org.texi 771 KB

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  1. \input texinfo @c -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org.info
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include docstyle.texi
  6. @include org-version.inc
  7. @c Version and Contact Info
  8. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{https://orgmode.org,maintainers web page}
  9. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  10. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  11. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  12. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  13. @c %**end of header
  14. @finalout
  15. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  16. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  17. @c =======================================
  18. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  19. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  20. @set cmdnames
  21. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  22. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  23. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  24. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  25. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  26. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  27. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  28. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  29. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  30. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  31. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  32. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  33. @c a key but no command
  34. @c Inserts: @item key
  35. @macro orgkey{key}
  36. @kindex \key\
  37. @item @kbd{\key\}
  38. @end macro
  39. @macro xorgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @c one key with a command
  44. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  45. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  46. @ifset cmdnames
  47. @kindex \key\
  48. @findex \command\
  49. @iftex
  50. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  51. @end iftex
  52. @ifnottex
  53. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  54. @end ifnottex
  55. @end ifset
  56. @ifclear cmdnames
  57. @kindex \key\
  58. @item @kbd{\key\}
  59. @end ifclear
  60. @end macro
  61. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  62. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  63. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  64. @ifset cmdnames
  65. @kindex \key\
  66. @findex \command\
  67. @iftex
  68. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  69. @end iftex
  70. @ifnottex
  71. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  72. @end ifnottex
  73. @end ifset
  74. @ifclear cmdnames
  75. @kindex \key\
  76. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  77. @end ifclear
  78. @end macro
  79. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  80. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  81. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  82. @ifset cmdnames
  83. @findex \command\
  84. @iftex
  85. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  86. @end iftex
  87. @ifnottex
  88. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  89. @end ifnottex
  90. @end ifset
  91. @ifclear cmdnames
  92. @item @kbd{\key\}
  93. @end ifclear
  94. @end macro
  95. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  96. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  97. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  98. @ifset cmdnames
  99. @kindex \key\
  100. @findex \command\
  101. @iftex
  102. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  103. @end iftex
  104. @ifnottex
  105. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  106. @end ifnottex
  107. @end ifset
  108. @ifclear cmdnames
  109. @kindex \key\
  110. @item @kbd{\text\}
  111. @end ifclear
  112. @end macro
  113. @c two keys with one command
  114. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  115. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  116. @ifset cmdnames
  117. @kindex \key1\
  118. @kindex \key2\
  119. @findex \command\
  120. @iftex
  121. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  122. @end iftex
  123. @ifnottex
  124. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  125. @end ifnottex
  126. @end ifset
  127. @ifclear cmdnames
  128. @kindex \key1\
  129. @kindex \key2\
  130. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  131. @end ifclear
  132. @end macro
  133. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  134. @c @itemx
  135. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  136. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  137. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  138. @ifset cmdnames
  139. @kindex \key1\
  140. @kindex \key2\
  141. @findex \command\
  142. @iftex
  143. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  144. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  145. @end iftex
  146. @ifnottex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  149. @end ifnottex
  150. @end ifset
  151. @ifclear cmdnames
  152. @kindex \key1\
  153. @kindex \key2\
  154. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  155. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  156. @end ifclear
  157. @end macro
  158. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  159. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  160. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  161. @ifset cmdnames
  162. @kindex \key1\
  163. @kindex \key2\
  164. @findex \command\
  165. @iftex
  166. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  167. @end iftex
  168. @ifnottex
  169. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  170. @end ifnottex
  171. @end ifset
  172. @ifclear cmdnames
  173. @kindex \key1\
  174. @kindex \key2\
  175. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  176. @end ifclear
  177. @end macro
  178. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  179. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  180. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  181. @ifset cmdnames
  182. @kindex \key1\
  183. @kindex \key2\
  184. @findex \command\
  185. @iftex
  186. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  187. @end iftex
  188. @ifnottex
  189. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  190. @end ifnottex
  191. @end ifset
  192. @ifclear cmdnames
  193. @kindex \key1\
  194. @kindex \key2\
  195. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  196. @end ifclear
  197. @end macro
  198. @c two keys with two commands
  199. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  200. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  201. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  202. @ifset cmdnames
  203. @kindex \key1\
  204. @kindex \key2\
  205. @findex \command1\
  206. @findex \command2\
  207. @iftex
  208. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  209. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  210. @end iftex
  211. @ifnottex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  214. @end ifnottex
  215. @end ifset
  216. @ifclear cmdnames
  217. @kindex \key1\
  218. @kindex \key2\
  219. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  220. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  221. @end ifclear
  222. @end macro
  223. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  224. @iftex
  225. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  226. @end iftex
  227. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  228. @macro tsubheading{text}
  229. @ifinfo
  230. @subsubheading \text\
  231. @end ifinfo
  232. @ifnotinfo
  233. @item @b{\text\}
  234. @end ifnotinfo
  235. @end macro
  236. @copying
  237. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  238. Copyright @copyright{} 2004--2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  239. @quotation
  240. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  241. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  242. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  243. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  244. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  245. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  246. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  247. modify this GNU manual.''
  248. @end quotation
  249. @end copying
  250. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  251. @direntry
  252. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  253. @end direntry
  254. @titlepage
  255. @title The Org Manual
  256. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  257. @author by Carsten Dominik
  258. with contributions by Bastien Guerry, Nicolas Goaziou, Eric Schulte,
  259. Jambunathan K, Dan Davison, Thomas Dye, David O'Toole, and Philip Rooke.
  260. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  261. @page
  262. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  263. @insertcopying
  264. @end titlepage
  265. @c Output the short table of contents at the beginning.
  266. @shortcontents
  267. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  268. @contents
  269. @ifnottex
  270. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  271. @top Org Mode Manual
  272. @insertcopying
  273. @end ifnottex
  274. @menu
  275. * Introduction:: Getting started
  276. * Document structure:: A tree works like your brain
  277. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  278. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  279. * TODO items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  280. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  281. * Properties and columns:: Storing information about an entry
  282. * Dates and times:: Making items useful for planning
  283. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  284. * Agenda views:: Collecting information into views
  285. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  286. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing notes
  287. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  288. * Working with source code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  289. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  290. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  291. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  292. * History and acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  293. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
  294. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  295. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  296. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  297. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  298. @detailmenu
  299. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  300. Introduction
  301. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  302. * Installation:: Installing Org
  303. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  304. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  305. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  306. Document structure
  307. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  308. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  309. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  310. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  311. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  312. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  313. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  314. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  315. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  316. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  317. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  318. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  319. Visibility cycling
  320. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  321. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  322. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  323. Tables
  324. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  325. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  326. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  327. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  328. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  329. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  330. The spreadsheet
  331. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  332. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  333. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  334. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  335. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  336. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  337. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  338. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  339. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  340. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  341. Hyperlinks
  342. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  343. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  344. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  345. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  346. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  347. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  348. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  349. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  350. Internal links
  351. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  352. TODO items
  353. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  354. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  355. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  356. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  357. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  358. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  359. Extended use of TODO keywords
  360. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  361. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  362. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  363. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  364. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  365. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  366. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  367. Progress logging
  368. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  369. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  370. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  371. Tags
  372. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  373. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  374. * Tag hierarchy:: Create a hierarchy of tags
  375. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  376. Properties and columns
  377. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  378. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  379. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  380. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  381. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  382. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  383. Column view
  384. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  385. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  386. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  387. Defining columns
  388. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  389. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  390. Dates and times
  391. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  392. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  393. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  394. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  395. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  396. * Timers:: Notes with a running timer
  397. Creating timestamps
  398. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  399. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  400. Deadlines and scheduling
  401. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  402. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  403. Clocking work time
  404. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  405. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  406. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  407. Capture - Refile - Archive
  408. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  409. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  410. * RSS feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  411. * Protocols:: External (e.g., Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  412. * Refile and copy:: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another
  413. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  414. Capture
  415. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  416. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  417. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  418. Capture templates
  419. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  420. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  421. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context
  422. Protocols for external access
  423. * @code{store-link} protocol:: Store a link, push URL to kill-ring.
  424. * @code{capture} protocol:: Fill a buffer with external information.
  425. * @code{open-source} protocol:: Edit published contents.
  426. Archiving
  427. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  428. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  429. Agenda views
  430. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  431. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  432. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  433. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  434. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  435. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  436. * Exporting agenda views:: Writing a view to a file
  437. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  438. The built-in agenda views
  439. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  440. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  441. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  442. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  443. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  444. Presentation and sorting
  445. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  446. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  447. * Sorting agenda items:: The order of things
  448. * Filtering/limiting agenda items:: Dynamically narrow the agenda
  449. Custom agenda views
  450. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  451. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  452. * Setting options:: Changing the rules
  453. Markup for rich export
  454. * Paragraphs:: The basic unit of text
  455. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  456. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  457. * Images and tables:: Images, tables and caption mechanism
  458. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  459. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  460. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  461. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  462. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  463. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  464. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  465. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  466. Exporting
  467. * The export dispatcher:: The main interface
  468. * Export settings:: Common export settings
  469. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  470. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  471. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create templates
  472. * Comment lines:: What will not be exported
  473. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  474. * Beamer export:: Exporting as a Beamer presentation
  475. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  476. * @LaTeX{} export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  477. * Markdown export:: Exporting to Markdown
  478. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  479. * Org export:: Exporting to Org
  480. * Texinfo export:: Exporting to Texinfo
  481. * iCalendar export:: Exporting to iCalendar
  482. * Other built-in back-ends:: Exporting to a man page
  483. * Advanced configuration:: Fine-tuning the export output
  484. * Export in foreign buffers:: Author tables and lists in Org syntax
  485. Beamer export
  486. * Beamer export commands:: For creating Beamer documents.
  487. * Beamer specific export settings:: For customizing Beamer export.
  488. * Sectioning Frames and Blocks in Beamer:: For composing Beamer slides.
  489. * Beamer specific syntax:: For using in Org documents.
  490. * Editing support:: For using helper functions.
  491. * A Beamer example:: A complete presentation.
  492. HTML export
  493. * HTML Export commands:: Invoking HTML export
  494. * HTML Specific export settings:: Settings for HTML export
  495. * HTML doctypes:: Exporting various (X)HTML flavors
  496. * HTML preamble and postamble:: Inserting preamble and postamble
  497. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org files
  498. * Links in HTML export:: Interpreting and formatting links
  499. * Tables in HTML export:: Formatting and modifying tables
  500. * Images in HTML export:: Inserting figures with HTML output
  501. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Handling math equations
  502. * Text areas in HTML export:: Showing an alternate approach, an example
  503. * CSS support:: Styling HTML output
  504. * JavaScript support:: Folding scripting in the web browser
  505. @LaTeX{} export
  506. * @LaTeX{} export commands:: For producing @LaTeX{} and PDF documents.
  507. * @LaTeX{} specific export settings:: Unique to this @LaTeX{} back-end.
  508. * @LaTeX{} header and sectioning:: For file structure.
  509. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Directly in the Org document.
  510. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to tables.
  511. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to images.
  512. * Plain lists in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to lists.
  513. * Source blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to source code blocks.
  514. * Example blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to example blocks.
  515. * Special blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to special blocks.
  516. * Horizontal rules in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to horizontal rules.
  517. OpenDocument Text export
  518. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: Required packages.
  519. * ODT export commands:: Invoking export.
  520. * ODT specific export settings:: Configuration options.
  521. * Extending ODT export:: Producing @file{.doc}, @file{.pdf} files.
  522. * Applying custom styles:: Styling the output.
  523. * Links in ODT export:: Handling and formatting links.
  524. * Tables in ODT export:: Org table conversions.
  525. * Images in ODT export:: Inserting images.
  526. * Math formatting in ODT export:: Formatting @LaTeX{} fragments.
  527. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: Rendering objects.
  528. * Literal examples in ODT export:: For source code and example blocks.
  529. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: For power users.
  530. Math formatting in ODT export
  531. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: Embedding in @LaTeX{} format.
  532. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: Embedding in native format.
  533. Advanced topics in ODT export
  534. * Configuring a document converter:: Registering a document converter.
  535. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Exploring internals.
  536. * Creating one-off styles:: Customizing styles, highlighting.
  537. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: Defining table templates.
  538. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: Debugging corrupted OpenDocument files.
  539. Texinfo export
  540. * Texinfo export commands:: Invoking commands.
  541. * Texinfo specific export settings:: Setting the environment.
  542. * Texinfo file header:: Generating the header.
  543. * Texinfo title and copyright page:: Creating preamble pages.
  544. * Info directory file:: Installing a manual in Info file hierarchy.
  545. * Headings and sectioning structure:: Building document structure.
  546. * Indices:: Creating indices.
  547. * Quoting Texinfo code:: Incorporating literal Texinfo code.
  548. * Plain lists in Texinfo export:: List attributes.
  549. * Tables in Texinfo export:: Table attributes.
  550. * Images in Texinfo export:: Image attributes.
  551. * Special blocks in Texinfo export:: Special block attributes.
  552. * A Texinfo example:: Processing Org to Texinfo.
  553. Publishing
  554. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  555. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  556. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  557. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  558. Configuration
  559. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  560. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  561. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  562. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  563. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  564. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  565. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  566. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  567. Sample configuration
  568. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  569. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  570. Working with source code
  571. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  572. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  573. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  574. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  575. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  576. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  577. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  578. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  579. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  580. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  581. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  582. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  583. Header arguments
  584. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  585. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  586. Using header arguments
  587. * System-wide header arguments:: Set globally, language-specific
  588. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set in the Org file's headers
  589. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set in the Org file
  590. * Language-specific mode properties::
  591. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most commonly used method
  592. * Arguments in function calls:: The most specific level, takes highest priority
  593. Specific header arguments
  594. * var:: Pass arguments to @samp{src} code blocks
  595. * results:: Specify results type; how to collect
  596. * file:: Specify a path for output file
  597. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  598. * file-ext:: Specify an extension for file output
  599. * output-dir:: Specify a directory for output file
  600. * dir:: Specify the default directory for code block execution
  601. * exports:: Specify exporting code, results, both, none
  602. * tangle:: Toggle tangling; or specify file name
  603. * mkdirp:: Toggle for parent directory creation for target files during tangling
  604. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled code files
  605. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled code files
  606. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb expansion during tangling
  607. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  608. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  609. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  610. * noweb-sep:: String to separate noweb references
  611. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  612. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  613. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  614. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  615. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  616. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  617. * tangle-mode:: Set permission of tangled files
  618. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  619. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  620. * post:: Post processing of results of code block evaluation
  621. * prologue:: Text to prepend to body of code block
  622. * epilogue:: Text to append to body of code block
  623. Miscellaneous
  624. * Completion:: M-@key{TAB} guesses completions
  625. * Easy templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  626. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  627. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  628. * Customization:: Adapting Org to changing tastes
  629. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  630. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  631. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  632. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  633. * Interaction:: With other Emacs packages
  634. * org-crypt:: Encrypting Org files
  635. Interaction with other packages
  636. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  637. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  638. Hacking
  639. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  640. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  641. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  642. * Adding export back-ends:: How to write new export back-ends
  643. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  644. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  645. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  646. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  647. * Speeding up your agendas:: Tips on how to speed up your agendas
  648. * Extracting agenda information:: Post-processing of agenda information
  649. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  650. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  651. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  652. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  653. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  654. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  655. * Radio lists:: Sending and receiving lists
  656. MobileOrg
  657. * Setting up the staging area:: For the mobile device
  658. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  659. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  660. @end detailmenu
  661. @end menu
  662. @node Introduction
  663. @chapter Introduction
  664. @cindex introduction
  665. @menu
  666. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  667. * Installation:: Installing Org
  668. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  669. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  670. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  671. @end menu
  672. @node Summary
  673. @section Summary
  674. @cindex summary
  675. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and project planning
  676. with a fast and effective plain-text system. It also is an authoring system
  677. with unique support for literate programming and reproducible research.
  678. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep
  679. the content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and structure
  680. editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created with a
  681. built-in table editor. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites,
  682. emails, Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  683. Org develops organizational tasks around notes files that contain lists or
  684. information about projects as plain text. Project planning and task
  685. management makes use of metadata which is part of an outline node. Based on
  686. this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and create dynamic
  687. @i{agenda views} that also integrate the Emacs calendar and diary. Org can
  688. be used to implement many different project planning schemes, such as David
  689. Allen's GTD system.
  690. Org files can serve as a single source authoring system with export to many
  691. different formats such as HTML, @LaTeX{}, Open Document, and Markdown. New
  692. export backends can be derived from existing ones, or defined from scratch.
  693. Org files can include source code blocks, which makes Org uniquely suited for
  694. authoring technical documents with code examples. Org source code blocks are
  695. fully functional; they can be evaluated in place and their results can be
  696. captured in the file. This makes it possible to create a single file
  697. reproducible research compendium.
  698. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should feel like a
  699. straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not imposed, but a
  700. large amount of functionality is available when needed. Org is a toolbox.
  701. Many users actually run only a (very personal) fraction of Org's capabilities, and
  702. know that there is more whenever they need it.
  703. All of this is achieved with strictly plain text files, the most portable and
  704. future-proof file format. Org runs in Emacs. Emacs is one of the most
  705. widely ported programs, so that Org mode is available on every major
  706. platform.
  707. @cindex FAQ
  708. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  709. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  710. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc. This page is located at
  711. @uref{https://orgmode.org}.
  712. @cindex print edition
  713. An earlier version (7.3) of this manual is available as a
  714. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from
  715. Network Theory Ltd.}
  716. @page
  717. @node Installation
  718. @section Installation
  719. @cindex installation
  720. Org is part of recent distributions of GNU Emacs, so you normally don't need
  721. to install it. If, for one reason or another, you want to install Org on top
  722. of this pre-packaged version, there are three ways to do it:
  723. @itemize @bullet
  724. @item By using Emacs package system.
  725. @item By downloading Org as an archive.
  726. @item By using Org's git repository.
  727. @end itemize
  728. We @b{strongly recommend} to stick to a single installation method.
  729. @subsubheading Using Emacs packaging system
  730. Recent Emacs distributions include a packaging system which lets you install
  731. Elisp libraries. You can install Org with @kbd{M-x package-install @key{RET}
  732. org}.
  733. @noindent @b{Important}: you need to do this in a session where no @code{.org} file has
  734. been visited, i.e., where no Org built-in function have been loaded.
  735. Otherwise autoload Org functions will mess up the installation.
  736. Then, to make sure your Org configuration is taken into account, initialize
  737. the package system with @code{(package-initialize)} in your Emacs init file
  738. before setting any Org option. If you want to use Org's package repository,
  739. check out the @uref{https://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}.
  740. @subsubheading Downloading Org as an archive
  741. You can download Org latest release from @uref{https://orgmode.org/, Org's
  742. website}. In this case, make sure you set the load-path correctly in your
  743. Emacs init file:
  744. @lisp
  745. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  746. @end lisp
  747. The downloaded archive contains contributed libraries that are not included
  748. in Emacs. If you want to use them, add the @file{contrib} directory to your
  749. load-path:
  750. @lisp
  751. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  752. @end lisp
  753. Optionally, you can compile the files and/or install them in your system.
  754. Run @code{make help} to list compilation and installation options.
  755. @subsubheading Using Org's git repository
  756. You can clone Org's repository and install Org like this:
  757. @example
  758. $ cd ~/src/
  759. $ git clone https://code.orgmode.org/bzg/org-mode.git
  760. $ cd org-mode/
  761. $ make autoloads
  762. @end example
  763. Note that in this case, @code{make autoloads} is mandatory: it defines Org's
  764. version in @file{org-version.el} and Org's autoloads in
  765. @file{org-loaddefs.el}.
  766. Remember to add the correct load-path as described in the method above.
  767. You can also compile with @code{make}, generate the documentation with
  768. @code{make doc}, create a local configuration with @code{make config} and
  769. install Org with @code{make install}. Please run @code{make help} to get
  770. the list of compilation/installation options.
  771. For more detailed explanations on Org's build system, please check the Org
  772. Build System page on @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html,
  773. Worg}.
  774. @node Activation
  775. @section Activation
  776. @cindex activation
  777. @cindex autoload
  778. @cindex ELPA
  779. @cindex global key bindings
  780. @cindex key bindings, global
  781. @findex org-agenda
  782. @findex org-capture
  783. @findex org-store-link
  784. @findex org-switchb
  785. Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on: this is the default in
  786. Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer
  787. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  788. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  789. packages, please take the time to check the list (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  790. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  791. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-switchb} should be accessible through
  792. global keys (i.e., anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  793. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  794. liking.
  795. @lisp
  796. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  797. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  798. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  799. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-switchb)
  800. @end lisp
  801. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  802. Files with the @file{.org} extension use Org mode by default. To turn on Org
  803. mode in a file that does not have the extension @file{.org}, make the first
  804. line of a file look like this:
  805. @example
  806. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  807. @end example
  808. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  809. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  810. the file's name is. See also the variable
  811. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  812. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  813. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode} turned on, which is
  814. the default. If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create
  815. an active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  816. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  817. @node Feedback
  818. @section Feedback
  819. @cindex feedback
  820. @cindex bug reports
  821. @cindex maintainer
  822. @cindex author
  823. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  824. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  825. You can subscribe to the list
  826. @uref{https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/emacs-orgmode, on this web page}.
  827. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  828. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  829. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  830. moderators have to do.}.
  831. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  832. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  833. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  834. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  835. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  836. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in the
  837. Emacs init file. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  838. @example
  839. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report @key{RET}}
  840. @end example
  841. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  842. that you only need to add your description. If you are not sending the Email
  843. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  844. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  845. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  846. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  847. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  848. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  849. @example
  850. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  851. @end example
  852. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  853. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as
  854. @code{emacs -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  855. shown below.
  856. @lisp
  857. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest 'org-mode'
  858. ;; activate debugging
  859. (setq debug-on-error t
  860. debug-on-signal nil
  861. debug-on-quit nil)
  862. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  863. (add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/org-mode/lisp")
  864. (add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t)
  865. @end lisp
  866. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  867. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  868. about:
  869. @enumerate
  870. @item What exactly did you do?
  871. @item What did you expect to happen?
  872. @item What happened instead?
  873. @end enumerate
  874. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  875. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  876. @cindex backtrace of an error
  877. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  878. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  879. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  880. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  881. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  882. @enumerate
  883. @item
  884. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  885. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  886. To do this, use
  887. @example
  888. @kbd{C-u M-x org-reload @key{RET}}
  889. @end example
  890. @noindent
  891. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  892. menu.
  893. @item
  894. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}.
  895. @item
  896. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  897. document the steps you take.
  898. @item
  899. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  900. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  901. attach it to your bug report.
  902. @end enumerate
  903. @node Conventions
  904. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  905. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  906. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  907. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  908. @table @code
  909. @item TODO
  910. @itemx WAITING
  911. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  912. user-defined.
  913. @item boss
  914. @itemx ARCHIVE
  915. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  916. meaning are written with all capitals.
  917. @item Release
  918. @itemx PRIORITY
  919. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  920. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  921. @end table
  922. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  923. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_EXPORT html} to start
  924. a @code{HTML} environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to
  925. enhance its readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org file.
  926. @subsubheading Key bindings and commands
  927. @kindex C-c a
  928. @findex org-agenda
  929. @kindex C-c c
  930. @findex org-capture
  931. The manual suggests a few global key bindings, in particular @kbd{C-c a} for
  932. @code{org-agenda} and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only
  933. suggestions, but the rest of the manual assumes that these key bindings are in
  934. place in order to list commands by key access.
  935. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  936. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  937. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  938. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  939. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  940. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{RIGHT}} will
  941. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  942. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  943. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  944. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  945. @node Document structure
  946. @chapter Document structure
  947. @cindex document structure
  948. @cindex structure of document
  949. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  950. edit the structure of the document.
  951. @menu
  952. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  953. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  954. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  955. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  956. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  957. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  958. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  959. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  960. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  961. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  962. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  963. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  964. @end menu
  965. @node Outlines
  966. @section Outlines
  967. @cindex outlines
  968. @cindex Outline mode
  969. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  970. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  971. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  972. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  973. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  974. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  975. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  976. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  977. @node Headlines
  978. @section Headlines
  979. @cindex headlines
  980. @cindex outline tree
  981. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  982. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  983. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  984. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  985. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  986. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  987. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  988. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  989. headings indented less than 30 stars.}. For example:
  990. @example
  991. * Top level headline
  992. ** Second level
  993. *** 3rd level
  994. some text
  995. *** 3rd level
  996. more text
  997. * Another top level headline
  998. @end example
  999. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1000. @noindent Note that a headline named after @code{org-footnote-section},
  1001. which defaults to @samp{Footnotes}, is considered as special. A subtree with
  1002. this headline will be silently ignored by exporting functions.
  1003. Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  1004. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  1005. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  1006. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  1007. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  1008. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  1009. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  1010. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  1011. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  1012. @node Visibility cycling
  1013. @section Visibility cycling
  1014. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1015. @cindex visibility cycling
  1016. @cindex trees, visibility
  1017. @cindex show hidden text
  1018. @cindex hide text
  1019. @menu
  1020. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  1021. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  1022. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  1023. @end menu
  1024. @node Global and local cycling
  1025. @subsection Global and local cycling
  1026. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1027. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1028. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1029. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1030. @cindex subtree cycling
  1031. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1032. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1033. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1034. @table @asis
  1035. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1036. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1037. @example
  1038. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1039. '-----------------------------------'
  1040. @end example
  1041. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1042. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1043. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}.
  1044. @cindex global visibility states
  1045. @cindex global cycling
  1046. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1047. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1048. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1049. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1050. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1051. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1052. @example
  1053. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1054. '--------------------------------------'
  1055. @end example
  1056. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1057. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1058. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1059. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1060. You can run global cycling using @key{TAB} only if point is at the very
  1061. beginning of the buffer, but not on a headline, and
  1062. @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob} is set to a non-@code{nil} value.
  1063. @cindex set startup visibility, command
  1064. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1065. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer (@pxref{Initial visibility}).
  1066. @cindex show all, command
  1067. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},outline-show-all}
  1068. Show all, including drawers.
  1069. @cindex revealing context
  1070. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1071. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1072. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1073. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1074. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1075. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1076. entire subtree of the parent.
  1077. @cindex show branches, command
  1078. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,outline-show-branches}
  1079. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENTS view for just one subtree.
  1080. @cindex show children, command
  1081. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},outline-show-children}
  1082. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1083. expose all children down to level N@.
  1084. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1085. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect buffer
  1086. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual}) will contain the entire
  1087. buffer, but will be narrowed to the current tree. Editing the indirect
  1088. buffer will also change the original buffer, but without affecting visibility
  1089. in that buffer.}. With a numeric prefix argument N, go up to level N and
  1090. then take that tree. If N is negative then go up that many levels. With
  1091. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove the previously used indirect buffer.
  1092. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1093. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1094. @end table
  1095. @node Initial visibility
  1096. @subsection Initial visibility
  1097. @cindex visibility, initialize
  1098. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1099. @vindex org-agenda-inhibit-startup
  1100. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1101. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1102. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1103. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1104. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to OVERVIEW,
  1105. i.e., only the top level headlines are visible@footnote{When
  1106. @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} is non-@code{nil}, Org will not honor the default
  1107. visibility state when first opening a file for the agenda (@pxref{Speeding up
  1108. your agendas}).}. This can be configured through the variable
  1109. @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a per-file basis by adding one of the
  1110. following lines anywhere in the buffer:
  1111. @example
  1112. #+STARTUP: overview
  1113. #+STARTUP: content
  1114. #+STARTUP: showall
  1115. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1116. @end example
  1117. @cindex property, @code{VISIBILITY}
  1118. @noindent
  1119. Furthermore, any entries with a @code{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1120. and columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1121. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1122. @code{all}.
  1123. @table @asis
  1124. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1125. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e., whatever is
  1126. requested by startup options and @code{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1127. entries.
  1128. @end table
  1129. @node Catching invisible edits
  1130. @subsection Catching invisible edits
  1131. @vindex org-catch-invisible-edits
  1132. @cindex edits, catching invisible
  1133. Sometimes you may inadvertently edit an invisible part of the buffer and be
  1134. confused on what has been edited and how to undo the mistake. Setting
  1135. @code{org-catch-invisible-edits} to non-@code{nil} will help prevent this. See the
  1136. docstring of this option on how Org should catch invisible edits and process
  1137. them.
  1138. @node Motion
  1139. @section Motion
  1140. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1141. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1142. @cindex headline navigation
  1143. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1144. @table @asis
  1145. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,org-next-visible-heading}
  1146. Next heading.
  1147. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,org-previous-visible-heading}
  1148. Previous heading.
  1149. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1150. Next heading same level.
  1151. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1152. Previous heading same level.
  1153. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1154. Backward to higher level heading.
  1155. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1156. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1157. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1158. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1159. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1160. @example
  1161. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1162. @key{DOWN} / @key{UP} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1163. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1164. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1165. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1166. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1167. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1168. u @r{One level up.}
  1169. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1170. q @r{Quit}
  1171. @end example
  1172. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1173. @noindent
  1174. See also the option @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1175. @end table
  1176. @node Structure editing
  1177. @section Structure editing
  1178. @cindex structure editing
  1179. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1180. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1181. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1182. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1183. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1184. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1185. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1186. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1187. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1188. @table @asis
  1189. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-meta-return}
  1190. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1191. Insert a new heading, item or row.
  1192. If the command is used at the @emph{beginning} of a line, and if there is
  1193. a heading or a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}) at point, the new
  1194. heading/item is created @emph{before} the current line. When used at the
  1195. beginning of a regular line of text, turn that line into a heading.
  1196. When this command is used in the middle of a line, the line is split and the
  1197. rest of the line becomes the new item or headline. If you do not want the
  1198. line to be split, customize @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.
  1199. Calling the command with a @kbd{C-u} prefix unconditionally inserts a new
  1200. heading at the end of the current subtree, thus preserving its contents.
  1201. With a double @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix, the new heading is created at the end of
  1202. the parent subtree instead.
  1203. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1204. Insert a new heading at the end of the current subtree.
  1205. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1206. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1207. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1208. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1209. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1210. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1211. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1212. subtree.
  1213. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1214. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1215. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1216. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1217. to the initial level.
  1218. @orgcmd{M-@key{LEFT},org-do-promote}
  1219. Promote current heading by one level.
  1220. @orgcmd{M-@key{RIGHT},org-do-demote}
  1221. Demote current heading by one level.
  1222. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{LEFT},org-promote-subtree}
  1223. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1224. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RIGHT},org-demote-subtree}
  1225. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1226. @orgcmd{M-@key{UP},org-move-subtree-up}
  1227. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1228. level).
  1229. @orgcmd{M-@key{DOWN},org-move-subtree-down}
  1230. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1231. @orgcmd{M-h,org-mark-element}
  1232. Mark the element at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent elements
  1233. of the one just marked. E.g., hitting @kbd{M-h} on a paragraph will mark it,
  1234. hitting @kbd{M-h} immediately again will mark the next one.
  1235. @orgcmd{C-c @@,org-mark-subtree}
  1236. Mark the subtree at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent subtrees
  1237. of the same level than the marked subtree.
  1238. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1239. Kill subtree, i.e., remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1240. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1241. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1242. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1243. sequential subtrees.
  1244. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1245. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1246. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1247. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1248. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1249. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1250. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1251. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1252. Depending on the options @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1253. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1254. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1255. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1256. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1257. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1258. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1259. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1260. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1261. folding.
  1262. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1263. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1264. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1265. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1266. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1267. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1268. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1269. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1270. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refile and copy}.
  1271. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1272. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1273. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1274. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1275. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1276. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1277. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1278. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1279. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1280. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1281. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1282. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1283. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1284. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1285. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1286. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1287. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1288. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1289. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1290. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1291. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1292. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1293. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1294. @end table
  1295. @cindex region, active
  1296. @cindex active region
  1297. @cindex transient mark mode
  1298. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1299. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1300. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1301. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1302. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1303. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1304. functionality.
  1305. @node Sparse trees
  1306. @section Sparse trees
  1307. @cindex sparse trees
  1308. @cindex trees, sparse
  1309. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1310. @cindex occur, command
  1311. @vindex org-show-context-detail
  1312. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1313. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1314. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1315. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1316. variable @code{org-show-context-detail} to decide how much context is shown
  1317. around each match.}. Just try it out and you will see immediately how it
  1318. works.
  1319. Org mode contains several commands for creating such trees, all these
  1320. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1321. @table @asis
  1322. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1323. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1324. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / r,C-c / /,org-occur}
  1325. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1326. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1327. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1328. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1329. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1330. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1331. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1332. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1333. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1334. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1335. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1336. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1337. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1338. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1339. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1340. @end table
  1341. @noindent
  1342. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1343. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1344. use the option @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1345. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1346. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1347. For example:
  1348. @lisp
  1349. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1350. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1351. @end lisp
  1352. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1353. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1354. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1355. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1356. @kindex C-c C-e C-v
  1357. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1358. @cindex visible text, printing
  1359. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1360. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts of the
  1361. document. Or you can use @kbd{C-c C-e C-v} to export only the visible part
  1362. of the document and print the resulting file.
  1363. @node Plain lists
  1364. @section Plain lists
  1365. @cindex plain lists
  1366. @cindex lists, plain
  1367. @cindex lists, ordered
  1368. @cindex ordered lists
  1369. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1370. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1371. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1372. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1373. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1374. @itemize @bullet
  1375. @item
  1376. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1377. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1378. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1379. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1380. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1381. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1382. bullets.
  1383. @item
  1384. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1385. @vindex org-list-allow-alphabetical
  1386. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1387. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1388. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1389. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1390. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-list-allow-alphabetical}. To minimize
  1391. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1392. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1393. list to start with a different value (e.g., 20), start the text of the item
  1394. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1395. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1396. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1397. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1398. @item
  1399. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1400. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1401. description.
  1402. @end itemize
  1403. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1404. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1405. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1406. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1407. than its bullet/number.
  1408. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1409. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1410. lines. In that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1411. @example
  1412. @group
  1413. ** Lord of the Rings
  1414. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1415. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1416. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1417. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1418. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1419. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1420. - on DVD only
  1421. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1422. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1423. Important actors in this film are:
  1424. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1425. - @b{Sean Astin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1426. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1427. @end group
  1428. @end example
  1429. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1430. them correctly, and by exporting them properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since
  1431. indentation is what governs the structure of these lists, many structural
  1432. constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...} blocks can be indented to signal that they
  1433. belong to a particular item.
  1434. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1435. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1436. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1437. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1438. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1439. indentation between items and their sub-items, customize
  1440. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1441. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1442. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1443. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1444. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1445. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1446. to disable them individually.
  1447. @table @asis
  1448. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1449. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1450. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1451. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1452. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1453. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1454. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1455. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1456. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1457. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1458. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1459. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1460. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1461. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1462. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1463. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1464. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1465. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1466. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1467. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1468. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1469. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1470. one.
  1471. @end table
  1472. @table @kbd
  1473. @kindex M-S-RET
  1474. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1475. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1476. @kindex S-DOWN
  1477. @item S-up
  1478. @itemx S-down
  1479. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1480. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1481. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1482. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1483. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1484. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1485. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1486. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{UP}} and @kbd{C-@key{DOWN}} to quite
  1487. similar effect.
  1488. @kindex M-UP
  1489. @kindex M-DOWN
  1490. @item M-up
  1491. @itemx M-down
  1492. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1493. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1494. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1495. is automatic.
  1496. @kindex M-LEFT
  1497. @kindex M-RIGHT
  1498. @item M-left
  1499. @itemx M-right
  1500. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1501. @kindex M-S-LEFT
  1502. @kindex M-S-RIGHT
  1503. @item M-S-@key{LEFT}
  1504. @itemx M-S-@key{RIGHT}
  1505. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1506. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1507. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1508. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1509. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1510. motion or so.
  1511. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1512. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1513. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1514. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1515. @kindex C-c C-c
  1516. @item C-c C-c
  1517. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1518. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1519. consistency in the whole list.
  1520. @kindex C-c -
  1521. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1522. @item C-c -
  1523. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1524. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1525. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1526. and its indentation. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet
  1527. from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, all selected
  1528. lines are converted to list items. With a prefix argument, selected text is
  1529. changed into a single item. If the first line already was a list item, any
  1530. item marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1531. region, a normal line will be converted into a list item.
  1532. @kindex C-c *
  1533. @item C-c *
  1534. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1535. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1536. @kindex C-c C-*
  1537. @item C-c C-*
  1538. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1539. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1540. (resp. checked).
  1541. @kindex S-LEFT
  1542. @kindex S-RIGHT
  1543. @item S-@key{LEFT}/@key{RIGHT}
  1544. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1545. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1546. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1547. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1548. @kindex C-c ^
  1549. @cindex sorting, of plain list
  1550. @item C-c ^
  1551. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1552. numerically, alphabetically, by time, by checked status for check lists,
  1553. or by a custom function.
  1554. @end table
  1555. @node Drawers
  1556. @section Drawers
  1557. @cindex drawers
  1558. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1559. @cindex @code{org-insert-drawer}
  1560. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1561. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1562. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}. They
  1563. can contain anything but a headline and another drawer. Drawers look like
  1564. this:
  1565. @example
  1566. ** This is a headline
  1567. Still outside the drawer
  1568. :DRAWERNAME:
  1569. This is inside the drawer.
  1570. :END:
  1571. After the drawer.
  1572. @end example
  1573. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1574. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @kbd{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1575. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1576. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add
  1577. a property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1578. keywords is also possible using @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@footnote{Many desktops
  1579. intercept @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows. Use @kbd{C-M-i} or
  1580. @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} instead for completion (@pxref{Completion}).}.
  1581. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1582. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1583. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1584. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1585. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}), and you can also arrange
  1586. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1587. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1588. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state
  1589. changes, use
  1590. @table @kbd
  1591. @kindex C-c C-z
  1592. @item C-c C-z
  1593. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1594. @end table
  1595. @vindex org-export-with-drawers
  1596. @vindex org-export-with-properties
  1597. You can select the name of the drawers which should be exported with
  1598. @code{org-export-with-drawers}. In that case, drawer contents will appear in
  1599. export output. Property drawers are not affected by this variable: configure
  1600. @code{org-export-with-properties} instead.
  1601. @node Blocks
  1602. @section Blocks
  1603. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1604. @cindex blocks, folding
  1605. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1606. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1607. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1608. unfolded by pressing @key{TAB} in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1609. folded at startup by configuring the option @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1610. or on a per-file basis by using
  1611. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1612. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1613. @example
  1614. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1615. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1616. @end example
  1617. @node Footnotes
  1618. @section Footnotes
  1619. @cindex footnotes
  1620. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes.
  1621. A footnote is started by a footnote marker in square brackets in column 0, no
  1622. indentation allowed. It ends at the next footnote definition, headline, or
  1623. after two consecutive empty lines. The footnote reference is simply the
  1624. marker in square brackets, inside text. Markers always start with
  1625. @code{fn:}. For example:
  1626. @example
  1627. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1628. ...
  1629. [fn:1] The link is: https://orgmode.org
  1630. @end example
  1631. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1632. optional inline definition. Here are the valid references:
  1633. @table @code
  1634. @item [fn:name]
  1635. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1636. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1637. @item [fn::This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1638. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1639. reference point.
  1640. @item [fn:name:a definition]
  1641. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1642. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1643. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1644. @end table
  1645. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1646. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1647. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1648. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1649. for details.
  1650. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1651. @table @kbd
  1652. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1653. @item C-c C-x f
  1654. The footnote action command.
  1655. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1656. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1657. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1658. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1659. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1660. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the option
  1661. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1662. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1663. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1664. separately into the location determined by the option
  1665. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1666. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1667. options is offered:
  1668. @example
  1669. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1670. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1671. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1672. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1673. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1674. @r{option @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1675. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1676. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the option}
  1677. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1678. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1679. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1680. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1681. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers.}
  1682. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1683. @r{to it.}
  1684. @end example
  1685. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1686. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1687. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1688. deletion.
  1689. @kindex C-c C-c
  1690. @item C-c C-c
  1691. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1692. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1693. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1694. @kindex C-c C-o
  1695. @kindex mouse-1
  1696. @kindex mouse-2
  1697. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1698. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1699. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1700. @vindex org-edit-footnote-reference
  1701. @kindex C-c '
  1702. @item C-c '
  1703. @item C-c '
  1704. Edit the footnote definition corresponding to the reference at point in
  1705. a separate window. The window can be closed by pressing @kbd{C-c '}.
  1706. @end table
  1707. @node Orgstruct mode
  1708. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1709. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1710. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1711. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1712. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1713. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1714. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode @key{RET}}, or
  1715. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1716. @lisp
  1717. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1718. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1719. @end lisp
  1720. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1721. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1722. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1723. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1724. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows.
  1725. When you use @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and
  1726. autofill settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first
  1727. line of an item.
  1728. @vindex orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp
  1729. You can also use Org structure editing to fold and unfold headlines in
  1730. @emph{any} file, provided you defined @code{orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp}:
  1731. the regular expression must match the local prefix to use before Org's
  1732. headlines. For example, if you set this variable to @code{";; "} in Emacs
  1733. Lisp files, you will be able to fold and unfold headlines in Emacs Lisp
  1734. commented lines. Some commands like @code{org-demote} are disabled when the
  1735. prefix is set, but folding/unfolding will work correctly.
  1736. @node Org syntax
  1737. @section Org syntax
  1738. @cindex Org syntax
  1739. A reference document providing a formal description of Org's syntax is
  1740. available as @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-syntax.html, a draft on
  1741. Worg}, written and maintained by Nicolas Goaziou. It defines Org's core
  1742. internal concepts such as @code{headlines}, @code{sections}, @code{affiliated
  1743. keywords}, @code{(greater) elements} and @code{objects}. Each part of an Org
  1744. file falls into one of the categories above.
  1745. To explore the abstract structure of an Org buffer, run this in a buffer:
  1746. @lisp
  1747. M-: (org-element-parse-buffer) @key{RET}
  1748. @end lisp
  1749. It will output a list containing the buffer's content represented as an
  1750. abstract structure. The export engine relies on the information stored in
  1751. this list. Most interactive commands (e.g., for structure editing) also
  1752. rely on the syntactic meaning of the surrounding context.
  1753. @cindex syntax checker
  1754. @cindex linter
  1755. You can check syntax in your documents using @code{org-lint} command.
  1756. @node Tables
  1757. @chapter Tables
  1758. @cindex tables
  1759. @cindex editing tables
  1760. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1761. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1762. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, GNU Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1763. @menu
  1764. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1765. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1766. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1767. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1768. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1769. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1770. @end menu
  1771. @node Built-in table editor
  1772. @section The built-in table editor
  1773. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1774. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII@. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1775. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1776. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1777. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1778. might look like this:
  1779. @example
  1780. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1781. |-------+-------+-----|
  1782. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1783. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1784. @end example
  1785. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1786. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1787. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1788. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1789. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1790. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1791. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1792. create the above table, you would only type
  1793. @example
  1794. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1795. |-
  1796. @end example
  1797. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1798. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1799. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1800. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1801. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL}, @key{Backspace}, and all
  1802. character keys in a special way, so that inserting and deleting avoids
  1803. shifting other fields. Also, when typing @emph{immediately after the cursor
  1804. was moved into a new field with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or
  1805. @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is
  1806. too unpredictable for you, configure the option
  1807. @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1808. @table @kbd
  1809. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1810. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1811. Convert the active region to a table. If every line contains at least one
  1812. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1813. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1814. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1815. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1816. C-u} forces TAB, @kbd{C-u C-u C-u} will prompt for a regular expression to
  1817. match the separator, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1818. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1819. @*
  1820. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1821. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1822. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1823. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1824. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1825. Re-align the table and don't move to another field.
  1826. @c
  1827. @orgcmd{C-c @key{SPC},org-table-blank-field}
  1828. Blank the field at point.
  1829. @c
  1830. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-next-field}
  1831. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1832. necessary.
  1833. @c
  1834. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1835. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1836. @c
  1837. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1838. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1839. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1840. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1841. @c
  1842. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1843. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1844. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1845. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1846. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1847. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{LEFT},M-@key{RIGHT},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1848. Move the current column left/right.
  1849. @c
  1850. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{LEFT},org-table-delete-column}
  1851. Kill the current column.
  1852. @c
  1853. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RIGHT},org-table-insert-column}
  1854. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1855. @c
  1856. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{UP},M-@key{DOWN},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1857. Move the current row up/down.
  1858. @c
  1859. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{UP},org-table-kill-row}
  1860. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1861. @c
  1862. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{DOWN},org-table-insert-row}
  1863. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1864. created below the current one.
  1865. @c
  1866. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1867. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1868. is created above the current line.
  1869. @c
  1870. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1871. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1872. below that line.
  1873. @c
  1874. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1875. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1876. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1877. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1878. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1879. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1880. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1881. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1882. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). You can sort in normal or
  1883. reverse order. You can also supply your own key extraction and comparison
  1884. functions. When called with a prefix argument, alphabetic sorting will be
  1885. case-sensitive.
  1886. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1887. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1888. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1889. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1890. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1891. @c
  1892. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1893. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1894. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1895. @c
  1896. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1897. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1898. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1899. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1900. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1901. lines.
  1902. @c
  1903. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1904. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1905. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1906. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1907. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1908. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1909. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1910. above.
  1911. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1912. @cindex formula, in tables
  1913. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1914. @cindex region, active
  1915. @cindex active region
  1916. @cindex transient mark mode
  1917. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1918. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1919. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1920. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1921. @c
  1922. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1923. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1924. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1925. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1926. Depending on the option @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1927. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1928. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1929. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1930. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1931. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1932. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1933. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1934. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1935. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1936. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1937. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1938. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1939. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1940. @c
  1941. @item M-x org-table-import @key{RET}
  1942. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1943. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1944. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1945. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1946. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1947. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1948. separator.
  1949. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1950. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1951. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1952. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1953. @c
  1954. @item M-x org-table-export @key{RET}
  1955. @findex org-table-export
  1956. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1957. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1958. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1959. used to export the file can be configured in the option
  1960. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1961. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1962. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1963. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1964. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1965. detailed description.
  1966. @end table
  1967. @node Column width and alignment
  1968. @section Column width and alignment
  1969. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1970. @cindex alignment in tables
  1971. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1972. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1973. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1974. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1975. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1976. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set the width of
  1977. a column, one field anywhere in the column may contain just the string
  1978. @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an integer specifying the width of the column in
  1979. characters. The next re-align will then set the width of this column to this
  1980. value.
  1981. @example
  1982. @group
  1983. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1984. | | | | | <6> |
  1985. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1986. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1987. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1988. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1989. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1990. @end group
  1991. @end example
  1992. @noindent
  1993. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1994. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1995. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1996. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1997. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the grave accent). This will
  1998. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1999. C-c}.
  2000. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  2001. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  2002. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  2003. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  2004. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  2005. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  2006. on a per-file basis with:
  2007. @example
  2008. #+STARTUP: align
  2009. #+STARTUP: noalign
  2010. @end example
  2011. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  2012. to the right and of string-rich columns to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  2013. @samp{<c>}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  2014. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  2015. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<r10>}.
  2016. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  2017. automatically when exporting the document.
  2018. @node Column groups
  2019. @section Column groups
  2020. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  2021. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical lines because
  2022. that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally however, vertical
  2023. lines can be useful to structure a table into groups of columns, much like
  2024. horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In order to specify column
  2025. groups, you can use a special row where the first field contains only
  2026. @samp{/}. The further fields can either contain @samp{<} to indicate that
  2027. this column should start a group, @samp{>} to indicate the end of a group, or
  2028. @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<} and @samp{>}) to make a column a group
  2029. of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be marked with
  2030. vertical lines. Here is an example:
  2031. @example
  2032. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | ~sqrt(n)~ | ~sqrt[4](N)~ |
  2033. |---+-----+-----+-----+-----------+--------------|
  2034. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  2035. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  2036. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  2037. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  2038. |---+-----+-----+-----+-----------+--------------|
  2039. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  2040. @end example
  2041. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  2042. every vertical line you would like to have:
  2043. @example
  2044. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2045. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2046. | / | < | | | < | |
  2047. @end example
  2048. @node Orgtbl mode
  2049. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2050. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2051. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2052. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you might also want
  2053. to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode. The minor mode Orgtbl
  2054. mode makes this possible. You can always toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x
  2055. orgtbl-mode @key{RET}}. To turn it on by default, for example in Message
  2056. mode, use
  2057. @lisp
  2058. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2059. @end lisp
  2060. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2061. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2062. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2063. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2064. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2065. @node The spreadsheet
  2066. @section The spreadsheet
  2067. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2068. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2069. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2070. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2071. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2072. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2073. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2074. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2075. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2076. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2077. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2078. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2079. @menu
  2080. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2081. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2082. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2083. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2084. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2085. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2086. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  2087. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2088. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2089. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2090. @end menu
  2091. @node References
  2092. @subsection References
  2093. @cindex references
  2094. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2095. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2096. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2097. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2098. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2099. @subsubheading Field references
  2100. @cindex field references
  2101. @cindex references, to fields
  2102. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2103. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2104. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2105. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2106. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2107. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2108. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the option
  2109. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2110. representation that looks like this:
  2111. @example
  2112. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2113. @end example
  2114. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2115. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e., the
  2116. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2117. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2118. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2119. column from the right.
  2120. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2121. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2122. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2123. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2124. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2125. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2126. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2127. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2128. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2129. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2130. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2131. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2132. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2133. after the third hline in the table.
  2134. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2135. i.e., to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2136. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2137. implied.
  2138. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2139. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2140. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2141. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2142. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2143. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2144. Here are a few examples:
  2145. @example
  2146. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2147. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2148. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2149. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2150. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2151. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2152. @end example
  2153. @subsubheading Range references
  2154. @cindex range references
  2155. @cindex references, to ranges
  2156. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2157. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2158. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2159. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2160. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2161. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2162. @example
  2163. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2164. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2165. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the last but one}
  2166. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2167. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 fields in the row above, starting from 2 columns on the left}
  2168. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2169. @end example
  2170. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2171. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally suppressed,
  2172. so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields. For other options
  2173. with the mode switches @samp{E}, @samp{N} and examples @pxref{Formula syntax
  2174. for Calc}.
  2175. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2176. @cindex field coordinates
  2177. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2178. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2179. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2180. One of the very first actions during evaluation of Calc formulas and Lisp
  2181. formulas is to substitute @code{@@#} and @code{$#} in the formula with the
  2182. row or column number of the field where the current result will go to. The
  2183. traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline} and
  2184. @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2185. @table @code
  2186. @item if(@@# % 2, $#, string(""))
  2187. Insert column number on odd rows, set field to empty on even rows.
  2188. @item $2 = '(identity remote(FOO, @@@@#$1))
  2189. Copy text or values of each row of column 1 of the table named @code{FOO}
  2190. into column 2 of the current table.
  2191. @item @@3 = 2 * remote(FOO, @@1$$#)
  2192. Insert the doubled value of each column of row 1 of the table named
  2193. @code{FOO} into row 3 of the current table.
  2194. @end table
  2195. @noindent For the second/third example, the table named @code{FOO} must have
  2196. at least as many rows/columns as the current table. Note that this is
  2197. inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as O(N^2) because the table
  2198. named @code{FOO} is parsed for each field to be read.} for large number of
  2199. rows/columns.
  2200. @subsubheading Named references
  2201. @cindex named references
  2202. @cindex references, named
  2203. @cindex name, of column or field
  2204. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2205. @cindex @code{#+CONSTANTS}
  2206. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2207. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2208. constant. Constants are defined globally through the option
  2209. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2210. line like
  2211. @example
  2212. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2213. @end example
  2214. @noindent
  2215. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2216. @pindex constants.el
  2217. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}) can be used as
  2218. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2219. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2220. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2221. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2222. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2223. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2224. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2225. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2226. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2227. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2228. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2229. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2230. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2231. numbers.
  2232. @subsubheading Remote references
  2233. @cindex remote references
  2234. @cindex references, remote
  2235. @cindex references, to a different table
  2236. @cindex name, of column or field
  2237. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2238. @cindex @code{#+NAME}, for table
  2239. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2240. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2241. @example
  2242. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2243. @end example
  2244. @noindent
  2245. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2246. @code{#+NAME: Name} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2247. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2248. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2249. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2250. referenced table.
  2251. Indirection of NAME-OR-ID: When NAME-OR-ID has the format @code{@@ROW$COLUMN}
  2252. it will be substituted with the name or ID found in this field of the current
  2253. table. For example @code{remote($1, @@>$2)} => @code{remote(year_2013,
  2254. @@>$1)}. The format @code{B3} is not supported because it can not be
  2255. distinguished from a plain table name or ID.
  2256. @node Formula syntax for Calc
  2257. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2258. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2259. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2260. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs @file{Calc}
  2261. package. Note that @file{calc} has the non-standard convention that @samp{/}
  2262. has lower precedence than @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as
  2263. @samp{a/(b*c)}. Before evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc
  2264. from Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc,
  2265. GNU Emacs Calc Manual}), variable substitution takes place according to the
  2266. rules described above.
  2267. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2268. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2269. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2270. @cindex format specifier
  2271. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2272. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2273. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2274. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2275. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2276. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2277. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2278. compact. The default settings can be configured using the option
  2279. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2280. @noindent List of modes:
  2281. @table @asis
  2282. @item @code{p20}
  2283. Set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits.
  2284. @item @code{n3}, @code{s3}, @code{e2}, @code{f4}
  2285. Normal, scientific, engineering or fixed format of the result of Calc passed
  2286. back to Org. Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as long as the Calc
  2287. calculation precision is greater.
  2288. @item @code{D}, @code{R}
  2289. Degree and radian angle modes of Calc.
  2290. @item @code{F}, @code{S}
  2291. Fraction and symbolic modes of Calc.
  2292. @item @code{T}, @code{t}, @code{U}
  2293. Duration computations in Calc or Lisp, @pxref{Durations and time values}.
  2294. @item @code{E}
  2295. If and how to consider empty fields. Without @samp{E} empty fields in range
  2296. references are suppressed so that the Calc vector or Lisp list contains only
  2297. the non-empty fields. With @samp{E} the empty fields are kept. For empty
  2298. fields in ranges or empty field references the value @samp{nan} (not a
  2299. number) is used in Calc formulas and the empty string is used for Lisp
  2300. formulas. Add @samp{N} to use 0 instead for both formula types. For the
  2301. value of a field the mode @samp{N} has higher precedence than @samp{E}.
  2302. @item @code{N}
  2303. Interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers. See the next section
  2304. to see how this is essential for computations with Lisp formulas. In Calc
  2305. formulas it is used only occasionally because there number strings are
  2306. already interpreted as numbers without @samp{N}.
  2307. @item @code{L}
  2308. Literal, for Lisp formulas only. See the next section.
  2309. @end table
  2310. @noindent
  2311. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation and
  2312. -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2313. @samp{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2314. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2315. formatting@footnote{The @samp{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2316. because the value passed to it is converted into an @samp{integer} or
  2317. @samp{double}. The @samp{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2318. signed value to 32 bits. The @samp{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2319. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}. A
  2320. few examples:
  2321. @example
  2322. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2323. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2324. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2325. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2326. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2327. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2328. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2329. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2330. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2331. @end example
  2332. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations, (@pxref{Logical
  2333. Operations, , Logical Operations, calc, GNU Emacs Calc Manual}). For example
  2334. @table @code
  2335. @item if($1 < 20, teen, string(""))
  2336. "teen" if age $1 is less than 20, else the Org table result field is set to
  2337. empty with the empty string.
  2338. @item if("$1" == "nan" || "$2" == "nan", string(""), $1 + $2); E f-1
  2339. Sum of the first two columns. When at least one of the input fields is empty
  2340. the Org table result field is set to empty. @samp{E} is required to not
  2341. convert empty fields to 0. @samp{f-1} is an optional Calc format string
  2342. similar to @samp{%.1f} but leaves empty results empty.
  2343. @item if(typeof(vmean($1..$7)) == 12, string(""), vmean($1..$7); E
  2344. Mean value of a range unless there is any empty field. Every field in the
  2345. range that is empty is replaced by @samp{nan} which lets @samp{vmean} result
  2346. in @samp{nan}. Then @samp{typeof == 12} detects the @samp{nan} from
  2347. @samp{vmean} and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use this when
  2348. the sample set is expected to never have missing values.
  2349. @item if("$1..$7" == "[]", string(""), vmean($1..$7))
  2350. Mean value of a range with empty fields skipped. Every field in the range
  2351. that is empty is skipped. When all fields in the range are empty the mean
  2352. value is not defined and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use
  2353. this when the sample set can have a variable size.
  2354. @item vmean($1..$7); EN
  2355. To complete the example before: Mean value of a range with empty fields
  2356. counting as samples with value 0. Use this only when incomplete sample sets
  2357. should be padded with 0 to the full size.
  2358. @end table
  2359. You can add your own Calc functions defined in Emacs Lisp with @code{defmath}
  2360. and use them in formula syntax for Calc.
  2361. @node Formula syntax for Lisp
  2362. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2363. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2364. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be useful
  2365. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is
  2366. not enough.
  2367. If a formula starts with an apostrophe followed by an opening parenthesis,
  2368. then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a
  2369. string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes
  2370. and a printf format after a semicolon.
  2371. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2372. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be
  2373. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If
  2374. you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers
  2375. (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without
  2376. quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated
  2377. literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted
  2378. as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in
  2379. double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated
  2380. fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax.
  2381. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2382. computations in Lisp:
  2383. @table @code
  2384. @item '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2385. Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1.
  2386. @item '(+ $1 $2);N
  2387. Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}.
  2388. @item '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2389. Compute the sum of columns 1 to 4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}.
  2390. @end table
  2391. @node Durations and time values
  2392. @subsection Durations and time values
  2393. @cindex Duration, computing
  2394. @cindex Time, computing
  2395. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2396. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T}, @code{t}, or @code{U}
  2397. flag, either in Calc formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2398. @example
  2399. @group
  2400. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2401. |---------+----------+----------|
  2402. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2403. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59 |
  2404. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2405. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;U::@@4$3=$1+$2;t
  2406. @end group
  2407. @end example
  2408. Input duration values must be of the form @code{HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2409. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2410. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{U} flag,
  2411. seconds will be omitted so that the result will be only @code{HH:MM} (see
  2412. second formula above). Zero-padding of the hours field will depend upon the
  2413. value of the variable @code{org-table-duration-hour-zero-padding}.
  2414. With the @code{t} flag, computed durations will be displayed according to the
  2415. value of the option @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults
  2416. to @code{'hours} and will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the
  2417. third formula in the example above).
  2418. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2419. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2420. @node Field and range formulas
  2421. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2422. @cindex field formula
  2423. @cindex range formula
  2424. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2425. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2426. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2427. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2428. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2429. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2430. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2431. @cindex @code{#+TBLFM}
  2432. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @code{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2433. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2434. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2435. inserting/deleting/swapping columns and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2436. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2437. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this, in
  2438. particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table borders (using
  2439. @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines using the
  2440. @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does of course
  2441. not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2442. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2443. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2444. command
  2445. @table @kbd
  2446. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2447. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2448. formula with default taken from the @code{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2449. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2450. @end table
  2451. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2452. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2453. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2454. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2455. directly.
  2456. @table @code
  2457. @item $2=
  2458. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2459. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2460. @item @@3=
  2461. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2462. the last row.
  2463. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2464. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2465. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2466. @item $name=
  2467. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2468. @end table
  2469. @node Column formulas
  2470. @subsection Column formulas
  2471. @cindex column formula
  2472. @cindex formula, for table column
  2473. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2474. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2475. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2476. hlines with rows above and below, everything before the first such hline is
  2477. considered part of the table @emph{header} and will not be modified by column
  2478. formulas. Therefore a header is mandatory when you use column formulas and
  2479. want to add hlines to group rows, like for example to separate a total row at
  2480. the bottom from the summand rows above. (ii) Fields that already get a value
  2481. from a field/range formula will be left alone by column formulas. These
  2482. conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2483. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2484. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2485. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2486. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2487. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2488. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2489. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2490. @code{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2491. left-hand side of a column formula cannot be the name of column, it must be
  2492. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2493. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2494. following command:
  2495. @table @kbd
  2496. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2497. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2498. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2499. taken from the @code{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2500. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g., @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2501. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2502. @end table
  2503. @node Lookup functions
  2504. @subsection Lookup functions
  2505. @cindex lookup functions in tables
  2506. @cindex table lookup functions
  2507. Org has three predefined Emacs Lisp functions for lookups in tables.
  2508. @table @code
  2509. @item (org-lookup-first VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2510. @findex org-lookup-first
  2511. Searches for the first element @code{S} in list @code{S-LIST} for which
  2512. @lisp
  2513. (PREDICATE VAL S)
  2514. @end lisp
  2515. is @code{t}; returns the value from the corresponding position in list
  2516. @code{R-LIST}. The default @code{PREDICATE} is @code{equal}. Note that the
  2517. parameters @code{VAL} and @code{S} are passed to @code{PREDICATE} in the same
  2518. order as the corresponding parameters are in the call to
  2519. @code{org-lookup-first}, where @code{VAL} precedes @code{S-LIST}. If
  2520. @code{R-LIST} is @code{nil}, the matching element @code{S} of @code{S-LIST}
  2521. is returned.
  2522. @item (org-lookup-last VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2523. @findex org-lookup-last
  2524. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first} above, but searches for the @i{last}
  2525. element for which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}.
  2526. @item (org-lookup-all VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2527. @findex org-lookup-all
  2528. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first}, but searches for @i{all} elements for
  2529. which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}, and returns @i{all} corresponding
  2530. values. This function can not be used by itself in a formula, because it
  2531. returns a list of values. However, powerful lookups can be built when this
  2532. function is combined with other Emacs Lisp functions.
  2533. @end table
  2534. If the ranges used in these functions contain empty fields, the @code{E} mode
  2535. for the formula should usually be specified: otherwise empty fields will not be
  2536. included in @code{S-LIST} and/or @code{R-LIST} which can, for example, result
  2537. in an incorrect mapping from an element of @code{S-LIST} to the corresponding
  2538. element of @code{R-LIST}.
  2539. These three functions can be used to implement associative arrays, count
  2540. matching cells, rank results, group data etc. For practical examples
  2541. see @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-lookups.html, this
  2542. tutorial on Worg}.
  2543. @node Editing and debugging formulas
  2544. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2545. @cindex formula editing
  2546. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2547. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2548. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the field.
  2549. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active formulas of a table.
  2550. When offering a formula for editing, Org converts references to the standard
  2551. format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&}) if possible. If you prefer to only work
  2552. with the internal format (like @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the
  2553. option @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2554. @table @kbd
  2555. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2556. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2557. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2558. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2559. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2560. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2561. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2562. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2563. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2564. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2565. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2566. @kindex C-c @}
  2567. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2568. @item C-c @}
  2569. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2570. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2571. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2572. @kindex C-c @{
  2573. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2574. @item C-c @{
  2575. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2576. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2577. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2578. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2579. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2580. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2581. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2582. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2583. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2584. @table @kbd
  2585. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2586. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2587. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2588. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2589. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2590. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2591. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2592. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2593. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2594. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2595. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2596. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2597. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2598. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2599. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.@footnote{Many desktops
  2600. intercept @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows. Use @kbd{C-M-i} or
  2601. @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} instead for completion (@pxref{Completion}).}
  2602. @kindex S-UP
  2603. @kindex S-DOWN
  2604. @kindex S-LEFT
  2605. @kindex S-RIGHT
  2606. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2607. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2608. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2609. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2610. @item S-@key{UP}/@key{DOWN}/@key{LEFT}/@key{RIGHT}
  2611. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2612. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2613. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2614. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{UP},M-S-@key{DOWN},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2615. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2616. down.
  2617. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{UP},M-@key{DOWN},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2618. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2619. @kindex C-c @}
  2620. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2621. @item C-c @}
  2622. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2623. @end table
  2624. @end table
  2625. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2626. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @code{#+TBLFM}
  2627. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2628. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2629. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @code{#+TBLFM} line.
  2630. @kindex C-c C-c
  2631. You may edit the @code{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2632. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2633. recalculation commands in the table.
  2634. @anchor{Using multiple #+TBLFM lines}
  2635. @subsubheading Using multiple @code{#+TBLFM} lines
  2636. @cindex @code{#+TBLFM} line, multiple
  2637. @cindex @code{#+TBLFM}
  2638. @cindex @code{#+TBLFM}, switching
  2639. @kindex C-c C-c
  2640. You may apply the formula temporarily. This is useful when you
  2641. switch the formula. Place multiple @code{#+TBLFM} lines right
  2642. after the table, and then press @kbd{C-c C-c} on the formula to
  2643. apply. Here is an example:
  2644. @example
  2645. | x | y |
  2646. |---+---|
  2647. | 1 | |
  2648. | 2 | |
  2649. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2650. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2651. @end example
  2652. @noindent
  2653. Pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} in the line of @samp{#+TBLFM: $2=$1*2} yields:
  2654. @example
  2655. | x | y |
  2656. |---+---|
  2657. | 1 | 2 |
  2658. | 2 | 4 |
  2659. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2660. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2661. @end example
  2662. @noindent
  2663. Note: If you recalculate this table (with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, for example), you
  2664. will get the following result of applying only the first @code{#+TBLFM} line.
  2665. @example
  2666. | x | y |
  2667. |---+---|
  2668. | 1 | 1 |
  2669. | 2 | 2 |
  2670. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2671. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2672. @end example
  2673. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2674. @cindex formula debugging
  2675. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2676. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2677. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2678. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2679. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2680. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2681. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2682. @node Updating the table
  2683. @subsection Updating the table
  2684. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2685. @cindex updating, table
  2686. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2687. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2688. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2689. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2690. following commands:
  2691. @table @kbd
  2692. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2693. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2694. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2695. @c
  2696. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2697. @item C-u C-c *
  2698. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2699. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2700. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2701. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2702. @c
  2703. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2704. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2705. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2706. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2707. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables @key{RET}
  2708. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2709. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2710. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables @key{RET}
  2711. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2712. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2713. dependencies.
  2714. @end table
  2715. @node Advanced features
  2716. @subsection Advanced features
  2717. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2718. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2719. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2720. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2721. special marking characters.
  2722. @table @kbd
  2723. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2724. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2725. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2726. change all marks in the region.
  2727. @end table
  2728. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2729. makes use of these features:
  2730. @example
  2731. @group
  2732. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2733. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2734. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2735. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2736. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2737. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2738. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2739. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2740. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2741. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2742. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2743. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2744. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2745. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2746. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2747. @end group
  2748. @end example
  2749. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2750. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2751. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2752. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2753. empty first field.
  2754. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2755. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2756. @table @samp
  2757. @item !
  2758. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2759. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2760. @item ^
  2761. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2762. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2763. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2764. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2765. @item _
  2766. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2767. @emph{below}.
  2768. @item $
  2769. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2770. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2771. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2772. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2773. a per-table basis.
  2774. @item #
  2775. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2776. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2777. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2778. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2779. @item *
  2780. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2781. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2782. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2783. @item @w{ }
  2784. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2785. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2786. or @samp{*}.
  2787. @item /
  2788. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2789. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2790. @end table
  2791. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2792. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2793. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2794. functions.
  2795. @example
  2796. @group
  2797. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2798. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2799. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2800. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2801. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2802. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2803. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2804. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2805. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2806. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2807. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2808. @end group
  2809. @end example
  2810. @node Org-Plot
  2811. @section Org-Plot
  2812. @cindex graph, in tables
  2813. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2814. @cindex @code{#+PLOT}
  2815. Org-Plot can produce graphs of information stored in org tables, either
  2816. graphically or in ASCII-art.
  2817. @subheading Graphical plots using @file{Gnuplot}
  2818. Org-Plot produces 2D and 3D graphs using @file{Gnuplot}
  2819. @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2820. @uref{http://xafs.org/BruceRavel/GnuplotMode}. To see this in action, ensure
  2821. that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed on your system, then
  2822. call @kbd{C-c " g} or @kbd{M-x org-plot/gnuplot @key{RET}} on the following
  2823. table.
  2824. @example
  2825. @group
  2826. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2827. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2828. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2829. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2830. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2831. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2832. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2833. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2834. @end group
  2835. @end example
  2836. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2837. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2838. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2839. for a complete list of Org-plot options. The @code{#+PLOT:} lines are
  2840. optional. For more information and examples see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2841. @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2842. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2843. @table @code
  2844. @item set
  2845. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2846. @item title
  2847. Specify the title of the plot.
  2848. @item ind
  2849. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2850. @item deps
  2851. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2852. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2853. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2854. column).
  2855. @item type
  2856. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2857. @item with
  2858. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2859. (e.g., @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2860. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2861. @item file
  2862. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2863. @item labels
  2864. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2865. if they exist).
  2866. @item line
  2867. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2868. @item map
  2869. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2870. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2871. @item timefmt
  2872. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2873. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2874. @item script
  2875. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2876. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2877. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2878. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2879. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2880. the data file.
  2881. @end table
  2882. @subheading ASCII bar plots
  2883. While the cursor is on a column, typing @kbd{C-c " a} or
  2884. @kbd{M-x orgtbl-ascii-plot @key{RET}} create a new column containing an
  2885. ASCII-art bars plot. The plot is implemented through a regular column
  2886. formula. When the source column changes, the bar plot may be updated by
  2887. refreshing the table, for example typing @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2888. @example
  2889. @group
  2890. | Sede | Max cites | |
  2891. |---------------+-----------+--------------|
  2892. | Chile | 257.72 | WWWWWWWWWWWW |
  2893. | Leeds | 165.77 | WWWWWWWh |
  2894. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | WWW; |
  2895. | Stockholm | 134.19 | WWWWWW: |
  2896. | Morelia | 257.56 | WWWWWWWWWWWH |
  2897. | Rochefourchat | 0.00 | |
  2898. #+TBLFM: $3='(orgtbl-ascii-draw $2 0.0 257.72 12)
  2899. @end group
  2900. @end example
  2901. The formula is an elisp call:
  2902. @lisp
  2903. (orgtbl-ascii-draw COLUMN MIN MAX WIDTH)
  2904. @end lisp
  2905. @table @code
  2906. @item COLUMN
  2907. is a reference to the source column.
  2908. @item MIN MAX
  2909. are the minimal and maximal values displayed. Sources values
  2910. outside this range are displayed as @samp{too small}
  2911. or @samp{too large}.
  2912. @item WIDTH
  2913. is the width in characters of the bar-plot. It defaults to @samp{12}.
  2914. @end table
  2915. @node Hyperlinks
  2916. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2917. @cindex hyperlinks
  2918. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2919. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2920. @menu
  2921. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2922. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2923. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2924. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2925. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2926. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2927. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2928. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2929. @end menu
  2930. @node Link format
  2931. @section Link format
  2932. @cindex link format
  2933. @cindex format, of links
  2934. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2935. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2936. @example
  2937. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2938. @end example
  2939. @noindent
  2940. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2941. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2942. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2943. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2944. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2945. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2946. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2947. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2948. cursor on the link.
  2949. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2950. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2951. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2952. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2953. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2954. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2955. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2956. @node Internal links
  2957. @section Internal links
  2958. @cindex internal links
  2959. @cindex links, internal
  2960. @cindex targets, for links
  2961. @cindex property, @code{CUSTOM_ID}
  2962. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2963. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2964. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2965. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. You are responsible yourself
  2966. to make sure these custom IDs are unique in a file.
  2967. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2968. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2969. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2970. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2971. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2972. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets, like
  2973. @samp{<<My Target>>}.
  2974. @cindex @code{#+NAME}
  2975. If no dedicated target exists, the link will then try to match the exact name
  2976. of an element within the buffer. Naming is done with the @code{#+NAME}
  2977. keyword, which has to be put in the line before the element it refers to, as
  2978. in the following example
  2979. @example
  2980. #+NAME: My Target
  2981. | a | table |
  2982. |----+------------|
  2983. | of | four cells |
  2984. @end example
  2985. If none of the above succeeds, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2986. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2987. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type
  2988. a star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2989. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2990. completions.}.
  2991. During export, internal links will be used to mark objects and assign them
  2992. a number. Marked objects will then be referenced by links pointing to them.
  2993. In particular, links without a description will appear as the number assigned
  2994. to the marked object@footnote{When targeting a @code{#+NAME} keyword,
  2995. @code{#+CAPTION} keyword is mandatory in order to get proper numbering
  2996. (@pxref{Images and tables}).}. In the following excerpt from an Org buffer
  2997. @example
  2998. - one item
  2999. - <<target>>another item
  3000. Here we refer to item [[target]].
  3001. @end example
  3002. @noindent
  3003. The last sentence will appear as @samp{Here we refer to item 2} when
  3004. exported.
  3005. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the link text. In
  3006. the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  3007. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  3008. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  3009. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  3010. earlier.
  3011. @menu
  3012. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  3013. @end menu
  3014. @node Radio targets
  3015. @subsection Radio targets
  3016. @cindex radio targets
  3017. @cindex targets, radio
  3018. @cindex links, radio targets
  3019. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  3020. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  3021. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  3022. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  3023. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  3024. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  3025. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  3026. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3027. cursor on or at a target.
  3028. @node External links
  3029. @section External links
  3030. @cindex links, external
  3031. @cindex external links
  3032. @cindex Gnus links
  3033. @cindex BBDB links
  3034. @cindex IRC links
  3035. @cindex URL links
  3036. @cindex file links
  3037. @cindex RMAIL links
  3038. @cindex MH-E links
  3039. @cindex USENET links
  3040. @cindex SHELL links
  3041. @cindex Info links
  3042. @cindex Elisp links
  3043. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB
  3044. database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs.
  3045. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short identifying
  3046. string followed by a colon. There can be no space after the colon. The
  3047. following list shows examples for each link type.
  3048. @example
  3049. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  3050. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  3051. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  3052. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  3053. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  3054. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3055. file:/ssh:myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  3056. /ssh:myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3057. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  3058. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  3059. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  3060. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  3061. the option @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  3062. is @code{nil}, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is @code{t}, then only
  3063. the exact headline will be matched, ignoring spaces and cookies. If the
  3064. value is @code{query-to-create}, then an exact headline will be searched; if
  3065. it is not found, then the user will be queried to create it.}
  3066. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}@footnote{
  3067. Headline searches always match the exact headline, ignoring
  3068. spaces and cookies. If the headline is not found and the value of the option
  3069. @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline} is @code{query-to-create},
  3070. then the user will be queried to create it.}
  3071. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  3072. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  3073. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  3074. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  3075. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  3076. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  3077. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  3078. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  3079. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  3080. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  3081. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  3082. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  3083. info:org#External links @r{Info node or index link}
  3084. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  3085. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  3086. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  3087. @end example
  3088. @cindex VM links
  3089. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  3090. On top of these built-in link types, some are available through the
  3091. @code{contrib/} directory (@pxref{Installation}). For example, these links
  3092. to VM or Wanderlust messages are available when you load the corresponding
  3093. libraries from the @code{contrib/} directory:
  3094. @example
  3095. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  3096. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  3097. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  3098. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  3099. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  3100. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  3101. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  3102. @end example
  3103. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  3104. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a descriptive
  3105. text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link format}), for example:
  3106. @example
  3107. [[https://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  3108. @end example
  3109. @noindent
  3110. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  3111. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  3112. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  3113. image,
  3114. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  3115. @cindex square brackets, around links
  3116. @cindex plain text external links
  3117. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  3118. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  3119. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  3120. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  3121. @node Handling links
  3122. @section Handling links
  3123. @cindex links, handling
  3124. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  3125. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  3126. @table @kbd
  3127. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  3128. @cindex storing links
  3129. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  3130. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  3131. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  3132. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  3133. buffer:
  3134. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  3135. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  3136. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  3137. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  3138. removed from the link and result in a wrong link---you should avoid putting
  3139. timestamp in the headline.}.
  3140. @vindex org-id-link-to-org-use-id
  3141. @cindex property, @code{CUSTOM_ID}
  3142. @cindex property, @code{ID}
  3143. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  3144. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  3145. @code{org-id-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will
  3146. be created and/or used to construct a link@footnote{The library
  3147. @file{org-id.el} must first be loaded, either through @code{org-customize} by
  3148. enabling @code{org-id} in @code{org-modules}, or by adding @code{(require
  3149. 'org-id)} in your Emacs init file.}. So using this command in Org buffers
  3150. will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom ID, and
  3151. one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from file to
  3152. file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one to use.
  3153. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  3154. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  3155. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  3156. constructed from the author and the subject.
  3157. @b{Web browsers: Eww, W3 and W3M}@*
  3158. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  3159. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  3160. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  3161. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  3162. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  3163. For IRC links, if you set the option @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to @code{t},
  3164. a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for the current
  3165. conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to the
  3166. user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  3167. @b{Other files}@*
  3168. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  3169. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  3170. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  3171. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  3172. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  3173. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  3174. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  3175. @b{Agenda view}@*
  3176. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  3177. entry referenced by the current line.
  3178. @c
  3179. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  3180. @cindex link completion
  3181. @cindex completion, of links
  3182. @cindex inserting links
  3183. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  3184. @vindex org-link-parameters
  3185. Insert a link@footnote{Note that you don't have to use this command to
  3186. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  3187. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  3188. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  3189. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  3190. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  3191. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  3192. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  3193. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  3194. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  3195. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  3196. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  3197. becomes the default description.
  3198. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  3199. All links stored during the
  3200. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  3201. them with @key{UP} and @key{DOWN} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  3202. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  3203. valid link prefixes like @samp{https:}, including the prefixes
  3204. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  3205. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  3206. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works if
  3207. a completion function is defined in the @samp{:complete} property of a link
  3208. in @code{org-link-parameters}.} For example, if you type @kbd{file
  3209. @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see
  3210. below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb @key{RET}} you can complete
  3211. contact names.
  3212. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  3213. @cindex file name completion
  3214. @cindex completion, of file names
  3215. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  3216. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  3217. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  3218. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  3219. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  3220. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  3221. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  3222. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3223. @c
  3224. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  3225. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  3226. link and description parts of the link.
  3227. @c
  3228. @cindex following links
  3229. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  3230. @vindex org-file-apps
  3231. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3232. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  3233. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  3234. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  3235. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  3236. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  3237. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  3238. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  3239. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3240. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3241. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3242. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3243. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3244. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3245. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3246. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3247. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3248. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3249. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3250. the link at point.
  3251. @c
  3252. @kindex mouse-2
  3253. @kindex mouse-1
  3254. @item mouse-2
  3255. @itemx mouse-1
  3256. On links, @kbd{mouse-1} and @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c
  3257. C-o} would.
  3258. @c
  3259. @kindex mouse-3
  3260. @item mouse-3
  3261. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3262. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3263. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3264. option @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3265. @c
  3266. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3267. @cindex inlining images
  3268. @cindex images, inlining
  3269. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3270. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3271. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3272. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3273. images that have no description part in the link, i.e., images that will also
  3274. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3275. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3276. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3277. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3278. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{noinlineimages}}.
  3279. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3280. @cindex mark ring
  3281. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3282. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3283. @c
  3284. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3285. @cindex links, returning to
  3286. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3287. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3288. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3289. previously recorded positions.
  3290. @c
  3291. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3292. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3293. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3294. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3295. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3296. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3297. @lisp
  3298. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3299. (lambda ()
  3300. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3301. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3302. @end lisp
  3303. @end table
  3304. @node Using links outside Org
  3305. @section Using links outside Org
  3306. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3307. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3308. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3309. yourself):
  3310. @lisp
  3311. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3312. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3313. @end lisp
  3314. @node Link abbreviations
  3315. @section Link abbreviations
  3316. @cindex link abbreviations
  3317. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3318. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3319. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3320. abbreviated link looks like this
  3321. @example
  3322. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3323. @end example
  3324. @noindent
  3325. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3326. where the tag is optional.
  3327. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3328. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3329. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3330. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3331. @smalllisp
  3332. @group
  3333. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3334. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3335. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3336. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3337. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3338. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3339. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3340. @end group
  3341. @end smalllisp
  3342. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3343. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3344. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3345. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3346. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3347. If the replacement text doesn't contain any specifier, the tag will simply be
  3348. appended in order to create the link.
  3349. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3350. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3351. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3352. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3353. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3354. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3355. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3356. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3357. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3358. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3359. can define them in the file with
  3360. @cindex @code{#+LINK}
  3361. @example
  3362. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3363. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3364. @end example
  3365. @noindent
  3366. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3367. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function that implements
  3368. special (e.g., completion) support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c
  3369. C-l}. Such a function should not accept any arguments, and return the full
  3370. link with prefix. You can add a completion function to a link like this:
  3371. @lisp
  3372. (org-link-set-parameters ``type'' :complete #'some-function)
  3373. @end lisp
  3374. @node Search options
  3375. @section Search options in file links
  3376. @cindex search option in file links
  3377. @cindex file links, searching
  3378. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3379. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3380. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3381. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3382. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3383. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3384. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3385. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3386. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3387. link, together with an explanation:
  3388. @example
  3389. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3390. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3391. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3392. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3393. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3394. @end example
  3395. @table @code
  3396. @item 255
  3397. Jump to line 255.
  3398. @item My Target
  3399. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3400. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3401. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3402. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3403. the linked file.
  3404. @item *My Target
  3405. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3406. @item #my-custom-id
  3407. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3408. @item /regexp/
  3409. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3410. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3411. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3412. sparse tree with the matches.
  3413. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3414. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3415. @end table
  3416. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3417. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3418. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3419. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3420. @node Custom searches
  3421. @section Custom Searches
  3422. @cindex custom search strings
  3423. @cindex search strings, custom
  3424. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3425. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3426. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3427. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3428. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3429. citation key.
  3430. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3431. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3432. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3433. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3434. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3435. to be added to the hook variables
  3436. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3437. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3438. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3439. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3440. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3441. @node TODO items
  3442. @chapter TODO items
  3443. @cindex TODO items
  3444. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3445. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3446. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3447. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3448. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3449. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3450. item emerged is always present.
  3451. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3452. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3453. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3454. @menu
  3455. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3456. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3457. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3458. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3459. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3460. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3461. @end menu
  3462. @node TODO basics
  3463. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3464. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3465. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3466. @example
  3467. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3468. @end example
  3469. @noindent
  3470. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3471. @table @kbd
  3472. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3473. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3474. @vindex org-use-fast-todo-selection
  3475. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3476. @example
  3477. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3478. '--------------------------------'
  3479. @end example
  3480. If TODO keywords have fast access keys (see @ref{Fast access to TODO
  3481. states}), you will be prompted for a TODO keyword through the fast selection
  3482. interface; this is the default behavior when
  3483. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is non-@code{nil}.
  3484. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from agenda buffers with the
  3485. @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3486. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3487. When TODO keywords have no selection keys, select a specific keyword using
  3488. completion; otherwise force cycling through TODO states with no prompt. When
  3489. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is set to @code{prefix}, use the fast
  3490. selection interface.
  3491. @kindex S-RIGHT
  3492. @kindex S-LEFT
  3493. @item S-@key{RIGHT} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{LEFT}
  3494. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3495. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3496. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3497. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3498. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3499. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3500. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-tree}
  3501. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3502. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3503. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3504. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3505. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3506. / T}), search for a specific TODO@. You will be prompted for the keyword,
  3507. and you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3508. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3509. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the option @code{org-todo-keywords}.
  3510. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states, both un-done and done.
  3511. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3512. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3513. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3514. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3515. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3516. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3517. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3518. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3519. @end table
  3520. @noindent
  3521. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3522. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3523. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3524. @node TODO extensions
  3525. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3526. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3527. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3528. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3529. DONE@. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3530. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3531. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3532. files.
  3533. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3534. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3535. @menu
  3536. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3537. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3538. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3539. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3540. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3541. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3542. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3543. @end menu
  3544. @node Workflow states
  3545. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3546. @cindex TODO workflow
  3547. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3548. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3549. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3550. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3551. buffer.}:
  3552. @lisp
  3553. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3554. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3555. @end lisp
  3556. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3557. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3558. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3559. state.
  3560. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3561. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3562. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED@. You may
  3563. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3564. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY@.
  3565. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{LEFT}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3566. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3567. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3568. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3569. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3570. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3571. @node TODO types
  3572. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3573. @cindex TODO types
  3574. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3575. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3576. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3577. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3578. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3579. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3580. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3581. be set up like this:
  3582. @lisp
  3583. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3584. @end lisp
  3585. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3586. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to
  3587. a person, and later to mark it DONE@. Org mode supports this style by
  3588. adapting the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true
  3589. for the @kbd{t} command in the agenda buffers.}. When used several times in
  3590. succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first select
  3591. the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some time
  3592. and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly to
  3593. DONE@. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific name.
  3594. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree by
  3595. using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things Lucy
  3596. has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items from all
  3597. agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix argument
  3598. as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3599. @node Multiple sets in one file
  3600. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3601. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3602. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3603. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3604. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3605. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3606. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3607. like this:
  3608. @lisp
  3609. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3610. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3611. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3612. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3613. @end lisp
  3614. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3615. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3616. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3617. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3618. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3619. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3620. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3621. @table @kbd
  3622. @kindex C-S-RIGHT
  3623. @kindex C-S-LEFT
  3624. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3625. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3626. @itemx C-S-@key{RIGHT}
  3627. @itemx C-S-@key{LEFT}
  3628. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3629. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{RIGHT}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3630. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3631. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3632. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3633. @kindex S-RIGHT
  3634. @kindex S-LEFT
  3635. @item S-@key{RIGHT}
  3636. @itemx S-@key{LEFT}
  3637. @kbd{S-@key{LEFT}} and @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3638. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}} would switch
  3639. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3640. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3641. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3642. @end table
  3643. @node Fast access to TODO states
  3644. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3645. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3646. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3647. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection character after
  3648. each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except
  3649. @code{@@^!}, which have a special meaning here.}. For example:
  3650. @lisp
  3651. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3652. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3653. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3654. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3655. @end lisp
  3656. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3657. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry will
  3658. be switched to this state. @kbd{@key{SPC}} can be used to remove any TODO
  3659. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the option
  3660. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3661. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3662. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3663. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3664. @node Per-file keywords
  3665. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3666. @cindex keyword options
  3667. @cindex per-file keywords
  3668. @cindex @code{#+TODO}
  3669. @cindex @code{#+TYP_TODO}
  3670. @cindex @code{#+SEQ_TODO}
  3671. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3672. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines to
  3673. the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file only. For
  3674. example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you need one of the
  3675. following lines anywhere in the file:
  3676. @example
  3677. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3678. @end example
  3679. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3680. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3681. @example
  3682. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3683. @end example
  3684. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3685. @example
  3686. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3687. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3688. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3689. @end example
  3690. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3691. @kindex M-TAB
  3692. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3693. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3694. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3695. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3696. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3697. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3698. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3699. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3700. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3701. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3702. for the current buffer.}.
  3703. @node Faces for TODO keywords
  3704. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3705. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3706. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3707. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3708. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3709. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3710. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3711. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3712. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3713. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the option
  3714. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3715. @lisp
  3716. @group
  3717. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3718. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3719. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3720. @end group
  3721. @end lisp
  3722. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3723. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3724. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The option
  3725. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3726. foreground or a background color.
  3727. @node TODO dependencies
  3728. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3729. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3730. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3731. @cindex TODO dependencies, NOBLOCKING
  3732. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3733. @cindex property, @code{ORDERED}
  3734. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3735. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3736. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE@. And sometimes
  3737. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3738. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3739. the option @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3740. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE@.
  3741. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3742. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE@. Here is an
  3743. example:
  3744. @example
  3745. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3746. ** DONE one
  3747. ** TODO two
  3748. * Parent
  3749. :PROPERTIES:
  3750. :ORDERED: t
  3751. :END:
  3752. ** TODO a
  3753. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3754. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3755. @end example
  3756. You can ensure an entry is never blocked by using the @code{NOBLOCKING}
  3757. property:
  3758. @example
  3759. * This entry is never blocked
  3760. :PROPERTIES:
  3761. :NOBLOCKING: t
  3762. :END:
  3763. @end example
  3764. @table @kbd
  3765. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3766. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3767. @cindex property, @code{ORDERED}
  3768. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3769. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3770. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3771. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the option
  3772. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3773. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3774. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3775. @end table
  3776. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3777. If you set the option @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3778. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3779. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda views}).
  3780. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3781. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3782. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3783. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the option
  3784. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3785. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3786. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3787. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3788. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3789. @page
  3790. @node Progress logging
  3791. @section Progress logging
  3792. @cindex progress logging
  3793. @cindex logging, of progress
  3794. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3795. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3796. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable; settings can be on a
  3797. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3798. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3799. work time}.
  3800. @menu
  3801. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3802. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3803. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3804. @end menu
  3805. @node Closing items
  3806. @subsection Closing items
  3807. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3808. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3809. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3810. @lisp
  3811. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3812. @end lisp
  3813. @vindex org-closed-keep-when-no-todo
  3814. @noindent
  3815. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any of the
  3816. DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after
  3817. the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item through further
  3818. state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you turn the entry back
  3819. to a non-TODO state (by pressing @kbd{C-c C-t @key{SPC}} for example), that line
  3820. will also be removed, unless you set @code{org-closed-keep-when-no-todo} to
  3821. non-@code{nil}. If you want to record a note along with the timestamp,
  3822. use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP:
  3823. lognotedone}.}
  3824. @lisp
  3825. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3826. @end lisp
  3827. @noindent
  3828. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3829. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3830. @node Tracking TODO state changes
  3831. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3832. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3833. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3834. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3835. @cindex property, @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER}
  3836. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3837. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3838. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3839. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3840. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the option
  3841. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3842. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3843. Customize @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the recommended
  3844. drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3845. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @kbd{@key{SPC}} in the agenda to
  3846. show an entry---use @kbd{C-u @key{SPC}} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3847. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3848. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3849. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3850. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3851. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3852. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3853. setting
  3854. @lisp
  3855. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3856. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3857. @end lisp
  3858. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3859. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3860. @noindent
  3861. @vindex org-log-done
  3862. You not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3863. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3864. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3865. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3866. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3867. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3868. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3869. WAIT or CANCELED@. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3870. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3871. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3872. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3873. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3874. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3875. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3876. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3877. configured.
  3878. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3879. to a buffer:
  3880. @example
  3881. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3882. @end example
  3883. @cindex property, @code{LOGGING}
  3884. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a single
  3885. item, define a @code{LOGGING} property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3886. @code{LOGGING} property resets all logging settings to @code{nil}. You may
  3887. then turn on logging for this specific tree using @code{#+STARTUP} keywords
  3888. like @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3889. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3890. @example
  3891. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3892. :PROPERTIES:
  3893. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3894. :END:
  3895. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3896. :PROPERTIES:
  3897. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3898. :END:
  3899. * TODO No logging at all
  3900. :PROPERTIES:
  3901. :LOGGING: nil
  3902. :END:
  3903. @end example
  3904. @node Tracking your habits
  3905. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3906. @cindex habits
  3907. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3908. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3909. @enumerate
  3910. @item
  3911. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing @code{org-modules}.
  3912. @item
  3913. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3914. @item
  3915. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3916. @item
  3917. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3918. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3919. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3920. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3921. @item
  3922. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3923. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3924. three days, but at most every two days.
  3925. @item
  3926. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled
  3927. (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3928. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an
  3929. error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless.
  3930. @end enumerate
  3931. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3932. actual habit with some history:
  3933. @example
  3934. ** TODO Shave
  3935. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3936. :PROPERTIES:
  3937. :STYLE: habit
  3938. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3939. :END:
  3940. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3941. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3942. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3943. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3944. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3945. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3946. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3947. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3948. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3949. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3950. @end example
  3951. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3952. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3953. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3954. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3955. after four days have elapsed.
  3956. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3957. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3958. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3959. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3960. @table @code
  3961. @item Blue
  3962. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3963. @item Green
  3964. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3965. @item Yellow
  3966. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3967. @item Red
  3968. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3969. @end table
  3970. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3971. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3972. the current day falls in the graph.
  3973. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3974. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3975. @table @code
  3976. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3977. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3978. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3979. titles brief and to the point.
  3980. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3981. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3982. @item org-habit-following-days
  3983. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3984. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3985. If non-@code{nil}, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3986. default.
  3987. @end table
  3988. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3989. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3990. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3991. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3992. @node Priorities
  3993. @section Priorities
  3994. @cindex priorities
  3995. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3996. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3997. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3998. @example
  3999. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  4000. @end example
  4001. @noindent
  4002. @vindex org-priority-faces
  4003. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  4004. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  4005. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  4006. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  4007. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  4008. special faces by customizing @code{org-priority-faces}.
  4009. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  4010. items.
  4011. @table @kbd
  4012. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  4013. @kindex C-c ,
  4014. @findex org-priority
  4015. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  4016. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  4017. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  4018. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the agenda
  4019. buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  4020. @c
  4021. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{UP},S-@key{DOWN},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  4022. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  4023. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  4024. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  4025. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  4026. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  4027. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  4028. @end table
  4029. @vindex org-highest-priority
  4030. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  4031. @vindex org-default-priority
  4032. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the options
  4033. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  4034. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  4035. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  4036. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  4037. priority):
  4038. @cindex @code{#+PRIORITIES}
  4039. @example
  4040. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  4041. @end example
  4042. @node Breaking down tasks
  4043. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  4044. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  4045. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  4046. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  4047. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  4048. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  4049. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  4050. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  4051. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  4052. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  4053. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  4054. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  4055. @example
  4056. * Organize Party [33%]
  4057. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  4058. *** TODO Peter
  4059. *** DONE Sarah
  4060. ** TODO Buy food
  4061. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  4062. @end example
  4063. @cindex property, @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4064. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  4065. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  4066. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  4067. this issue.
  4068. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  4069. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  4070. subtree (not just direct children), configure
  4071. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  4072. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4073. property.
  4074. @example
  4075. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  4076. :PROPERTIES:
  4077. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  4078. :END:
  4079. @end example
  4080. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  4081. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  4082. @example
  4083. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  4084. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  4085. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  4086. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  4087. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  4088. @end example
  4089. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  4090. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  4091. @node Checkboxes
  4092. @section Checkboxes
  4093. @cindex checkboxes
  4094. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  4095. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  4096. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  4097. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  4098. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  4099. (@pxref{TODO items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  4100. in the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  4101. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  4102. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  4103. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  4104. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  4105. @example
  4106. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  4107. - [-] call people [1/3]
  4108. - [ ] Peter
  4109. - [X] Sarah
  4110. - [ ] Sam
  4111. - [X] order food
  4112. - [ ] think about what music to play
  4113. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  4114. @end example
  4115. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  4116. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  4117. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  4118. checked.
  4119. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  4120. @cindex checkbox statistics
  4121. @cindex property, @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4122. @vindex org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics
  4123. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  4124. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  4125. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  4126. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  4127. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  4128. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  4129. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the option
  4130. @code{org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  4131. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  4132. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  4133. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  4134. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  4135. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  4136. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  4137. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  4138. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4139. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  4140. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  4141. @cindex checkbox blocking
  4142. @cindex property, @code{ORDERED}
  4143. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  4144. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  4145. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  4146. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  4147. @table @kbd
  4148. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4149. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4150. a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  4151. one@footnote{@kbd{C-u C-c C-c} before the @emph{first} bullet in a list with
  4152. no checkbox will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double
  4153. prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4154. intermediate state.
  4155. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4156. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4157. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4158. intermediate state.
  4159. @itemize @minus
  4160. @item
  4161. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  4162. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  4163. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  4164. @item
  4165. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle the state of the first checkbox in the
  4166. region between this headline and the next---so @emph{not} the entire
  4167. subtree---and propagate this new state to all other checkboxes in the same
  4168. area.
  4169. @item
  4170. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  4171. @end itemize
  4172. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  4173. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  4174. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  4175. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  4176. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  4177. @cindex property, @code{ORDERED}
  4178. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  4179. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  4180. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  4181. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  4182. for better visibility, customize @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  4183. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  4184. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  4185. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  4186. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  4187. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  4188. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  4189. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  4190. @end table
  4191. @node Tags
  4192. @chapter Tags
  4193. @cindex tags
  4194. @cindex headline tagging
  4195. @cindex matching, tags
  4196. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  4197. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  4198. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  4199. support for tags.
  4200. @vindex org-tag-faces
  4201. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  4202. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  4203. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  4204. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  4205. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  4206. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the option
  4207. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  4208. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  4209. @menu
  4210. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  4211. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  4212. * Tag hierarchy:: Create a hierarchy of tags
  4213. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  4214. @end menu
  4215. @node Tag inheritance
  4216. @section Tag inheritance
  4217. @cindex tag inheritance
  4218. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  4219. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  4220. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  4221. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  4222. well. For example, in the list
  4223. @example
  4224. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  4225. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  4226. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  4227. @end example
  4228. @noindent
  4229. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  4230. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  4231. explicitly marked with all those tags. You can also set tags that all
  4232. entries in a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in
  4233. a hypothetical level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like
  4234. this@footnote{As with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}
  4235. activates any changes in the line.}:
  4236. @cindex @code{#+FILETAGS}
  4237. @example
  4238. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  4239. @end example
  4240. @noindent
  4241. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  4242. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  4243. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, use @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  4244. To turn it off entirely, use @code{org-use-tag-inheritance}.
  4245. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4246. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  4247. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  4248. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  4249. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  4250. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  4251. match in a subtree, configure @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not
  4252. recommended).
  4253. @vindex org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance
  4254. Tag inheritance is relevant when the agenda search tries to match a tag,
  4255. either in the @code{tags} or @code{tags-todo} agenda types. In other agenda
  4256. types, @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} has no effect. Still, you may want to
  4257. have your tags correctly set in the agenda, so that tag filtering works fine,
  4258. with inherited tags. Set @code{org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance} to control
  4259. this: the default value includes all agenda types, but setting this to @code{nil}
  4260. can really speed up agenda generation.
  4261. @node Setting tags
  4262. @section Setting tags
  4263. @cindex setting tags
  4264. @cindex tags, setting
  4265. @kindex M-TAB
  4266. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4267. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4268. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4269. @table @kbd
  4270. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4271. @cindex completion, of tags
  4272. @vindex org-tags-column
  4273. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4274. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4275. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4276. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4277. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4278. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4279. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4280. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4281. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4282. @end table
  4283. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4284. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4285. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4286. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4287. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4288. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4289. @cindex @code{#+TAGS}
  4290. @example
  4291. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4292. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4293. @end example
  4294. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4295. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4296. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4297. @example
  4298. #+TAGS:
  4299. @end example
  4300. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4301. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4302. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4303. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4304. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4305. by adding a @code{#+STARTUP} option line to that file:
  4306. @example
  4307. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4308. @end example
  4309. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4310. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4311. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4312. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4313. assign unique, case-sensitive, letters to most of your commonly used tags.
  4314. You can do this globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in
  4315. your Emacs init file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items
  4316. in different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4317. like:
  4318. @lisp
  4319. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4320. @end lisp
  4321. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4322. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4323. @example
  4324. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4325. @end example
  4326. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4327. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4328. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4329. @example
  4330. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4331. @end example
  4332. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4333. @example
  4334. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4335. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4336. @end example
  4337. @noindent
  4338. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4339. braces, as in:
  4340. @example
  4341. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4342. @end example
  4343. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4344. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4345. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4346. these lines to activate any changes.
  4347. @noindent
  4348. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tag-alist},
  4349. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4350. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4351. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4352. configuration:
  4353. @lisp
  4354. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4355. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4356. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4357. (:endgroup . nil)
  4358. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4359. @end lisp
  4360. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4361. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4362. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4363. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4364. have no configured keys.}.
  4365. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of tags
  4366. in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually exclusive tags
  4367. will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4368. In this interface, you can also use the following special keys:
  4369. @table @kbd
  4370. @kindex TAB
  4371. @item @key{TAB}
  4372. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4373. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4374. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4375. @kindex SPC
  4376. @item @key{SPC}
  4377. Clear all tags for this line.
  4378. @kindex RET
  4379. @item @key{RET}
  4380. Accept the modified set.
  4381. @item C-g
  4382. Abort without installing changes.
  4383. @item q
  4384. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4385. @item !
  4386. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4387. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4388. @item C-c
  4389. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4390. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4391. selection window.
  4392. @end table
  4393. @noindent
  4394. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4395. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4396. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4397. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4398. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4399. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4400. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4401. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4402. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4403. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4404. modify your list of tags, set @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}.
  4405. Then you no longer have to press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it
  4406. will immediately exit after the first change. If you then occasionally
  4407. need more keys, press @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag
  4408. selection process (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c}
  4409. instead of @kbd{C-c C-c}). If you set the variable to the value
  4410. @code{expert}, the special window is not even shown for single-key tag
  4411. selection, it comes up only when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4412. @node Tag hierarchy
  4413. @section Tag hierarchy
  4414. @cindex group tags
  4415. @cindex tags, groups
  4416. @cindex tag hierarchy
  4417. Tags can be defined in hierarchies. A tag can be defined as a @emph{group
  4418. tag} for a set of other tags. The group tag can be seen as the ``broader
  4419. term'' for its set of tags. Defining multiple @emph{group tags} and nesting
  4420. them creates a tag hierarchy.
  4421. One use-case is to create a taxonomy of terms (tags) that can be used to
  4422. classify nodes in a document or set of documents.
  4423. When you search for a group tag, it will return matches for all members in
  4424. the group and its subgroups. In an agenda view, filtering by a group tag
  4425. will display or hide headlines tagged with at least one of the members of the
  4426. group or any of its subgroups. This makes tag searches and filters even more
  4427. flexible.
  4428. You can set group tags by using brackets and inserting a colon between the
  4429. group tag and its related tags---beware that all whitespaces are mandatory so
  4430. that Org can parse this line correctly:
  4431. @example
  4432. #+TAGS: [ GTD : Control Persp ]
  4433. @end example
  4434. In this example, @samp{GTD} is the @emph{group tag} and it is related to two
  4435. other tags: @samp{Control}, @samp{Persp}. Defining @samp{Control} and
  4436. @samp{Persp} as group tags creates an hierarchy of tags:
  4437. @example
  4438. #+TAGS: [ Control : Context Task ]
  4439. #+TAGS: [ Persp : Vision Goal AOF Project ]
  4440. @end example
  4441. That can conceptually be seen as a hierarchy of tags:
  4442. @example
  4443. - GTD
  4444. - Persp
  4445. - Vision
  4446. - Goal
  4447. - AOF
  4448. - Project
  4449. - Control
  4450. - Context
  4451. - Task
  4452. @end example
  4453. You can use the @code{:startgrouptag}, @code{:grouptags} and
  4454. @code{:endgrouptag} keyword directly when setting @code{org-tag-alist}
  4455. directly:
  4456. @lisp
  4457. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgrouptag)
  4458. ("GTD")
  4459. (:grouptags)
  4460. ("Control")
  4461. ("Persp")
  4462. (:endgrouptag)
  4463. (:startgrouptag)
  4464. ("Control")
  4465. (:grouptags)
  4466. ("Context")
  4467. ("Task")
  4468. (:endgrouptag)))
  4469. @end lisp
  4470. The tags in a group can be mutually exclusive if using the same group syntax
  4471. as is used for grouping mutually exclusive tags together; using curly
  4472. brackets.
  4473. @example
  4474. #+TAGS: @{ Context : @@Home @@Work @@Call @}
  4475. @end example
  4476. When setting @code{org-tag-alist} you can use @code{:startgroup} &
  4477. @code{:endgroup} instead of @code{:startgrouptag} & @code{:endgrouptag} to
  4478. make the tags mutually exclusive.
  4479. Furthermore, the members of a @emph{group tag} can also be regular
  4480. expressions, creating the possibility of a more dynamic and rule-based
  4481. tag structure. The regular expressions in the group must be specified
  4482. within @{ @}. Here is an expanded example:
  4483. @example
  4484. #+TAGS: [ Vision : @{V@@@.+@} ]
  4485. #+TAGS: [ Goal : @{G@@@.+@} ]
  4486. #+TAGS: [ AOF : @{AOF@@@.+@} ]
  4487. #+TAGS: [ Project : @{P@@@.+@} ]
  4488. @end example
  4489. Searching for the tag @samp{Project} will now list all tags also including
  4490. regular expression matches for @samp{P@@@.+}, and similarly for tag searches on
  4491. @samp{Vision}, @samp{Goal} and @samp{AOF}. For example, this would work well
  4492. for a project tagged with a common project-identifier, e.g. @samp{P@@2014_OrgTags}.
  4493. @kindex C-c C-x q
  4494. @vindex org-group-tags
  4495. If you want to ignore group tags temporarily, toggle group tags support
  4496. with @command{org-toggle-tags-groups}, bound to @kbd{C-c C-x q}. If you
  4497. want to disable tag groups completely, set @code{org-group-tags} to @code{nil}.
  4498. @node Tag searches
  4499. @section Tag searches
  4500. @cindex tag searches
  4501. @cindex searching for tags
  4502. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4503. information into special lists.
  4504. @table @kbd
  4505. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4506. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags/property/TODO search.
  4507. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4508. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4509. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4510. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files. @xref{Matching
  4511. tags and properties}.
  4512. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4513. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4514. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4515. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see the option
  4516. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4517. @end table
  4518. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4519. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4520. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4521. tagged as @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search string
  4522. is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels and
  4523. properties. For a complete description with many examples, see @ref{Matching
  4524. tags and properties}.
  4525. @node Properties and columns
  4526. @chapter Properties and columns
  4527. @cindex properties
  4528. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4529. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4530. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4531. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4532. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4533. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4534. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4535. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4536. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4537. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4538. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4539. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4540. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4541. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4542. @menu
  4543. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4544. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4545. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4546. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4547. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4548. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4549. @end menu
  4550. @node Property syntax
  4551. @section Property syntax
  4552. @cindex property syntax
  4553. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4554. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4555. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special drawer
  4556. (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}, which has to be located
  4557. right below a headline, and its planning line (@pxref{Deadlines and
  4558. scheduling}) when applicable. Each property is specified on a single line,
  4559. with the key (surrounded by colons) first, and the value after it. Keys are
  4560. case-insensitive. Here is an example:
  4561. @example
  4562. * CD collection
  4563. ** Classic
  4564. *** Goldberg Variations
  4565. :PROPERTIES:
  4566. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4567. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4568. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4569. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4570. :NDisks: 1
  4571. :END:
  4572. @end example
  4573. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4574. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the subtree
  4575. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4576. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4577. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4578. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4579. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4580. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4581. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4582. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4583. @example
  4584. * CD collection
  4585. :PROPERTIES:
  4586. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4587. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4588. :END:
  4589. @end example
  4590. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4591. file, use a line like
  4592. @cindex property, @code{_ALL}
  4593. @cindex @code{#+PROPERTY}
  4594. @example
  4595. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4596. @end example
  4597. Contrary to properties set from a special drawer, you have to refresh the
  4598. buffer with @kbd{C-c C-c} to activate this change.
  4599. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4600. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4601. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4602. @cindex property, @code{+}
  4603. @example
  4604. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4605. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4606. @end example
  4607. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4608. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4609. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4610. @cindex property, @code{+}
  4611. @example
  4612. * CD collection
  4613. ** Classic
  4614. :PROPERTIES:
  4615. :GENRES: Classic
  4616. :END:
  4617. *** Goldberg Variations
  4618. :PROPERTIES:
  4619. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4620. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4621. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4622. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4623. :NDisks: 1
  4624. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4625. :END:
  4626. @end example
  4627. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4628. @vindex org-global-properties
  4629. Property values set with the global variable
  4630. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4631. Org files.
  4632. @noindent
  4633. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4634. @table @kbd
  4635. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4636. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4637. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4638. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4639. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4640. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4641. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer @key{RET}
  4642. @cindex @code{org-insert-drawer}
  4643. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4644. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4645. information like deadlines.
  4646. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4647. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4648. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4649. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4650. can be inserted using completion.
  4651. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{RIGHT},S-@key{LEFT},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4652. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4653. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4654. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4655. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4656. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4657. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4658. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4659. nearest column format definition.
  4660. @end table
  4661. @node Special properties
  4662. @section Special properties
  4663. @cindex properties, special
  4664. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4665. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4666. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in
  4667. a column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The
  4668. following property names are special and should not be used as keys in the
  4669. properties drawer:
  4670. @cindex property, special, @code{ALLTAGS}
  4671. @cindex property, special, @code{BLOCKED}
  4672. @cindex property, special, @code{CLOCKSUM}
  4673. @cindex property, special, @code{CLOCKSUM_T}
  4674. @cindex property, special, @code{CLOSED}
  4675. @cindex property, special, @code{DEADLINE}
  4676. @cindex property, special, @code{FILE}
  4677. @cindex property, special, @code{ITEM}
  4678. @cindex property, special, @code{PRIORITY}
  4679. @cindex property, special, @code{SCHEDULED}
  4680. @cindex property, special, @code{TAGS}
  4681. @cindex property, special, @code{TIMESTAMP}
  4682. @cindex property, special, @code{TIMESTAMP_IA}
  4683. @cindex property, special, @code{TODO}
  4684. @example
  4685. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4686. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings.}
  4687. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4688. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4689. CLOCKSUM_T @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree for today.}
  4690. @r{@code{org-clock-sum-today} must be run first to compute the}
  4691. @r{values in the current buffer.}
  4692. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4693. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4694. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4695. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4696. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4697. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4698. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4699. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4700. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4701. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4702. @end example
  4703. @node Property searches
  4704. @section Property searches
  4705. @cindex properties, searching
  4706. @cindex searching, of properties
  4707. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4708. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4709. @table @kbd
  4710. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4711. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4712. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4713. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4714. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4715. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4716. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4717. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4718. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4719. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see the option
  4720. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4721. @end table
  4722. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4723. properties}.
  4724. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4725. single property:
  4726. @table @kbd
  4727. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4728. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4729. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4730. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4731. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4732. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4733. @end table
  4734. @node Property inheritance
  4735. @section Property Inheritance
  4736. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4737. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4738. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4739. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4740. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4741. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4742. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4743. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4744. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4745. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4746. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4747. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4748. inherited properties. If a property has the value @code{nil}, this is
  4749. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4750. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4751. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4752. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4753. @cindex property, @code{COLUMNS}
  4754. @table @code
  4755. @item COLUMNS
  4756. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4757. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4758. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4759. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4760. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4761. @item CATEGORY
  4762. @cindex property, @code{CATEGORY}
  4763. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4764. applies to the entire subtree.
  4765. @item ARCHIVE
  4766. @cindex property, @code{ARCHIVE}
  4767. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4768. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4769. @item LOGGING
  4770. @cindex property, @code{LOGGING}
  4771. The @code{LOGGING} property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4772. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4773. @end table
  4774. @node Column view
  4775. @section Column view
  4776. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4777. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4778. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4779. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4780. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4781. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4782. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4783. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4784. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4785. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4786. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4787. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda views}) where
  4788. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4789. @menu
  4790. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4791. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4792. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4793. @end menu
  4794. @node Defining columns
  4795. @subsection Defining columns
  4796. @cindex column view, for properties
  4797. @cindex properties, column view
  4798. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4799. done by defining a column format line.
  4800. @menu
  4801. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4802. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4803. @end menu
  4804. @node Scope of column definitions
  4805. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4806. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4807. @cindex @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4808. @example
  4809. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4810. @end example
  4811. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4812. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4813. @example
  4814. ** Top node for columns view
  4815. :PROPERTIES:
  4816. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4817. :END:
  4818. @end example
  4819. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4820. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4821. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4822. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4823. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4824. deeper part of the tree.
  4825. @node Column attributes
  4826. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4827. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4828. definition looks like this:
  4829. @example
  4830. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4831. @end example
  4832. @noindent
  4833. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4834. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4835. @example
  4836. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4837. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4838. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4839. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4840. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4841. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4842. @r{name is used.}
  4843. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4844. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children@footnote{If
  4845. more than one summary type apply to the property, the parent
  4846. values are computed according to the first of them.}.}
  4847. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4848. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4849. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4850. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4851. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4852. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4853. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4854. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4855. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4856. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4857. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are
  4858. hours@footnote{A time can also be a duration, using effort
  4859. modifiers defined in @code{org-effort-durations}, e.g.,
  4860. @samp{3d 1h}. If any value in the column is as such, the
  4861. summary will also be an effort duration.}.}
  4862. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4863. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4864. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4865. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age@footnote{An age is defined as
  4866. a duration since a given time-stamp (@pxref{Timestamps}). It
  4867. can also be expressed as days, hours, minutes and seconds,
  4868. identified by @samp{d}, @samp{h}, @samp{m} and @samp{s}
  4869. suffixes, all mandatory, e.g., @samp{0d 13h 0m 10s}.} (in
  4870. days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4871. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4872. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4873. @{est+@} @r{Add @samp{low-high} estimates.}
  4874. @end example
  4875. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4876. combining estimates, expressed as @samp{low-high} ranges or plain numbers.
  4877. For example, instead of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you
  4878. might estimate it as 5--6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much
  4879. work is required, or 1--10 days if you don't really know what needs to be
  4880. done. Both ranges average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more
  4881. predictable delivery.
  4882. When combining a set of such estimates,