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#+TITLE: Org ad hoc code, quick hacks and workarounds #+AUTHOR: Worg people #+EMAIL: mdl AT imapmail DOT org #+OPTIONS: H:3 num:nil toc:t \n:nil ::t |:t ^:t -:t f:t *:t tex:t d:(HIDE) tags:not-in-toc #+STARTUP: align fold nodlcheck hidestars oddeven lognotestate #+SEQ_TODO: TODO(t) INPROGRESS(i) WAITING(w@) | DONE(d) CANCELED(c@) #+TAGS: Write(w) Update(u) Fix(f) Check(c) #+LANGUAGE: en #+PRIORITIES: A C B #+CATEGORY: worg # This file is the default header for new Org files in Worg. Feel free # to tailor it to your needs. [[][{Back to Worg's index}]] This page is for ad hoc bits of code. Feel free to add quick hacks and workaround. Go crazy. * Hacking Org: Working within Org-mode. ** Org Agenda *** Picking up a random task in the global TODO list Tony day [[][shared]] [[][this gist]] to pick up a random task. ** Building and Managing Org *** Generating autoloads and Compiling Org without make :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: compiling-org-without-make :END: #+index: Compilation!without make Compilation is optional, but you _must_ update the autoloads file each time you update org, even when you run org uncompiled! Starting with Org 7.9 you'll find functions for creating the autoload files and do byte-compilation in =mk/org-fixup.el=. When you execute the commands below, your current directory must be where org has been unpacked into, in other words the file =README= should be found in your current directory and the directories =lisp= and =etc= should be subdirectories of it. The command =emacs= should be found in your =PATH= and start the Emacs version you are using. To make just the autoloads file do: : emacs -batch -Q -L lisp -l ../mk/org-fixup -f org-make-autoloads To make the autoloads file and byte-compile org: : emacs -batch -Q -L lisp -l ../mk/org-fixup -f org-make-autoloads-compile To make the autoloads file and byte-compile all of org again: : emacs -batch -Q -L lisp -l ../mk/org-fixup -f org-make-autoloads-compile-force If you are not using Git, you'll have to make fake version strings first if =org-version.el= is not already available (if it is, you could also edit the version strings there). : emacs -batch -Q -L lisp -l ../mk/org-fixup \ : --eval '(let ((org-fake-release "7.9.1")(org-fake-git-version "7.9.1-fake"))\ : (org-make-autoloads))' The above assumes a POSIX shell for its quoting. Windows =CMD.exe= has quite different quoting rules and this won't work, so your other option is to start Emacs like this : emacs -Q -L lisp -l ../mk/org-fixup then paste the following into the =*scratch*= buffer #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (let ((org-fake-release "7.9.1") (org-fake-git-version "7.9.1-fake")) (org-make-autoloads)) #+END_SRC position the cursor after the closing paren and press =C-j= or =C-x C-e= to evaluate the form. Of course you can replace =org-make-autoloads= with =org-make-autoloads-compile= or even =org-make-autoloads-compile-force= if you wish with both variants. For *older org versions only* (that do not yet have =mk/org-fixup.el=), you can use the definitions below. To use this function, adjust the variables =my/org-lisp-directory= and =my/org-compile-sources= to suit your needs. If you have byte-compiled org, but want to run org uncompiled again, just remove all =*.elc= files in the =lisp/= directory, set =my/org-compile-sources= to =nil=. #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (defvar my/org-lisp-directory "~/.emacs.d/org/lisp/" "Directory where your org-mode files live.") (defvar my/org-compile-sources t "If `nil', never compile org-sources. `my/compile-org' will only create the autoloads file `org-loaddefs.el' then. If `t', compile the sources, too.") ;; Customize: (must end with a slash!) (setq my/org-lisp-directory "~/.emacs.d/org/lisp/") ;; Customize: (setq my/org-compile-sources t) (defun my/compile-org(&optional directory) "Generate autoloads file org-loaddefs.el. Optionally compile all *.el files that come with org-mode." (interactive) (defun my/compile-org() "Generate autoloads file org-loaddefs.el. Optionally compile all *.el files that come with org-mode." (interactive) (let ((dirlisp (file-name-directory my/org-lisp-directory))) (add-to-list 'load-path dirlisp) (require 'autoload) (let ((generated-autoload-file (concat dirlisp "org-loaddefs.el"))) ;; create the org-loaddefs file (update-directory-autoloads dirlisp) (when my/org-compile-sources ;; optionally byte-compile (byte-recompile-directory dirlisp 0 'force))))) #+END_SRC *** Reload Org #+index: Initialization!Reload As of Org version 6.23b (released Sunday Feb 22, 2009) there is a new function to reload org files. Normally you want to use the compiled files since they are faster. If you update your org files you can easily reload them with : M-x org-reload If you run into a bug and want to generate a useful backtrace you can reload the source files instead of the compiled files with : C-u M-x org-reload and turn on the "Enter Debugger On Error" option. Redo the action that generates the error and cut and paste the resulting backtrace. To switch back to the compiled version just reload again with : M-x org-reload *** Check for possibly problematic old link escapes :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: check-old-link-escapes :END: #+index: Link!Escape Starting with version 7.5 Org uses [[][percent escaping]] more consistently and with a modified algorithm to determine which characters to escape and how. As a side effect this modified behaviour might break existing links if they contain a sequence of characters that look like a percent escape (e.g. =[0-9A-Fa-f]{2}=) but are in fact not a percent escape. The function below can be used to perform a preliminary check for such links in an Org mode file. It will run through all links in the file and issue a warning if it finds a percent escape sequence which is not in old Org's list of known percent escapes. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun dmaus/org-check-percent-escapes () "*Check buffer for possibly problematic old link escapes." (interactive) (when (eq major-mode 'org-mode) (let ((old-escapes '("%20" "%5B" "%5D" "%E0" "%E2" "%E7" "%E8" "%E9" "%EA" "%EE" "%F4" "%F9" "%FB" "%3B" "%3D" "%2B"))) (unless (boundp 'warning-suppress-types) (setq warning-suppress-types nil)) (widen) (show-all) (goto-char (point-min)) (while (re-search-forward org-any-link-re nil t) (let ((end (match-end 0))) (goto-char (match-beginning 0)) (while (re-search-forward "%[0-9a-zA-Z]\\{2\\}" end t) (let ((escape (match-string-no-properties 0))) (unless (member (upcase escape) old-escapes) (warn "Found unknown percent escape sequence %s at buffer %s, position %d" escape (buffer-name) (- (point) 3))))) (goto-char end)))))) #+end_src ** Structure Movement and Editing *** Go back to the previous top-level heading #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (defun org-back-to-top-level-heading () "Go back to the current top level heading." (interactive) (or (re-search-backward "^\* " nil t) (goto-char (point-min)))) #+END_SRC *** Go to a child of the current heading #+index: Navigation!Heading - [[][Christoph Lange]] =org-jump-to-child= in [[file:code/elisp/org-jump.el::(defun%20org-jump-to-child][org-jump.el]] (keybinding suggested there: =C-c o c=) interactively prompts for the title of a child node, i.e. sub-heading, of the current heading and jumps to the child node having that title (in case of ambiguity: the /last/ such node). In the absence of a readily accessible structural representation of the tree outline, this is ipmlemented by walking over all child nodes and collecting their titles and their positions in the file. *** Go to a heading by its ID (=CUSTOM_ID= property) #+index: Navigation!Heading - [[][Christoph Lange]] =org-jump-to-id= in [[file:code/elisp/org-jump.el::(defun%20org-jump-to-id][org-jump.el]] (keybinding suggested there: =C-c o j=) interactively prompts for the one of the =CUSTOM_ID= property values in the current document and jumps to the [first] node that has this ID. This implementation works efficiently in a 5 MB org file with 100 IDs. Together with ido or helm I find it a very user-friendly way of jumping to frequently used headings. I noticed that =org-babel-ref-goto-headline-id= does something similar, so maybe some code could be shared among the two functions. *** Show next/prev heading tidily #+index: Navigation!Heading - Dan Davison These close the current heading and open the next/previous heading. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun ded/org-show-next-heading-tidily () "Show next entry, keeping other entries closed." (if (save-excursion (end-of-line) (outline-invisible-p)) (progn (org-show-entry) (show-children)) (outline-next-heading) (unless (and (bolp) (org-on-heading-p)) (org-up-heading-safe) (hide-subtree) (error "Boundary reached")) (org-overview) (org-reveal t) (org-show-entry) (show-children))) (defun ded/org-show-previous-heading-tidily () "Show previous entry, keeping other entries closed." (let ((pos (point))) (outline-previous-heading) (unless (and (< (point) pos) (bolp) (org-on-heading-p)) (goto-char pos) (hide-subtree) (error "Boundary reached")) (org-overview) (org-reveal t) (org-show-entry) (show-children))) (setq org-use-speed-commands t) (add-to-list 'org-speed-commands-user '("n" ded/org-show-next-heading-tidily)) (add-to-list 'org-speed-commands-user '("p" ded/org-show-previous-heading-tidily)) #+end_src *** Promote all items in subtree #+index: Structure Editing!Promote - Matt Lundin This function will promote all items in a subtree. Since I use subtrees primarily to organize projects, the function is somewhat unimaginatively called my-org-un-project: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun my-org-un-project () (interactive) (org-map-entries 'org-do-promote "LEVEL>1" 'tree) (org-cycle t)) #+end_src *** Turn a heading into an Org link :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: heading-to-link :END: #+index: Structure Editing!Heading #+index: Link!Turn a heading into a From David Maus: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun dmj:turn-headline-into-org-mode-link () "Replace word at point by an Org mode link." (interactive) (when (org-at-heading-p) (let ((hl-text (nth 4 (org-heading-components)))) (unless (or (null hl-text) (org-string-match-p "^[ \t]*:[^:]+:$" hl-text)) (beginning-of-line) (search-forward hl-text (point-at-eol)) (replace-string hl-text (format "[[][%s]]" (org-link-escape hl-text) (org-link-escape hl-text '((?\] . "%5D") (?\[ . "%5B")))) nil (- (point) (length hl-text)) (point)))))) #+end_src *** Using M-up and M-down to transpose paragraphs #+index: Structure Editing!paragraphs From Paul Sexton: By default, if used within ordinary paragraphs in org mode, =M-up= and =M-down= transpose *lines* (not sentences). The following code makes these keys transpose paragraphs, keeping the point at the start of the moved paragraph. Behavior in tables and headings is unaffected. It would be easy to modify this to transpose sentences. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun org-transpose-paragraphs (arg) (interactive) (when (and (not (or (org-at-table-p) (org-on-heading-p) (org-at-item-p))) (thing-at-point 'sentence)) (transpose-paragraphs arg) (backward-paragraph) (re-search-forward "[[:graph:]]") (goto-char (match-beginning 0)) t)) (add-to-list 'org-metaup-hook (lambda () (interactive) (org-transpose-paragraphs -1))) (add-to-list 'org-metadown-hook (lambda () (interactive) (org-transpose-paragraphs 1))) #+end_src *** Changelog support for org headers #+index: Structure Editing!Heading -- James TD Smith Put the following in your =.emacs=, and =C-x 4 a= and other functions which use =add-log-current-defun= like =magit-add-log= will pick up the nearest org headline as the "current function" if you add a changelog entry from an org buffer. #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (defun org-log-current-defun () (save-excursion (org-back-to-heading) (if (looking-at org-complex-heading-regexp) (match-string 4)))) (add-hook 'org-mode-hook (lambda () (make-variable-buffer-local 'add-log-current-defun-function) (setq add-log-current-defun-function 'org-log-current-defun))) #+END_SRC *** Different org-cycle-level behavior #+index: Cycling!behavior -- Ryan Thompson In recent org versions, when your point (cursor) is at the end of an empty header line (like after you first created the header), the TAB key (=org-cycle=) has a special behavior: it cycles the headline through all possible levels. However, I did not like the way it determined "all possible levels," so I rewrote the whole function, along with a couple of supporting functions. The original function's definition of "all possible levels" was "every level from 1 to one more than the initial level of the current headline before you started cycling." My new definition is "every level from 1 to one more than the previous headline's level." So, if you have a headline at level 4 and you use ALT+RET to make a new headline below it, it will cycle between levels 1 and 5, inclusive. The main advantage of my custom =org-cycle-level= function is that it is stateless: the next level in the cycle is determined entirely by the contents of the buffer, and not what command you executed last. This makes it more predictable, I hope. #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (require 'cl) (defun org-point-at-end-of-empty-headline () "If point is at the end of an empty headline, return t, else nil." (and (looking-at "[ \t]*$") (save-excursion (beginning-of-line 1) (looking-at (concat "^\\(\\*+\\)[ \t]+\\(" org-todo-regexp "\\)?[ \t]*"))))) (defun org-level-increment () "Return the number of stars that will be added or removed at a time to headlines when structure editing, based on the value of `org-odd-levels-only'." (if org-odd-levels-only 2 1)) (defvar org-previous-line-level-cached nil) (defun org-recalculate-previous-line-level () "Same as `org-get-previous-line-level', but does not use cached value. It does *set* the cached value, though." (set 'org-previous-line-level-cached (let ((current-level (org-current-level)) (prev-level (when (> (line-number-at-pos) 1) (save-excursion (previous-line) (org-current-level))))) (cond ((null current-level) nil) ; Before first headline ((null prev-level) 0) ; At first headline (prev-level))))) (defun org-get-previous-line-level () "Return the outline depth of the last headline before the current line. Returns 0 for the first headline in the buffer, and nil if before the first headline." ;; This calculation is quite expensive, with all the regex searching ;; and stuff. Since org-cycle-level won't change lines, we can reuse ;; the last value of this command. (or (and (eq last-command 'org-cycle-level) org-previous-line-level-cached) (org-recalculate-previous-line-level))) (defun org-cycle-level () (interactive) (let ((org-adapt-indentation nil)) (when (org-point-at-end-of-empty-headline) (setq this-command 'org-cycle-level) ;Only needed for caching (let ((cur-level (org-current-level)) (prev-level (org-get-previous-line-level))) (cond ;; If first headline in file, promote to top-level. ((= prev-level 0) (loop repeat (/ (- cur-level 1) (org-level-increment)) do (org-do-promote))) ;; If same level as prev, demote one. ((= prev-level cur-level) (org-do-demote)) ;; If parent is top-level, promote to top level if not already. ((= prev-level 1) (loop repeat (/ (- cur-level 1) (org-level-increment)) do (org-do-promote))) ;; If top-level, return to prev-level. ((= cur-level 1) (loop repeat (/ (- prev-level 1) (org-level-increment)) do (org-do-demote))) ;; If less than prev-level, promote one. ((< cur-level prev-level) (org-do-promote)) ;; If deeper than prev-level, promote until higher than ;; prev-level. ((> cur-level prev-level) (loop repeat (+ 1 (/ (- cur-level prev-level) (org-level-increment))) do (org-do-promote)))) t)))) #+END_SRC *** Count words in an Org buffer # FIXME: Does not fit too well under Structure. Any idea where to put it? Paul Sexton [[][posted]] this function to count words in an Org buffer: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun org-word-count (beg end &optional count-latex-macro-args? count-footnotes?) "Report the number of words in the Org mode buffer or selected region. Ignores: - comments - tables - source code blocks (#+BEGIN_SRC ... #+END_SRC, and inline blocks) - hyperlinks (but does count words in hyperlink descriptions) - tags, priorities, and TODO keywords in headers - sections tagged as 'not for export'. The text of footnote definitions is ignored, unless the optional argument COUNT-FOOTNOTES? is non-nil. If the optional argument COUNT-LATEX-MACRO-ARGS? is non-nil, the word count includes LaTeX macro arguments (the material between {curly braces}). Otherwise, and by default, every LaTeX macro counts as 1 word regardless of its arguments." (interactive "r") (unless mark-active (setf beg (point-min) end (point-max))) (let ((wc 0) (latex-macro-regexp "\\\\[A-Za-z]+\\(\\[[^]]*\\]\\|\\){\\([^}]*\\)}")) (save-excursion (goto-char beg) (while (< (point) end) (cond ;; Ignore comments. ((or (org-in-commented-line) (org-at-table-p)) nil) ;; Ignore hyperlinks. But if link has a description, count ;; the words within the description. ((looking-at org-bracket-link-analytic-regexp) (when (match-string-no-properties 5) (let ((desc (match-string-no-properties 5))) (save-match-data (incf wc (length (remove "" (org-split-string desc "\\W"))))))) (goto-char (match-end 0))) ((looking-at org-any-link-re) (goto-char (match-end 0))) ;; Ignore source code blocks. ((org-in-regexps-block-p "^#\\+BEGIN_SRC\\W" "^#\\+END_SRC\\W") nil) ;; Ignore inline source blocks, counting them as 1 word. ((save-excursion (backward-char) (looking-at org-babel-inline-src-block-regexp)) (goto-char (match-end 0)) (setf wc (+ 2 wc))) ;; Count latex macros as 1 word, ignoring their arguments. ((save-excursion (backward-char) (looking-at latex-macro-regexp)) (goto-char (if count-latex-macro-args? (match-beginning 2) (match-end 0))) (setf wc (+ 2 wc))) ;; Ignore footnotes. ((and (not count-footnotes?) (or (org-footnote-at-definition-p) (org-footnote-at-reference-p))) nil) (t (let ((contexts (org-context))) (cond ;; Ignore tags and TODO keywords, etc. ((or (assoc :todo-keyword contexts) (assoc :priority contexts) (assoc :keyword contexts) (assoc :checkbox contexts)) nil) ;; Ignore sections marked with tags that are ;; excluded from export. ((assoc :tags contexts) (if (intersection (org-get-tags-at) org-export-exclude-tags :test 'equal) (org-forward-same-level 1) nil)) (t (incf wc)))))) (re-search-forward "\\w+\\W*"))) (message (format "%d words in %s." wc (if mark-active "region" "buffer"))))) #+end_src *** Check for misplaced SCHEDULED and DEADLINE cookies The =SCHEDULED= and =DEADLINE= cookies should be used on the line *right below* the headline -- like this: #+begin_src org ,* A headline SCHEDULED: <2012-04-09 lun.> #+end_src This is what =org-scheduled= and =org-deadline= (and other similar commands) do. And the manual explicitely tell people to stick to this format (see the section "8.3.1 Inserting deadlines or schedules"). If you think you might have subtrees with misplaced =SCHEDULED= and =DEADLINE= cookies, this command lets you check the current buffer: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun org-check-misformatted-subtree () "Check misformatted entries in the current buffer." (interactive) (show-all) (org-map-entries (lambda () (when (and (move-beginning-of-line 2) (not (looking-at org-heading-regexp))) (if (or (and (org-get-scheduled-time (point)) (not (looking-at (concat "^.*" org-scheduled-regexp)))) (and (org-get-deadline-time (point)) (not (looking-at (concat "^.*" org-deadline-regexp))))) (when (y-or-n-p "Fix this subtree? ") (message "Call the function again when you're done fixing this subtree.") (recursive-edit)) (message "All subtrees checked.")))))) #+end_src *** Sorting list by checkbox type #+index: checkbox!sorting You can use a custom function to sort list by checkbox type. Here is a function suggested by Carsten: #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (defun org-sort-list-by-checkbox-type () "Sort list items according to Checkbox state." (interactive) (org-sort-list nil ?f (lambda () (if (looking-at org-list-full-item-re) (cdr (assoc (match-string 3) '(("[X]" . 1) ("[-]" . 2) ("[ ]" . 3) (nil . 4)))) 4)))) #+END_SRC Use the function above directly on the list. If you want to use an equivalent function after =C-c ^ f=, use this one instead: #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (defun org-sort-list-by-checkbox-type-1 () (lambda () (if (looking-at org-list-full-item-re) (cdr (assoc (match-string 3) '(("[X]" . 1) ("[-]" . 2) ("[ ]" . 3) (nil . 4)))) 4))) #+END_SRC *** Adding Licenses to org files You can add pretty standard licenses, such as creative commons or gfdl to org articles using =org-license.el=. ** Org Table :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: Tables :END: *** Align all tables in a file Andrew Young provided this function in [[][this thread]]: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun my-align-all-tables () (interactive) (org-table-map-tables 'org-table-align 'quietly)) #+end_src *** Transpose table :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: transpose-table :END: #+index: Table!Calculation Since Org 7.8, you can use =org-table-transpose-table-at-point= (which see.) There are also other solutions: - with org-babel and Emacs Lisp: provided by Thomas S. Dye in the mailing list, see [[][gmane]] or [[][gnu]] - with org-babel and R: provided by Dan Davison in the mailing list (old =#+TBLR:= syntax), see [[][gmane]] or [[][gnu]] - with field coordinates in formulas (=@#= and =$#=): see [[#field-coordinates-in-formulas-transpose-table][Worg]]. *** Manipulate hours/minutes/seconds in table formulas #+index: Table!hours-minutes-seconds Both Bastien and Martin Halder have posted code ([[][Bastien's code]] and [[][Martin's code]]) for interpreting =dd:dd= or =dd:dd:dd= strings (where "=d=" is any digit) as time values in Org-mode table formula. These functions have now been wrapped up into a =with-time= macro which can be used in table formula to translate table cell values to and from numerical values for algebraic manipulation. Here is the code implementing this macro. #+begin_src emacs-lisp :results silent (defun org-time-string-to-seconds (s) "Convert a string HH:MM:SS to a number of seconds." (cond ((and (stringp s) (string-match "\\([0-9]+\\):\\([0-9]+\\):\\([0-9]+\\)" s)) (let ((hour (string-to-number (match-string 1 s))) (min (string-to-number (match-string 2 s))) (sec (string-to-number (match-string 3 s)))) (+ (* hour 3600) (* min 60) sec))) ((and (stringp s) (string-match "\\([0-9]+\\):\\([0-9]+\\)" s)) (let ((min (string-to-number (match-string 1 s))) (sec (string-to-number (match-string 2 s)))) (+ (* min 60) sec))) ((stringp s) (string-to-number s)) (t s))) (defun org-time-seconds-to-string (secs) "Convert a number of seconds to a time string." (cond ((>= secs 3600) (format-seconds "%h:%.2m:%.2s" secs)) ((>= secs 60) (format-seconds "%m:%.2s" secs)) (t (format-seconds "%s" secs)))) (defmacro with-time (time-output-p &rest exprs) "Evaluate an org-table formula, converting all fields that look like time data to integer seconds. If TIME-OUTPUT-P then return the result as a time value." (list (if time-output-p 'org-time-seconds-to-string 'identity) (cons 'progn (mapcar (lambda (expr) `,(cons (car expr) (mapcar (lambda (el) (if (listp el) (list 'with-time nil el) (org-time-string-to-seconds el))) (cdr expr)))) `,@exprs)))) #+end_src Which allows the following forms of table manipulation such as adding and subtracting time values. : | Date | Start | Lunch | Back | End | Sum | : |------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+------| : | [2011-03-01 Tue] | 8:00 | 12:00 | 12:30 | 18:15 | 9:45 | : #+TBLFM: $6='(with-time t (+ (- $5 $4) (- $3 $2))) and dividing time values by integers : | time | miles | minutes/mile | : |-------+-------+--------------| : | 34:43 | 2.9 | 11:58 | : | 32:15 | 2.77 | 11:38 | : | 33:56 | 3.0 | 11:18 | : | 52:22 | 4.62 | 11:20 | : #+TBLFM: $3='(with-time t (/ $1 $2)) *Update*: As of Org version 7.6, you can use the =T= flag (both in Calc and Elisp formulas) to compute time durations. For example: : | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total | : |--------+--------+---------| : | 35:00 | 35:00 | 1:10:00 | : #+TBLFM: @2$3=$1+$2;T *** Dates computation #+index: Table!dates Xin Shi [[][asked]] for a way to calculate the duration of dates stored in an org table. Nick Dokos [[][suggested]]: Try the following: : | Start Date | End Date | Duration | : |------------+------------+----------| : | 2004.08.07 | 2005.07.08 | 335 | : #+TBLFM: $3=(date(<$2>)-date(<$1>)) See [[][this thread]] as well as [[][this post]] (which is really a followup on the above). The problem that this last article pointed out was solved in [[][this post]] and Chris Randle's original musings are [[][here]]. *** Hex computation #+index: Table!Calculation As with Times computation, the following code allows Computation with Hex values in Org-mode tables using the =with-hex= macro. Here is the code implementing this macro. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun org-hex-strip-lead (str) (if (and (> (length str) 2) (string= (substring str 0 2) "0x")) (substring str 2) str)) (defun org-hex-to-hex (int) (format "0x%x" int)) (defun org-hex-to-dec (str) (cond ((and (stringp str) (string-match "\\([0-9a-f]+\\)" (setf str (org-hex-strip-lead str)))) (let ((out 0)) (mapc (lambda (ch) (setf out (+ (* out 16) (if (and (>= ch 48) (<= ch 57)) (- ch 48) (- ch 87))))) (coerce (match-string 1 str) 'list)) out)) ((stringp str) (string-to-number str)) (t str))) (defmacro with-hex (hex-output-p &rest exprs) "Evaluate an org-table formula, converting all fields that look like hexadecimal to decimal integers. If HEX-OUTPUT-P then return the result as a hex value." (list (if hex-output-p 'org-hex-to-hex 'identity) (cons 'progn (mapcar (lambda (expr) `,(cons (car expr) (mapcar (lambda (el) (if (listp el) (list 'with-hex nil el) (org-hex-to-dec el))) (cdr expr)))) `,@exprs)))) #+end_src Which allows the following forms of table manipulation such as adding and subtracting hex values. | 0x10 | 0x0 | #ERROR | #ERROR | | 0x20 | 0x1 | #ERROR | #ERROR | | 0x30 | 0x2 | #ERROR | #ERROR | | 0xf0 | 0xf | #ERROR | #ERROR | #+TBLFM: $3='(with-hex 'hex (+ $2 $1))::$4='(with-hex nil (identity $3)) *** Field coordinates in formulas (=@#= and =$#=) :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: field-coordinates-in-formulas :END: #+index: Table!Field Coordinates -- Michael Brand Following are some use cases that can be implemented with the “field coordinates in formulas” described in the corresponding chapter in the [[][Org manual]]. **** Copy a column from a remote table into a column :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: field-coordinates-in-formulas-copy-col-to-col :END: current column =$3= = remote column =$2=: : #+TBLFM: $3 = remote(FOO, @@#$2) **** Copy a row from a remote table transposed into a column :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: field-coordinates-in-formulas-copy-row-to-col :END: current column =$1= = transposed remote row =@1=: : #+TBLFM: $1 = remote(FOO, @$#$@#) **** Transpose table :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: field-coordinates-in-formulas-transpose-table :END: -- Michael Brand This is more like a demonstration of using “field coordinates in formulas” and is bound to be slow for large tables. See the discussion in the mailing list on [[][gmane]] or [[][gnu]]. For more efficient solutions see [[#transpose-table][Worg]]. To transpose this 4x7 table : #+TBLNAME: FOO : | year | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | : |------+------+------+------+------+------+------| : | min | 401 | 501 | 601 | 701 | 801 | 901 | : | avg | 402 | 502 | 602 | 702 | 802 | 902 | : | max | 403 | 503 | 603 | 703 | 803 | 903 | start with a 7x4 table without any horizontal line (to have filled also the column header) and yet empty: : | | | | | : | | | | | : | | | | | : | | | | | : | | | | | : | | | | | : | | | | | Then add the =TBLFM= line below. After recalculation this will end up with the transposed copy: : | year | min | avg | max | : | 2004 | 401 | 402 | 403 | : | 2005 | 501 | 502 | 503 | : | 2006 | 601 | 602 | 603 | : | 2007 | 701 | 702 | 703 | : | 2008 | 801 | 802 | 803 | : | 2009 | 901 | 902 | 903 | : #+TBLFM: @<$<..@>$> = remote(FOO, @$#$@#) The formula simply exchanges row and column numbers by taking - the absolute remote row number =@$#= from the current column number =$#= - the absolute remote column number =$@#= from the current row number =@#= Formulas to be taken over from the remote table will have to be transformed manually. **** Dynamic variation of ranges -- Michael Brand In this example all columns next to =quote= are calculated from the column =quote= and show the average change of the time series =quote[year]= during the period of the preceding =1=, =2=, =3= or =4= years: : | year | quote | 1 a | 2 a | 3 a | 4 a | : |------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------| : | 2005 | 10 | | | | | : | 2006 | 12 | 0.200 | | | | : | 2007 | 14 | 0.167 | 0.183 | | | : | 2008 | 16 | 0.143 | 0.155 | 0.170 | | : | 2009 | 18 | 0.125 | 0.134 | 0.145 | 0.158 | : #+TBLFM: @I$3..@>$>=if(@# >= $#, ($2 / subscr(@-I$2..@+I$2, @# + 1 - $#)) ^ (1 / ($# - 2)) - 1, string("")) +.0; f-3 The important part of the formula without the field blanking is: : ($2 / subscr(@-I$2..@+I$2, @# + 1 - $#)) ^ (1 / ($# - 2)) - 1 which is the Emacs Calc implementation of the equation /AvgChange(i, a) = (quote[i] / quote[i - a]) ^ (1 / a) - 1/ where /i/ is the current time and /a/ is the length of the preceding period. *** Rearrange one or more field within the same row or column :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: field-same-row-or-column :END: #+index: Table!Editing -- Michael Brand **** Rearrange the column sequence in one row only :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: column-sequence-in-row :END: #+index: Table!Editing The functions below can be used to change the column sequence in one row only, without affecting the other rows above and below like with =M-= or =M-= (=org-table-move-column=). See also the docstring of the functions for more explanations. The original table that serves as the starting point for the examples: : | a | b | c | d | : | e | 9 | 10 | 11 | : | f | g | h | i | ***** Move current field in row ****** Left 1) place point at "10" in original table 2) =M-x f-org-table-move-field-in-row-left= 3) point is at moved "10" : | a | b | c | d | : | e | 10 | 9 | 11 | : | f | g | h | i | ****** Right 1) place point at "9" in original table 2) =M-x f-org-table-move-field-in-row-right= 3) point is at moved "9" : | a | b | c | d | : | e | 10 | 9 | 11 | : | f | g | h | i | ***** Rotate rest of row (range from current field to end of row) ****** Left 1) place point at @2$2 in original table 2) =M-x f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-row-left= 3) point is still at @2$2 : | a | b | c | d | : | e | 10 | 11 | 9 | : | f | g | h | i | ****** Right 1) place point at @2$2 in original table 2) =M-x f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-row-right= 3) point is still at @2$2 : | a | b | c | d | : | e | 11 | 9 | 10 | : | f | g | h | i | ***** Open field in row (table size grows) This is just for completeness, interactively the same as typing =| S-TAB=. 1) place point at @2$2 in original table 2) =M-x f-org-table-open-field-in-row-grow= 3) point is still at @2$2 : | a | b | c | d | | : | e | | 9 | 10 | 11 | : | f | g | h | i | | **** Rearrange the row sequence in one column only :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: row-sequence-in-column :END: #+index: Table!Editing The functions below can be used to change the column sequence in one column only, without affecting the other columns left and right like with =M-= or =M-= (=org-table-move-row=). See also the docstring of the functions for more explanations. The original table that serves as the starting point for the examples: : | a | b | c | : |---+----+---| : | d | 9 | e | : | f | 10 | g | : |---+----+---| : | h | 11 | i | ***** Move current field in column ****** Up 1) place point at "10" in original table 2) =M-x f-org-table-move-field-in-column-up= 3) point is at moved "10" : | a | b | c | : |---+----+---| : | d | 10 | e | : | f | 9 | g | : |---+----+---| : | h | 11 | i | ****** Down 1) place point at "9" in original table 2) =M-x f-org-table-move-field-in-column-down= 3) point is at moved "9" : | a | b | c | : |---+----+---| : | d | 10 | e | : | f | 9 | g | : |---+----+---| : | h | 11 | i | ***** Rotate rest of column (range from current field to end of column) ****** Up 1) place point at @2$2 in original table 2) =M-x f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-column-up= 3) point is still at @2$2 : | a | b | c | : |---+----+---| : | d | 10 | e | : | f | 11 | g | : |---+----+---| : | h | 9 | i | ****** Down 1) place point at @2$2 in original table 2) =M-x f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-column-down= 3) point is still at @2$2 : | a | b | c | : |---+----+---| : | d | 11 | e | : | f | 9 | g | : |---+----+---| : | h | 10 | i | ***** Open field in column (table size grows) 1) place point at @2$2 in original table 2) =M-x f-org-table-open-field-in-column-grow= 3) point is still at @2$2 : | a | b | c | : |---+----+---| : | d | | e | : | f | 9 | g | : |---+----+---| : | h | 10 | i | : | | 11 | | **** Key bindings for some of the functions I have this in an Org buffer to change temporarily to the desired behavior with =C-c C-c= on one of the three code snippets: : - move in row: : #+begin_src emacs-lisp :results silent : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(meta left)] : 'f-org-table-move-field-in-row-left) : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(meta right)] : 'f-org-table-move-field-in-row-right) : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(left)] 'org-table-previous-field) : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(right)] 'org-table-next-field) : #+end_src : : - rotate in row: : #+begin_src emacs-lisp :results silent : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(meta left)] : 'f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-row-left) : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(meta right)] : 'f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-row-right) : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(left)] 'org-table-previous-field) : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(right)] 'org-table-next-field) : #+end_src : : - back to original: : #+begin_src emacs-lisp :results silent : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(meta left)] 'org-metaleft) : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(meta right)] 'org-metaright) : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(left)] 'backward-char) : (org-defkey org-mode-map [(right)] 'forward-char) : #+end_src **** Implementation The functions : f-org-table-move-field-in-column-up : f-org-table-move-field-in-column-down : f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-column-up : f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-column-down are not yet implemented. They could be done similar to =f-org-table-open-field-in-column-grow=. A workaround without keeping horizontal separator lines is to interactively or programmatically simply: 1) Transpose the table, see [[#transpose-table][Org hacks]]. 2) Use =f-org-table-*-column-in-row-*=, see [[][previous section]]. 3) Transpose the table. The other functions: #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (defun f-org-table-move-field-in-row-left () "Move current field in row to the left." (interactive) (f-org-table-move-field-in-row 'left)) (defun f-org-table-move-field-in-row-right () "Move current field in row to the right." (interactive) (f-org-table-move-field-in-row nil)) (defun f-org-table-move-field-in-row (&optional left) "Move current field in row to the right. With arg LEFT, move to the left. For repeated invocation the point follows the moved field. Does not fix formulas." ;; Derived from `org-table-move-column' (interactive "P") (if (not (org-at-table-p)) (error "Not at a table")) (org-table-find-dataline) (org-table-check-inside-data-field) (let* ((col (org-table-current-column)) (col1 (if left (1- col) col)) ;; Current cursor position (colpos (if left (1- col) (1+ col)))) (if (and left (= col 1)) (error "Cannot move column further left")) (if (and (not left) (looking-at "[^|\n]*|[^|\n]*$")) (error "Cannot move column further right")) (org-table-goto-column col1 t) (and (looking-at "|\\([^|\n]+\\)|\\([^|\n]+\\)|") (replace-match "|\\2|\\1|")) (org-table-goto-column colpos) (org-table-align))) (defun f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-row-left () "Rotate rest of row to the left." (interactive) (f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-row 'left)) (defun f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-row-right () "Rotate rest of row to the right." (interactive) (f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-row nil)) (defun f-org-table-rotate-rest-of-row (&optional left) "Rotate rest of row to the right. With arg LEFT, rotate to the left. For both directions the boundaries of the rotation range are the current field and the field at the end of the row. For repeated invocation the point stays on the original current field. Does not fix formulas." ;; Derived from `org-table-move-column' (interactive "P") (if (not (org-at-table-p)) (error "Not at a table")) (org-table-find-dataline) (org-table-check-inside-data-field) (let ((col (org-table-current-column))) (org-table-goto-column col t) (and (looking-at (if left "|\\([^|\n]+\\)|\\([^\n]+\\)|$" "|\\([^\n]+\\)|\\([^|\n]+\\)|$")) (replace-match "|\\2|\\1|")) (org-table-goto-column col) (org-table-align))) (defun f-org-table-open-field-in-row-grow () "Open field in row, move fields to the right by growing table." (interactive) (insert "|") (backward-char) (org-table-align)) (defun f-org-table-open-field-in-column-grow () "Open field in column, move all fields downwards by growing table." (interactive) (let ((col (org-table-current-column)) (p (point))) ;; Cut all fields downwards in same column (goto-char (org-table-end)) (forward-line -1) (while (org-at-table-hline-p) (forward-line -1)) (org-table-goto-column col) (org-table-cut-region p (point)) ;; Paste at one field below (goto-char p) (forward-line) (org-table-goto-column col) (org-table-paste-rectangle) (goto-char p) (org-table-align))) #+END_SRC **** Reasons why this is not put into the Org core I consider this as only a hack for several reasons: - Generalization: The existing function =org-table-move-column= could be enhanced with additional optional parameters to incorporate these functionalities and could be used as the only function for better maintainability. Now it's only a copy/paste hack of several similar functions with simple modifications. - Bindings: Should be convenient for repetition like =M-=. What should be bound where, what has to be left unbound? - Does not fix formulas. Could be resolved for field formulas but most probably not for column or range formulas and this can lead to confusion. AFAIK all table manipulations found in Org core fix formulas. - Completeness: Not all variations and combinations are covered yet - move, rotate with range to end, rotate with range to begin, rotate all - left-right, up-down ** Capture and Remember *** Customize the size of the frame for remember #+index: Remember!frame #+index: Customization!remember (Note: this hack is likely out of date due to the development of =org-capture=.) # FIXME: gmane link? On emacs-orgmode, Ryan C. Thompson suggested this: #+begin_quote I am using org-remember set to open a new frame when used, and the default frame size is much too large. To fix this, I have designed some advice and a custom variable to implement custom parameters for the remember frame: #+end_quote #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defcustom remember-frame-alist nil "Additional frame parameters for dedicated remember frame." :type 'alist :group 'remember) (defadvice remember (around remember-frame-parameters activate) "Set some frame parameters for the remember frame." (let ((default-frame-alist (append remember-frame-alist default-frame-alist))) ad-do-it)) #+end_src Setting remember-frame-alist to =((width . 80) (height . 15)))= give a reasonable size for the frame. ** Handling Links *** [[#heading-to-link][Turn a heading into an org link]] *** Quickaccess to the link part of hyperlinks #+index: Link!Referent Christian Moe [[][asked]], if there is a simpler way to copy the link part of an org hyperling other than to use `C-c C-l C-a C-k C-g', which is indeed kind of cumbersome. The thread offered [[][two ways]]: Using a [[][keyboard macro]]: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (fset 'getlink (lambda (&optional arg) "Keyboard macro." (interactive "p") (kmacro-exec-ring-item (quote ("\C-c\C-l\C-a\C-k\C-g" 0 "%d")) arg))) #+end_src or a function: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun my-org-extract-link () "Extract the link location at point and put it on the killring." (interactive) (when (org-in-regexp org-bracket-link-regexp 1) (kill-new (org-link-unescape (org-match-string-no-properties 1))))) #+end_src They put the link destination on the killring and can be easily bound to a key. *** Insert link with HTML title as default description When using `org-insert-link' (`C-c C-l') it might be useful to extract contents from HTML ") (setq x2 (search-backward "<")) (mm-url-decode-entities-string (buffer-substring-no-properties x1 x2))))) #+end_src Then just use `M-x my-org-insert-link' instead of `org-insert-link'. ** Archiving Content in Org-Mode *** Preserve top level headings when archiving to a file #+index: Archiving!Preserve top level headings - Matt Lundin To preserve (somewhat) the integrity of your archive structure while archiving lower level items to a file, you can use the following defadvice: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defadvice org-archive-subtree (around my-org-archive-subtree activate) (let ((org-archive-location (if (save-excursion (org-back-to-heading) (> (org-outline-level) 1)) (concat (car (split-string org-archive-location "::")) "::* " (car (org-get-outline-path))) org-archive-location))) ad-do-it)) #+end_src Thus, if you have an outline structure such as... #+begin_src org ,* Heading ,** Subheading ,*** Subsubheading #+end_src ...archiving "Subsubheading" to a new file will set the location in the new file to the top level heading: #+begin_src org ,* Heading ,** Subsubheading #+end_src While this hack obviously destroys the outline hierarchy somewhat, it at least preserves the logic of level one groupings. A slightly more complex version of this hack will not only keep the archive organized by top-level headings, but will also preserve the tags found on those headings: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun my-org-inherited-no-file-tags () (let ((tags (org-entry-get nil "ALLTAGS" 'selective)) (ltags (org-entry-get nil "TAGS"))) (mapc (lambda (tag) (setq tags (replace-regexp-in-string (concat tag ":") "" tags))) (append org-file-tags (when ltags (split-string ltags ":" t)))) (if (string= ":" tags) nil tags))) (defadvice org-archive-subtree (around my-org-archive-subtree-low-level activate) (let ((tags (my-org-inherited-no-file-tags)) (org-archive-location (if (save-excursion (org-back-to-heading) (> (org-outline-level) 1)) (concat (car (split-string org-archive-location "::")) "::* " (car (org-get-outline-path))) org-archive-location))) ad-do-it (with-current-buffer (find-file-noselect (org-extract-archive-file)) (save-excursion (while (org-up-heading-safe)) (org-set-tags-to tags))))) #+end_src *** Archive in a date tree #+index: Archiving!date tree Posted to Org-mode mailing list by Osamu Okano [2010-04-21 Wed]. (Make sure org-datetree.el is loaded for this to work.) #+begin_src emacs-lisp ;; (setq org-archive-location "%s_archive::date-tree") (defadvice org-archive-subtree (around org-archive-subtree-to-data-tree activate) "org-archive-subtree to date-tree" (if (string= "date-tree" (org-extract-archive-heading (org-get-local-archive-location))) (let* ((dct (decode-time (org-current-time))) (y (nth 5 dct)) (m (nth 4 dct)) (d (nth 3 dct)) (this-buffer (current-buffer)) (location (org-get-local-archive-location)) (afile (org-extract-archive-file location)) (org-archive-location (format "%s::*** %04d-%02d-%02d %s" afile y m d (format-time-string "%A" (encode-time 0 0 0 d m y))))) (message "afile=%s" afile) (unless afile (error "Invalid `org-archive-location'")) (save-excursion (switch-to-buffer (find-file-noselect afile)) (org-datetree-find-year-create y) (org-datetree-find-month-create y m) (org-datetree-find-day-create y m d) (widen) (switch-to-buffer this-buffer)) ad-do-it) ad-do-it)) #+end_src *** Add inherited tags to archived entries #+index: Archiving!Add inherited tags To make =org-archive-subtree= keep inherited tags, Osamu OKANO suggests to advise the function like this: #+begin_example (defadvice org-archive-subtree (before add-inherited-tags-before-org-archive-subtree activate) "add inherited tags before org-archive-subtree" (org-set-tags-to (org-get-tags-at))) #+end_example ** Using and Managing Org-Metadata *** Remove redundant tags of headlines #+index: Tag!Remove redundant -- David Maus A small function that processes all headlines in current buffer and removes tags that are local to a headline and inherited by a parent headline or the #+FILETAGS: statement. #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (defun dmj/org-remove-redundant-tags () "Remove redundant tags of headlines in current buffer. A tag is considered redundant if it is local to a headline and inherited by a parent headline." (interactive) (when (eq major-mode 'org-mode) (save-excursion (org-map-entries (lambda () (let ((alltags (split-string (or (org-entry-get (point) "ALLTAGS") "") ":")) local inherited tag) (dolist (tag alltags) (if (get-text-property 0 'inherited tag) (push tag inherited) (push tag local))) (dolist (tag local) (if (member tag inherited) (org-toggle-tag tag 'off))))) t nil)))) #+END_SRC *** Remove empty property drawers #+index: Drawer!Empty David Maus proposed this: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun dmj:org:remove-empty-propert-drawers () "*Remove all empty property drawers in current file." (interactive) (unless (eq major-mode 'org-mode) (error "You need to turn on Org mode for this function.")) (save-excursion (goto-char (point-min)) (while (re-search-forward ":PROPERTIES:" nil t) (save-excursion (org-remove-empty-drawer-at "PROPERTIES" (match-beginning 0)))))) #+end_src *** Group task list by a property #+index: Agenda!Group task list This advice allows you to group a task list in Org-Mode. To use it, set the variable =org-agenda-group-by-property= to the name of a property in the option list for a TODO or TAGS search. The resulting agenda view will group tasks by that property prior to searching. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defvar org-agenda-group-by-property nil "Set this in org-mode agenda views to group tasks by property") (defun org-group-bucket-items (prop items) (let ((buckets ())) (dolist (item items) (let* ((marker (get-text-property 0 'org-marker item)) (pvalue (org-entry-get marker prop t)) (cell (assoc pvalue buckets))) (if cell (setcdr cell (cons item (cdr cell))) (setq buckets (cons (cons pvalue (list item)) buckets))))) (setq buckets (mapcar (lambda (bucket) (cons (car bucket) (reverse (cdr bucket)))) buckets)) (sort buckets (lambda (i1 i2) (string< (car i1) (car i2)))))) (defadvice org-finalize-agenda-entries (around org-group-agenda-finalize (list &optional nosort)) "Prepare bucketed agenda entry lists" (if org-agenda-group-by-property ;; bucketed, handle appropriately (let ((text "")) (dolist (bucket (org-group-bucket-items org-agenda-group-by-property list)) (let ((header (concat "Property " org-agenda-group-by-property " is " (or (car bucket) "") ":\n"))) (add-text-properties 0 (1- (length header)) (list 'face 'org-agenda-structure) header) (setq text (concat text header ;; recursively process (let ((org-agenda-group-by-property nil)) (org-finalize-agenda-entries (cdr bucket) nosort)) "\n\n")))) (setq ad-return-value text)) ad-do-it)) (ad-activate 'org-finalize-agenda-entries) #+end_src *** A way to tag a task so that when clocking-out user is prompted to take a note. #+index: Tag!Clock #+index: Clock!Tag Thanks to Richard Riley (see [[][this post on the mailing list]]). A small hook run when clocking out of a task that prompts for a note when the tag "=clockout_note=" is found in a headline. It uses the tag ("=clockout_note=") so inheritance can also be used... #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun rgr/check-for-clock-out-note() (interactive) (save-excursion (org-back-to-heading) (let ((tags (org-get-tags))) (and tags (message "tags: %s " tags) (when (member "clocknote" tags) (org-add-note)))))) (add-hook 'org-clock-out-hook 'rgr/check-for-clock-out-note) #+end_src *** Dynamically adjust tag position #+index: Tag!position Here is a bit of code that allows you to have the tags always right-adjusted in the buffer. This is useful when you have bigger window than default window-size and you dislike the aesthetics of having the tag in the middle of the line. This hack solves the problem of adjusting it whenever you change the window size. Before saving it will revert the file to having the tag position be left-adjusted so that if you track your files with version control, you won't run into artificial diffs just because the window-size changed. *IMPORTANT*: This is probably slow on very big files. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (setq ba/org-adjust-tags-column t) (defun ba/org-adjust-tags-column-reset-tags () "In org-mode buffers it will reset tag position according to `org-tags-column'." (when (and (not (string= (buffer-name) "*Remember*")) (eql major-mode 'org-mode)) (let ((b-m-p (buffer-modified-p))) (condition-case nil (save-excursion (goto-char (point-min)) (command-execute 'outline-next-visible-heading) ;; disable (message) that org-set-tags generates (flet ((message (&rest ignored) nil)) (org-set-tags 1 t)) (set-buffer-modified-p b-m-p)) (error nil))))) (defun ba/org-adjust-tags-column-now () "Right-adjust `org-tags-column' value, then reset tag position." (set (make-local-variable 'org-tags-column) (- (- (window-width) (length org-ellipsis)))) (ba/org-adjust-tags-column-reset-tags)) (defun ba/org-adjust-tags-column-maybe () "If `ba/org-adjust-tags-column' is set to non-nil, adjust tags." (when ba/org-adjust-tags-column (ba/org-adjust-tags-column-now))) (defun ba/org-adjust-tags-column-before-save () "Tags need to be left-adjusted when saving." (when ba/org-adjust-tags-column (setq org-tags-column 1) (ba/org-adjust-tags-column-reset-tags))) (defun ba/org-adjust-tags-column-after-save () "Revert left-adjusted tag position done by before-save hook." (ba/org-adjust-tags-column-maybe) (set-buffer-modified-p nil)) ; automatically align tags on right-hand side (add-hook 'window-configuration-change-hook 'ba/org-adjust-tags-column-maybe) (add-hook 'before-save-hook 'ba/org-adjust-tags-column-before-save) (add-hook 'after-save-hook 'ba/org-adjust-tags-column-after-save) (add-hook 'org-agenda-mode-hook (lambda () (setq org-agenda-tags-column (- (window-width))))) ; between invoking org-refile and displaying the prompt (which ; triggers window-configuration-change-hook) tags might adjust, ; which invalidates the org-refile cache (defadvice org-refile (around org-refile-disable-adjust-tags) "Disable dynamically adjusting tags" (let ((ba/org-adjust-tags-column nil)) ad-do-it)) (ad-activate 'org-refile) #+end_src *** Use an "attach" link type to open files without worrying about their location #+index: Link!Attach -- Darlan Cavalcante Moreira In the setup part in my org-files I put: #+begin_src org ,#+LINK: attach elisp:(org-open-file (org-attach-expand "%s")) #+end_src Now I can use the "attach" link type, but org will ask me if I want to allow executing the elisp code. To avoid this you can even set org-confirm-elisp-link-function to nil (I don't like this because it allows any elisp code in links) or you can set org-confirm-elisp-link-not-regexp appropriately. In my case I use : (setq org-confirm-elisp-link-not-regexp "org-open-file") This works very well. ** Org Agenda and Task Management *** Make it easier to set org-agenda-files from multiple directories #+index: Agenda!Files - Matt Lundin #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun my-org-list-files (dirs ext) "Function to create list of org files in multiple subdirectories. This can be called to generate a list of files for org-agenda-files or org-refile-targets. DIRS is a list of directories. EXT is a list of the extensions of files to be included." (let ((dirs (if (listp dirs) dirs (list dirs))) (ext (if (listp ext) ext (list ext))) files) (mapc (lambda (x) (mapc (lambda (y) (setq files (append files (file-expand-wildcards (concat (file-name-as-directory x) "*" y))))) ext)) dirs) (mapc (lambda (x) (when (or (string-match "/.#" x) (string-match "#$" x)) (setq files (delete x files)))) files) files)) (defvar my-org-agenda-directories '("~/org/") "List of directories containing org files.") (defvar my-org-agenda-extensions '(".org") "List of extensions of agenda files") (setq my-org-agenda-directories '("~/org/" "~/work/")) (setq my-org-agenda-extensions '(".org" ".ref")) (defun my-org-set-agenda-files () (interactive) (setq org-agenda-files (my-org-list-files my-org-agenda-directories my-org-agenda-extensions))) (my-org-set-agenda-files) #+end_src The code above will set your "default" agenda files to all files ending in ".org" and ".ref" in the directories "~/org/" and "~/work/". You can change these values by setting the variables my-org-agenda-extensions and my-org-agenda-directories. The function my-org-agenda-files-by-filetag uses these two variables to determine which files to search for filetags (i.e., the larger set from which the subset will be drawn). You can also easily use my-org-list-files to "mix and match" directories and extensions to generate different lists of agenda files. *** Restrict org-agenda-files by filetag :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: set-agenda-files-by-filetag :END: #+index: Agenda!Files - Matt Lundin It is often helpful to limit yourself to a subset of your agenda files. For instance, at work, you might want to see only files related to work (e.g., bugs, clientA, projectxyz, etc.). The FAQ has helpful information on filtering tasks using [[][filetags]] and [[][custom agenda commands]]. These solutions, however, require reapplying a filter each time you call the agenda or writing several new custom agenda commands for each context. Another solution is to use directories for different types of tasks and to change your agenda files with a function that sets org-agenda-files to the appropriate directory. But this relies on hard and static boundaries between files. The following functions allow for a more dynamic approach to selecting a subset of files based on filetags: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun my-org-agenda-restrict-files-by-filetag (&optional tag) "Restrict org agenda files only to those containing filetag." (interactive) (let* ((tagslist (my-org-get-all-filetags)) (ftag (or tag (completing-read "Tag: " (mapcar 'car tagslist))))) (org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock 'noupdate) (put 'org-agenda-files 'org-restrict (cdr (assoc ftag tagslist))) (setq org-agenda-overriding-restriction 'files))) (defun my-org-get-all-filetags () "Get list of filetags from all default org-files." (let ((files org-agenda-files) tagslist x) (save-window-excursion (while (setq x (pop files)) (set-buffer (find-file-noselect x)) (mapc (lambda (y) (let ((tagfiles (assoc y tagslist))) (if tagfiles (setcdr tagfiles (cons x (cdr tagfiles))) (add-to-list 'tagslist (list y x))))) (my-org-get-filetags))) tagslist))) (defun my-org-get-filetags () "Get list of filetags for current buffer" (let ((ftags org-file-tags) x) (mapcar (lambda (x) (org-substring-no-properties x)) ftags))) #+end_src Calling my-org-agenda-restrict-files-by-filetag results in a prompt with all filetags in your "normal" agenda files. When you select a tag, org-agenda-files will be restricted to only those files containing the filetag. To release the restriction, type C-c C-x > (org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock). *** Highlight the agenda line under cursor #+index: Agenda!Highlight This is useful to make sure what task you are operating on. #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (add-hook 'org-agenda-mode-hook (lambda () (hl-line-mode 1))) #+END_SRC Under XEmacs: #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp ;; hl-line seems to be only for emacs (require 'highline) (add-hook 'org-agenda-mode-hook (lambda () (highline-mode 1))) ;; highline-mode does not work straightaway in tty mode. ;; I use a black background (custom-set-faces '(highline-face ((((type tty) (class color)) (:background "white" :foreground "black"))))) #+END_SRC *** Split frame horizontally for agenda #+index: Agenda!frame If you would like to split the frame into two side-by-side windows when displaying the agenda, try this hack from Jan Rehders, which uses the `toggle-window-split' from #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp ;; Patch org-mode to use vertical splitting (defadvice org-prepare-agenda (after org-fix-split) (toggle-window-split)) (ad-activate 'org-prepare-agenda) #+END_SRC *** Automatically add an appointment when clocking in a task #+index: Clock!Automatically add an appointment when clocking in a task #+index: Appointment!Automatically add an appointment when clocking in a task #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp ;; Make sure you have a sensible value for `appt-message-warning-time' (defvar bzg-org-clock-in-appt-delay 100 "Number of minutes for setting an appointment by clocking-in") #+END_SRC This function let's you add an appointment for the current entry. This can be useful when you need a reminder. #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (defun bzg-org-clock-in-add-appt (&optional n) "Add an appointment for the Org entry at point in N minutes." (interactive) (save-excursion (org-back-to-heading t) (looking-at org-complex-heading-regexp) (let* ((msg (match-string-no-properties 4)) (ct-time (decode-time)) (appt-min (+ (cadr ct-time) (or n bzg-org-clock-in-appt-delay))) (appt-time ; define the time for the appointment (progn (setf (cadr ct-time) appt-min) ct-time))) (appt-add (format-time-string "%H:%M" (apply 'encode-time appt-time)) msg) (if (interactive-p) (message "New appointment for %s" msg))))) #+END_SRC You can advise =org-clock-in= so that =C-c C-x C-i= will automatically add an appointment: #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (defadvice org-clock-in (after org-clock-in-add-appt activate) "Add an appointment when clocking a task in." (bzg-org-clock-in-add-appt)) #+END_SRC You may also want to delete the associated appointment when clocking out. This function does this: #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (defun bzg-org-clock-out-delete-appt nil "When clocking out, delete any associated appointment." (interactive) (save-excursion (org-back-to-heading t) (looking-at org-complex-heading-regexp) (let* ((msg (match-string-no-properties 4))) (setq appt-time-msg-list (delete nil (mapcar (lambda (appt) (if (not (string-match (regexp-quote msg) (cadr appt))) appt)) appt-time-msg-list))) (appt-check)))) #+END_SRC And here is the advice for =org-clock-out= (=C-c C-x C-o=) #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (defadvice org-clock-out (before org-clock-out-delete-appt activate) "Delete an appointment when clocking a task out." (bzg-org-clock-out-delete-appt)) #+END_SRC *IMPORTANT*: You can add appointment by clocking in in both an =org-mode= and an =org-agenda-mode= buffer. But clocking out from agenda buffer with the advice above will bring an error. *** Using external programs for appointments reminders #+index: Appointment!reminders Read this rich [[][thread]] from the org-mode list. *** Remove from agenda time grid lines that are in an appointment #+index: Agenda!time grid #+index: Appointment!Remove from agenda time grid lines The agenda shows lines for the time grid. Some people think that these lines are a distraction when there are appointments at those times. You can get rid of the lines which coincide exactly with the beginning of an appointment. Michael Ekstrand has written a piece of advice that also removes lines that are somewhere inside an appointment: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun org-time-to-minutes (time) "Convert an HHMM time to minutes" (+ (* (/ time 100) 60) (% time 100))) (defun org-time-from-minutes (minutes) "Convert a number of minutes to an HHMM time" (+ (* (/ minutes 60) 100) (% minutes 60))) (defadvice org-agenda-add-time-grid-maybe (around mde-org-agenda-grid-tweakify (list ndays todayp)) (if (member 'remove-match (car org-agenda-time-grid)) (flet ((extract-window (line) (let ((start (get-text-property 1 'time-of-day line)) (dur (get-text-property 1 'duration line))) (cond ((and start dur) (cons start (org-time-from-minutes (+ dur (org-time-to-minutes start))))) (start start) (t nil))))) (let* ((windows (delq nil (mapcar 'extract-window list))) (org-agenda-time-grid (list (car org-agenda-time-grid) (cadr org-agenda-time-grid) (remove-if (lambda (time) (find-if (lambda (w) (if (numberp w) (equal w time) (and (>= time (car w)) (< time (cdr w))))) windows)) (caddr org-agenda-time-grid))))) ad-do-it)) ad-do-it)) (ad-activate 'org-agenda-add-time-grid-maybe) #+end_src *** Disable version control for Org mode agenda files #+index: Agenda!Files -- David Maus Even if you use Git to track your agenda files you might not need vc-mode to be enabled for these files. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (add-hook 'find-file-hook 'dmj/disable-vc-for-agenda-files-hook) (defun dmj/disable-vc-for-agenda-files-hook () "Disable vc-mode for Org agenda files." (if (and (fboundp 'org-agenda-file-p) (org-agenda-file-p (buffer-file-name))) (remove-hook 'find-file-hook 'vc-find-file-hook) (add-hook 'find-file-hook 'vc-find-file-hook))) #+end_src *** Easy customization of TODO colors #+index: Customization!Todo keywords #+index: Todo keywords!Customization -- Ryan C. Thompson Here is some code I came up with some code to make it easier to customize the colors of various TODO keywords. As long as you just want a different color and nothing else, you can customize the variable org-todo-keyword-faces and use just a string color (i.e. a string of the color name) as the face, and then org-get-todo-face will convert the color to a face, inheriting everything else from the standard org-todo face. To demonstrate, I currently have org-todo-keyword-faces set to #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (("IN PROGRESS" . "dark orange") ("WAITING" . "red4") ("CANCELED" . "saddle brown")) #+END_SRC Here's the code, in a form you can put in your =.emacs= #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp (eval-after-load 'org-faces '(progn (defcustom org-todo-keyword-faces nil "Faces for specific TODO keywords. This is a list of cons cells, with TODO keywords in the car and faces in the cdr. The face can be a symbol, a color, or a property list of attributes, like (:foreground \"blue\" :weight bold :underline t)." :group 'org-faces :group 'org-todo :type '(repeat (cons (string :tag "Keyword") (choice color (sexp :tag "Face"))))))) (eval-after-load 'org '(progn (defun org-get-todo-face-from-color (color) "Returns a specification for a face that inherits from org-todo face and has the given color as foreground. Returns nil if color is nil." (when color `(:inherit org-warning :foreground ,color))) (defun org-get-todo-face (kwd) "Get the right face for a TODO keyword KWD. If KWD is a number, get the corresponding match group." (if (numberp kwd) (setq kwd (match-string kwd))) (or (let ((face (cdr (assoc kwd org-todo-keyword-faces)))) (if (stringp face) (org-get-todo-face-from-color face) face)) (and (member kwd org-done-keywords) 'org-done) 'org-todo)))) #+END_SRC *** Add an effort estimate on the fly when clocking in #+index: Effort estimate!Add when clocking in #+index: Clock!Effort estimate You can use =org-clock-in-prepare-hook= to add an effort estimate. This way you can easily have a "tea-timer" for your tasks when they don't already have an effort estimate. #+begin_src emacs-lisp (add-hook 'org-clock-in-prepare-hook 'my-org-mode-ask-effort) (defun my-org-mode-ask-effort () "Ask for an effort estimate when clocking in." (unless (org-entry-get (point) "Effort") (let ((effort (completing-read "Effort: " (org-entry-get-multivalued-property (point) "Effort")))) (unless (equal effort "") (org-set-property "Effort" effort))))) #+end_src Or you can use a default effort for such a timer: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (add-hook 'org-clock-in-prepare-hook 'my-org-mode-add-default-effort) (defvar org-clock-default-effort "1:00") (defun my-org-mode-add-default-effort () "Add a default effort estimation." (unless (org-entry-get (point) "Effort") (org-set-property "Effort" org-clock-default-effort))) #+end_src *** Use idle timer for automatic agenda views #+index: Agenda view!Refresh From John Wiegley's mailing list post (March 18, 2010): #+begin_quote I have the following snippet in my .emacs file, which I find very useful. Basically what it does is that if I don't touch my Emacs for 5 minutes, it displays the current agenda. This keeps my tasks "always in mind" whenever I come back to Emacs after doing something else, whereas before I had a tendency to forget that it was there. #+end_quote - [[][John Wiegley: Displaying your Org agenda after idle time]] #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun jump-to-org-agenda () (interactive) (let ((buf (get-buffer "*Org Agenda*")) wind) (if buf (if (setq wind (get-buffer-window buf)) (select-window wind) (if (called-interactively-p) (progn (select-window (display-buffer buf t t)) (org-fit-window-to-buffer) ;; (org-agenda-redo) ) (with-selected-window (display-buffer buf) (org-fit-window-to-buffer) ;; (org-agenda-redo) ))) (call-interactively 'org-agenda-list))) ;;(let ((buf (get-buffer "*Calendar*"))) ;; (unless (get-buffer-window buf) ;; (org-agenda-goto-calendar))) ) (run-with-idle-timer 300 t 'jump-to-org-agenda) #+end_src #+results: : [nil 0 300 0 t jump-to-org-agenda nil idle] *** Refresh the agenda view regularly #+index: Agenda view!Refresh Hack sent by Kiwon Um: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun kiwon/org-agenda-redo-in-other-window () "Call org-agenda-redo function even in the non-agenda buffer." (interactive) (let ((agenda-window (get-buffer-window org-agenda-buffer-name t))) (when agenda-window (with-selected-window agenda-window (org-agenda-redo))))) (run-at-time nil 300 'kiwon/org-agenda-redo-in-other-window) #+end_src *** Reschedule agenda items to today with a single command #+index: Agenda!Reschedule This was suggested by Carsten in reply to David Abrahams: #+begin_example emacs-lisp (defun org-agenda-reschedule-to-today () (interactive) (flet ((org-read-date (&rest rest) (current-time))) (call-interactively 'org-agenda-schedule))) #+end_example *** Mark subtree DONE along with all subheadings #+index: Subtree!subheadings Bernt Hansen [[][suggested]] this command: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun bh/mark-subtree-done () (interactive) (org-mark-subtree) (let ((limit (point))) (save-excursion (exchange-point-and-mark) (while (> (point) limit) (org-todo "DONE") (outline-previous-visible-heading 1)) (org-todo "DONE")))) #+end_src Then M-x bh/mark-subtree-done. *** Mark heading done when all checkboxes are checked. :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: mark-done-when-all-checkboxes-checked :END: #+index: Checkbox An item consists of a list with checkboxes. When all of the checkboxes are checked, the item should be considered complete and its TODO state should be automatically changed to DONE. The code below does that. This version is slightly enhanced over the one in the mailing list (see to reset the state back to TODO if a checkbox is unchecked. Note that the code requires that a checkbox statistics cookie (the [/] or [%] thingie in the headline - see the [[][Checkboxes]] section in the manual) be present in order for it to work. Note also that it is too dumb to figure out whether the item has a TODO state in the first place: if there is a statistics cookie, a TODO/DONE state will be added willy-nilly any time that the statistics cookie is changed. #+begin_src emacs-lisp ;; see (eval-after-load 'org-list '(add-hook 'org-checkbox-statistics-hook (function ndk/checkbox-list-complete))) (defun ndk/checkbox-list-complete () (save-excursion (org-back-to-heading t) (let ((beg (point)) end) (end-of-line) (setq end (point)) (goto-char beg) (if (re-search-forward "\\[\\([0-9]*%\\)\\]\\|\\[\\([0-9]*\\)/\\([0-9]*\\)\\]" end t) (if (match-end 1) (if (equal (match-string 1) "100%") ;; all done - do the state change (org-todo 'done) (org-todo 'todo)) (if (and (> (match-end 2) (match-beginning 2)) (equal (match-string 2) (match-string 3))) (org-todo 'done) (org-todo 'todo))))))) #+end_src *** Links to custom agenda views :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: links-to-agenda-views :END: #+index: Agenda view!Links to This hack was [[][posted to the mailing list]] by Nathan Neff. If you have custom agenda commands defined to some key, say w, then the following will serve as a link to the custom agenda buffer. : [[elisp:(org-agenda nil "w")][Show Waiting Tasks]] Clicking on it will prompt if you want to execute the elisp code. If you would rather not have the prompt or would want to respond with a single letter, ~y~ or ~n~, take a look at the docstrings of the variables =org-confirm-elisp-link-function= and =org-confirm-elisp-link-not-regexp=. Please take special note of the security risk associated with completely disabling the prompting before you proceed. ** Exporting org files *** Ignoring headlines during export :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: ignoreheadline :END: #+index: Export!ignore headlines Sometimes users want to ignore the headline text during export like in the Beamer exporter (=ox-beamer=). In the [[][Beamer exporter]] one can use the tag =ignoreheading= to disable the export of a certain headline, whilst still retaining the content of the headline. We can imitate this feature in other export backends. Note that this is not a particularly easy problem, as the Org exporter creates a static representation of section numbers, table of contents etc. Consider the following document: #+BEGIN_SRC org ,* head 1 :noexport: ,* head 2 :ignoreheading: ,* head 3 ,* =head 4= :ignoreheading: #+END_SRC We want to remove heading 2 and 4. There are different strategies to accomplish this: 1. The best option is to remove headings tagged with =ignoreheading= before export starts. This can be accomplished with the hook =org-export-before-parsing-hook= that runs before the buffer has been parsed. In the example above, however, =head 2= would not be exported as it becomes part of =head 1= which is not exporter. To overcome this move perhaps =head 1= can be moved to the end of the buffer. An example of a hook that removes headings is before parsing is available [[][here]]. Note, this solution is compatible with /all/ export formats! 2. The problem is simple when exporting to LaTeX, as the LaTeX compiler determines numbers. We can thus use =org-export-filter-headline-functions= to remove the offending headlines. One regexp-based solution that looks for the word =ignoreheading= is available on [[][StackOverflow]] for both the legacy exporter Org v7 exporter and the current Org v8 exporter. Note, however, that this filter will only work with LaTeX (numbering and the table of content may break in other exporters). In the example above, this filer will work flawlessly in LaTeX, it will not work at all in HTML and it will fail to update section numbers, TOC and leave some auxiliary lines behind when exporting to plain text. 3. Another solution that tries to recover the Org element representation is available [[][here]]. In the example above this filter will not remove =head 4= exporting to any backend, since verbatim strings do not retain the Org element representation. It will remove the extra heading line when exporting to plain text, but will also fail to update section numbers. It should be fairly simple to also make it work with HTML. *NOTE: another way to accomplish this behavior is to use the [[][=ox-extra.el=]] package:* To use this, add the following to your =.elisp= file: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (add-to-list 'load-path "path/to/contrib/lisp") (require 'ox-extra) (ox-extras-activate '(ignore-headlines)) #+end_src After this is added, then any headlines having an =:ignore:= tag will be omitted from the export, but their contents will be included in the export. *** Export Org to Org and handle includes. #+index: Export!handle includes N.B: this does not apply to the "new" export engine (>= 8.0) - the function =org-export-handle-include-files-recurse= is only available in earlier versions. There is probably a way to do the same thing in the "new" exporter but nobody has stepped up to the plate yet. Nick Dokos came up with this useful function: #+begin_src emacs-lisp (defun org-to-org-handle-includes () "Copy the contents of the current buffer to OUTFILE, recursively processing #+INCLUDEs." (let* ((s (buffer-string)) (fname (buffer-file-name)) (ofname (format "" (file-name-sans-extension fname)))) (setq result (with-temp-buffer (insert s) (org-export-handle-include-files-recurse) (buffer-string))) (find-file ofname) (delete-region (point-min) (point-max)) (insert result) (save-buffer))) #+end_src *** Specifying LaTeX commands to floating environments :PROPERTIES: :CUSTOM_ID: latex-command-for-floats :END: #+index: Export!LaTeX The keyword ~placement~ can be used to specify placement options to floating environments (like =\begin{figure}= and =\begin{table}=}) in LaTeX export. Org passes along everything passed in options as long as there are no spaces. One can take advantage of this to pass other LaTeX commands and have their scope limited to the floating environment. For example one can set the fontsize of a table different from the default normal size by putting something like =\footnotesize= right after the placement options. During LaTeX export using the ~#+ATTR_LaTeX:~ line below: #+begin_src org ,#+ATTR_LaTeX: placement=[]\footnotesize #+end_src exports the associated floating environment as shown in the following block. #+begin_src latex \begin{table}[]\footnotesize ... \end{table} #+end_src It should be noted that this hack does not work for beamer export of tables since the =table= environment is not used. As an ugly workaround, one can use the following: #+begin_src org ,#+LATEX: {\footnotesize ,#+ATTR_LaTeX: align=rr | some | table | |------+-------| | .. | .. | ,#+LATEX: } #+end_src *** Styling code sections with CSS #+index: HTML!Styling code sections with CSS Code sections (marked with =#+begin_src= and =#+end_src=) are exported to HTML using =
= tags, and assigned CSS classes by their content
type.  For example, Perl content will have an opening tag like
=.  You can use those classes to add styling
to the output, such as here where a small language tag is added at the
top of each kind of code box:

#+begin_src lisp
(setq org-export-html-style

Additionally, we use color to distinguish code output (the =.example=
class) from input (all the =.src-*= classes).

*** Where can I find nice themes for HTML export?

You can find great looking HTML themes (CSS + JS) at, currently:

- Bigblow, and


- ReadTheOrg, a clone of Read The Docs.


See for a demo of the Org
HTML theme Bigblow.

*** Including external text fragments

#+index: Export!including external text fragments

I recently had to document some source code but could not modify the
source files themselves. Here is a setup that lets you refer to
fragments of external files, such that the fragments are inserted as
source blocks in the current file during evaluation of the ~call~
lines (thus during export as well).

  ,* Setup                                                            :noexport:
  ,#+name: fetchsrc
  ,#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp :results raw :var f="foo" :var s="Definition" :var e="\\. *$" :var b=()
    (defvar coqfiles nil)

    (defun fetchlines (file-path search-string &optional end before)
      "Searches for the SEARCH-STRING in FILE-PATH and returns the matching line.
    If the optional argument END is provided as a number, then this
    number of lines is printed.  If END is a string, then it is a
    regular expression indicating the end of the expression to print.
    If END is omitted, then 10 lines are printed.  If BEFORE is set,
    then one fewer line is printed (this is useful when END is a
    string matching the first line that should not be printed)."
        (insert-file-contents file-path nil nil nil t)
        (goto-char (point-min))
        (let ((result
               (if (search-forward search-string nil t)
                    (if end
                         ((integerp end)
                          (line-end-position (if before (- end 1) end)))
                         ((stringp end)
                          (let ((point (re-search-forward end nil t)))
                            (if before (line-end-position 0) point)))
                         (t (line-end-position 10)))
                      (line-end-position 10))))))
          (or result ""))))

    (fetchlines (concat coqfiles f ".v") s e b)

  ,#+name: wrap-coq
  ,#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp :var text="" :results raw
  (concat "#+BEGIN_SRC coq\n" text "\n#+END_SRC")

This is specialized for Coq files (hence the ~coq~ language in the
~wrap-coq~ function, the ~.v~ extension in the ~fetch~ function, and
the default value for ~end~ matching the syntax ending definitions in
Coq). To use it, you need to:
- set the ~coqfiles~ variable to where your source files reside;
- call the function using lines of the form
  #+BEGIN_SRC org
    ,#+call: fetchsrc(f="JsSyntax", s="Inductive expr :=", e="^ *$", b=1) :results drawer :post wrap-coq(text=*this*)
  In this example, we look inside the file ~JsSyntax.v~ in ~coqfiles~,
  search for a line matching ~Inductive expr :=~, and include the
  fragment until the first line consisting only of white space,
  excluded (as ~b=1~).

I use drawers to store the results to avoid a bug leading to
duplication during export when the code has already been evaluated in
the buffer (see [[][this thread]] for a description of the problem). This
has been fixed in recent versions of org-mode, so alternative
approaches are possible.

** Babel

*** How do I preview LaTeX fragments when in a LaTeX source block?

When editing =LaTeX= source blocks, you may want to preview LaTeX fragments
just like in an Org-mode buffer.  You can do this by using the usual
keybinding =C-c C-x C-l= after loading this snipped:

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
(define-key org-src-mode-map "\C-c\C-x\C-l" 'org-edit-preview-latex-fragment)

(defun org-edit-preview-latex-fragment ()
  "Write latex fragment from source to parent buffer and preview it."
  (org-src-in-org-buffer (org-preview-latex-fragment)))

Thanks to Sebastian Hofer for sharing this.

* Hacking Org: Working with Org-mode and other Emacs Packages.
** How to ediff folded Org files
A rather often quip among Org users is when looking at chages with
ediff.  Ediff tends to fold the Org buffers when comparing.  This can
be very inconvenient when trying to determine what changed.  A recent
discussion on the mailing list led to a [[][neat solution]] from Ratish

** org-remember-anything

#+index: Remember!Anything

[[][Anything]] users may find the snippet below interesting:

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
(defvar org-remember-anything
  '((name . "Org Remember")
    (candidates . (lambda () (mapcar 'car org-remember-templates)))
    (action . (lambda (name)
                (let* ((orig-template org-remember-templates)
                        (list (assoc name orig-template))))
                  (call-interactively 'org-remember))))))

You can add it to your 'anything-sources' variable and open remember directly
from anything. I imagine this would be more interesting for people with many
remember templates, so that you are out of keys to assign those to.

** Org-mode and saveplace.el

Fix a problem with =saveplace.el= putting you back in a folded position:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(add-hook 'org-mode-hook
          (lambda ()
	    (when (outline-invisible-p)
		(outline-previous-visible-heading 1)

** Using ido-mode for org-refile (and archiving via refile)

First set up ido-mode, for example using:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
; use ido mode for completion
(setq ido-everywhere t)
(setq ido-enable-flex-matching t)
(setq ido-max-directory-size 100000)
(ido-mode (quote both))

Now to enable it in org-mode, use the following:
#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq org-completion-use-ido t)
(setq org-refile-use-outline-path nil)
(setq org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes 'confirm)
The last line enables the creation of nodes on the fly.

If you refile into files that are not in your agenda file list, you can add them as target like this (replace file1\_done, etc with your files):
#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq org-refile-targets '((org-agenda-files :maxlevel . 5) (("~/org/file1_done" "~/org/file2_done") :maxlevel . 5) ))

For refiling it is often not useful to include targets that have a DONE state. It's easy to remove them by using the verify-refile-target hook.
#+begin_src emacs-lisp
; Exclude DONE state tasks from refile targets; taken from
; added check to only include headlines, e.g. line must have at least one child
(defun my/verify-refile-target ()
  "Exclude todo keywords with a DONE state from refile targets"
  (or (not (member (nth 2 (org-heading-components)) org-done-keywords)))
      (save-excursion (org-goto-first-child))
(setq org-refile-target-verify-function 'my/verify-refile-target)
Now when looking for a refile target, you can use the full power of ido to find them. Ctrl-R can be used to switch between different options that ido offers.

** Using ido-completing-read to find attachments

#+index: Attachment!ido completion

-- Matt Lundin.

Org-attach is great for quickly linking files to a project. But if you
use org-attach extensively you might find yourself wanting to browse
all the files you've attached to org headlines. This is not easy to do
manually, since the directories containing the files are not human
readable (i.e., they are based on automatically generated ids). Here's
some code to browse those files using ido (obviously, you need to be
using ido):

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(load-library "find-lisp")

;; Adapted from

(defun my-ido-find-org-attach ()
  "Find files in org-attachment directory"
  (let* ((enable-recursive-minibuffers t)
         (files (find-lisp-find-files org-attach-directory "."))
          (mapcar (lambda (x)
                    (cons (file-name-nondirectory x)
          (remove-duplicates (mapcar #'car file-assoc-list)
                             :test #'string=))
         (filename (ido-completing-read "Org attachments: " filename-list nil t))
         (longname (cdr (assoc filename file-assoc-list))))
     (if (file-directory-p longname)
       (file-name-directory longname)))
    (setq ido-exit 'refresh
          ido-text-init ido-text
          ido-rotate-temp t)

(add-hook 'ido-setup-hook 'ido-my-keys)

(defun ido-my-keys ()
  "Add my keybindings for ido."
  (define-key ido-completion-map (kbd "C-;") 'my-ido-find-org-attach))

To browse your org attachments using ido fuzzy matching and/or the
completion buffer, invoke ido-find-file as usual (=C-x C-f=) and then
press =C-;=.

** Link to Gnus messages by Message-Id
#+index: Link!Gnus message by Message-Id
In a [[][recent thread]] on the Org-Mode mailing list, there was some
discussion about linking to Gnus messages without encoding the folder
name in the link.  The following code hooks in to the store-link
function in Gnus to capture links by Message-Id when in nnml folders,
and then provides a link type "mid" which can open this link.  The
=mde-org-gnus-open-message-link= function uses the
=mde-mid-resolve-methods= variable to determine what Gnus backends to
scan.  It will go through them, in order, asking each to locate the
message and opening it from the first one that reports success.

It has only been tested with a single nnml backend, so there may be
bugs lurking here and there.

The logic for finding the message was adapted from [[][an Emacs Wiki

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
;; Support for saving Gnus messages by Message-ID
(defun mde-org-gnus-save-by-mid ()
  (when (memq major-mode '(gnus-summary-mode gnus-article-mode))
    (when (eq major-mode 'gnus-article-mode)
    (let* ((group gnus-newsgroup-name)
           (method (gnus-find-method-for-group group)))
      (when (eq 'nnml (car method))
        (let* ((article (gnus-summary-article-number))
               (header (gnus-summary-article-header article))
               (from (mail-header-from header))
                  (let ((mid (mail-header-id header)))
                    (if (string-match "<\\(.*\\)>" mid)
                        (match-string 1 mid)
                      (error "Malformed message ID header %s" mid)))))
               (date (mail-header-date header))
               (subject (gnus-summary-subject-string)))
          (org-store-link-props :type "mid" :from from :subject subject
                                :message-id message-id :group group
                                :link (org-make-link "mid:" message-id))
          (apply 'org-store-link-props
                 :description (org-email-link-description)

(defvar mde-mid-resolve-methods '()
  "List of methods to try when resolving message ID's.  For Gnus,
it is a cons of 'gnus and the select (type and name).")
(setq mde-mid-resolve-methods
      '((gnus nnml "")))

(defvar mde-org-gnus-open-level 1
  "Level at which Gnus is started when opening a link")
(defun mde-org-gnus-open-message-link (msgid)
  "Open a message link with Gnus"
  (require 'gnus)
  (require 'org-table)
  (catch 'method-found
    (message "[MID linker] Resolving %s" msgid)
    (dolist (method mde-mid-resolve-methods)
       ((and (eq (car method) 'gnus)
             (eq (cadr method) 'nnml))
        (funcall (cdr (assq 'gnus org-link-frame-setup))
        (when gnus-other-frame-object
          (select-frame gnus-other-frame-object))
        (let* ((msg-info (nnml-find-group-number
                          (concat "<" msgid ">")
                          (cdr method)))
               (group (and msg-info (car msg-info)))
               (message (and msg-info (cdr msg-info)))
               (qname (and group
                           (if (gnus-methods-equal-p
                                (cdr method)
                             (gnus-group-full-name group (cdr method))))))
          (when msg-info
            (gnus-summary-read-group qname nil t)
            (gnus-summary-goto-article message nil t))
          (throw 'method-found t)))
       (t (error "Unknown link type"))))))

(eval-after-load 'org-gnus
     (add-to-list 'org-store-link-functions 'mde-org-gnus-save-by-mid)
     (org-add-link-type "mid" 'mde-org-gnus-open-message-link)))

** Store link to a message when sending in Gnus
#+index: Link!Store link to a message when sending in Gnus
Ulf Stegemann came up with this solution (see his [[][original message]]):

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(defun ulf-message-send-and-org-gnus-store-link (&optional arg)
  "Send message with `message-send-and-exit' and store org link to message copy.
If multiple groups appear in the Gcc header, the link refers to
the copy in the last group."
  (interactive "P")
	(let ((gcc (car (last
			   (mail-fetch-field "gcc" nil t) " ,")))))
	      (buf (current-buffer))
	      (message-kill-buffer-on-exit nil)
	      id to from subject desc link newsgroup xarchive)
        (message-send-and-exit arg)
         ;; gcc group found ...
         (and gcc
                (progn (set-buffer buf)
                       (setq id (org-remove-angle-brackets
                                 (mail-fetch-field "Message-ID")))
                       (setq to (mail-fetch-field "To"))
                       (setq from (mail-fetch-field "From"))
                       (setq subject (mail-fetch-field "Subject"))))
              (org-store-link-props :type "gnus" :from from :subject subject
                                    :message-id id :group gcc :to to)
              (setq desc (org-email-link-description))
              (setq link (org-gnus-article-link
                          gcc newsgroup id xarchive))
              (setq org-stored-links
                    (cons (list link desc) org-stored-links)))
         ;; no gcc group found ...
         (message "Can not create Org link: No Gcc header found."))))))

(define-key message-mode-map [(control c) (control meta c)]

** Link to visit a file and run occur
#+index: Link!Visit a file and run occur
Add the following bit of code to your startup (after loading org),
and you can then use links like =occur:my-file.txt#regex= to open a
file and run occur with the regex on it.

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
  (defun org-occur-open (uri)
    "Visit the file specified by URI, and run `occur' on the fragment
    \(anything after the first '#') in the uri."
    (let ((list (split-string uri "#")))
      (org-open-file (car list) t)
      (occur (mapconcat 'identity (cdr list) "#"))))
  (org-add-link-type "occur" 'org-occur-open)
** Send html messages and attachments with Wanderlust
  -- David Maus

/Note/: The module [[file:org-contrib/][Org-mime]] in Org's contrib directory provides
similar functionality for both Wanderlust and Gnus.  The hack below is
still somewhat different: It allows you to toggle sending of html
messages within Wanderlust transparently.  I.e. html markup of the
message body is created right before sending starts.

*** Send HTML message

Putting the code below in your .emacs adds following four functions:

- dmj/wl-send-html-message

  Function that does the job: Convert everything between "--text
  follows this line--" and first mime entity (read: attachment) or
  end of buffer into html markup using `org-export-region-as-html'
  and replaces original body with a multipart MIME entity with the
  plain text version of body and the html markup version.  Thus a
  recipient that prefers html messages can see the html markup,
  recipients that prefer or depend on plain text can see the plain

  Cannot be called interactively: It is hooked into SEMI's
  `mime-edit-translate-hook' if message should be HTML message.

- dmj/wl-send-html-message-draft-init

  Cannot be called interactively: It is hooked into WL's
  `wl-mail-setup-hook' and provides a buffer local variable to

- dmj/wl-send-html-message-draft-maybe

  Cannot be called interactively: It is hooked into WL's
  `wl-draft-send-hook' and hooks `dmj/wl-send-html-message' into
  `mime-edit-translate-hook' depending on whether HTML message is
  toggled on or off

- dmj/wl-send-html-message-toggle

  Toggles sending of HTML message.  If toggled on, the letters
  "HTML" appear in the mode line.

  Call it interactively!  Or bind it to a key in `wl-draft-mode'.

If you have to send HTML messages regularly you can set a global
variable `dmj/wl-send-html-message-toggled-p' to the string "HTML" to
toggle on sending HTML message by default.

The image [[][here]] shows an example of how the HTML message looks like in
Google's web front end.  As you can see you have the whole markup of
Org at your service: *bold*, /italics/, tables, lists...

So even if you feel uncomfortable with sending HTML messages at least
you send HTML that looks quite good.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(defun dmj/wl-send-html-message ()
  "Send message as html message.
Convert body of message to html using
  (require 'org)
    (let (beg end html text)
      (goto-char (point-min))
      (re-search-forward "^--text follows this line--$")
      ;; move to beginning of next line
      (beginning-of-line 2)
      (setq beg (point))
      (if (not (re-search-forward "^--\\[\\[" nil t))
          (setq end (point-max))
        ;; line up
        (end-of-line 0)
        (setq end (point)))
      ;; grab body
      (setq text (buffer-substring-no-properties beg end))
      ;; convert to html
        (insert text)
        ;; handle signature
        (when (re-search-backward "^-- \n" nil t)
          ;; preserve link breaks in signature
          (insert "\n#+BEGIN_VERSE\n")
          (goto-char (point-max))
          (insert "\n#+END_VERSE\n")
          ;; grab html
          (setq html (org-export-region-as-html
                      (point-min) (point-max) t 'string))))
      (delete-region beg end)
        "--" "<>-{\n"
        "--" "[[text/plain]]\n" text
        "--" "[[text/html]]\n"  html
        "--" "}-<>\n")))))

(defun dmj/wl-send-html-message-toggle ()
  "Toggle sending of html message."
  (setq dmj/wl-send-html-message-toggled-p
        (if dmj/wl-send-html-message-toggled-p
            nil "HTML"))
  (message "Sending html message toggled %s"
           (if dmj/wl-send-html-message-toggled-p
               "on" "off")))

(defun dmj/wl-send-html-message-draft-init ()
  "Create buffer local settings for maybe sending html message."
  (unless (boundp 'dmj/wl-send-html-message-toggled-p)
    (setq dmj/wl-send-html-message-toggled-p nil))
  (make-variable-buffer-local 'dmj/wl-send-html-message-toggled-p)
  (add-to-list 'global-mode-string
               '(:eval (if (eq major-mode 'wl-draft-mode)

(defun dmj/wl-send-html-message-maybe ()
  "Maybe send this message as html message.

If buffer local variable `dmj/wl-send-html-message-toggled-p' is
non-nil, add `dmj/wl-send-html-message' to
  (if dmj/wl-send-html-message-toggled-p
      (add-hook 'mime-edit-translate-hook 'dmj/wl-send-html-message)
    (remove-hook 'mime-edit-translate-hook 'dmj/wl-send-html-message)))

(add-hook 'wl-draft-reedit-hook 'dmj/wl-send-html-message-draft-init)
(add-hook 'wl-mail-setup-hook 'dmj/wl-send-html-message-draft-init)
(add-hook 'wl-draft-send-hook 'dmj/wl-send-html-message-maybe)

*** Attach HTML of region or subtree

Instead of sending a complete HTML message you might only send parts
of an Org file as HTML for the poor souls who are plagued with
non-proportional fonts in their mail program that messes up pretty
ASCII tables.

This short function does the trick: It exports region or subtree to
HTML, prefixes it with a MIME entity delimiter and pushes to killring
and clipboard.  If a region is active, it uses the region, the
complete subtree otherwise.

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(defun dmj/org-export-region-as-html-attachment (beg end arg)
  "Export region between BEG and END as html attachment.
If BEG and END are not set, use current subtree.  Region or
subtree is exported to html without header and footer, prefixed
with a mime entity string and pushed to clipboard and killring.
When called with prefix, mime entity is not marked as
  (interactive "r\nP")
    (let* ((beg (if (region-active-p) (region-beginning)
           (end (if (region-active-p) (region-end)
           (html (concat "--[[text/html"
                         (if arg "" "\nContent-Disposition: attachment")
                         (org-export-region-as-html beg end t 'string))))
      (when (fboundp 'x-set-selection)
        (ignore-errors (x-set-selection 'PRIMARY html))
        (ignore-errors (x-set-selection 'CLIPBOARD html)))
      (message "html export done, pushed to kill ring and clipboard"))))

*** Adopting for Gnus

The whole magic lies in the special strings that mark a HTML
attachment.  So you might just have to find out what these special
strings are in message-mode and modify the functions accordingly.
** Add sunrise/sunset times to the agenda.
#+index: Agenda!Diary s-expressions
  -- Nick Dokos

The diary package provides the function =diary-sunrise-sunset= which can be used
in a diary s-expression in some agenda file like this:

#+begin_src org

Seb Vauban asked if it is possible to put sunrise and sunset in
separate lines. Here is a hack to do that. It adds two functions (they
have to be available before the agenda is shown, so I add them early
in my org-config file which is sourced from .emacs, but you'll have to
suit yourself here) that just parse the output of
diary-sunrise-sunset, instead of doing the right thing which would be
to take advantage of the data structures that diary/solar.el provides.
In short, a hack - so perfectly suited for inclusion here :-)

The functions (and latitude/longitude settings which you have to modify for
your location) are as follows:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq calendar-latitude 48.2)
(setq calendar-longitude 16.4)
(setq calendar-location-name "Vienna, Austria")

(autoload 'solar-sunrise-sunset "solar.el")
(autoload 'solar-time-string "solar.el")
(defun diary-sunrise ()
  "Local time of sunrise as a diary entry.
The diary entry can contain `%s' which will be replaced with
  (let ((l (solar-sunrise-sunset date)))
    (when (car l)
       (if (string= entry "")
         (format entry (eval calendar-location-name))) " "
         (solar-time-string (caar l) nil)))))

(defun diary-sunset ()
  "Local time of sunset as a diary entry.
The diary entry can contain `%s' which will be replaced with
  (let ((l (solar-sunrise-sunset date)))
    (when (cadr l)
       (if (string= entry "")
         (format entry (eval calendar-location-name))) " "
         (solar-time-string (caadr l) nil)))))

You also need to add a couple of diary s-expressions in one of your agenda

#+begin_src org
%%(diary-sunrise)Sunrise in %s

This will show sunrise with the location and sunset without it.

The thread on the mailing list that started this can be found [[][here]].
In comparison to the version posted on the mailing list, this one
gets rid of the timezone information and can show the location.
** Add lunar phases to the agenda.
#+index: Agenda!Diary s-expressions
   -- Rüdiger

Emacs comes with =lunar.el= to display the lunar phases (=M-x lunar-phases=).
This can be used to display lunar phases in the agenda display with the
following function:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(require 'cl-lib)

(org-no-warnings (defvar date))
(defun org-lunar-phases ()
  "Show lunar phase in Agenda buffer."
  (require 'lunar)
  (let* ((phase-list (lunar-phase-list (nth 0 date) (nth 2 date)))
         (phase (cl-find-if (lambda (phase) (equal (car phase) date))
    (when phase
      (setq ret (concat (lunar-phase-name (nth 2 phase)) " "
                        (substring (nth 1 phase) 0 5))))))

Add the following line to an agenda file:

#+begin_src org
,* Lunar phase
,#+CATEGORY: Lunar

This should display an entry on new moon, first/last quarter moon, and on full
moon.  You can customize the entries by customizing =lunar-phase-names=.

E.g., to add Unicode symbols:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(setq lunar-phase-names
      '("● New Moon" ; Unicode symbol: 🌑 Use full circle as fallback
        "☽ First Quarter Moon"
        "○ Full Moon" ; Unicode symbol: 🌕 Use empty circle as fallback
        "☾ Last Quarter Moon"))

Unicode 6 even provides symbols for the Moon with nice faces.  But those
symbols are currently barely supported in fonts.
See [[][Astronomical symbols on Wikipedia]].

** Export BBDB contacts to org-contacts.el
#+index: Address Book!BBDB to org-contacts
Try this tool by Wes Hardaker:

** Calculating date differences - how to write a simple elisp function
#+index: Timestamp!date calculations
#+index: Elisp!technique

Alexander Wingård asked how to calculate the number of days between a
time stamp in his org file and today (see  Although the
resulting answer is probably not of general interest, the method might
be useful to a budding Elisp programmer.

Alexander started from an already existing org function,
=org-evaluate-time-range=.  When this function is called in the context
of a time range (two time stamps separated by "=--="), it calculates the
number of days between the two dates and outputs the result in Emacs's
echo area. What he wanted was a similar function that, when called from
the context of a single time stamp, would calculate the number of days
between the date in the time stamp and today. The result should go to
the same place: Emacs's echo area.

The solution presented in the mail thread is as follows:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
(defun aw/org-evaluate-time-range (&optional to-buffer)
  (if (org-at-date-range-p t)
      (org-evaluate-time-range to-buffer)
    ;; otherwise, make a time range in a temp buffer and run o-e-t-r there
    (let ((headline (buffer-substring (point-at-bol) (point-at-eol))))
	(insert headline)
	(goto-char (point-at-bol))
	(re-search-forward org-ts-regexp (point-at-eol) t)
	(if (not (org-at-timestamp-p t))
	    (error "No timestamp here"))
	(goto-char (match-beginning 0))
	(org-insert-time-stamp (current-time) nil nil)
	(insert "--")
	(org-evaluate-time-range to-buffer)))))

The function assumes that point is on some line with some time stamp
(or a date range) in it. Note that =org-evaluate-time-range= does not care
whether the first date is earlier than the second: it will always output
the number of days between the earlier date and the later date.

As stated before, the function itself is of limited interest (although
it satisfied Alexander's need).The *method* used might be of wider
interest however, so here is a short explanation.

The idea is that we want =org-evaluate-time-range= to do all the
heavy lifting, but that function requires that it be in a date-range
context. So the function first checks whether it's in a date range
context already: if so, it calls =org-evaluate-time-range= directly
to do the work. The trick now is to arrange things so we can call this
same function in the case where we do *not* have a date range
context. In that case, we manufacture one: we create a temporary
buffer, copy the line with the purported time stamp to the temp
buffer, find the time stamp (signal an error if no time stamp is
found) and insert a new time stamp with the current time before the
existing time stamp, followed by "=--=": voilà, we now have a time range
on which we can apply our old friend =org-evaluate-time-range= to
produce the answer. Because of the above-mentioned property
of =org-evaluate-time-range=, it does not matter if the existing
time stamp is earlier or later than the current time: the correct
number of days is output.

Note that at the end of the call to =with-temp-buffer=, the temporary
buffer goes away.  It was just used as a scratch pad for the function
to do some figuring.

The idea of using a temp buffer as a scratch pad has wide
applicability in Emacs programming. The rest of the work is knowing
enough about facilities provided by Emacs (e.g. regexp searching) and
by Org (e.g. checking for time stamps and generating a time stamp) so
that you don't reinvent the wheel, and impedance-matching between the
various pieces.

** ibuffer and org files

Neil Smithline posted this snippet to let you browse org files with

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
(require 'ibuffer)

(defun org-ibuffer ()
  "Open an `ibuffer' window showing only `org-mode' buffers."
  (ibuffer nil "*Org Buffers*" '((used-mode . org-mode))))

** Enable org-mode links in other modes

Sean O'Halpin wrote a minor mode for this, please check it [[][here]].

See the relevant discussion [[][here]].

** poporg.el: edit comments in org-mode

[[][poporg.el]] is a library by François Pinard which lets you edit comments
and strings from your code using a separate org-mode buffer.

** Convert a .csv file to an Org-mode table

Nicolas Richard has a [[][nice recipe]] using the pcsv library ([[][available]] from
the Marmelade ELPA repository):

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
(defun yf/lisp-table-to-org-table (table &optional function)
  "Convert a lisp table to `org-mode' syntax, applying FUNCTION to each of its elements.
The elements should not have any more newlines in them after
applying FUNCTION ; the default converts them to spaces. Return
value is a string containg the unaligned `org-mode' table."
  (unless (functionp function)
    (setq function (lambda (x) (replace-regexp-in-string "\n" " " x))))
  (mapconcat (lambda (x)                ; x is a line.
               (concat "| " (mapconcat function x " | ") " |"))
             table "\n"))

(defun yf/csv-to-table (beg end)
"Convert a csv file to an `org-mode' table."
  (interactive "r")
  (require 'pcsv)
  (insert (yf/lisp-table-to-org-table (pcsv-parse-region beg end)))
  (delete-region beg end)

* Hacking Org: Working with Org-mode and External Programs.
** Use Org-mode with Screen [Andrew Hyatt]
#+index: Link!to screen session
"The general idea is that you start a task in which all the work will
take place in a shell.  This usually is not a leaf-task for me, but
usually the parent of a leaf task.  From a task in your org-file, M-x
ash-org-screen will prompt for the name of a session.  Give it a name,
and it will insert a link.  Open the link at any time to go the screen
session containing your work!"

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
(require 'term)

(defun ash-org-goto-screen (name)
  "Open the screen with the specified name in the window"
  (interactive "MScreen name: ")
  (let ((screen-buffer-name (ash-org-screen-buffer-name name)))
    (if (member screen-buffer-name
                (mapcar 'buffer-name (buffer-list)))
        (switch-to-buffer screen-buffer-name)
      (switch-to-buffer (ash-org-screen-helper name "-dr")))))

(defun ash-org-screen-buffer-name (name)
  "Returns the buffer name corresponding to the screen name given."
  (concat "*screen " name "*"))

(defun ash-org-screen-helper (name arg)
  ;; Pick the name of the new buffer.
  (let ((term-ansi-buffer-name
	  (ash-org-screen-buffer-name name))))
    (setq term-ansi-buffer-name
	   term-ansi-buffer-name "/usr/bin/screen" nil arg name))
    (set-buffer term-ansi-buffer-name)
    (term-set-escape-char ?\C-x)

(defun ash-org-screen (name)
  "Start a screen session with name"
  (interactive "MScreen name: ")
    (ash-org-screen-helper name "-S"))
  (insert-string (concat "[[screen:" name "]]")))

;; And don't forget to add ("screen" . "elisp:(ash-org-goto-screen
;; \"%s\")") to org-link-abbrev-alist.

** Org Agenda + Appt + Zenity
    :CUSTOM_ID: org-agenda-appt-zenity

#+index: Appointment!reminders
#+index: Appt!Zenity

Russell Adams posted this setup [[][on the list]].  It makes sure your agenda
appointments are known by Emacs, and it displays warnings in a [[][zenity]]
popup window.

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
; For org appointment reminders

;; Get appointments for today
(defun my-org-agenda-to-appt ()
  (setq appt-time-msg-list nil)
  (let ((org-deadline-warning-days 0))    ;; will be automatic in org 5.23

;; Run once, activate and schedule refresh
(appt-activate t)
(run-at-time "24:01" nil 'my-org-agenda-to-appt)

; 5 minute warnings
(setq appt-message-warning-time 15)
(setq appt-display-interval 5)

; Update appt each time agenda opened.
(add-hook 'org-finalize-agenda-hook 'my-org-agenda-to-appt)

; Setup zenify, we tell appt to use window, and replace default function
(setq appt-display-format 'window)
(setq appt-disp-window-function (function my-appt-disp-window))

(defun my-appt-disp-window (min-to-app new-time msg)
  (save-window-excursion (shell-command (concat
    "/usr/bin/zenity --info --title='Appointment' --text='"
    msg "' &") nil nil)))

** Org and appointment notifications on Mac OS 10.8

Sarah Bagby [[][posted some code]] on how to get appointments notifications on
Mac OS 10.8 with [[][terminal-notifier]].

** Org-Mode + gnome-osd
#+index: Appointment!reminders
#+index: Appt!gnome-osd
Richard Riley uses gnome-osd in interaction with Org-Mode to display
appointments.  You can look at the code on the [[][emacswiki]].

** txt2org convert text data to org-mode tables
From Eric Schulte

I often find it useful to generate Org-mode tables on the command line
from tab-separated data.  The following awk script makes this easy to
do.  Text data is read from STDIN on a pipe and any command line
arguments are interpreted as rows at which to insert hlines.

Here are two usage examples.
1. running the following
   : $ cat < max_nf){ max_nf = NF; };
      for(f=1; f<=NF; f++){
          if(length($f) > lengths[f]){ lengths[f] = length($f); };
          row[NR][f]=$f; } }

  END {
      for(f=1; f<=max_nf; f++){
          for(i=0; i<(lengths[f] + 2); i++){ hline_str=hline_str "-"; }
          if( f != max_nf){ hline_str=hline_str "+"; }
          else            { hline_str=hline_str "|"; } }

      for(r=1; r<=NR; r++){ # rows
          if(hlines[r] == 1){ print hline_str; }
          printf "|";
          for(f=1; f<=max_nf; f++){ # columns
              cell=row[r][f]; padding=""
              for(i=0; i<(lengths[f] - length(cell)); i++){ padding=padding " "; }
              # for now just print everything right-aligned
              # if(cell ~ /[0-9.]/){ printf " %s%s |", cell, padding; }
              # else{                printf " %s%s |", padding, cell; }
              printf " %s%s |", padding, cell; }
          printf "\n"; }

      if(hlines[NR+1]){ print hline_str; } }

** remind2org
#+index: Agenda!Views
#+index: Agenda!and Remind (external program)
From Detlef Steuer

Remind ( is a very powerful
command line calendaring program. Its features supersede the possibilities
of orgmode in the area of date specifying, so that I want to use it
combined with orgmode.

Using the script below I'm able use remind and incorporate its output in my
agenda views.  The default of using 13 months look ahead is easily
changed. It just happens I sometimes like to look a year into the
future. :-)

** Useful webjumps for conkeror
#+index: Shortcuts!conkeror
If you are using the [[][conkeror browser]], maybe you want to put this into
your =~/.conkerorrc= file:

define_webjump("orglist", "");
define_webjump("worg", "");

It creates two [[][webjumps]] for easily searching the Worg website and the
Org-mode mailing list.

** Use MathJax for HTML export without requiring JavaScript
#+index: Export!MathJax
As of 2010-08-14, MathJax is the default method used to export math to HTML.

If you like the results but do not want JavaScript in the exported pages,
check out [[][Static MathJax]], a XULRunner application which generates a static
HTML file from the exported version. It can also embed all referenced fonts
within the HTML file itself, so there are no dependencies to external files.

The download archive contains an elisp file which integrates it into the Org
export process (configurable per file with a "#+StaticMathJax:" line).

Read and the comments in org-static-mathjax.el for usage instructions.
** Search Org files using lgrep
#+index: search!lgrep
Matt Lundin suggests this:

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
  (defun my-org-grep (search &optional context)
    "Search for word in org files.

Prefix argument determines number of lines."
    (interactive "sSearch for: \nP")
    (let ((grep-find-ignored-files '("#*" ".#*"))
	  (grep-template (concat "grep  -i -nH "
				 (when context
				   (concat "-C" (number-to-string context)))
				 " -e  ")))
      (lgrep search "*org*" "/home/matt/org/")))

  (global-set-key (kbd "") 'my-org-grep)

** Automatic screenshot insertion
#+index: Link!screenshot
Suggested by Russell Adams

#+begin_src emacs-lisp
  (defun my-org-screenshot ()
    "Take a screenshot into a time stamped unique-named file in the
  same directory as the org-buffer and insert a link to this file."
    (setq filename
            (concat (buffer-file-name)
                    (format-time-string "%Y%m%d_%H%M%S_")) ) ".png"))
    (call-process "import" nil nil nil filename)
    (insert (concat "[[" filename "]]"))

** Capture invitations/appointments from MS Exchange emails
#+index: Appointment!MS Exchange
Dirk-Jan C.Binnema [[][provided]] code to do this.  Please check

** Audio/video file playback within org mode
#+index: Link!audio/video
Paul Sexton provided code that makes =file:= links to audio or video files
(MP3, WAV, OGG, AVI, MPG, et cetera) play those files using the [[][Bongo]] Emacs
media player library. The user can pause, skip forward and backward in the
track, and so on from without leaving Emacs. Links can also contain a time
after a double colon -- when this is present, playback will begin at that
position in the track.

See the file [[file:code/elisp/org-player.el][org-player.el]]

** Under X11 Keep a window with the current agenda items at all time
#+index: Agenda!dedicated window
I struggle to keep (in emacs) a window with the agenda at all times.
For a long time I have wanted a sticky window that keeps this
information, and then use my window manager to place it and remove its
decorations (I can also force its placement in the stack: top always,
for example).

I wrote a small program in qt that simply monitors an HTML file and
displays it. Nothing more. It does the work for me, and maybe somebody
else will find it useful. It relies on exporting the agenda as HTML
every time the org file is saved, and then this little program
displays the html file. The window manager is responsible of removing
decorations, making it sticky, and placing it in same place always.

Here is a screenshot (see window to the bottom right). The decorations
are removed by the window manager:

Here is the code. As I said, very, very simple, but maybe somebody will
find if useful.

--daniel german

** Script (thru procmail) to output emails to an Org file
#+index: Conversion!email to org file
Tycho Garen sent [[][this]]:

: I've [...] created some procmail and shell glue that takes emails and
: inserts them into an org-file so that I can capture stuff on the go using
: the email program.

Everything is documented [[][here]].

** Save File With Different Format for Headings (fileconversion)
   :CUSTOM_ID: fileconversion
#+index: Conversion!fileconversion

Using hooks and on the fly
- When writing a buffer to the file: Replace the leading stars from
  headings with a file char.
- When reading a file into the buffer: Replace the file chars with
  leading stars for headings.

To change the file format just add or remove the keyword in the
~#+STARTUP:~ line in the Org buffer and save.

Now you can also change to Fundamental mode to see how the file looks
like on the level of the file, can go back to Org mode, reenter Org
mode or change to any other major mode and the conversion gets done
whenever necessary.

*** Headings Without Leading Stars (hidestarsfile and nbspstarsfile)
    :CUSTOM_ID: hidestarsfile
#+index: Conversion!fileconversion hidestarsfile

This is like "a cleaner outline view":

Example of the *file content* first with leading stars as usual and
below without leading stars through ~#+STARTUP: odd hidestars

  ,#+STARTUP: odd hidestars
  ***** TODO section
  ******* subsection
  ********* subsubsec
            - bla bla
  ***** section
        - bla bla
  ******* subsection

  ,#+STARTUP: odd hidestars hidestarsfile
      * TODO section
        * subsection
          * subsubsec
            - bla bla
      * section
        - bla bla
        * subsection

The latter is convenient for better human readability when an Org file,
additionally to Emacs, is read with a file viewer or, for smaller edits,
with an editor not capable of the Org file format.

~hidestarsfile~ is a hack and can not become part of the Org core:
- An Org file with ~hidestarsfile~ can not contain list items with a
  star as bullet due to the syntax conflict at read time. Mark
  E. Shoulson suggested to use the non-breaking space which is now
  implemented in fileconversion as ~nbspstarsfile~ as an alternative
  for ~hidestarsfile~. Although I don't recommend it because an editor
  like typically e. g. Emacs may render the non-breaking space
  differently from the space ~0x20~.
- An Org file with ~hidestarsfile~ can almost not be edited with an
  Org mode without added functionality of hidestarsfile as long as the
  file is not converted back.

*** Headings in Markdown Format (markdownstarsfile)
    :CUSTOM_ID: markdownstarsfile
#+index: Conversion!fileconversion markdownstarsfile

Together with ~oddeven~ you can use ~markdownstarsfile~ to be readable
or even basically editable with Markdown (does not make much sense
with ~odd~, see ~org-convert-to-odd-levels~ and
~org-convert-to-oddeven-levels~ for how to convert).

Example of the *file content*:

  ,#+STARTUP: oddeven markdownstarsfile
  # section level 1
    1. first item of numbered list (same format in Org and Markdown)
  ## section level 2
     - first item of unordered list (same format in Org and Markdown)
  ### section level 3
      + first item of unordered list (same format in Org and Markdown)
  #### section level 4
       * first item of unordered list (same format in Org and Markdown)
       * avoid this item type to be compatible with Org hidestarsfile

An Org file with ~markdownstarsfile~ can not contain code comment
lines prefixed with ~#~, even not when within source blocks.

*** emacs-lisp code
    :CUSTOM_ID: fileconversion-code
#+index: Conversion!fileconversion emacs-lisp code

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
  ;; - fileconversion version 0.10
  ;; - DISCLAIMER: Make a backup of your Org files before trying
  ;;   `f-org-fileconv-*'. It is recommended to use a version control
  ;;   system like git and to review and commit the changes in the Org
  ;;   files regularly.
  ;; - Supported "#+STARTUP:" formats: "hidestarsfile",
  ;;   "nbspstarsfile", "markdownstarsfile".

  ;; Design summary: fileconversion is a round robin of two states linked by
  ;; two actions:
  ;; - State `v-org-fileconv-level-org-p' is nil: The level is "file"
  ;;   (encoded).
  ;; - Action `f-org-fileconv-decode': Replace file char with "*".
  ;; - State `v-org-fileconv-level-org-p' is non-nil: The level is "Org"
  ;;   (decoded).
  ;; - Action `f-org-fileconv-encode': Replace "*" with file char.
  ;; Naming convention of prefix:
  ;; - f-[...]: "my function", instead of the unspecific prefix `my-*'.
  ;; - v-[...]: "my variable", instead of the unspecific prefix `my-*'.

  (defvar v-org-fileconv-level-org-p nil
    "Whether level of buffer is Org or only file.
  nil: level is file (encoded), non-nil: level is Org (decoded).")
  (make-variable-buffer-local 'v-org-fileconv-level-org-p)
  ;; Survive a change of major mode that does `kill-all-local-variables', e.
  ;; g. when reentering Org mode through "C-c C-c" on a #+STARTUP: line.
  (put 'v-org-fileconv-level-org-p 'permanent-local t)

  ;; * Callback `f-org-fileconv-org-mode-beg' before `org-mode'
  (defadvice org-mode (before org-mode-advice-before-fileconv)
  (ad-activate 'org-mode)
  (defun f-org-fileconv-org-mode-beg ()
    ;; - Reason to test `buffer-file-name': Only when converting really
    ;;   from/to an Org _file_, not e. g. for a temp Org buffer unrelated to a
    ;;   file.
    ;; - No `message' to not wipe a possible "File mode specification error:".
    ;; - `f-org-fileconv-decode' in org-mode-hook would be too late for
    ;;   performance reasons, see
    (when (buffer-file-name) (f-org-fileconv-decode)))

  ;; * Callback `f-org-fileconv-org-mode-end' after `org-mode'
  (add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'f-org-fileconv-org-mode-end
            nil   ; _Prepend_ to hook to have it first.
            nil)  ; Hook addition global.
  (defun f-org-fileconv-org-mode-end ()
    ;; - Reason to test `buffer-file-name': only when converting really
    ;;   from/to an Org _file_, not e. g. for a temp Org buffer unrelated to a
    ;;   file.
    ;; - No `message' to not wipe a possible "File mode specification error:".
    (when (buffer-file-name)
      ;; - Adding this to `change-major-mode-hook' or "defadvice before" of
      ;;   org-mode would be too early and already trigger during find-file.
      ;; - Argument 4: t to limit hook addition to buffer locally, this way
      ;;   and as required the hook addition will disappear when the major
      ;;   mode of the buffer changes.
      (add-hook 'change-major-mode-hook 'f-org-fileconv-encode nil t)
      (add-hook 'before-save-hook       'f-org-fileconv-encode nil t)
      (add-hook 'after-save-hook        'f-org-fileconv-decode nil t)))

  (defun f-org-fileconv-re ()
    "Check whether there is a #+STARTUP: line for fileconversion.
  If found then return the expressions required for the conversion."
      (goto-char (point-min))  ; `beginning-of-buffer' is not allowed.
      (let (re-list (count 0))
        (while (re-search-forward "^[ \t]*#\\+STARTUP:" nil t)
          ;; #+STARTUP: hidestarsfile
          (when (string-match-p "\\bhidestarsfile\\b" (thing-at-point 'line))
            ;; Exclude e. g.:
            ;; - Line starting with star for bold emphasis.
            ;; - Line of stars to underline section title in loosely quoted
            ;;   ASCII style (star at end of line).
            (setq re-list '("\\(\\* \\)"  ; common-re
                            ?\ ))         ; file-char
            (setq count (1+ count)))
          ;; #+STARTUP: nbspstarsfile
          (when (string-match-p "\\bnbspstarsfile\\b" (thing-at-point 'line))
            (setq re-list '("\\(\\* \\)"  ; common-re
                            ?\xa0))       ; file-char non-breaking space
            (setq count (1+ count)))
          ;; #+STARTUP: markdownstarsfile
          (when (string-match-p "\\bmarkdownstarsfile\\b"
                                (thing-at-point 'line))
            ;; Exclude e. g. "#STARTUP:".
            (setq re-list '("\\( \\)"  ; common-re
                            ?#))       ; file-char
            (setq count (1+ count))))
        (when (> count 1) (error "More than one fileconversion found."))

  (defun f-org-fileconv-decode ()
    "In headings replace file char with '*'."
    (let ((re-list (f-org-fileconv-re)))
      (when (and re-list (not v-org-fileconv-level-org-p))
        ;; No `save-excursion' to be able to keep point in case of error.
        (let* ((common-re (nth 0 re-list))
               (file-char (nth 1 re-list))
               (file-re   (concat "^" (string file-char) "+" common-re))
               (org-re    (concat "^\\*+" common-re))
               (p         (point)))
          (goto-char (point-min))  ; `beginning-of-buffer' is not allowed.
          ;; Syntax check.
          (when (re-search-forward org-re nil t)
            (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
            (error "Org fileconversion decode: Syntax conflict at point."))
          (goto-char (point-min))  ; `beginning-of-buffer' is not allowed.
          ;; Substitution.
            (while (re-search-forward file-re nil t)
              (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
              ;; Faster than a lisp call of insert and delete on each single
              ;; char.
              (setq len (- (match-beginning 1) (match-beginning 0)))
              (insert-char ?* len)
              (delete-char len)))
          (goto-char p))))

          ;; Notes for ediff when only one file has fileconversion:
          ;; - The changes to the buffer with fileconversion until here are
          ;;   not regarded by `ediff-files' because the first call to diff is
          ;;   made with the bare files directly. Only `ediff-update-diffs'
          ;;   and `ediff-buffers' write the decoded buffers to temp files and
          ;;   then call diff with them.
          ;; - Workarounds (choose one):
          ;;   - After ediff-files first do a "!" (ediff-update-diffs) in the
          ;;     "*Ediff Control Panel*".
          ;;   - Instead of using `ediff-files' first open the files and then
          ;;     run `ediff-buffers' (better for e. g. a script that takes two
          ;;     files as arguments and uses "emacs --eval").

    ;; The level is Org most of all when no fileconversion is in effect.
    (setq v-org-fileconv-level-org-p t))

  (defun f-org-fileconv-encode ()
    "In headings replace '*' with file char."
    (let ((re-list (f-org-fileconv-re)))
      (when (and re-list v-org-fileconv-level-org-p)
        ;; No `save-excursion' to be able to keep point in case of error.
        (let* ((common-re (nth 0 re-list))
               (file-char (nth 1 re-list))
               (file-re   (concat "^" (string file-char) "+" common-re))
               (org-re    (concat "^\\*+" common-re))
               (p         (point)))
          (goto-char (point-min))  ; `beginning-of-buffer' is not allowed.
          ;; Syntax check.
          (when (re-search-forward file-re nil t)
            (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
            (error "Org fileconversion encode: Syntax conflict at point."))
          (goto-char (point-min))  ; `beginning-of-buffer' is not allowed.
          ;; Substitution.
            (while (re-search-forward org-re nil t)
              (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
              ;; Faster than a lisp call of insert and delete on each single
              ;; char.
              (setq len (- (match-beginning 1) (match-beginning 0)))
              (insert-char file-char len)
              (delete-char len)))
          (goto-char p)
          (setq v-org-fileconv-level-org-p nil))))
    nil)  ; For the hook.

Michael Brand

** Meaningful diff for org files in a git repository
#+index: git!diff org files
Since most diff utilities are primarily meant for source code, it is
difficult to read diffs of text files like files easily. If you
version your org directory with a SCM like git you will know what I
mean. However for git, there is a way around. You can use
=gitattributes= to define a custom diff driver for org files. Then a
regular expression can be used to configure how the diff driver
recognises a "function".

Put the following in your =/.gitattributes=.
: *.org	diff=org
Then put the following lines in =/.git/config=
: [diff "org"]
: 	xfuncname = "^(\\*+ [a-zA-Z0-9]+.+)$"

This will let you see diffs for org files with each hunk identified by
the unmodified headline closest to the changes. After the
configuration a diff should look something like the example below.

diff --git a/ b/
index a0672ea..92a08f7 100644
--- a/
+++ b/
@@ -2495,6 +2495,22 @@ ** Script (thru procmail) to output emails to an Org file

 Everything is documented [[][here]].

+** Meaningful diff for org files in a git repository
+Since most diff utilities are primarily meant for source code, it is
+difficult to read diffs of text files like files easily. If you
+version your org directory with a SCM like git you will know what I
+mean. However for git, there is a way around. You can use
+=gitattributes= to define a custom diff driver for org files. Then a
+regular expression can be used to configure how the diff driver
+recognises a "function".
+Put the following in your =/.gitattributes=.
+: *.org	diff=org
+Then put the following lines in =/.git/config=
+: [diff "org"]
+: 	xfuncname = "^(\\*+ [a-zA-Z0-9]+.+)$"
 * Musings

 ** Cooking?  Brewing?

** Opening devonthink links

John Wiegley wrote [[][org-devonthink.el]], which lets you handle devonthink
links from org-mode.

** Memacs - Org-mode collecting meta-data from the disk and cloud

Karl Voit designed Memacs ([[][Memex]] and Emacs) which is a collection of
modules that are able to get meta-data from different kind of
sources. Memacs then generates output files containing meta-data in
Org-mode format. Those files a most likely integrated as ~*.org_archive~
files in your agenda.

This way, you can get a pretty decent overview of your (digital) life:
- file name timestamps ([[][ISO 8601]]; like "2013-10-11 Product Demonstration.odp")
- emails (IMAP, POP, Maildir, mbox)
- RSS feeds (blog updates, ... *lots* of possibilities there!)
- version system commits (SVN, git)
- calendar (iCal, CSV)
- text messages from your phone (Android)
- phone calls (Android)
- photographs (EXIF)
- bank accounts ([[][easybank]])
- usenet postings (slrn, mbox, ...)
- XML (a sub-set of easy-to-parse XML files can be parsed with minimal

General idea: you set up the module(s) you would like to use once and
they are running in the background. As long as the data source does
not change, you should not have to worry about the module again.

It is hard to explain the vast amount of (small) benefits you get once
you have set up your Memacs modules.

There is [[][a whitepaper which describes Memacs]] and its implications.

Memacs is [[][hosted on github]] and is written in Python.

You can use Memacs to write your own Memacs module: an example module
demonstrates how to write modules with very low effort. Please
consider a pull request on github so that other people can use your
module as well!

[[][Twitter JSON to Org-mode]] generates Memacs-like output files for
[[][Twitter export archives]] (JSON) but is independent of Memacs.

* Musings

** Cooking?  Brewing?
#+index: beer!brewing
#+index: cooking!conversions
See [[][this message]] from Erik Hetzner:

It currently does metric/english conversion, and a few other tricks.
Basically I just use calc’s units code.  I think scaling recipes, or
turning percentages into weights would be pretty easy.

There is also, for those interested:

for brewing beer. This is again, mostly just calc functions, including
hydrometer correction, abv calculation, priming sugar for a given CO_2
volume, etc. More integration with org-mode should be possible: for
instance it would be nice to be able to use a lookup table (of ingredients)
to calculate target original gravity, IBUs, etc.