2762. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2763. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2764. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2765. @end group
  2766. @end example
  2767. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2768. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2769. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2770. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2771. empty first field.
  2772. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2773. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2774. @table @samp
  2775. @item !
  2776. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2777. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2778. @item ^
  2779. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2780. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2781. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2782. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2783. @item _
  2784. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2785. @emph{below}.
  2786. @item $
  2787. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2788. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2789. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2790. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2791. a per-table basis.
  2792. @item #
  2793. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2794. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2795. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2796. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2797. @item *
  2798. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2799. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2800. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2801. @item @w{ }
  2802. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2803. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2804. or @samp{*}.
  2805. @item /
  2806. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2807. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2808. @end table
  2809. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2810. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2811. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2812. functions.
  2813. @example
  2814. @group
  2815. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2816. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2817. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2818. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2819. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2820. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2821. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2822. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2823. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2824. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2825. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2826. @end group
  2827. @end example
  2828. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2829. @section Org-Plot
  2830. @cindex graph, in tables
  2831. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2832. @cindex #+PLOT
  2833. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2834. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2835. @uref{http://xafs.org/BruceRavel/GnuplotMode}. To see this in action, ensure
  2836. that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed on your system, then
  2837. call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2838. @example
  2839. @group
  2840. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2841. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2842. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2843. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2844. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2845. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2846. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2847. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2848. @end group
  2849. @end example
  2850. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2851. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2852. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2853. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2854. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2855. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2856. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2857. @table @code
  2858. @item set
  2859. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2860. @item title
  2861. Specify the title of the plot.
  2862. @item ind
  2863. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2864. @item deps
  2865. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2866. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2867. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2868. column).
  2869. @item type
  2870. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2871. @item with
  2872. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2873. (e.g., @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2874. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2875. @item file
  2876. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2877. @item labels
  2878. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2879. if they exist).
  2880. @item line
  2881. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2882. @item map
  2883. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2884. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2885. @item timefmt
  2886. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2887. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2888. @item script
  2889. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2890. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2891. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2892. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2893. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2894. the data file.
  2895. @end table
  2896. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2897. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2898. @cindex hyperlinks
  2899. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2900. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2901. @menu
  2902. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2903. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2904. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2905. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2906. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2907. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2908. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2909. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2910. @end menu
  2911. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2912. @section Link format
  2913. @cindex link format
  2914. @cindex format, of links
  2915. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2916. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2917. @example
  2918. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2919. @end example
  2920. @noindent
  2921. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2922. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2923. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2924. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2925. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2926. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2927. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2928. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2929. cursor on the link.
  2930. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2931. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2932. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2933. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2934. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2935. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2936. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2937. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2938. @section Internal links
  2939. @cindex internal links
  2940. @cindex links, internal
  2941. @cindex targets, for links
  2942. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2943. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2944. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2945. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2946. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. You are responsible yourself
  2947. to make sure these custom IDs are unique in a file.
  2948. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2949. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2950. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2951. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2952. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2953. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets, like
  2954. @samp{<<My Target>>}.
  2955. @cindex #+NAME
  2956. If no dedicated target exists, the link will then try to match the exact name
  2957. of an element within the buffer. Naming is done with the @code{#+NAME}
  2958. keyword, which has to be put the line before the element it refers to, as in
  2959. the following example
  2960. @example
  2961. #+NAME: My Target
  2962. | a | table |
  2963. |----+------------|
  2964. | of | four cells |
  2965. @end example
  2966. If none of the above succeeds, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2967. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2968. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type
  2969. a star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2970. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2971. completions.}.
  2972. During export, internal links will be used to mark objects and assign them
  2973. a number. Marked objects will then be referenced by links pointing to them.
  2974. In particular, links without a description will appear as the number assigned
  2975. to the marked object@footnote{When targeting a @code{#+NAME} keyword,
  2976. @code{#+CAPTION} keyword is mandatory in order to get proper numbering
  2977. (@pxref{Images and tables}).}. In the following excerpt from an Org buffer
  2978. @example
  2979. - one item
  2980. - <<target>>another item
  2981. Here we refer to item [[target]].
  2982. @end example
  2983. @noindent
  2984. The last sentence will appear as @samp{Here we refer to item 2} when
  2985. exported.
  2986. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the link text. In
  2987. the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2988. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2989. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2990. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2991. earlier.
  2992. @menu
  2993. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2994. @end menu
  2995. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2996. @subsection Radio targets
  2997. @cindex radio targets
  2998. @cindex targets, radio
  2999. @cindex links, radio targets
  3000. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  3001. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  3002. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  3003. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  3004. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  3005. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  3006. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  3007. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3008. cursor on or at a target.
  3009. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  3010. @section External links
  3011. @cindex links, external
  3012. @cindex external links
  3013. @cindex Gnus links
  3014. @cindex BBDB links
  3015. @cindex IRC links
  3016. @cindex URL links
  3017. @cindex file links
  3018. @cindex RMAIL links
  3019. @cindex MH-E links
  3020. @cindex USENET links
  3021. @cindex SHELL links
  3022. @cindex Info links
  3023. @cindex Elisp links
  3024. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB
  3025. database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs.
  3026. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short identifying
  3027. string followed by a colon. There can be no space after the colon. The
  3028. following list shows examples for each link type.
  3029. @example
  3030. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  3031. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  3032. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  3033. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  3034. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  3035. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3036. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  3037. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3038. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  3039. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  3040. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  3041. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  3042. the option @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  3043. is @code{nil}, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  3044. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  3045. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  3046. will be queried to create it.}
  3047. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  3048. file+sys:/path/to/file @r{open via OS, like double-click}
  3049. file+emacs:/path/to/file @r{force opening by Emacs}
  3050. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  3051. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  3052. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  3053. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  3054. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  3055. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  3056. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  3057. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  3058. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  3059. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  3060. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  3061. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  3062. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  3063. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  3064. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  3065. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  3066. @end example
  3067. @cindex VM links
  3068. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  3069. On top of these built-in link types, some are available through the
  3070. @code{contrib/} directory (@pxref{Installation}). For example, these links
  3071. to VM or Wanderlust messages are available when you load the corresponding
  3072. libraries from the @code{contrib/} directory:
  3073. @example
  3074. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  3075. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  3076. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  3077. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  3078. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  3079. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  3080. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  3081. @end example
  3082. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  3083. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a descriptive
  3084. text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link format}), for example:
  3085. @example
  3086. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  3087. @end example
  3088. @noindent
  3089. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  3090. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  3091. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  3092. image,
  3093. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  3094. @cindex square brackets, around links
  3095. @cindex plain text external links
  3096. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  3097. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  3098. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  3099. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  3100. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  3101. @section Handling links
  3102. @cindex links, handling
  3103. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  3104. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  3105. @table @kbd
  3106. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  3107. @cindex storing links
  3108. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  3109. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  3110. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  3111. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  3112. buffer:
  3113. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  3114. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  3115. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  3116. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  3117. removed from the link and result in a wrong link---you should avoid putting
  3118. timestamp in the headline.}.
  3119. @vindex org-id-link-to-org-use-id
  3120. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  3121. @cindex property, ID
  3122. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  3123. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  3124. @code{org-id-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will
  3125. be created and/or used to construct a link@footnote{The library
  3126. @file{org-id.el} must first be loaded, either through @code{org-customize} by
  3127. enabling @code{org-id} in @code{org-modules}, or by adding @code{(require
  3128. 'org-id)} in your @file{.emacs}.}. So using this command in Org buffers will
  3129. potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom ID, and one
  3130. that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from file to
  3131. file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one to use.
  3132. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  3133. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  3134. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  3135. constructed from the author and the subject.
  3136. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  3137. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  3138. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  3139. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  3140. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  3141. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  3142. For IRC links, if you set the option @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to @code{t},
  3143. a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for the current
  3144. conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to the
  3145. user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  3146. @b{Other files}@*
  3147. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  3148. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  3149. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  3150. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  3151. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  3152. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  3153. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  3154. @b{Agenda view}@*
  3155. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  3156. entry referenced by the current line.
  3157. @c
  3158. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  3159. @cindex link completion
  3160. @cindex completion, of links
  3161. @cindex inserting links
  3162. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  3163. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  3164. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  3165. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  3166. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  3167. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  3168. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  3169. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  3170. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  3171. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  3172. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  3173. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  3174. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  3175. becomes the default description.
  3176. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  3177. All links stored during the
  3178. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  3179. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  3180. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  3181. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  3182. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  3183. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  3184. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  3185. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  3186. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  3187. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  3188. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  3189. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  3190. @cindex file name completion
  3191. @cindex completion, of file names
  3192. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  3193. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  3194. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  3195. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  3196. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  3197. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  3198. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  3199. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3200. @c
  3201. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  3202. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  3203. link and description parts of the link.
  3204. @c
  3205. @cindex following links
  3206. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  3207. @vindex org-file-apps
  3208. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3209. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  3210. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  3211. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  3212. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  3213. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  3214. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  3215. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  3216. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3217. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3218. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3219. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3220. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3221. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3222. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3223. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3224. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3225. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3226. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3227. the link at point.
  3228. @c
  3229. @kindex mouse-2
  3230. @kindex mouse-1
  3231. @item mouse-2
  3232. @itemx mouse-1
  3233. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  3234. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  3235. @c
  3236. @kindex mouse-3
  3237. @item mouse-3
  3238. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3239. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3240. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3241. option @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3242. @c
  3243. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3244. @cindex inlining images
  3245. @cindex images, inlining
  3246. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3247. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3248. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3249. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3250. images that have no description part in the link, i.e., images that will also
  3251. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3252. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3253. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3254. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3255. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{noinlineimages}}.
  3256. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3257. @cindex mark ring
  3258. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3259. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3260. @c
  3261. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3262. @cindex links, returning to
  3263. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3264. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3265. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3266. previously recorded positions.
  3267. @c
  3268. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3269. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3270. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3271. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3272. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3273. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3274. @lisp
  3275. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3276. (lambda ()
  3277. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3278. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3279. @end lisp
  3280. @end table
  3281. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  3282. @section Using links outside Org
  3283. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3284. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3285. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3286. yourself):
  3287. @lisp
  3288. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3289. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3290. @end lisp
  3291. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  3292. @section Link abbreviations
  3293. @cindex link abbreviations
  3294. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3295. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3296. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3297. abbreviated link looks like this
  3298. @example
  3299. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3300. @end example
  3301. @noindent
  3302. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3303. where the tag is optional.
  3304. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3305. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3306. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3307. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3308. @smalllisp
  3309. @group
  3310. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3311. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3312. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3313. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3314. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3315. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3316. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3317. @end group
  3318. @end smalllisp
  3319. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3320. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3321. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3322. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3323. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3324. If the replacement text don't contain any specifier, it will simply
  3325. be appended to the string in order to create the link.
  3326. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3327. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3328. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3329. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3330. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3331. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3332. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3333. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3334. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3335. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3336. can define them in the file with
  3337. @cindex #+LINK
  3338. @example
  3339. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3340. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3341. @end example
  3342. @noindent
  3343. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3344. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3345. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g., completion)
  3346. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3347. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3348. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3349. @section Search options in file links
  3350. @cindex search option in file links
  3351. @cindex file links, searching
  3352. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3353. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3354. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3355. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3356. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3357. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3358. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3359. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3360. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3361. link, together with an explanation:
  3362. @example
  3363. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3364. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3365. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3366. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3367. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3368. @end example
  3369. @table @code
  3370. @item 255
  3371. Jump to line 255.
  3372. @item My Target
  3373. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3374. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3375. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3376. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3377. the linked file.
  3378. @item *My Target
  3379. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3380. @item #my-custom-id
  3381. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3382. @item /regexp/
  3383. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3384. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3385. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3386. sparse tree with the matches.
  3387. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3388. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3389. @end table
  3390. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3391. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3392. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3393. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3394. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3395. @section Custom Searches
  3396. @cindex custom search strings
  3397. @cindex search strings, custom
  3398. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3399. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3400. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3401. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3402. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3403. citation key.
  3404. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3405. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3406. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3407. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3408. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3409. to be added to the hook variables
  3410. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3411. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3412. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3413. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3414. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3415. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3416. @chapter TODO items
  3417. @cindex TODO items
  3418. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3419. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3420. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3421. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3422. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3423. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3424. item emerged is always present.
  3425. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3426. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3427. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3428. @menu
  3429. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3430. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3431. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3432. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3433. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3434. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3435. @end menu
  3436. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3437. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3438. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3439. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3440. @example
  3441. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3442. @end example
  3443. @noindent
  3444. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3445. @table @kbd
  3446. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3447. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3448. @vindex org-use-fast-todo-selection
  3449. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3450. @example
  3451. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3452. '--------------------------------'
  3453. @end example
  3454. If TODO keywords have fast access keys (see @ref{Fast access to TODO
  3455. states}), you will be prompted for a TODO keyword through the fast selection
  3456. interface; this is the default behavior when
  3457. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is non-@code{nil}.
  3458. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and agenda
  3459. buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3460. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3461. When TODO keywords have no selection keys, select a specific keyword using
  3462. completion; otherwise force cycling through TODO states with no prompt. When
  3463. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is set to @code{prefix}, use the fast
  3464. selection interface.
  3465. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3466. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3467. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3468. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3469. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3470. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3471. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3472. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3473. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3474. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-tree}
  3475. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3476. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3477. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3478. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3479. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3480. / T}), search for a specific TODO@. You will be prompted for the keyword,
  3481. and you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3482. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3483. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the option @code{org-todo-keywords}.
  3484. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states, both un-done and done.
  3485. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3486. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3487. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3488. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3489. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3490. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3491. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3492. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3493. @end table
  3494. @noindent
  3495. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3496. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3497. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3498. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3499. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3500. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3501. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3502. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3503. DONE@. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3504. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3505. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3506. files.
  3507. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3508. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3509. @menu
  3510. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3511. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3512. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3513. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3514. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3515. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3516. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3517. @end menu
  3518. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3519. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3520. @cindex TODO workflow
  3521. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3522. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3523. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3524. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3525. buffer.}:
  3526. @lisp
  3527. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3528. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3529. @end lisp
  3530. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3531. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3532. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3533. state.
  3534. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3535. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3536. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED@. You may
  3537. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3538. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY@.
  3539. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3540. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3541. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3542. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3543. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3544. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3545. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3546. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3547. @cindex TODO types
  3548. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3549. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3550. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3551. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3552. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3553. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3554. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3555. be set up like this:
  3556. @lisp
  3557. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3558. @end lisp
  3559. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3560. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3561. person, and later to mark it DONE@. Org mode supports this style by adapting
  3562. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3563. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3564. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3565. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3566. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3567. to DONE@. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3568. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3569. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3570. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3571. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3572. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3573. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3574. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3575. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3576. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3577. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3578. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3579. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3580. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3581. like this:
  3582. @lisp
  3583. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3584. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3585. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3586. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3587. @end lisp
  3588. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3589. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3590. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3591. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3592. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3593. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3594. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3595. @table @kbd
  3596. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3597. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3598. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3599. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3600. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3601. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3602. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3603. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3604. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3605. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3606. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3607. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3608. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3609. @item S-@key{right}
  3610. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3611. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3612. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3613. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3614. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3615. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3616. @end table
  3617. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3618. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3619. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3620. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3621. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection character after
  3622. each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except
  3623. @code{@@^!}, which have a special meaning here.}. For example:
  3624. @lisp
  3625. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3626. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3627. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3628. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3629. @end lisp
  3630. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3631. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3632. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3633. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the option
  3634. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3635. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3636. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3637. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3638. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3639. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3640. @cindex keyword options
  3641. @cindex per-file keywords
  3642. @cindex #+TODO
  3643. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3644. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3645. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3646. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3647. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3648. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3649. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3650. file:
  3651. @example
  3652. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3653. @end example
  3654. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3655. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3656. @example
  3657. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3658. @end example
  3659. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3660. @example
  3661. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3662. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3663. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3664. @end example
  3665. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3666. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3667. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3668. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3669. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3670. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3671. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3672. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3673. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3674. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3675. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3676. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3677. for the current buffer.}.
  3678. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3679. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3680. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3681. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3682. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3683. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3684. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3685. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3686. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3687. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3688. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the option
  3689. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3690. @lisp
  3691. @group
  3692. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3693. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3694. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3695. @end group
  3696. @end lisp
  3697. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3698. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3699. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The option
  3700. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3701. foreground or a background color.
  3702. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3703. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3704. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3705. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3706. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3707. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3708. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3709. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3710. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE@. And sometimes
  3711. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3712. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3713. the option @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3714. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE@.
  3715. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3716. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE@. Here is an
  3717. example:
  3718. @example
  3719. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3720. ** DONE one
  3721. ** TODO two
  3722. * Parent
  3723. :PROPERTIES:
  3724. :ORDERED: t
  3725. :END:
  3726. ** TODO a
  3727. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3728. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3729. @end example
  3730. @table @kbd
  3731. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3732. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3733. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3734. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3735. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3736. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3737. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the option
  3738. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3739. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3740. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3741. @end table
  3742. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3743. If you set the option @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3744. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3745. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3746. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3747. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3748. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3749. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the option
  3750. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3751. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3752. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3753. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3754. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3755. @page
  3756. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3757. @section Progress logging
  3758. @cindex progress logging
  3759. @cindex logging, of progress
  3760. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3761. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3762. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable; settings can be on a
  3763. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3764. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3765. work time}.
  3766. @menu
  3767. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3768. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3769. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3770. @end menu
  3771. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3772. @subsection Closing items
  3773. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3774. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3775. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3776. @lisp
  3777. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3778. @end lisp
  3779. @vindex org-closed-keep-when-no-todo
  3780. @noindent
  3781. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any of the
  3782. DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after
  3783. the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item through further
  3784. state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you turn the entry back
  3785. to a non-TODO state (by pressing @key{C-c C-t SPC} for example), that line
  3786. will also be removed, unless you set @code{org-closed-keep-when-no-todo} to
  3787. non-@code{nil}. If you want to record a note along with the timestamp,
  3788. use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP:
  3789. lognotedone}.}
  3790. @lisp
  3791. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3792. @end lisp
  3793. @noindent
  3794. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3795. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3796. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3797. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3798. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3799. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3800. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3801. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3802. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3803. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3804. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3805. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3806. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3807. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3808. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3809. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3810. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the option
  3811. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3812. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3813. Customize @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the recommended
  3814. drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3815. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3816. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3817. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3818. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3819. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3820. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3821. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3822. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3823. setting
  3824. @lisp
  3825. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3826. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3827. @end lisp
  3828. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3829. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3830. @noindent
  3831. @vindex org-log-done
  3832. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3833. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3834. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3835. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3836. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3837. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3838. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3839. WAIT or CANCELED@. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3840. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3841. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3842. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3843. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3844. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3845. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3846. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3847. configured.
  3848. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3849. to a buffer:
  3850. @example
  3851. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3852. @end example
  3853. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3854. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3855. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3856. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to @code{nil}. You may then turn
  3857. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3858. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3859. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3860. @example
  3861. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3862. :PROPERTIES:
  3863. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3864. :END:
  3865. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3866. :PROPERTIES:
  3867. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3868. :END:
  3869. * TODO No logging at all
  3870. :PROPERTIES:
  3871. :LOGGING: nil
  3872. :END:
  3873. @end example
  3874. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3875. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3876. @cindex habits
  3877. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3878. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3879. @enumerate
  3880. @item
  3881. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing @code{org-modules}.
  3882. @item
  3883. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3884. @item
  3885. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3886. @item
  3887. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3888. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3889. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3890. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3891. @item
  3892. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3893. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3894. three days, but at most every two days.
  3895. @item
  3896. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled
  3897. (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3898. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an
  3899. error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless.
  3900. @end enumerate
  3901. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3902. actual habit with some history:
  3903. @example
  3904. ** TODO Shave
  3905. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3906. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3907. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3908. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3909. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3910. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3911. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3912. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3913. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3914. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3915. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3916. :PROPERTIES:
  3917. :STYLE: habit
  3918. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3919. :END:
  3920. @end example
  3921. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3922. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3923. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3924. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3925. after four days have elapsed.
  3926. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3927. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3928. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3929. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3930. @table @code
  3931. @item Blue
  3932. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3933. @item Green
  3934. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3935. @item Yellow
  3936. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3937. @item Red
  3938. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3939. @end table
  3940. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3941. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3942. the current day falls in the graph.
  3943. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3944. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3945. @table @code
  3946. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3947. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3948. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3949. titles brief and to the point.
  3950. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3951. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3952. @item org-habit-following-days
  3953. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3954. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3955. If non-@code{nil}, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3956. default.
  3957. @end table
  3958. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3959. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3960. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3961. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3962. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3963. @section Priorities
  3964. @cindex priorities
  3965. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3966. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3967. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3968. @example
  3969. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3970. @end example
  3971. @noindent
  3972. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3973. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3974. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3975. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3976. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3977. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3978. special faces by customizing @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3979. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3980. items.
  3981. @table @kbd
  3982. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3983. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3984. @findex org-priority
  3985. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3986. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3987. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3988. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3989. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3990. @c
  3991. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3992. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3993. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3994. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3995. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3996. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3997. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3998. @end table
  3999. @vindex org-highest-priority
  4000. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  4001. @vindex org-default-priority
  4002. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the options
  4003. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  4004. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  4005. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  4006. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  4007. priority):
  4008. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  4009. @example
  4010. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  4011. @end example
  4012. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  4013. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  4014. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  4015. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  4016. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  4017. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  4018. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  4019. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  4020. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  4021. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  4022. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  4023. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  4024. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  4025. @example
  4026. * Organize Party [33%]
  4027. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  4028. *** TODO Peter
  4029. *** DONE Sarah
  4030. ** TODO Buy food
  4031. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  4032. @end example
  4033. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  4034. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  4035. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  4036. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  4037. this issue.
  4038. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  4039. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  4040. subtree (not just direct children), configure
  4041. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  4042. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4043. property.
  4044. @example
  4045. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  4046. :PROPERTIES:
  4047. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  4048. :END:
  4049. @end example
  4050. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  4051. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  4052. @example
  4053. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  4054. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  4055. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  4056. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  4057. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  4058. @end example
  4059. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  4060. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  4061. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  4062. @section Checkboxes
  4063. @cindex checkboxes
  4064. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  4065. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  4066. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  4067. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  4068. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  4069. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  4070. in the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  4071. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  4072. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  4073. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  4074. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  4075. @example
  4076. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  4077. - [-] call people [1/3]
  4078. - [ ] Peter
  4079. - [X] Sarah
  4080. - [ ] Sam
  4081. - [X] order food
  4082. - [ ] think about what music to play
  4083. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  4084. @end example
  4085. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  4086. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  4087. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  4088. checked.
  4089. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  4090. @cindex checkbox statistics
  4091. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  4092. @vindex org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics
  4093. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  4094. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  4095. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  4096. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  4097. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  4098. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  4099. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the option
  4100. @code{org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  4101. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  4102. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  4103. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  4104. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  4105. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  4106. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  4107. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  4108. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4109. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  4110. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  4111. @cindex checkbox blocking
  4112. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4113. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  4114. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  4115. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  4116. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  4117. @table @kbd
  4118. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4119. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
  4120. With a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  4121. one@footnote{@kbd{C-u C-c C-c} on the @emph{first} item of a list with no checkbox
  4122. will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is
  4123. considered to be an intermediate state.
  4124. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4125. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4126. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4127. intermediate state.
  4128. @itemize @minus
  4129. @item
  4130. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  4131. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  4132. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  4133. @item
  4134. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  4135. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  4136. @item
  4137. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  4138. @end itemize
  4139. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  4140. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  4141. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  4142. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  4143. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  4144. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4145. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  4146. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  4147. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  4148. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  4149. for better visibility, customize @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  4150. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  4151. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  4152. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  4153. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  4154. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  4155. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  4156. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  4157. @end table
  4158. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  4159. @chapter Tags
  4160. @cindex tags
  4161. @cindex headline tagging
  4162. @cindex matching, tags
  4163. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  4164. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  4165. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  4166. support for tags.
  4167. @vindex org-tag-faces
  4168. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  4169. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  4170. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  4171. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  4172. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  4173. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the option
  4174. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  4175. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  4176. @menu
  4177. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  4178. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  4179. * Tag groups:: Use one tag to search for several tags
  4180. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  4181. @end menu
  4182. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  4183. @section Tag inheritance
  4184. @cindex tag inheritance
  4185. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  4186. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  4187. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  4188. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  4189. well. For example, in the list
  4190. @example
  4191. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  4192. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  4193. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  4194. @end example
  4195. @noindent
  4196. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  4197. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  4198. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  4199. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  4200. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  4201. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  4202. changes in the line.}:
  4203. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  4204. @example
  4205. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  4206. @end example
  4207. @noindent
  4208. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  4209. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  4210. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, use @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  4211. To turn it off entirely, use @code{org-use-tag-inheritance}.
  4212. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4213. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  4214. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  4215. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  4216. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  4217. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  4218. match in a subtree, configure @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not
  4219. recommended).
  4220. @vindex org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance
  4221. Tag inheritance is relevant when the agenda search tries to match a tag,
  4222. either in the @code{tags} or @code{tags-todo} agenda types. In other agenda
  4223. types, @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} has no effect. Still, you may want to
  4224. have your tags correctly set in the agenda, so that tag filtering works fine,
  4225. with inherited tags. Set @code{org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance} to control
  4226. this: the default value includes all agenda types, but setting this to @code{nil}
  4227. can really speed up agenda generation.
  4228. @node Setting tags, Tag groups, Tag inheritance, Tags
  4229. @section Setting tags
  4230. @cindex setting tags
  4231. @cindex tags, setting
  4232. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  4233. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4234. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4235. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4236. @table @kbd
  4237. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4238. @cindex completion, of tags
  4239. @vindex org-tags-column
  4240. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4241. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4242. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4243. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4244. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4245. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4246. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4247. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4248. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4249. @end table
  4250. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4251. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4252. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4253. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4254. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4255. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4256. @cindex #+TAGS
  4257. @example
  4258. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4259. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4260. @end example
  4261. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4262. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4263. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4264. @example
  4265. #+TAGS:
  4266. @end example
  4267. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4268. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4269. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4270. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4271. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4272. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4273. @example
  4274. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4275. @end example
  4276. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4277. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4278. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4279. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4280. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  4281. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  4282. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  4283. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4284. like:
  4285. @lisp
  4286. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4287. @end lisp
  4288. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4289. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4290. @example
  4291. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4292. @end example
  4293. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4294. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4295. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4296. @example
  4297. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4298. @end example
  4299. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4300. @example
  4301. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4302. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4303. @end example
  4304. @noindent
  4305. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4306. braces, as in:
  4307. @example
  4308. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4309. @end example
  4310. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4311. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4312. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4313. these lines to activate any changes.
  4314. @noindent
  4315. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tag-alist},
  4316. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4317. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4318. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4319. configuration:
  4320. @lisp
  4321. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4322. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4323. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4324. (:endgroup . nil)
  4325. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4326. @end lisp
  4327. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4328. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4329. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4330. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4331. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4332. keys:
  4333. @table @kbd
  4334. @item a-z...
  4335. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4336. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4337. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4338. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4339. @item @key{TAB}
  4340. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4341. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4342. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4343. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4344. @item @key{SPC}
  4345. Clear all tags for this line.
  4346. @kindex @key{RET}
  4347. @item @key{RET}
  4348. Accept the modified set.
  4349. @item C-g
  4350. Abort without installing changes.
  4351. @item q
  4352. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4353. @item !
  4354. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4355. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4356. @item C-c
  4357. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4358. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4359. selection window.
  4360. @end table
  4361. @noindent
  4362. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4363. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4364. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4365. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4366. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4367. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4368. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4369. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4370. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4371. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4372. modify your list of tags, set @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}.
  4373. Then you no longer have to press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it
  4374. will immediately exit after the first change. If you then occasionally
  4375. need more keys, press @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag
  4376. selection process (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c}
  4377. instead of @kbd{C-c C-c}). If you set the variable to the value
  4378. @code{expert}, the special window is not even shown for single-key tag
  4379. selection, it comes up only when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4380. @node Tag groups, Tag searches, Setting tags, Tags
  4381. @section Tag groups
  4382. @cindex group tags
  4383. @cindex tags, groups
  4384. In a set of mutually exclusive tags, the first tag can be defined as a
  4385. @emph{group tag}. When you search for a group tag, it will return matches
  4386. for all members in the group. In an agenda view, filtering by a group tag
  4387. will display headlines tagged with at least one of the members of the
  4388. group. This makes tag searches and filters even more flexible.
  4389. You can set group tags by inserting a colon between the group tag and other
  4390. tags---beware that all whitespaces are mandatory so that Org can parse this
  4391. line correctly:
  4392. @example
  4393. #+TAGS: @{ @@read : @@read_book @@read_ebook @}
  4394. @end example
  4395. In this example, @samp{@@read} is a @emph{group tag} for a set of three
  4396. tags: @samp{@@read}, @samp{@@read_book} and @samp{@@read_ebook}.
  4397. You can also use the @code{:grouptags} keyword directly when setting
  4398. @code{org-tag-alist}:
  4399. @lisp
  4400. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4401. ("@@read" . nil)
  4402. (:grouptags . nil)
  4403. ("@@read_book" . nil)
  4404. ("@@read_ebook" . nil)
  4405. (:endgroup . nil)))
  4406. @end lisp
  4407. You cannot nest group tags or use a group tag as a tag in another group.
  4408. @kindex C-c C-x q
  4409. @vindex org-group-tags
  4410. If you want to ignore group tags temporarily, toggle group tags support
  4411. with @command{org-toggle-tags-groups}, bound to @kbd{C-c C-x q}. If you
  4412. want to disable tag groups completely, set @code{org-group-tags} to @code{nil}.
  4413. @node Tag searches, , Tag groups, Tags
  4414. @section Tag searches
  4415. @cindex tag searches
  4416. @cindex searching for tags
  4417. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4418. information into special lists.
  4419. @table @kbd
  4420. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4421. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags/property/TODO search.
  4422. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4423. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4424. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4425. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files. @xref{Matching
  4426. tags and properties}.
  4427. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4428. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4429. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4430. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see the option
  4431. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4432. @end table
  4433. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4434. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4435. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4436. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4437. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4438. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4439. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4440. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4441. @chapter Properties and columns
  4442. @cindex properties
  4443. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4444. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4445. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4446. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4447. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4448. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4449. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4450. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4451. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4452. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4453. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4454. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4455. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4456. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4457. @menu
  4458. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4459. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4460. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4461. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4462. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4463. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4464. @end menu
  4465. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4466. @section Property syntax
  4467. @cindex property syntax
  4468. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4469. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4470. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special
  4471. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4472. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4473. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4474. @example
  4475. * CD collection
  4476. ** Classic
  4477. *** Goldberg Variations
  4478. :PROPERTIES:
  4479. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4480. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4481. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4482. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4483. :NDisks: 1
  4484. :END:
  4485. @end example
  4486. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4487. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the sub-tree
  4488. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4489. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4490. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4491. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4492. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4493. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4494. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4495. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4496. @example
  4497. * CD collection
  4498. :PROPERTIES:
  4499. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4500. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4501. :END:
  4502. @end example
  4503. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4504. file, use a line like
  4505. @cindex property, _ALL
  4506. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4507. @example
  4508. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4509. @end example
  4510. Contrary to properties set from a special drawer, you have to refresh the
  4511. buffer with @kbd{C-c C-c} to activate this changes.
  4512. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4513. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4514. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4515. @cindex property, +
  4516. @example
  4517. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4518. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4519. @end example
  4520. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4521. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4522. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4523. @cindex property, +
  4524. @example
  4525. * CD collection
  4526. ** Classic
  4527. :PROPERTIES:
  4528. :GENRES: Classic
  4529. :END:
  4530. *** Goldberg Variations
  4531. :PROPERTIES:
  4532. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4533. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4534. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4535. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4536. :NDisks: 1
  4537. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4538. :END:
  4539. @end example
  4540. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4541. @vindex org-global-properties
  4542. Property values set with the global variable
  4543. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4544. Org files.
  4545. @noindent
  4546. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4547. @table @kbd
  4548. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4549. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4550. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4551. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4552. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4553. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4554. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer RET
  4555. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  4556. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4557. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4558. information like deadlines.
  4559. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4560. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4561. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4562. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4563. can be inserted using completion.
  4564. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4565. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4566. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4567. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4568. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4569. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4570. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4571. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4572. nearest column format definition.
  4573. @end table
  4574. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4575. @section Special properties
  4576. @cindex properties, special
  4577. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4578. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4579. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4580. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4581. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4582. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4583. @cindex property, special, ID
  4584. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4585. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4586. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4587. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4588. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4589. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4590. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4591. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4592. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4593. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4594. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4595. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM_T
  4596. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4597. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4598. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4599. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4600. @example
  4601. ID @r{A globally unique ID used for synchronization during}
  4602. @r{iCalendar or MobileOrg export.}
  4603. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4604. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4605. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4606. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4607. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4608. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4609. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4610. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4611. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4612. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4613. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4614. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4615. CLOCKSUM_T @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree for today.}
  4616. @r{@code{org-clock-sum-today} must be run first to compute the}
  4617. @r{values in the current buffer.}
  4618. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4619. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4620. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4621. @end example
  4622. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4623. @section Property searches
  4624. @cindex properties, searching
  4625. @cindex searching, of properties
  4626. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4627. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4628. @table @kbd
  4629. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4630. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4631. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4632. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4633. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4634. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4635. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4636. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4637. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4638. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see the option
  4639. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4640. @end table
  4641. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4642. properties}.
  4643. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4644. single property:
  4645. @table @kbd
  4646. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4647. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4648. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4649. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4650. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4651. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4652. @end table
  4653. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4654. @section Property Inheritance
  4655. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4656. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4657. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4658. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4659. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4660. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4661. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4662. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4663. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4664. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4665. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4666. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4667. inherited properties. If a property has the value @code{nil}, this is
  4668. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4669. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4670. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4671. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4672. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4673. @table @code
  4674. @item COLUMNS
  4675. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4676. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4677. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4678. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4679. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4680. @item CATEGORY
  4681. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4682. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4683. applies to the entire subtree.
  4684. @item ARCHIVE
  4685. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4686. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4687. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4688. @item LOGGING
  4689. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4690. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4691. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4692. @end table
  4693. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4694. @section Column view
  4695. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4696. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4697. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4698. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4699. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4700. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4701. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4702. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4703. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4704. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4705. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4706. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4707. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4708. @menu
  4709. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4710. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4711. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4712. @end menu
  4713. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4714. @subsection Defining columns
  4715. @cindex column view, for properties
  4716. @cindex properties, column view
  4717. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4718. done by defining a column format line.
  4719. @menu
  4720. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4721. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4722. @end menu
  4723. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4724. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4725. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4726. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4727. @example
  4728. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4729. @end example
  4730. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4731. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4732. @example
  4733. ** Top node for columns view
  4734. :PROPERTIES:
  4735. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4736. :END:
  4737. @end example
  4738. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4739. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4740. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4741. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4742. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4743. deeper part of the tree.
  4744. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4745. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4746. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4747. definition looks like this:
  4748. @example
  4749. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4750. @end example
  4751. @noindent
  4752. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4753. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4754. @example
  4755. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4756. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4757. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4758. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4759. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4760. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4761. @r{name is used.}
  4762. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4763. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4764. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4765. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4766. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4767. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4768. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4769. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4770. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4771. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4772. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4773. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4774. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4775. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4776. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4777. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4778. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4779. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4780. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4781. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4782. @end example
  4783. @noindent
  4784. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4785. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4786. same summary information.
  4787. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4788. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4789. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4790. 5--6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4791. 1--10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4792. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4793. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4794. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4795. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4796. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4797. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4798. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4799. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4800. full job more realistically, at 10--15 days.
  4801. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4802. values.
  4803. @example
  4804. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4805. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM %CLOCKSUM_T
  4806. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4807. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4808. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4809. @end example
  4810. @noindent
  4811. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4812. item itself, i.e., of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4813. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4814. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4815. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4816. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4817. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4818. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4819. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4820. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4821. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4822. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4823. @samp{CLOCKSUM} and @samp{CLOCKSUM_T} columns are special, they lists the
  4824. sums of CLOCK intervals in the subtree, either for all clocks or just for
  4825. today.
  4826. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4827. @subsection Using column view
  4828. @table @kbd
  4829. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4830. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4831. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4832. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4833. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4834. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4835. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4836. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4837. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4838. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4839. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4840. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4841. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4842. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4843. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4844. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4845. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4846. Exit column view.
  4847. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4848. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4849. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4850. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4851. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4852. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4853. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4854. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4855. @item 1..9,0
  4856. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4857. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4858. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4859. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4860. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4861. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4862. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4863. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4864. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4865. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4866. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4867. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4868. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4869. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4870. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4871. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4872. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4873. current column view.
  4874. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4875. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4876. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4877. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4878. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4879. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4880. Delete the current column.
  4881. @end table
  4882. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4883. @subsection Capturing column view
  4884. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4885. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4886. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4887. of this block looks like this:
  4888. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4889. @example
  4890. * The column view
  4891. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4892. #+END:
  4893. @end example
  4894. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4895. @table @code
  4896. @item :id
  4897. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4898. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4899. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4900. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4901. @cindex property, ID
  4902. @example
  4903. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4904. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4905. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4906. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4907. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4908. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4909. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy RET} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4910. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4911. @end example
  4912. @item :hlines
  4913. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4914. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4915. @item :vlines
  4916. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4917. @item :maxlevel
  4918. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4919. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4920. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4921. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4922. @end table
  4923. @noindent
  4924. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4925. @table @kbd
  4926. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4927. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4928. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4929. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4930. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4931. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4932. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4933. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4934. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4935. blocks in a buffer.
  4936. @end table
  4937. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4938. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4939. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4940. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4941. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4942. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4943. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4944. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4945. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4946. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4947. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4948. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4949. @section The Property API
  4950. @cindex properties, API
  4951. @cindex API, for properties
  4952. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4953. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4954. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4955. property API}.
  4956. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4957. @chapter Dates and times
  4958. @cindex dates
  4959. @cindex times
  4960. @cindex timestamp
  4961. @cindex date stamp
  4962. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4963. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4964. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode. This may be a
  4965. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4966. something was created or last changed. However, in Org mode this term
  4967. is used in a much wider sense.
  4968. @menu
  4969. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4970. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4971. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4972. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4973. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4974. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4975. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4976. @end menu
  4977. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4978. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4979. @cindex timestamps
  4980. @cindex ranges, time
  4981. @cindex date stamps
  4982. @cindex deadlines
  4983. @cindex scheduling
  4984. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4985. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>}@footnote{In this
  4986. simplest form, the day name is optional when you type the date yourself.
  4987. However, any dates inserted or modified by Org will add that day name, for
  4988. reading convenience.} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
  4989. Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601
  4990. date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time
  4991. format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org
  4992. tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the
  4993. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4994. @table @var
  4995. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4996. @cindex timestamp
  4997. @cindex appointment
  4998. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4999. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  5000. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  5001. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  5002. @example
  5003. * Meet Peter at the movies
  5004. <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  5005. * Discussion on climate change
  5006. <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  5007. @end example
  5008. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  5009. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  5010. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  5011. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  5012. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  5013. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  5014. @example
  5015. * Pick up Sam at school
  5016. <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  5017. @end example
  5018. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  5019. For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the special
  5020. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  5021. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  5022. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  5023. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  5024. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  5025. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  5026. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  5027. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org mode users
  5028. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  5029. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  5030. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  5031. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For
  5032. example with optional time
  5033. @example
  5034. * 22:00-23:00 The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  5035. <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  5036. @end example
  5037. @item Time/Date range
  5038. @cindex timerange
  5039. @cindex date range
  5040. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  5041. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  5042. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  5043. @example
  5044. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  5045. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  5046. @end example
  5047. @item Inactive timestamp
  5048. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  5049. @cindex inactive timestamp
  5050. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  5051. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  5052. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  5053. @example
  5054. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time
  5055. [2006-11-01 Wed]
  5056. @end example
  5057. @end table
  5058. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  5059. @section Creating timestamps
  5060. @cindex creating timestamps
  5061. @cindex timestamps, creating
  5062. For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  5063. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  5064. format.
  5065. @table @kbd
  5066. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  5067. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  5068. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  5069. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  5070. succession, a time range is inserted.
  5071. @c
  5072. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  5073. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  5074. an agenda entry.
  5075. @c
  5076. @kindex C-u C-c .
  5077. @kindex C-u C-c !
  5078. @item C-u C-c .
  5079. @itemx C-u C-c !
  5080. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  5081. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  5082. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  5083. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  5084. @c
  5085. @orgkey{C-c C-c}
  5086. Normalize timestamp, insert/fix day name if missing or wrong.
  5087. @c
  5088. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  5089. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  5090. @c
  5091. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  5092. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  5093. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  5094. instead.
  5095. @c
  5096. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  5097. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  5098. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  5099. @c
  5100. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  5101. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  5102. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  5103. @c
  5104. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  5105. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  5106. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  5107. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  5108. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  5109. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  5110. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  5111. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  5112. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  5113. @c
  5114. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5115. @cindex evaluate time range
  5116. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  5117. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  5118. the following column).
  5119. @end table
  5120. @menu
  5121. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  5122. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  5123. @end menu
  5124. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  5125. @subsection The date/time prompt
  5126. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  5127. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  5128. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  5129. When Org mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  5130. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  5131. format. But it will in fact accept date/time information in a variety of
  5132. formats. Generally, the information should start at the beginning of the
  5133. string. Org mode will find whatever information is in
  5134. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  5135. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  5136. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  5137. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  5138. information, Org mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  5139. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  5140. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  5141. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  5142. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  5143. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  5144. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  5145. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  5146. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org mode are
  5147. in @b{bold}.
  5148. @example
  5149. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  5150. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  5151. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  5152. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  5153. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  5154. Fri @result{} nearest Friday after the default date
  5155. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  5156. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  5157. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  5158. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  5159. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  5160. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  5161. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  5162. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  5163. @end example
  5164. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the @emph{first}
  5165. thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a letter ([hdwmy]) to
  5166. indicate change in hours, days, weeks, months, or years. With a single plus
  5167. or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a double plus or minus,
  5168. it is relative to the default date. If instead of a single letter, you use
  5169. the abbreviation of day name, the date will be the Nth such day, e.g.:
  5170. @example
  5171. +0 @result{} today
  5172. . @result{} today
  5173. +4d @result{} four days from today
  5174. +4 @result{} same as above
  5175. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  5176. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  5177. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now
  5178. -wed @result{} last Wednesday
  5179. @end example
  5180. @vindex parse-time-months
  5181. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  5182. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  5183. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  5184. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  5185. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  5186. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  5187. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  5188. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  5189. read the docstring of the variable
  5190. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  5191. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  5192. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  5193. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  5194. case, e.g.:
  5195. @example
  5196. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  5197. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  5198. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  5199. @end example
  5200. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  5201. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  5202. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  5203. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  5204. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  5205. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  5206. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  5207. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  5208. from the minibuffer:
  5209. @kindex <
  5210. @kindex >
  5211. @kindex M-v
  5212. @kindex C-v
  5213. @kindex mouse-1
  5214. @kindex S-@key{right}
  5215. @kindex S-@key{left}
  5216. @kindex S-@key{down}
  5217. @kindex S-@key{up}
  5218. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  5219. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  5220. @kindex @key{RET}
  5221. @example
  5222. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  5223. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  5224. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  5225. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  5226. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  5227. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  5228. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  5229. @end example
  5230. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  5231. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  5232. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  5233. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  5234. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  5235. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display off with
  5236. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  5237. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  5238. @subsection Custom time format
  5239. @cindex custom date/time format
  5240. @cindex time format, custom
  5241. @cindex date format, custom
  5242. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  5243. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  5244. Org mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  5245. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  5246. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  5247. customizing the options @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  5248. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  5249. @table @kbd
  5250. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  5251. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  5252. @end table
  5253. @noindent
  5254. Org mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  5255. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  5256. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  5257. following consequences:
  5258. @itemize @bullet
  5259. @item
  5260. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  5261. after.
  5262. @item
  5263. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  5264. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  5265. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  5266. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  5267. time will be changed by one minute.
  5268. @item
  5269. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  5270. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  5271. @item
  5272. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  5273. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  5274. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  5275. @item
  5276. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  5277. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  5278. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  5279. @end itemize
  5280. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  5281. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  5282. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  5283. @table @var
  5284. @item DEADLINE
  5285. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  5286. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  5287. to be finished on that date.
  5288. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5289. @vindex org-agenda-skip-deadline-prewarning-if-scheduled
  5290. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  5291. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  5292. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  5293. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  5294. until the entry is marked DONE@. An example:
  5295. @example
  5296. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  5297. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  5298. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  5299. @end example
  5300. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  5301. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  5302. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}. This warning is
  5303. deactivated if the task get scheduled and you set
  5304. @code{org-agenda-skip-deadline-prewarning-if-scheduled} to @code{t}.
  5305. @item SCHEDULED
  5306. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  5307. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  5308. date.
  5309. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  5310. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  5311. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE@. If you don't like
  5312. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  5313. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  5314. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.,
  5315. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  5316. @example
  5317. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  5318. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  5319. @end example
  5320. @vindex org-scheduled-delay-days
  5321. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-delay-if-deadline
  5322. If you want to @emph{delay} the display of this task in the agenda, use
  5323. @code{SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat -2d>}: the task is still scheduled on the
  5324. 25th but will appear two days later. In case the task contains a repeater,
  5325. the delay is considered to affect all occurrences; if you want the delay to
  5326. only affect the first scheduled occurrence of the task, use @code{--2d}
  5327. instead. See @code{org-scheduled-delay-days} and
  5328. @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-delay-if-deadline} for details on how to
  5329. control this globally or per agenda.
  5330. @noindent
  5331. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org mode should @i{not} be
  5332. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  5333. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  5334. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  5335. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  5336. Org users. In Org mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  5337. want to start working on an action item.
  5338. @end table
  5339. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  5340. entries. Org mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  5341. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  5342. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  5343. @c
  5344. @code{<%%(diary-float t 42)>}
  5345. @c
  5346. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org mode does not
  5347. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  5348. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  5349. sexp entry matches.
  5350. @menu
  5351. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  5352. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  5353. @end menu
  5354. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  5355. @subsection Inserting deadlines or