org.texi 695 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include org-version.inc
  6. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  7. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  8. @set txicodequoteundirected
  9. @set txicodequotebacktick
  10. @c Version and Contact Info
  11. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  12. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  13. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  15. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  16. @c %**end of header
  17. @finalout
  18. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  19. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  20. @c =======================================
  21. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  22. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  23. @set cmdnames
  24. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  25. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  26. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  27. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  28. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  29. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  30. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  31. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  32. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  33. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  34. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  35. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  36. @c a key but no command
  37. @c Inserts: @item key
  38. @macro orgkey{key}
  39. @kindex \key\
  40. @item @kbd{\key\}
  41. @end macro
  42. @macro xorgkey{key}
  43. @kindex \key\
  44. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  45. @end macro
  46. @c one key with a command
  47. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  48. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  49. @ifset cmdnames
  50. @kindex \key\
  51. @findex \command\
  52. @iftex
  53. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  54. @end iftex
  55. @ifnottex
  56. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  57. @end ifnottex
  58. @end ifset
  59. @ifclear cmdnames
  60. @kindex \key\
  61. @item @kbd{\key\}
  62. @end ifclear
  63. @end macro
  64. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  65. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  66. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  67. @ifset cmdnames
  68. @kindex \key\
  69. @findex \command\
  70. @iftex
  71. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  72. @end iftex
  73. @ifnottex
  74. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  75. @end ifnottex
  76. @end ifset
  77. @ifclear cmdnames
  78. @kindex \key\
  79. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  80. @end ifclear
  81. @end macro
  82. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  83. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  84. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  85. @ifset cmdnames
  86. @findex \command\
  87. @iftex
  88. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  89. @end iftex
  90. @ifnottex
  91. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  92. @end ifnottex
  93. @end ifset
  94. @ifclear cmdnames
  95. @item @kbd{\key\}
  96. @end ifclear
  97. @end macro
  98. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  99. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  100. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  101. @ifset cmdnames
  102. @kindex \key\
  103. @findex \command\
  104. @iftex
  105. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  106. @end iftex
  107. @ifnottex
  108. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  109. @end ifnottex
  110. @end ifset
  111. @ifclear cmdnames
  112. @kindex \key\
  113. @item @kbd{\text\}
  114. @end ifclear
  115. @end macro
  116. @c two keys with one command
  117. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  118. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  119. @ifset cmdnames
  120. @kindex \key1\
  121. @kindex \key2\
  122. @findex \command\
  123. @iftex
  124. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  125. @end iftex
  126. @ifnottex
  127. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  128. @end ifnottex
  129. @end ifset
  130. @ifclear cmdnames
  131. @kindex \key1\
  132. @kindex \key2\
  133. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  134. @end ifclear
  135. @end macro
  136. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  137. @c @itemx
  138. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  139. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  140. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  141. @ifset cmdnames
  142. @kindex \key1\
  143. @kindex \key2\
  144. @findex \command\
  145. @iftex
  146. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  147. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  148. @end iftex
  149. @ifnottex
  150. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  151. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  152. @end ifnottex
  153. @end ifset
  154. @ifclear cmdnames
  155. @kindex \key1\
  156. @kindex \key2\
  157. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  158. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  159. @end ifclear
  160. @end macro
  161. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  162. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  163. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  164. @ifset cmdnames
  165. @kindex \key1\
  166. @kindex \key2\
  167. @findex \command\
  168. @iftex
  169. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  170. @end iftex
  171. @ifnottex
  172. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  173. @end ifnottex
  174. @end ifset
  175. @ifclear cmdnames
  176. @kindex \key1\
  177. @kindex \key2\
  178. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  179. @end ifclear
  180. @end macro
  181. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  182. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  183. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  184. @ifset cmdnames
  185. @kindex \key1\
  186. @kindex \key2\
  187. @findex \command\
  188. @iftex
  189. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  190. @end iftex
  191. @ifnottex
  192. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  193. @end ifnottex
  194. @end ifset
  195. @ifclear cmdnames
  196. @kindex \key1\
  197. @kindex \key2\
  198. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  199. @end ifclear
  200. @end macro
  201. @c two keys with two commands
  202. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  203. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  204. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  205. @ifset cmdnames
  206. @kindex \key1\
  207. @kindex \key2\
  208. @findex \command1\
  209. @findex \command2\
  210. @iftex
  211. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  212. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  213. @end iftex
  214. @ifnottex
  215. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  216. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  217. @end ifnottex
  218. @end ifset
  219. @ifclear cmdnames
  220. @kindex \key1\
  221. @kindex \key2\
  222. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  223. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  224. @end ifclear
  225. @end macro
  226. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  227. @iftex
  228. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  229. @end iftex
  230. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  231. @macro tsubheading{text}
  232. @ifinfo
  233. @subsubheading \text\
  234. @end ifinfo
  235. @ifnotinfo
  236. @item @b{\text\}
  237. @end ifnotinfo
  238. @end macro
  239. @copying
  240. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  241. Copyright @copyright{} 2004--2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  242. @quotation
  243. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  244. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  245. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  246. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  247. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  248. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  249. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  250. modify this GNU manual.''
  251. @end quotation
  252. @end copying
  253. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  254. @direntry
  255. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  256. @end direntry
  257. @titlepage
  258. @title The Org Manual
  259. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  260. @author by Carsten Dominik
  261. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, Thomas Dye and Jambunathan K.
  262. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  263. @page
  264. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  265. @insertcopying
  266. @end titlepage
  267. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  268. @contents
  269. @ifnottex
  270. @c FIXME These hand-written next,prev,up node pointers make editing a lot
  271. @c harder. There should be no need for them, makeinfo can do it
  272. @c automatically for any document with a normal structure.
  273. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  274. @top Org Mode Manual
  275. @insertcopying
  276. @end ifnottex
  277. @menu
  278. * Introduction:: Getting started
  279. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  280. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  281. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  282. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  283. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  284. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  285. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  286. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  287. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  288. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  289. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  290. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  291. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  292. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  293. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  294. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  295. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  296. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
  297. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  298. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  299. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  300. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  301. @detailmenu
  302. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  303. Introduction
  304. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  305. * Installation:: Installing Org
  306. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  307. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  308. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  309. Document structure
  310. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  311. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  312. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  313. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  314. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  315. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  316. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  317. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  318. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  319. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  320. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  321. Tables
  322. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  323. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  324. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  325. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  326. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  327. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  328. The spreadsheet
  329. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  330. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  331. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  332. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  333. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  334. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  335. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  336. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  337. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  338. Hyperlinks
  339. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  340. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  341. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  342. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  343. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  344. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  345. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  346. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  347. Internal links
  348. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  349. TODO items
  350. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  351. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  352. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  353. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  354. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  355. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  356. Extended use of TODO keywords
  357. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  358. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  359. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  360. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  361. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  362. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  363. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  364. Progress logging
  365. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  366. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  367. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  368. Tags
  369. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  370. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  371. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  372. Properties and columns
  373. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  374. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  375. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  376. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  377. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  378. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  379. Column view
  380. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  381. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  382. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  383. Defining columns
  384. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  385. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  386. Dates and times
  387. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  388. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  389. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  390. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  391. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  392. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  393. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  394. Creating timestamps
  395. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  396. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  397. Deadlines and scheduling
  398. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  399. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  400. Clocking work time
  401. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  402. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  403. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  404. Capture - Refile - Archive
  405. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  406. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  407. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  408. * Protocols:: External (e.g., Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  409. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  410. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  411. Capture
  412. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  413. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  414. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  415. Capture templates
  416. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  417. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  418. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context
  419. Archiving
  420. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  421. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  422. Agenda views
  423. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  424. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  425. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  426. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  427. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  428. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  429. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  430. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  431. The built-in agenda views
  432. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  433. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  434. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  435. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  436. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  437. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  438. Presentation and sorting
  439. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  440. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  441. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  442. Custom agenda views
  443. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  444. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  445. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  446. Markup for rich export
  447. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  448. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  449. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  450. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  451. * Index entries:: Making an index
  452. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  453. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  454. Structural markup elements
  455. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  456. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  457. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  458. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  459. * Lists:: Lists
  460. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  461. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  462. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  463. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  464. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  465. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  466. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  467. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  468. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  469. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  470. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  471. Exporting
  472. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  473. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  474. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  475. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  476. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  477. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  478. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  479. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  480. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  481. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  482. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  483. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  484. HTML export
  485. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  486. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  487. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org mode
  488. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  489. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  490. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  491. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  492. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  493. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  494. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  495. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  496. * @LaTeX{}/PDF export commands::
  497. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  498. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  499. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  500. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  501. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  502. DocBook export
  503. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  504. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  505. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  506. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  507. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  508. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  509. OpenDocument Text export
  510. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: What packages ODT exporter relies on
  511. * ODT export commands:: How to invoke ODT export
  512. * Extending ODT export:: How to produce @samp{doc}, @samp{pdf} files
  513. * Applying custom styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  514. * Links in ODT export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  515. * Tables in ODT export:: How Tables are exported
  516. * Images in ODT export:: How to insert images
  517. * Math formatting in ODT export:: How @LaTeX{} fragments are formatted
  518. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: How captions are rendered
  519. * Literal examples in ODT export:: How source and example blocks are formatted
  520. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: Read this if you are a power user
  521. Math formatting in ODT export
  522. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: How to embed @LaTeX{} math fragments
  523. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: How to embed equations in native format
  524. Advanced topics in ODT export
  525. * Configuring a document converter:: How to register a document converter
  526. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Explore the internals
  527. * Creating one-off styles:: How to produce custom highlighting etc
  528. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: How to define and use Table templates
  529. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: How to debug corrupt OpenDocument files
  530. Publishing
  531. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  532. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  533. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  534. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  535. Configuration
  536. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  537. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  538. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  539. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  540. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  541. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  542. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  543. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  544. Sample configuration
  545. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  546. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  547. Working with source code
  548. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  549. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  550. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  551. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  552. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  553. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  554. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  555. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  556. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  557. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  558. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  559. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  560. Header arguments
  561. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  562. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  563. Using header arguments
  564. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  565. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  566. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  567. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  568. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  569. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  570. Specific header arguments
  571. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  572. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  573. be collected and handled
  574. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  575. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  576. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  577. directory for code block execution
  578. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  579. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  580. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  581. files during tangling
  582. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  583. code files
  584. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  585. code files
  586. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  587. expansion during tangling
  588. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  589. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  590. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  591. * noweb-sep:: String used to separate noweb references
  592. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  593. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  594. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  595. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  596. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  597. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  598. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  599. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  600. Miscellaneous
  601. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  602. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  603. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  604. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  605. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  606. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  607. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  608. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  609. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  610. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  611. * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files
  612. Interaction with other packages
  613. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  614. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  615. Hacking
  616. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  617. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  618. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  619. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  620. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  621. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  622. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  623. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  624. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  625. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  626. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  627. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  628. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  629. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  630. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  631. MobileOrg
  632. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  633. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  634. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  635. @end detailmenu
  636. @end menu
  637. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  638. @chapter Introduction
  639. @cindex introduction
  640. @menu
  641. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  642. * Installation:: Installing Org
  643. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  644. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  645. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  646. @end menu
  647. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  648. @section Summary
  649. @cindex summary
  650. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  651. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  652. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  653. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  654. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  655. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  656. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  657. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  658. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  659. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  660. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  661. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  662. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  663. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  664. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  665. linked web pages.
  666. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  667. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  668. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  669. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  670. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  671. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  672. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  673. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  674. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  675. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  676. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  677. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  678. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  679. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  680. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  681. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  682. ends, for example:
  683. @example
  684. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  685. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  686. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  687. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  688. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  689. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  690. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  691. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  692. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  693. @end example
  694. @cindex FAQ
  695. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  696. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  697. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc. This page is located at
  698. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  699. @cindex print edition
  700. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  701. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  702. Theory Ltd.}
  703. @page
  704. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  705. @section Installation
  706. @cindex installation
  707. @cindex XEmacs
  708. Org is part of recent distributions of GNU Emacs, so you normally don't need
  709. to install it. If, for one reason or another, you want to install Org on top
  710. of this pre-packaged version, there are three ways to do it:
  711. @itemize @bullet
  712. @item By using Emacs package system.
  713. @item By downloading Org as an archive.
  714. @item By using Org's git repository.
  715. @end itemize
  716. We @b{strongly recommend} to stick to a single installation method.
  717. @subsubheading Using Emacs packaging system
  718. Recent Emacs distributions include a packaging system which lets you install
  719. Elisp libraries. You can install Org with @kbd{M-x package-install RET org}.
  720. To make sure your Org configuration is well taken into account, initialize
  721. the package system with @code{(package-initialize)} before setting any Org
  722. option. If you want to use Org's package repository, check out the
  723. @uref{http://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}.
  724. @subsubheading Downloading Org as an archive
  725. You can download Org latest release from @uref{http://orgmode.org/, Org's
  726. website}. In this case, make sure you set the load-path correctly in your
  727. @file{.emacs}:
  728. @example
  729. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  730. @end example
  731. The downloaded archive contains contributed libraries that are not included
  732. in Emacs. If you want to use them, add the @file{contrib} directory to your
  733. load-path:
  734. @example
  735. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  736. @end example
  737. Optionally, you can compile the files and/or install them in your system.
  738. Run @code{make help} to list compilation and installation options.
  739. @subsubheading Using Org's git repository
  740. You can clone Org's repository and install Org like this:
  741. @example
  742. $ cd ~/src/
  743. $ git clone git://orgmode.org/org-mode.git
  744. $ make autoloads
  745. @end example
  746. Note that @code{make autoloads} is mandatory: it defines Org's version and
  747. Org's autoloaded functions, respectively in @file{org-version.el} and in
  748. @file{org-loaddefs.el}.
  749. Remember to add the correct load-path as described in the method above.
  750. You can also compile and install Org from this git repository: check
  751. @code{make help} to get the list of compilation/installation options.
  752. For more detailed explanations on Org's build system, please check the Org
  753. Build System page on @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html, Worg}.
  754. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  755. @section Activation
  756. @cindex activation
  757. @cindex autoload
  758. @cindex ELPA
  759. @cindex global key bindings
  760. @cindex key bindings, global
  761. @findex org-agenda
  762. @findex org-capture
  763. @findex org-store-link
  764. @findex org-iswitchb
  765. Since Emacs 22.2, files with the @file{.org} extension use Org mode by
  766. default. If you are using an earlier version of Emacs, add this line to your
  767. @file{.emacs} file:
  768. @lisp
  769. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  770. @end lisp
  771. Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on: this is the default in
  772. Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer
  773. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  774. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  775. packages, please take the time to check the list (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  776. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  777. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  778. global keys (i.e., anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  779. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  780. liking.
  781. @lisp
  782. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  783. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  784. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  785. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  786. @end lisp
  787. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  788. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  789. into Org mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  790. like this:
  791. @example
  792. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  793. @end example
  794. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  795. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  796. the file's name is. See also the variable
  797. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  798. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  799. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  800. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  801. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  802. @lisp
  803. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  804. @end lisp
  805. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  806. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  807. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  808. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  809. @section Feedback
  810. @cindex feedback
  811. @cindex bug reports
  812. @cindex maintainer
  813. @cindex author
  814. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  815. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  816. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  817. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  818. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  819. moderators have to do.}.
  820. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  821. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  822. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  823. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  824. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  825. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  826. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  827. @example
  828. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  829. @end example
  830. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  831. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  832. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  833. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  834. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  835. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  836. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  837. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  838. @example
  839. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  840. @end example
  841. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  842. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as
  843. @code{emacs -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  844. shown below.
  845. @example
  846. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'
  847. ;; activate debugging
  848. (setq debug-on-error t
  849. debug-on-signal nil
  850. debug-on-quit nil)
  851. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  852. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  853. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t))
  854. @end example
  855. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  856. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  857. about:
  858. @enumerate
  859. @item What exactly did you do?
  860. @item What did you expect to happen?
  861. @item What happened instead?
  862. @end enumerate
  863. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  864. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  865. @cindex backtrace of an error
  866. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  867. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  868. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  869. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  870. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  871. @enumerate
  872. @item
  873. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  874. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  875. To do this, use
  876. @example
  877. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  878. @end example
  879. @noindent
  880. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  881. menu.
  882. @item
  883. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  884. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  885. @item
  886. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  887. document the steps you take.
  888. @item
  889. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  890. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  891. attach it to your bug report.
  892. @end enumerate
  893. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  894. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  895. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  896. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  897. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  898. @table @code
  899. @item TODO
  900. @itemx WAITING
  901. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  902. user-defined.
  903. @item boss
  904. @itemx ARCHIVE
  905. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  906. meaning are written with all capitals.
  907. @item Release
  908. @itemx PRIORITY
  909. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  910. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  911. @end table
  912. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  913. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_HTML} to start a @code{HTML}
  914. environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to enhance its
  915. readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org files@footnote{Easy
  916. templates insert lowercase keywords and Babel dynamically inserts
  917. @code{#+results}.}
  918. @subsubheading Keybindings and commands
  919. @kindex C-c a
  920. @findex org-agenda
  921. @kindex C-c c
  922. @findex org-capture
  923. The manual suggests two global keybindings: @kbd{C-c a} for @code{org-agenda}
  924. and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only suggestions, but the
  925. rest of the manual assumes that you are using these keybindings.
  926. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  927. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  928. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  929. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  930. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  931. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will
  932. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  933. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  934. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  935. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  936. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  937. @chapter Document structure
  938. @cindex document structure
  939. @cindex structure of document
  940. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  941. edit the structure of the document.
  942. @menu
  943. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  944. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  945. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  946. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  947. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  948. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  949. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  950. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  951. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  952. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  953. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  954. @end menu
  955. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  956. @section Outlines
  957. @cindex outlines
  958. @cindex Outline mode
  959. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  960. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  961. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  962. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  963. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  964. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  965. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  966. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  967. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  968. @section Headlines
  969. @cindex headlines
  970. @cindex outline tree
  971. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  972. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  973. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  974. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  975. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  976. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  977. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  978. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  979. headings indented less then 30 stars.}. For example:
  980. @example
  981. * Top level headline
  982. ** Second level
  983. *** 3rd level
  984. some text
  985. *** 3rd level
  986. more text
  987. * Another top level headline
  988. @end example
  989. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  990. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  991. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  992. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  993. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  994. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  995. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  996. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  997. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  998. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  999. @section Visibility cycling
  1000. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1001. @cindex visibility cycling
  1002. @cindex trees, visibility
  1003. @cindex show hidden text
  1004. @cindex hide text
  1005. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1006. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1007. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1008. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1009. @cindex subtree cycling
  1010. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1011. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1012. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1013. @table @asis
  1014. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1015. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1016. @example
  1017. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1018. '-----------------------------------'
  1019. @end example
  1020. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1021. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1022. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1023. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1024. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1025. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1026. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1027. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1028. @cindex global visibility states
  1029. @cindex global cycling
  1030. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1031. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1032. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1033. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1034. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1035. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1036. @example
  1037. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1038. '--------------------------------------'
  1039. @end example
  1040. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1041. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1042. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1043. @cindex show all, command
  1044. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  1045. Show all, including drawers.
  1046. @cindex revealing context
  1047. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1048. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1049. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1050. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1051. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1052. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1053. entire subtree of the parent.
  1054. @cindex show branches, command
  1055. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1056. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1057. @cindex show children, command
  1058. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},show-children}
  1059. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1060. expose all children down to level N@.
  1061. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1062. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1063. buffer
  1064. @ifinfo
  1065. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1066. @end ifinfo
  1067. @ifnotinfo
  1068. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1069. @end ifnotinfo
  1070. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1071. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1072. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1073. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1074. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1075. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1076. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1077. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1078. @end table
  1079. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1080. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1081. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1082. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1083. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1084. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1085. OVERVIEW, i.e., only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1086. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1087. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1088. buffer:
  1089. @example
  1090. #+STARTUP: overview
  1091. #+STARTUP: content
  1092. #+STARTUP: showall
  1093. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1094. @end example
  1095. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1096. @noindent
  1097. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1098. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1099. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1100. @code{all}.
  1101. @table @asis
  1102. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1103. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e., whatever is
  1104. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1105. entries.
  1106. @end table
  1107. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1108. @section Motion
  1109. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1110. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1111. @cindex headline navigation
  1112. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1113. @table @asis
  1114. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1115. Next heading.
  1116. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1117. Previous heading.
  1118. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1119. Next heading same level.
  1120. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1121. Previous heading same level.
  1122. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1123. Backward to higher level heading.
  1124. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1125. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1126. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1127. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1128. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1129. @example
  1130. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1131. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1132. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1133. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1134. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1135. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1136. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1137. u @r{One level up.}
  1138. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1139. q @r{Quit}
  1140. @end example
  1141. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1142. @noindent
  1143. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1144. @end table
  1145. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1146. @section Structure editing
  1147. @cindex structure editing
  1148. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1149. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1150. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1151. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1152. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1153. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1154. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1155. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1156. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1157. @table @asis
  1158. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1159. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1160. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1161. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1162. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1163. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1164. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1165. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1166. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1167. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1168. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.,
  1169. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1170. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1171. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1172. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1173. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1174. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1175. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1176. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1177. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1178. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1179. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1180. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1181. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1182. subtree.
  1183. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1184. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1185. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1186. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1187. to the initial level.
  1188. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1189. Promote current heading by one level.
  1190. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1191. Demote current heading by one level.
  1192. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1193. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1194. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1195. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1196. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1197. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1198. level).
  1199. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1200. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1201. @orgcmd{M-h,org-mark-element}
  1202. Mark the element at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent elements
  1203. of the one just marked. E.g. hitting @key{M-h} on a paragraph will mark it,
  1204. hitting @key{M-h} immediately again will mark the next one.
  1205. @orgcmd{C-c @@,org-mark-subtree}
  1206. Mark the subtree at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent subtrees
  1207. of the same level than the marked subtree.
  1208. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1209. Kill subtree, i.e., remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1210. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1211. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1212. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1213. sequential subtrees.
  1214. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1215. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1216. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1217. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1218. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1219. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1220. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1221. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1222. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1223. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1224. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1225. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1226. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1227. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1228. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1229. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1230. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1231. folding.
  1232. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1233. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1234. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1235. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1236. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1237. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1238. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1239. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1240. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  1241. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1242. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1243. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1244. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1245. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1246. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1247. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1248. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1249. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1250. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1251. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1252. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1253. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1254. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1255. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1256. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1257. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1258. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1259. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1260. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1261. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1262. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1263. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1264. @end table
  1265. @cindex region, active
  1266. @cindex active region
  1267. @cindex transient mark mode
  1268. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1269. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1270. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1271. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1272. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1273. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1274. functionality.
  1275. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1276. @section Sparse trees
  1277. @cindex sparse trees
  1278. @cindex trees, sparse
  1279. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1280. @cindex occur, command
  1281. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1282. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1283. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1284. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1285. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1286. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1287. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1288. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1289. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1290. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1291. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1292. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1293. Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1294. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1295. @table @asis
  1296. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1297. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1298. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1299. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1300. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1301. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1302. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1303. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1304. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1305. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1306. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1307. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1308. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1309. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1310. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1311. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1312. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1313. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1314. @end table
  1315. @noindent
  1316. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1317. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1318. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1319. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1320. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1321. For example:
  1322. @lisp
  1323. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1324. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1325. @end lisp
  1326. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1327. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1328. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1329. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1330. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1331. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1332. @cindex visible text, printing
  1333. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1334. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1335. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1336. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1337. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1338. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1339. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1340. @section Plain lists
  1341. @cindex plain lists
  1342. @cindex lists, plain
  1343. @cindex lists, ordered
  1344. @cindex ordered lists
  1345. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1346. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1347. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1348. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1349. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1350. @itemize @bullet
  1351. @item
  1352. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1353. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1354. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1355. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1356. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1357. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1358. bullets.
  1359. @item
  1360. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1361. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1362. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1363. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1364. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1365. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1366. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1367. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1368. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1369. list to start with a different value (e.g., 20), start the text of the item
  1370. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1371. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1372. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1373. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1374. @item
  1375. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1376. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1377. description.
  1378. @end itemize
  1379. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1380. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1381. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1382. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1383. than its bullet/number.
  1384. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1385. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1386. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1387. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1388. that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1389. @example
  1390. @group
  1391. ** Lord of the Rings
  1392. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1393. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1394. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1395. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1396. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1397. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1398. - on DVD only
  1399. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1400. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1401. Important actors in this film are:
  1402. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1403. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1404. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1405. @end group
  1406. @end example
  1407. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1408. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1409. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1410. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1411. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1412. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1413. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1414. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1415. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1416. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1417. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1418. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1419. indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1420. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1421. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1422. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1423. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1424. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1425. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1426. to disable them individually.
  1427. @table @asis
  1428. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1429. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1430. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1431. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1432. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1433. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1434. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1435. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1436. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1437. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1438. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1439. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1440. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1441. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1442. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1443. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1444. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1445. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1446. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1447. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1448. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1449. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1450. one.
  1451. @end table
  1452. @table @kbd
  1453. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1454. @item M-S-RET
  1455. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1456. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1457. @item S-up
  1458. @itemx S-down
  1459. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1460. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1461. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1462. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1463. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1464. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1465. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1466. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1467. similar effect.
  1468. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1469. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1470. @item M-up
  1471. @itemx M-down
  1472. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1473. @code{org-liste-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1474. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1475. is automatic.
  1476. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1477. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1478. @item M-left
  1479. @itemx M-right
  1480. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1481. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1482. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1483. @item M-S-left
  1484. @itemx M-S-right
  1485. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1486. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1487. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1488. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1489. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1490. motion or so.
  1491. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1492. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1493. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1494. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1495. @kindex C-c C-c
  1496. @item C-c C-c
  1497. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1498. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1499. consistency in the whole list.
  1500. @kindex C-c -
  1501. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1502. @item C-c -
  1503. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1504. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1505. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1506. and its indentation. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet
  1507. from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, selected
  1508. text will be changed into an item. With a prefix argument, all lines will be
  1509. converted to list items. If the first line already was a list item, any item
  1510. marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1511. region, a normal line will be converted into a list item.
  1512. @kindex C-c *
  1513. @item C-c *
  1514. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1515. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1516. @kindex C-c C-*
  1517. @item C-c C-*
  1518. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1519. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1520. (resp. checked).
  1521. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1522. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1523. @item S-left/right
  1524. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1525. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1526. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1527. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1528. @kindex C-c ^
  1529. @item C-c ^
  1530. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1531. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1532. @end table
  1533. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1534. @section Drawers
  1535. @cindex drawers
  1536. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1537. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1538. @vindex org-drawers
  1539. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  1540. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1541. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1542. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1543. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1544. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define additional drawers on a
  1545. per-file basis with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN STATE}}. Drawers
  1546. look like this:
  1547. @example
  1548. ** This is a headline
  1549. Still outside the drawer
  1550. :DRAWERNAME:
  1551. This is inside the drawer.
  1552. :END:
  1553. After the drawer.
  1554. @end example
  1555. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1556. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1557. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1558. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add a
  1559. property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1560. keywords is also possible using @key{M-TAB}.
  1561. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1562. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1563. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1564. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1565. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1566. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1567. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1568. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1569. @table @kbd
  1570. @kindex C-c C-z
  1571. @item C-c C-z
  1572. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1573. @end table
  1574. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1575. @section Blocks
  1576. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1577. @cindex blocks, folding
  1578. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1579. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1580. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1581. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1582. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1583. or on a per-file basis by using
  1584. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1585. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1586. @example
  1587. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1588. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1589. @end example
  1590. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1591. @section Footnotes
  1592. @cindex footnotes
  1593. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1594. @file{footnote.el} package, Org mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1595. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1596. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e., a footnote is
  1597. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1598. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1599. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1600. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1601. @example
  1602. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1603. ...
  1604. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1605. @end example
  1606. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1607. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1608. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1609. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1610. @LaTeX{}}). Here are the valid references:
  1611. @table @code
  1612. @item [1]
  1613. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1614. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1615. snippet.
  1616. @item [fn:name]
  1617. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1618. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1619. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1620. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1621. reference point.
  1622. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1623. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1624. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1625. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1626. @end table
  1627. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1628. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1629. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1630. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1631. for details.
  1632. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1633. @table @kbd
  1634. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1635. @item C-c C-x f
  1636. The footnote action command.
  1637. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1638. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1639. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1640. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1641. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1642. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1643. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1644. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1645. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1646. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1647. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1648. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1649. options is offered:
  1650. @example
  1651. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1652. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1653. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1654. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1655. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1656. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1657. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1658. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1659. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1660. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1661. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1662. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1663. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1664. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g., sending}
  1665. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1666. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1667. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1668. @r{to it.}
  1669. @end example
  1670. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1671. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1672. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1673. deletion.
  1674. @kindex C-c C-c
  1675. @item C-c C-c
  1676. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1677. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1678. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1679. @kindex C-c C-o
  1680. @kindex mouse-1
  1681. @kindex mouse-2
  1682. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1683. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1684. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1685. @end table
  1686. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1687. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1688. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1689. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1690. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1691. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1692. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1693. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1694. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1695. @lisp
  1696. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1697. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1698. @end lisp
  1699. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1700. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1701. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1702. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1703. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1704. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1705. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1706. item.
  1707. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1708. @chapter Tables
  1709. @cindex tables
  1710. @cindex editing tables
  1711. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1712. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1713. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1714. @menu
  1715. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1716. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1717. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1718. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1719. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1720. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1721. @end menu
  1722. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1723. @section The built-in table editor
  1724. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1725. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII@. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1726. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1727. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1728. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1729. might look like this:
  1730. @example
  1731. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1732. |-------+-------+-----|
  1733. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1734. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1735. @end example
  1736. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1737. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1738. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1739. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1740. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1741. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1742. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1743. create the above table, you would only type
  1744. @example
  1745. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1746. |-
  1747. @end example
  1748. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1749. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1750. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1751. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1752. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1753. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1754. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1755. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1756. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1757. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1758. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1759. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1760. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1761. @table @kbd
  1762. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1763. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1764. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1765. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1766. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1767. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1768. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1769. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1770. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1771. @*
  1772. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1773. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1774. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1775. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1776. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1777. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1778. @c
  1779. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1780. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1781. necessary.
  1782. @c
  1783. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1784. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1785. @c
  1786. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1787. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1788. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1789. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1790. @c
  1791. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1792. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1793. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1794. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1795. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1796. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1797. Move the current column left/right.
  1798. @c
  1799. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1800. Kill the current column.
  1801. @c
  1802. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1803. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1804. @c
  1805. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1806. Move the current row up/down.
  1807. @c
  1808. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1809. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1810. @c
  1811. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1812. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1813. created below the current one.
  1814. @c
  1815. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1816. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1817. is created above the current line.
  1818. @c
  1819. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1820. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1821. below that line.
  1822. @c
  1823. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1824. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1825. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1826. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1827. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1828. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1829. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1830. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1831. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1832. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1833. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1834. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1835. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1836. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1837. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1838. @c
  1839. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1840. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1841. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1842. @c
  1843. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1844. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1845. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1846. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1847. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1848. lines.
  1849. @c
  1850. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1851. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1852. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1853. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1854. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1855. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1856. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1857. above.
  1858. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1859. @cindex formula, in tables
  1860. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1861. @cindex region, active
  1862. @cindex active region
  1863. @cindex transient mark mode
  1864. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1865. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1866. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1867. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1868. @c
  1869. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1870. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1871. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1872. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1873. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1874. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1875. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1876. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1877. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1878. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1879. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1880. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1881. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1882. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1883. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1884. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1885. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1886. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1887. @c
  1888. @item M-x org-table-import
  1889. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1890. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1891. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1892. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1893. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1894. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1895. separator.
  1896. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1897. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1898. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1899. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1900. @c
  1901. @item M-x org-table-export
  1902. @findex org-table-export
  1903. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1904. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1905. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1906. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1907. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1908. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1909. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1910. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1911. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1912. detailed description.
  1913. @end table
  1914. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1915. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1916. it off with
  1917. @lisp
  1918. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1919. @end lisp
  1920. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1921. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1922. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1923. @section Column width and alignment
  1924. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1925. @cindex alignment in tables
  1926. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1927. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1928. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1929. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1930. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1931. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1932. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1933. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1934. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1935. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1936. @example
  1937. @group
  1938. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1939. | | | | | <6> |
  1940. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1941. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1942. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1943. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1944. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1945. @end group
  1946. @end example
  1947. @noindent
  1948. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1949. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1950. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1951. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1952. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1953. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1954. C-c}.
  1955. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1956. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1957. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1958. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1959. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1960. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1961. on a per-file basis with:
  1962. @example
  1963. #+STARTUP: align
  1964. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1965. @end example
  1966. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1967. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  1968. @samp{<c>}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1969. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  1970. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1971. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1972. automatically when exporting the document.
  1973. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1974. @section Column groups
  1975. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1976. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1977. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1978. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1979. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1980. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1981. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1982. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1983. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<}
  1984. and @samp{>}) to make a column
  1985. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1986. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1987. @example
  1988. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1989. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1990. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1991. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1992. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1993. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1994. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1995. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1996. @end example
  1997. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1998. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1999. @example
  2000. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2001. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2002. | / | < | | | < | |
  2003. @end example
  2004. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  2005. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2006. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2007. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2008. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  2009. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  2010. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  2011. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  2012. example in Message mode, use
  2013. @lisp
  2014. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2015. @end lisp
  2016. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2017. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2018. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2019. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2020. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2021. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  2022. @section The spreadsheet
  2023. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2024. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2025. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2026. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2027. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2028. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2029. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2030. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2031. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2032. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2033. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2034. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2035. @menu
  2036. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2037. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2038. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2039. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2040. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2041. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2042. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2043. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2044. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2045. @end menu
  2046. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  2047. @subsection References
  2048. @cindex references
  2049. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2050. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2051. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2052. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2053. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2054. @subsubheading Field references
  2055. @cindex field references
  2056. @cindex references, to fields
  2057. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2058. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2059. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2060. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2061. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2062. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2063. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  2064. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2065. representation that looks like this:
  2066. @example
  2067. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2068. @end example
  2069. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2070. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e., the
  2071. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2072. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2073. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2074. column from the right.
  2075. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2076. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2077. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2078. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2079. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2080. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2081. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2082. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2083. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2084. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2085. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2086. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2087. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2088. after the third hline in the table.
  2089. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2090. i.e., to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2091. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2092. implied.
  2093. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2094. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2095. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2096. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2097. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2098. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2099. Here are a few examples:
  2100. @example
  2101. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2102. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2103. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2104. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2105. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2106. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2107. @end example
  2108. @subsubheading Range references
  2109. @cindex range references
  2110. @cindex references, to ranges
  2111. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2112. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2113. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2114. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2115. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2116. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2117. @example
  2118. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2119. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2120. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2121. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2122. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2123. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2124. @end example
  2125. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2126. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2127. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2128. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2129. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2130. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2131. @cindex field coordinates
  2132. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2133. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2134. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2135. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2136. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2137. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2138. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2139. @example
  2140. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2141. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2142. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2143. @end example
  2144. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2145. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2146. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2147. number of rows.
  2148. @subsubheading Named references
  2149. @cindex named references
  2150. @cindex references, named
  2151. @cindex name, of column or field
  2152. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2153. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2154. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2155. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2156. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2157. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2158. line like
  2159. @example
  2160. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2161. @end example
  2162. @noindent
  2163. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2164. @pindex constants.el
  2165. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2166. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2167. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2168. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2169. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2170. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2171. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2172. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2173. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2174. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2175. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2176. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2177. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2178. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2179. numbers.
  2180. @subsubheading Remote references
  2181. @cindex remote references
  2182. @cindex references, remote
  2183. @cindex references, to a different table
  2184. @cindex name, of column or field
  2185. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2186. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2187. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2188. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2189. @example
  2190. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2191. @end example
  2192. @noindent
  2193. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2194. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2195. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2196. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2197. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2198. referenced table.
  2199. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2200. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2201. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2202. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2203. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2204. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2205. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2206. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2207. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2208. Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc, GNU
  2209. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2210. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2211. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2212. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2213. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2214. @cindex format specifier
  2215. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2216. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2217. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2218. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2219. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2220. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2221. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2222. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2223. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2224. @example
  2225. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2226. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2227. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2228. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2229. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2230. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2231. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2232. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  2233. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  2234. L @r{literal}
  2235. @end example
  2236. @noindent
  2237. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2238. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2239. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2240. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2241. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2242. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2243. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2244. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2245. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2246. A few examples:
  2247. @example
  2248. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2249. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2250. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2251. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2252. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2253. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2254. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2255. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2256. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  2257. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2258. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2259. @end example
  2260. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2261. @example
  2262. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{"teen" if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  2263. @end example
  2264. Note that you can also use two org-specific flags @code{T} and @code{t} for
  2265. durations computations @ref{Durations and time values}.
  2266. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2267. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2268. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2269. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be useful
  2270. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is
  2271. not enough.
  2272. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening parenthesis,
  2273. then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a
  2274. string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes
  2275. and a printf format after a semicolon.
  2276. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2277. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be
  2278. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If
  2279. you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers
  2280. (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without
  2281. quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated
  2282. literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted
  2283. as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in
  2284. double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated
  2285. fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax.
  2286. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2287. computations in Lisp:
  2288. @example
  2289. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2290. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2291. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2292. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2293. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1--4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2294. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2295. @end example
  2296. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2297. @subsection Durations and time values
  2298. @cindex Duration, computing
  2299. @cindex Time, computing
  2300. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2301. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2302. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2303. @example
  2304. @group
  2305. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2306. |---------+----------+----------|
  2307. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2308. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2309. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2310. @end group
  2311. @end example
  2312. Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2313. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2314. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2315. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the variable
  2316. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2317. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2318. example above).
  2319. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2320. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2321. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2322. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2323. @cindex field formula
  2324. @cindex range formula
  2325. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2326. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2327. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2328. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2329. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2330. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2331. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2332. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2333. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2334. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2335. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2336. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2337. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2338. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2339. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2340. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2341. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2342. of course not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2343. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2344. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2345. command
  2346. @table @kbd
  2347. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2348. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2349. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2350. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2351. @end table
  2352. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2353. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2354. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2355. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2356. directly.
  2357. @table @code
  2358. @item $2=
  2359. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2360. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2361. @item @@3=
  2362. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2363. the last row.
  2364. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2365. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2366. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2367. @item $name=
  2368. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2369. @end table
  2370. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2371. @subsection Column formulas
  2372. @cindex column formula
  2373. @cindex formula, for table column
  2374. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2375. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2376. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2377. hlines, everything before the first such line is considered part of the table
  2378. @emph{header} and will not be modified by column formulas. (ii) Fields that
  2379. already get a value from a field/range formula will be left alone by column
  2380. formulas. These conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2381. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2382. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2383. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2384. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2385. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2386. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2387. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2388. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2389. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2390. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2391. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2392. following command:
  2393. @table @kbd
  2394. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2395. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2396. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2397. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2398. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g., @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2399. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2400. @end table
  2401. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2402. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2403. @cindex formula editing
  2404. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2405. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2406. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2407. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2408. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2409. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2410. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2411. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2412. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2413. @table @kbd
  2414. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2415. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2416. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2417. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2418. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2419. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2420. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2421. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2422. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2423. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2424. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2425. @kindex C-c @}
  2426. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2427. @item C-c @}
  2428. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2429. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2430. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2431. @kindex C-c @{
  2432. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2433. @item C-c @{
  2434. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2435. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2436. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2437. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2438. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2439. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2440. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2441. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2442. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2443. @table @kbd
  2444. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2445. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2446. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2447. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2448. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2449. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2450. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2451. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2452. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2453. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2454. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2455. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2456. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2457. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2458. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2459. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2460. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2461. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2462. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2463. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2464. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2465. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2466. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2467. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2468. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2469. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2470. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2471. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2472. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2473. down.
  2474. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2475. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2476. @kindex C-c @}
  2477. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2478. @item C-c @}
  2479. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2480. @end table
  2481. @end table
  2482. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2483. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2484. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2485. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2486. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2487. @kindex C-c C-c
  2488. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2489. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2490. recalculation commands in the table.
  2491. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2492. @cindex formula debugging
  2493. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2494. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2495. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2496. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2497. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2498. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2499. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2500. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2501. @subsection Updating the table
  2502. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2503. @cindex updating, table
  2504. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2505. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2506. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2507. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2508. following commands:
  2509. @table @kbd
  2510. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2511. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2512. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2513. @c
  2514. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2515. @item C-u C-c *
  2516. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2517. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2518. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2519. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2520. @c
  2521. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2522. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2523. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2524. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2525. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2526. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2527. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2528. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2529. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2530. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2531. dependencies.
  2532. @end table
  2533. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2534. @subsection Advanced features
  2535. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2536. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2537. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2538. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2539. special marking characters.
  2540. @table @kbd
  2541. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2542. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2543. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2544. change all marks in the region.
  2545. @end table
  2546. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2547. makes use of these features:
  2548. @example
  2549. @group
  2550. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2551. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2552. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2553. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2554. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2555. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2556. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2557. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2558. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2559. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2560. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2561. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2562. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2563. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2564. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2565. @end group
  2566. @end example
  2567. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2568. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2569. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2570. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2571. empty first field.
  2572. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2573. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2574. @table @samp
  2575. @item !
  2576. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2577. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2578. @item ^
  2579. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2580. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2581. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2582. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2583. @item _
  2584. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2585. @emph{below}.
  2586. @item $
  2587. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2588. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2589. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2590. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2591. a per-table basis.
  2592. @item #
  2593. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2594. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2595. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2596. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2597. @item *
  2598. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2599. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2600. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2601. @item @w{ }
  2602. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2603. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2604. or @samp{*}.
  2605. @item /
  2606. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2607. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2608. @end table
  2609. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2610. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2611. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2612. functions.
  2613. @example
  2614. @group
  2615. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2616. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2617. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2618. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2619. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2620. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2621. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2622. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2623. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2624. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2625. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2626. @end group
  2627. @end example
  2628. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2629. @section Org-Plot
  2630. @cindex graph, in tables
  2631. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2632. @cindex #+PLOT
  2633. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2634. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2635. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2636. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2637. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2638. @example
  2639. @group
  2640. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2641. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2642. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2643. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2644. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2645. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2646. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2647. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2648. @end group
  2649. @end example
  2650. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2651. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2652. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2653. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2654. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2655. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2656. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2657. @table @code
  2658. @item set
  2659. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2660. @item title
  2661. Specify the title of the plot.
  2662. @item ind
  2663. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2664. @item deps
  2665. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2666. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2667. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2668. column).
  2669. @item type
  2670. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2671. @item with
  2672. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2673. (e.g., @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2674. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2675. @item file
  2676. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2677. @item labels
  2678. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2679. if they exist).
  2680. @item line
  2681. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2682. @item map
  2683. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2684. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2685. @item timefmt
  2686. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2687. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2688. @item script
  2689. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2690. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2691. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2692. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2693. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2694. the data file.
  2695. @end table
  2696. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2697. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2698. @cindex hyperlinks
  2699. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2700. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2701. @menu
  2702. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2703. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2704. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2705. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2706. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2707. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2708. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2709. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2710. @end menu
  2711. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2712. @section Link format
  2713. @cindex link format
  2714. @cindex format, of links
  2715. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2716. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2717. @example
  2718. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2719. @end example
  2720. @noindent
  2721. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2722. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2723. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2724. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2725. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2726. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2727. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2728. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2729. cursor on the link.
  2730. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2731. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2732. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2733. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2734. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2735. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2736. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2737. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2738. @section Internal links
  2739. @cindex internal links
  2740. @cindex links, internal
  2741. @cindex targets, for links
  2742. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2743. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2744. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2745. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2746. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2747. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2748. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2749. in a file.
  2750. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2751. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2752. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2753. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2754. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2755. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2756. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2757. comment line. For example
  2758. @example
  2759. # <<My Target>>
  2760. @end example
  2761. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2762. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2763. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2764. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2765. first headline.}.
  2766. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2767. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2768. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2769. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2770. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2771. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2772. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2773. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2774. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2775. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2776. earlier.
  2777. @menu
  2778. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2779. @end menu
  2780. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2781. @subsection Radio targets
  2782. @cindex radio targets
  2783. @cindex targets, radio
  2784. @cindex links, radio targets
  2785. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2786. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2787. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2788. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2789. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2790. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2791. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2792. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2793. cursor on or at a target.
  2794. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2795. @section External links
  2796. @cindex links, external
  2797. @cindex external links
  2798. @cindex links, external
  2799. @cindex Gnus links
  2800. @cindex BBDB links
  2801. @cindex IRC links
  2802. @cindex URL links
  2803. @cindex file links
  2804. @cindex VM links
  2805. @cindex RMAIL links
  2806. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2807. @cindex MH-E links
  2808. @cindex USENET links
  2809. @cindex SHELL links
  2810. @cindex Info links
  2811. @cindex Elisp links
  2812. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2813. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2814. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2815. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2816. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2817. @example
  2818. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2819. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2820. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2821. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2822. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2823. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2824. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2825. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2826. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  2827. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2828. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  2829. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  2830. the variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  2831. is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  2832. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  2833. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  2834. will be queried to create it.}
  2835. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2836. file+sys:/path/to/file @r{open via OS, like double-click}
  2837. file+emacs:/path/to/file @r{force opening by Emacs}
  2838. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  2839. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2840. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2841. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2842. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2843. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2844. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2845. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  2846. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  2847. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2848. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2849. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2850. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2851. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2852. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2853. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2854. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2855. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2856. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2857. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  2858. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2859. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2860. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2861. @end example
  2862. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2863. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2864. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2865. format}), for example:
  2866. @example
  2867. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2868. @end example
  2869. @noindent
  2870. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2871. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2872. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2873. image,
  2874. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2875. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2876. @cindex plain text external links
  2877. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2878. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2879. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2880. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2881. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2882. @section Handling links
  2883. @cindex links, handling
  2884. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2885. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2886. @table @kbd
  2887. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2888. @cindex storing links
  2889. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2890. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2891. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2892. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2893. buffer:
  2894. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  2895. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2896. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2897. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  2898. removed from the link and result in a wrong link---you should avoid putting
  2899. timestamp in the headline.}.
  2900. @vindex org-id-link-to-org-use-id
  2901. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2902. @cindex property, ID
  2903. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2904. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2905. @code{org-id-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will
  2906. be created and/or used to construct a link@footnote{The library @code{org-id}
  2907. must first be loaded, either through @code{org-customize} by enabling
  2908. @code{id} in @code{org-modules} , or by adding @code{(require 'org-id)} in
  2909. your @file{.emacs}.}. So using this command in Org
  2910. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2911. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2912. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2913. to use.
  2914. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2915. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2916. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2917. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2918. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2919. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2920. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2921. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2922. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2923. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2924. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2925. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2926. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2927. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2928. @b{Other files}@*
  2929. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2930. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2931. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2932. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2933. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2934. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2935. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2936. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2937. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2938. entry referenced by the current line.
  2939. @c
  2940. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  2941. @cindex link completion
  2942. @cindex completion, of links
  2943. @cindex inserting links
  2944. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2945. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2946. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2947. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2948. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2949. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2950. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2951. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2952. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2953. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2954. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2955. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2956. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2957. becomes the default description.
  2958. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2959. All links stored during the
  2960. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2961. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2962. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2963. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2964. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2965. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2966. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2967. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2968. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2969. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2970. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2971. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  2972. @cindex file name completion
  2973. @cindex completion, of file names
  2974. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2975. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2976. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2977. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2978. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2979. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2980. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2981. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2982. @c
  2983. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2984. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2985. link and description parts of the link.
  2986. @c
  2987. @cindex following links
  2988. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  2989. @vindex org-file-apps
  2990. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  2991. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2992. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2993. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2994. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2995. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2996. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2997. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2998. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2999. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3000. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3001. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3002. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3003. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3004. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3005. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3006. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3007. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3008. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3009. the link at point.
  3010. @c
  3011. @kindex mouse-2
  3012. @kindex mouse-1
  3013. @item mouse-2
  3014. @itemx mouse-1
  3015. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  3016. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  3017. @c
  3018. @kindex mouse-3
  3019. @item mouse-3
  3020. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3021. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3022. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3023. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3024. @c
  3025. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3026. @cindex inlining images
  3027. @cindex images, inlining
  3028. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3029. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3030. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3031. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3032. images that have no description part in the link, i.e., images that will also
  3033. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3034. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3035. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3036. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3037. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  3038. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3039. @cindex mark ring
  3040. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3041. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3042. @c
  3043. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3044. @cindex links, returning to
  3045. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3046. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3047. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3048. previously recorded positions.
  3049. @c
  3050. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3051. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3052. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3053. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3054. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3055. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3056. @lisp
  3057. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3058. (lambda ()
  3059. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3060. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3061. @end lisp
  3062. @end table
  3063. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  3064. @section Using links outside Org
  3065. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3066. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3067. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3068. yourself):
  3069. @lisp
  3070. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3071. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3072. @end lisp
  3073. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  3074. @section Link abbreviations
  3075. @cindex link abbreviations
  3076. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3077. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3078. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3079. abbreviated link looks like this
  3080. @example
  3081. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3082. @end example
  3083. @noindent
  3084. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3085. where the tag is optional.
  3086. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3087. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3088. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3089. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3090. @smalllisp
  3091. @group
  3092. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3093. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3094. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3095. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3096. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3097. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3098. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3099. @end group
  3100. @end smalllisp
  3101. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3102. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3103. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3104. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3105. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3106. If the replacement text don't contain any specifier, it will simply
  3107. be appended to the string in order to create the link.
  3108. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3109. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3110. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3111. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3112. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3113. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3114. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3115. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3116. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3117. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3118. can define them in the file with
  3119. @cindex #+LINK
  3120. @example
  3121. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3122. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3123. @end example
  3124. @noindent
  3125. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3126. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3127. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g., completion)
  3128. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3129. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3130. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3131. @section Search options in file links
  3132. @cindex search option in file links
  3133. @cindex file links, searching
  3134. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3135. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3136. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3137. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3138. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3139. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3140. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3141. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3142. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3143. link, together with an explanation:
  3144. @example
  3145. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3146. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3147. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3148. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3149. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3150. @end example
  3151. @table @code
  3152. @item 255
  3153. Jump to line 255.
  3154. @item My Target
  3155. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3156. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3157. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3158. link will become a HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3159. the linked file.
  3160. @item *My Target
  3161. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3162. @item #my-custom-id
  3163. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3164. @item /regexp/
  3165. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3166. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3167. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3168. sparse tree with the matches.
  3169. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3170. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3171. @end table
  3172. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3173. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3174. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3175. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3176. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3177. @section Custom Searches
  3178. @cindex custom search strings
  3179. @cindex search strings, custom
  3180. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3181. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3182. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3183. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3184. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3185. citation key.
  3186. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3187. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3188. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3189. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3190. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3191. to be added to the hook variables
  3192. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3193. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3194. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3195. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3196. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3197. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3198. @chapter TODO items
  3199. @cindex TODO items
  3200. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3201. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3202. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3203. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3204. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3205. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3206. item emerged is always present.
  3207. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3208. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3209. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3210. @menu
  3211. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3212. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3213. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3214. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3215. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3216. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3217. @end menu
  3218. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3219. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3220. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3221. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3222. @example
  3223. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3224. @end example
  3225. @noindent
  3226. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3227. @table @kbd
  3228. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3229. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3230. @vindex org-use-fast-todo-selection
  3231. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3232. @example
  3233. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3234. '--------------------------------'
  3235. @end example
  3236. If TODO keywords have fast access keys (see @ref{Fast access to TODO
  3237. states}), you will be prompted for a TODO keyword through the fast selection
  3238. interface; this is the default behavior when
  3239. @var{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is @code{non-nil}.
  3240. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and agenda
  3241. buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3242. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3243. When TODO keywords have no selection keys, select a specific keyword using
  3244. completion; otherwise force cycling through TODO states with no prompt. When
  3245. @var{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is set to @code{prefix}, use the fast
  3246. selection interface.
  3247. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3248. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3249. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3250. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3251. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3252. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3253. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3254. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3255. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3256. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-tree}
  3257. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3258. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3259. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3260. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3261. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3262. / T}), search for a specific TODO@. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3263. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3264. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3265. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3266. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3267. both un-done and done.
  3268. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3269. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3270. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3271. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3272. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3273. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3274. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3275. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3276. @end table
  3277. @noindent
  3278. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3279. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3280. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3281. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3282. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3283. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3284. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3285. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3286. DONE@. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3287. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3288. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3289. files.
  3290. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3291. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3292. @menu
  3293. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3294. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3295. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3296. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3297. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3298. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3299. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3300. @end menu
  3301. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3302. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3303. @cindex TODO workflow
  3304. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3305. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3306. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3307. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3308. buffer.}:
  3309. @lisp
  3310. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3311. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3312. @end lisp
  3313. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3314. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3315. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3316. state.
  3317. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3318. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3319. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED@. You may
  3320. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3321. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY@.
  3322. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3323. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3324. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3325. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3326. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3327. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3328. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3329. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3330. @cindex TODO types
  3331. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3332. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3333. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3334. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3335. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3336. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3337. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3338. be set up like this:
  3339. @lisp
  3340. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3341. @end lisp
  3342. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3343. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3344. person, and later to mark it DONE@. Org mode supports this style by adapting
  3345. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3346. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3347. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3348. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3349. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3350. to DONE@. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3351. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3352. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3353. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3354. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3355. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3356. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3357. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3358. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3359. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3360. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3361. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3362. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3363. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3364. like this:
  3365. @lisp
  3366. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3367. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3368. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3369. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3370. @end lisp
  3371. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3372. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3373. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3374. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3375. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3376. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3377. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3378. @table @kbd
  3379. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3380. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3381. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3382. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3383. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3384. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3385. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3386. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3387. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3388. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3389. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3390. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3391. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3392. @item S-@key{right}
  3393. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3394. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3395. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3396. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3397. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3398. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3399. @end table
  3400. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3401. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3402. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3403. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3404. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection character after
  3405. each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except
  3406. @code{@@^!}, which have a special meaning here.}. For example:
  3407. @lisp
  3408. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3409. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3410. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3411. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3412. @end lisp
  3413. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3414. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3415. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3416. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3417. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3418. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3419. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3420. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3421. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3422. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3423. @cindex keyword options
  3424. @cindex per-file keywords
  3425. @cindex #+TODO
  3426. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3427. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3428. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3429. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3430. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3431. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3432. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3433. file:
  3434. @example
  3435. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3436. @end example
  3437. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3438. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3439. @example
  3440. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3441. @end example
  3442. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3443. @example
  3444. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3445. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3446. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3447. @end example
  3448. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3449. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3450. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3451. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3452. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3453. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3454. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3455. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3456. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3457. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3458. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3459. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3460. for the current buffer.}.
  3461. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3462. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3463. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3464. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3465. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3466. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3467. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3468. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3469. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3470. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3471. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3472. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3473. @lisp
  3474. @group
  3475. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3476. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3477. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3478. @end group
  3479. @end lisp
  3480. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3481. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3482. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3483. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3484. foreground or a background color.
  3485. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3486. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3487. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3488. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3489. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3490. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3491. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3492. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3493. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE@. And sometimes
  3494. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3495. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3496. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3497. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE@.
  3498. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3499. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE@. Here is an
  3500. example:
  3501. @example
  3502. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3503. ** DONE one
  3504. ** TODO two
  3505. * Parent
  3506. :PROPERTIES:
  3507. :ORDERED: t
  3508. :END:
  3509. ** TODO a
  3510. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3511. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3512. @end example
  3513. @table @kbd
  3514. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3515. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3516. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3517. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3518. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3519. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3520. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3521. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3522. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3523. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3524. @end table
  3525. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3526. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3527. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3528. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3529. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3530. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3531. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3532. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3533. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3534. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3535. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3536. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3537. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3538. @page
  3539. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3540. @section Progress logging
  3541. @cindex progress logging
  3542. @cindex logging, of progress
  3543. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3544. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3545. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3546. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3547. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3548. work time}.
  3549. @menu
  3550. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3551. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3552. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3553. @end menu
  3554. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3555. @subsection Closing items
  3556. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3557. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3558. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3559. @lisp
  3560. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3561. @end lisp
  3562. @noindent
  3563. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3564. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3565. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3566. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3567. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3568. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3569. @lisp
  3570. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3571. @end lisp
  3572. @noindent
  3573. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3574. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3575. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3576. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3577. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3578. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3579. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3580. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3581. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3582. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3583. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3584. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3585. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3586. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3587. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3588. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3589. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3590. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3591. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3592. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the
  3593. recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3594. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3595. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3596. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3597. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3598. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3599. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3600. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3601. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3602. setting
  3603. @lisp
  3604. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3605. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3606. @end lisp
  3607. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3608. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3609. @noindent
  3610. @vindex org-log-done
  3611. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3612. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3613. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3614. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3615. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3616. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3617. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3618. WAIT or CANCELED@. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3619. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3620. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3621. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3622. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3623. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3624. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3625. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3626. configured.
  3627. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3628. to a buffer:
  3629. @example
  3630. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3631. @end example
  3632. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3633. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3634. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3635. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3636. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3637. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3638. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3639. @example
  3640. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3641. :PROPERTIES:
  3642. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3643. :END:
  3644. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3645. :PROPERTIES:
  3646. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3647. :END:
  3648. * TODO No logging at all
  3649. :PROPERTIES:
  3650. :LOGGING: nil
  3651. :END:
  3652. @end example
  3653. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3654. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3655. @cindex habits
  3656. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3657. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3658. @enumerate
  3659. @item
  3660. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3661. @code{org-modules}.
  3662. @item
  3663. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3664. @item
  3665. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3666. @item
  3667. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3668. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3669. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3670. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3671. @item
  3672. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3673. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3674. three days, but at most every two days.
  3675. @item
  3676. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled
  3677. (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3678. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an
  3679. error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless.
  3680. @end enumerate
  3681. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3682. actual habit with some history:
  3683. @example
  3684. ** TODO Shave
  3685. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3686. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3687. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3688. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3689. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3690. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3691. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3692. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3693. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3694. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3695. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3696. :PROPERTIES:
  3697. :STYLE: habit
  3698. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3699. :END:
  3700. @end example
  3701. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3702. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3703. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3704. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3705. after four days have elapsed.
  3706. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3707. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3708. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3709. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3710. @table @code
  3711. @item Blue
  3712. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3713. @item Green
  3714. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3715. @item Yellow
  3716. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3717. @item Red
  3718. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3719. @end table
  3720. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3721. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3722. the current day falls in the graph.
  3723. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3724. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3725. @table @code
  3726. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3727. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3728. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3729. titles brief and to the point.
  3730. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3731. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3732. @item org-habit-following-days
  3733. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3734. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3735. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3736. default.
  3737. @end table
  3738. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3739. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3740. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3741. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3742. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3743. @section Priorities
  3744. @cindex priorities
  3745. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3746. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3747. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3748. @example
  3749. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3750. @end example
  3751. @noindent
  3752. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3753. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3754. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3755. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3756. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3757. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3758. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3759. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3760. items.
  3761. @table @kbd
  3762. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3763. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3764. @findex org-priority
  3765. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3766. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3767. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3768. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3769. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3770. @c
  3771. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3772. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3773. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3774. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3775. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3776. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3777. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3778. @end table
  3779. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3780. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3781. @vindex org-default-priority
  3782. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3783. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3784. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3785. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3786. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3787. priority):
  3788. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3789. @example
  3790. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3791. @end example
  3792. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3793. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3794. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3795. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3796. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3797. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3798. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3799. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3800. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3801. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3802. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3803. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3804. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3805. @example
  3806. * Organize Party [33%]
  3807. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3808. *** TODO Peter
  3809. *** DONE Sarah
  3810. ** TODO Buy food
  3811. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3812. @end example
  3813. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3814. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3815. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3816. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3817. this issue.
  3818. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3819. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3820. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3821. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3822. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3823. property.
  3824. @example
  3825. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3826. :PROPERTIES:
  3827. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3828. :END:
  3829. @end example
  3830. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3831. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3832. @example
  3833. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3834. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3835. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3836. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3837. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3838. @end example
  3839. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3840. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3841. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3842. @section Checkboxes
  3843. @cindex checkboxes
  3844. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3845. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3846. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3847. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3848. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3849. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3850. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3851. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3852. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3853. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3854. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3855. @example
  3856. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3857. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3858. - [ ] Peter
  3859. - [X] Sarah
  3860. - [ ] Sam
  3861. - [X] order food
  3862. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3863. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3864. @end example
  3865. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3866. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3867. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3868. checked.
  3869. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3870. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3871. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3872. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3873. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3874. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3875. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3876. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3877. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3878. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3879. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3880. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3881. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3882. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3883. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3884. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3885. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3886. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3887. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3888. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3889. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3890. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3891. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3892. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3893. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3894. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3895. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3896. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3897. @table @kbd
  3898. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3899. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
  3900. With a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  3901. one@footnote{@kbd{C-u C-c C-c} on the @emph{first} item of a list with no checkbox
  3902. will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is
  3903. considered to be an intermediate state.
  3904. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3905. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3906. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3907. intermediate state.
  3908. @itemize @minus
  3909. @item
  3910. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3911. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3912. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3913. @item
  3914. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3915. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3916. @item
  3917. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3918. @end itemize
  3919. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3920. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  3921. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3922. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3923. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3924. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3925. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3926. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3927. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3928. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3929. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3930. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3931. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  3932. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3933. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3934. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3935. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3936. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3937. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  3938. @end table
  3939. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3940. @chapter Tags
  3941. @cindex tags
  3942. @cindex headline tagging
  3943. @cindex matching, tags
  3944. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3945. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3946. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  3947. support for tags.
  3948. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3949. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3950. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3951. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3952. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3953. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3954. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3955. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3956. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3957. @menu
  3958. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3959. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3960. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3961. @end menu
  3962. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3963. @section Tag inheritance
  3964. @cindex tag inheritance
  3965. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3966. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3967. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3968. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3969. well. For example, in the list
  3970. @example
  3971. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3972. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3973. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3974. @end example
  3975. @noindent
  3976. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3977. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3978. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3979. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3980. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3981. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3982. changes in the line.}:
  3983. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3984. @example
  3985. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3986. @end example
  3987. @noindent
  3988. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3989. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3990. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, use @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3991. To turn it off entirely, use @code{org-use-tag-inheritance}.
  3992. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3993. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3994. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3995. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3996. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3997. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3998. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3999. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  4000. @vindex org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance
  4001. Tag inheritance is relevant when the agenda search tries to match a tag,
  4002. either in the @code{tags} or @code{tags-todo} agenda types. In other agenda
  4003. types, @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} has no effect. Still, you may want to
  4004. have your tags correctly set in the agenda, so that tag filtering works fine,
  4005. with inherited tags. Set @code{org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance} to control
  4006. this: the default value includes all agenda types, but setting this to nil
  4007. can really speed up agenda generation.
  4008. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  4009. @section Setting tags
  4010. @cindex setting tags
  4011. @cindex tags, setting
  4012. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  4013. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4014. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4015. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4016. @table @kbd
  4017. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4018. @cindex completion, of tags
  4019. @vindex org-tags-column
  4020. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4021. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4022. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4023. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4024. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4025. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4026. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4027. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4028. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4029. @end table
  4030. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4031. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4032. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4033. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4034. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4035. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4036. @cindex #+TAGS
  4037. @example
  4038. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4039. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4040. @end example
  4041. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4042. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4043. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4044. @example
  4045. #+TAGS:
  4046. @end example
  4047. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4048. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4049. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4050. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4051. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4052. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4053. @example
  4054. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4055. @end example
  4056. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4057. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4058. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4059. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4060. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  4061. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  4062. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  4063. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4064. like:
  4065. @lisp
  4066. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4067. @end lisp
  4068. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4069. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4070. @example
  4071. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4072. @end example
  4073. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4074. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4075. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4076. @example
  4077. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4078. @end example
  4079. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4080. @example
  4081. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4082. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4083. @end example
  4084. @noindent
  4085. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4086. braces, as in:
  4087. @example
  4088. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4089. @end example
  4090. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4091. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4092. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4093. these lines to activate any changes.
  4094. @noindent
  4095. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  4096. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4097. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4098. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4099. configuration:
  4100. @lisp
  4101. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4102. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4103. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4104. (:endgroup . nil)
  4105. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4106. @end lisp
  4107. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4108. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4109. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4110. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4111. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4112. keys:
  4113. @table @kbd
  4114. @item a-z...
  4115. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4116. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4117. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4118. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4119. @item @key{TAB}
  4120. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4121. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4122. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4123. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4124. @item @key{SPC}
  4125. Clear all tags for this line.
  4126. @kindex @key{RET}
  4127. @item @key{RET}
  4128. Accept the modified set.
  4129. @item C-g
  4130. Abort without installing changes.
  4131. @item q
  4132. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4133. @item !
  4134. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4135. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4136. @item C-c
  4137. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4138. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4139. selection window.
  4140. @end table
  4141. @noindent
  4142. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4143. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4144. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4145. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4146. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4147. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4148. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4149. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4150. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4151. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4152. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  4153. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  4154. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  4155. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  4156. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  4157. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  4158. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  4159. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  4160. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4161. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4162. @section Tag searches
  4163. @cindex tag searches
  4164. @cindex searching for tags
  4165. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4166. information into special lists.
  4167. @table @kbd
  4168. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4169. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4170. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4171. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4172. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4173. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4174. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4175. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4176. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4177. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4178. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4179. @end table
  4180. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4181. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4182. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4183. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4184. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4185. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4186. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4187. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4188. @chapter Properties and columns
  4189. @cindex properties
  4190. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4191. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4192. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4193. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4194. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4195. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4196. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4197. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4198. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4199. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4200. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4201. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4202. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4203. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4204. @menu
  4205. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4206. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4207. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4208. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4209. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4210. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4211. @end menu
  4212. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4213. @section Property syntax
  4214. @cindex property syntax
  4215. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4216. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4217. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special
  4218. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4219. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4220. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4221. @example
  4222. * CD collection
  4223. ** Classic
  4224. *** Goldberg Variations
  4225. :PROPERTIES:
  4226. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4227. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4228. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4229. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4230. :NDisks: 1
  4231. :END:
  4232. @end example
  4233. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4234. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the sub-tree
  4235. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4236. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4237. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4238. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4239. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4240. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4241. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4242. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4243. @example
  4244. * CD collection
  4245. :PROPERTIES:
  4246. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4247. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4248. :END:
  4249. @end example
  4250. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4251. file, use a line like
  4252. @cindex property, _ALL
  4253. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4254. @example
  4255. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4256. @end example
  4257. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4258. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4259. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4260. @cindex property, +
  4261. @example
  4262. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4263. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4264. @end example
  4265. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4266. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4267. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4268. @cindex property, +
  4269. @example
  4270. * CD collection
  4271. ** Classic
  4272. :PROPERTIES:
  4273. :GENRES: Classic
  4274. :END:
  4275. *** Goldberg Variations
  4276. :PROPERTIES:
  4277. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4278. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4279. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4280. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4281. :NDisks: 1
  4282. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4283. :END:
  4284. @end example
  4285. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4286. @vindex org-global-properties
  4287. Property values set with the global variable
  4288. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4289. Org files.
  4290. @noindent
  4291. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4292. @table @kbd
  4293. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4294. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4295. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4296. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4297. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4298. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4299. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer
  4300. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  4301. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4302. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4303. information like deadlines.
  4304. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4305. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4306. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4307. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4308. can be inserted using completion.
  4309. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4310. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4311. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4312. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4313. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4314. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4315. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4316. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4317. nearest column format definition.
  4318. @end table
  4319. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4320. @section Special properties
  4321. @cindex properties, special
  4322. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4323. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4324. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4325. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4326. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4327. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4328. @cindex property, special, ID
  4329. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4330. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4331. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4332. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4333. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4334. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4335. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4336. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4337. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4338. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4339. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4340. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM_T
  4341. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4342. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4343. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4344. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4345. @example
  4346. ID @r{A globally unique ID used for synchronization during}
  4347. @r{iCalendar or MobileOrg export.}
  4348. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4349. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4350. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4351. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4352. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4353. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4354. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4355. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4356. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4357. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4358. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4359. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4360. CLOCKSUM_T @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree for today.}
  4361. @r{@code{org-clock-sum-today} must be run first to compute the}
  4362. @r{values in the current buffer.}
  4363. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4364. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4365. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4366. @end example
  4367. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4368. @section Property searches
  4369. @cindex properties, searching
  4370. @cindex searching, of properties
  4371. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4372. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4373. @table @kbd
  4374. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4375. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4376. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4377. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4378. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4379. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4380. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4381. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4382. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4383. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4384. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4385. @end table
  4386. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4387. properties}.
  4388. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4389. single property:
  4390. @table @kbd
  4391. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4392. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4393. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4394. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4395. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4396. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4397. @end table
  4398. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4399. @section Property Inheritance
  4400. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4401. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4402. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4403. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4404. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4405. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4406. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4407. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4408. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4409. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4410. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4411. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4412. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4413. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4414. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4415. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4416. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4417. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4418. @table @code
  4419. @item COLUMNS
  4420. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4421. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4422. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4423. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4424. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4425. @item CATEGORY
  4426. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4427. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4428. applies to the entire subtree.
  4429. @item ARCHIVE
  4430. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4431. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4432. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4433. @item LOGGING
  4434. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4435. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4436. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4437. @end table
  4438. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4439. @section Column view
  4440. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4441. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4442. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4443. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4444. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4445. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4446. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4447. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4448. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4449. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4450. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4451. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4452. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4453. @menu
  4454. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4455. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4456. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4457. @end menu
  4458. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4459. @subsection Defining columns
  4460. @cindex column view, for properties
  4461. @cindex properties, column view
  4462. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4463. done by defining a column format line.
  4464. @menu
  4465. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4466. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4467. @end menu
  4468. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4469. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4470. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4471. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4472. @example
  4473. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4474. @end example
  4475. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4476. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4477. @example
  4478. ** Top node for columns view
  4479. :PROPERTIES:
  4480. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4481. :END:
  4482. @end example
  4483. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4484. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4485. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4486. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4487. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4488. deeper part of the tree.
  4489. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4490. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4491. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4492. definition looks like this:
  4493. @example
  4494. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4495. @end example
  4496. @noindent
  4497. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4498. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4499. @example
  4500. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4501. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4502. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4503. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4504. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4505. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4506. @r{name is used.}
  4507. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4508. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4509. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4510. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4511. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4512. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4513. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4514. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4515. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4516. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4517. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4518. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4519. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4520. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4521. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4522. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4523. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4524. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4525. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4526. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4527. @end example
  4528. @noindent
  4529. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4530. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4531. same summary information.
  4532. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4533. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4534. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4535. 5--6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4536. 1--10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4537. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4538. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4539. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4540. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4541. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4542. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4543. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4544. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4545. full job more realistically, at 10--15 days.
  4546. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4547. values.
  4548. @example
  4549. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4550. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM %CLOCKSUM_T
  4551. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4552. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4553. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4554. @end example
  4555. @noindent
  4556. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4557. item itself, i.e., of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4558. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4559. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4560. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4561. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4562. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4563. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4564. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4565. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4566. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4567. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4568. @samp{CLOCKSUM} and @samp{CLOCKSUM_T} columns are special, they lists the
  4569. sums of CLOCK intervals in the subtree, either for all clocks or just for
  4570. today.
  4571. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4572. @subsection Using column view
  4573. @table @kbd
  4574. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4575. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4576. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4577. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4578. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4579. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4580. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4581. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4582. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4583. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4584. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4585. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4586. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4587. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4588. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4589. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4590. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4591. Exit column view.
  4592. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4593. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4594. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4595. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4596. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4597. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4598. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4599. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4600. @item 1..9,0
  4601. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4602. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4603. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4604. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4605. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4606. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4607. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4608. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4609. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4610. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4611. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4612. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4613. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4614. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4615. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4616. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4617. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4618. current column view.
  4619. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4620. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4621. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4622. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4623. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4624. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4625. Delete the current column.
  4626. @end table
  4627. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4628. @subsection Capturing column view
  4629. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4630. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4631. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4632. of this block looks like this:
  4633. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4634. @example
  4635. * The column view
  4636. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4637. #+END:
  4638. @end example
  4639. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4640. @table @code
  4641. @item :id
  4642. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4643. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4644. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4645. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4646. @cindex property, ID
  4647. @example
  4648. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4649. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4650. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4651. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4652. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4653. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4654. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4655. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4656. @end example
  4657. @item :hlines
  4658. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4659. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4660. @item :vlines
  4661. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4662. @item :maxlevel
  4663. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4664. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4665. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4666. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4667. @end table
  4668. @noindent
  4669. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4670. @table @kbd
  4671. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4672. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4673. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4674. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4675. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4676. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4677. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4678. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4679. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4680. blocks in a buffer.
  4681. @end table
  4682. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4683. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4684. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4685. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4686. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4687. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4688. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4689. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4690. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4691. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4692. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4693. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4694. @section The Property API
  4695. @cindex properties, API
  4696. @cindex API, for properties
  4697. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4698. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4699. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4700. property API}.
  4701. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4702. @chapter Dates and times
  4703. @cindex dates
  4704. @cindex times
  4705. @cindex timestamp
  4706. @cindex date stamp
  4707. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4708. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4709. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode. This may be a
  4710. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4711. something was created or last changed. However, in Org mode this term
  4712. is used in a much wider sense.
  4713. @menu
  4714. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4715. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4716. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4717. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4718. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4719. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4720. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4721. @end menu
  4722. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4723. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4724. @cindex timestamps
  4725. @cindex ranges, time
  4726. @cindex date stamps
  4727. @cindex deadlines
  4728. @cindex scheduling
  4729. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4730. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>}@footnote{In this
  4731. simplest form, the day name is optional when you type the date yourself.
  4732. However, any dates inserted or modified by Org will add that day name, for
  4733. reading convenience.} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
  4734. Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601
  4735. date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time
  4736. format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org
  4737. tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the
  4738. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4739. @table @var
  4740. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4741. @cindex timestamp
  4742. @cindex appointment
  4743. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4744. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4745. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4746. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4747. @example
  4748. * Meet Peter at the movies
  4749. <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4750. * Discussion on climate change
  4751. <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4752. @end example
  4753. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4754. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4755. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4756. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4757. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4758. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4759. @example
  4760. * Pick up Sam at school
  4761. <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4762. @end example
  4763. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4764. For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the special
  4765. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4766. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  4767. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  4768. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  4769. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  4770. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  4771. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  4772. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org mode users
  4773. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  4774. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  4775. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  4776. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For
  4777. example with optional time
  4778. @example
  4779. * 22:00-23:00 The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4780. <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  4781. @end example
  4782. @item Time/Date range
  4783. @cindex timerange
  4784. @cindex date range
  4785. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4786. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4787. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4788. @example
  4789. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4790. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4791. @end example
  4792. @item Inactive timestamp
  4793. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4794. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4795. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4796. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4797. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4798. @example
  4799. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time
  4800. [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4801. @end example
  4802. @end table
  4803. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4804. @section Creating timestamps
  4805. @cindex creating timestamps
  4806. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4807. For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4808. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4809. format.
  4810. @table @kbd
  4811. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4812. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4813. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4814. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4815. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4816. @c
  4817. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4818. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4819. an agenda entry.
  4820. @c
  4821. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4822. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4823. @item C-u C-c .
  4824. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4825. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4826. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4827. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4828. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4829. @c
  4830. @orgkey{C-c C-c}
  4831. Normalize timestamp, insert/fix day name if missing or wrong.
  4832. @c
  4833. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4834. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4835. @c
  4836. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4837. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4838. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4839. instead.
  4840. @c
  4841. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4842. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4843. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4844. @c
  4845. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4846. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4847. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4848. @c
  4849. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4850. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4851. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4852. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4853. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4854. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4855. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4856. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4857. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4858. @c
  4859. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4860. @cindex evaluate time range
  4861. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4862. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4863. the following column).
  4864. @end table
  4865. @menu
  4866. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  4867. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4868. @end menu
  4869. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4870. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4871. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4872. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4873. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4874. When Org mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4875. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4876. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4877. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4878. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4879. copied from an email message. Org mode will find whatever information is in
  4880. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4881. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4882. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4883. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4884. information, Org mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4885. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4886. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4887. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4888. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4889. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4890. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4891. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4892. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org mode are
  4893. in @b{bold}.
  4894. @example
  4895. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4896. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4897. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4898. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4899. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4900. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4901. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4902. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4903. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4904. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4905. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4906. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4907. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4908. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4909. @end example
  4910. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4911. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4912. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4913. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4914. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4915. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4916. the Nth such day, e.g.:
  4917. @example
  4918. +0 @result{} today
  4919. . @result{} today
  4920. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4921. +4 @result{} same as above
  4922. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4923. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4924. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4925. @end example
  4926. @vindex parse-time-months
  4927. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4928. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4929. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4930. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4931. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  4932. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  4933. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  4934. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  4935. read the docstring of the variable
  4936. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  4937. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4938. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  4939. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  4940. case, e.g.:
  4941. @example
  4942. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  4943. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  4944. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  4945. @end example
  4946. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4947. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4948. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4949. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4950. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4951. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4952. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4953. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4954. from the minibuffer:
  4955. @kindex <
  4956. @kindex >
  4957. @kindex M-v
  4958. @kindex C-v
  4959. @kindex mouse-1
  4960. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4961. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4962. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4963. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4964. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4965. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4966. @kindex @key{RET}
  4967. @example
  4968. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4969. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4970. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4971. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4972. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4973. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4974. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4975. @end example
  4976. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4977. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4978. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4979. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4980. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4981. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4982. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4983. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4984. @subsection Custom time format
  4985. @cindex custom date/time format
  4986. @cindex time format, custom
  4987. @cindex date format, custom
  4988. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4989. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4990. Org mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4991. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4992. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4993. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4994. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4995. @table @kbd
  4996. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  4997. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4998. @end table
  4999. @noindent
  5000. Org mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  5001. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  5002. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  5003. following consequences:
  5004. @itemize @bullet
  5005. @item
  5006. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  5007. after.
  5008. @item
  5009. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  5010. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  5011. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  5012. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  5013. time will be changed by one minute.
  5014. @item
  5015. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  5016. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  5017. @item
  5018. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  5019. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  5020. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  5021. @item
  5022. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  5023. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  5024. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  5025. @end itemize
  5026. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  5027. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  5028. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  5029. @table @var
  5030. @item DEADLINE
  5031. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  5032. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  5033. to be finished on that date.
  5034. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5035. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  5036. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  5037. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  5038. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  5039. until the entry is marked DONE@. An example:
  5040. @example
  5041. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  5042. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  5043. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  5044. @end example
  5045. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  5046. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  5047. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  5048. @item SCHEDULED
  5049. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  5050. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  5051. date.
  5052. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  5053. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  5054. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE@. If you don't like
  5055. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  5056. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  5057. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.,
  5058. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  5059. @example
  5060. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  5061. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  5062. @end example
  5063. @noindent
  5064. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org mode should @i{not} be
  5065. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  5066. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  5067. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  5068. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  5069. Org users. In Org mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  5070. want to start working on an action item.
  5071. @end table
  5072. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  5073. entries. Org mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  5074. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  5075. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  5076. @c
  5077. @code{<%%(diary-float t 42)>}
  5078. @c
  5079. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org mode does not
  5080. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  5081. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  5082. sexp entry matches.
  5083. @menu
  5084. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  5085. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  5086. @end menu
  5087. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  5088. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  5089. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  5090. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  5091. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  5092. an item:
  5093. @table @kbd
  5094. @c
  5095. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  5096. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  5097. in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be
  5098. removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed
  5099. from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  5100. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  5101. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5102. deadline.
  5103. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  5104. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  5105. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  5106. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  5107. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  5108. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  5109. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  5110. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5111. scheduling time.
  5112. @c
  5113. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  5114. @kindex k a
  5115. @kindex k s
  5116. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  5117. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  5118. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  5119. schedule the marked item.
  5120. @c
  5121. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  5122. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  5123. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5124. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  5125. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  5126. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  5127. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  5128. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  5129. @c
  5130. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  5131. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  5132. @c
  5133. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  5134. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  5135. @end table
  5136. Note that @code{org-schedule} and @code{org-deadline} supports
  5137. setting the date by indicating a relative time: e.g., +1d will set
  5138. the date to the next day after today, and --1w will set the date
  5139. to the previous week before any current timestamp.
  5140. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  5141. @subsection Repeated tasks
  5142. @cindex tasks, repeated
  5143. @cindex repeated tasks
  5144. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org mode helps to
  5145. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  5146. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  5147. @example
  5148. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5149. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  5150. @end example
  5151. @noindent
  5152. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  5153. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  5154. from that time. You can use yearly, monthly, weekly, daily and hourly repeat
  5155. cookies by using the @code{y/w/m/d/h} letters. If you need both a repeater
  5156. and a special warning period in a deadline entry, the repeater should come
  5157. first and the warning period last: @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  5158. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  5159. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  5160. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  5161. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  5162. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  5163. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  5164. repeated entry will not be active. Org mode deals with this in the following
  5165. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  5166. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  5167. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  5168. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  5169. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  5170. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  5171. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  5172. switch the date like this:
  5173. @example
  5174. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5175. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  5176. @end example
  5177. @vindex org-log-repeat
  5178. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  5179. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  5180. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  5181. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  5182. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  5183. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  5184. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  5185. will be visible.
  5186. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  5187. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  5188. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  5189. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  5190. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  5191. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  5192. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  5193. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org mode has
  5194. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  5195. @example
  5196. ** TODO Call Father
  5197. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  5198. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  5199. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  5200. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  5201. and marked it done on Saturday.
  5202. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  5203. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  5204. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  5205. today.
  5206. @end example
  5207. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  5208. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  5209. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  5210. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  5211. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  5212. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  5213. @section Clocking work time
  5214. @cindex clocking time
  5215. @cindex time clocking
  5216. Org mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  5217. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock. When
  5218. you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the clock is
  5219. stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It also computes
  5220. the total time spent on each subtree@footnote{Clocking only works if all
  5221. headings are indented with less than 30 stars. This is a hardcoded
  5222. limitation of `lmax' in `org-clock-sum'.} of a project. And it remembers a
  5223. history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly between a
  5224. number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5225. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5226. @lisp
  5227. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5228. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5229. @end lisp
  5230. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5231. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5232. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5233. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5234. what to do with it.
  5235. @menu
  5236. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5237. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5238. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5239. @end menu
  5240. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5241. @subsection Clocking commands
  5242. @table @kbd
  5243. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5244. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5245. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5246. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  5247. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5248. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5249. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5250. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5251. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule
  5252. the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  5253. @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  5254. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5255. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5256. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task;
  5257. the default task will then always be available with letter @kbd{d} when
  5258. selecting a clocking task. With three @kbd{C-u C-u C-u} prefixes, force
  5259. continuous clocking by starting the clock when the last clock stopped.@*
  5260. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5261. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5262. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5263. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5264. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5265. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5266. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5267. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5268. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5269. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5270. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5271. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5272. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5273. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5274. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5275. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5276. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5277. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5278. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5279. @c
  5280. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5281. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5282. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5283. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5284. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5285. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5286. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5287. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5288. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5289. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-in-last}
  5290. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5291. Reclock the last clocked task. With one @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5292. select the task from the clock history. With two @kbd{C-u} prefixes,
  5293. force continuous clocking by starting the clock when the last clock
  5294. stopped.
  5295. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5296. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5297. @kindex C-c C-y
  5298. @kindex C-c C-c
  5299. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5300. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5301. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5302. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5303. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{up/down},org-clock-timestamps-up/down}
  5304. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease both timestamps so that the
  5305. clock duration keeps the same.
  5306. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{up/down},org-timestamp-up/down}
  5307. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease the timestamp at point and
  5308. the one of the previous (or the next clock) timestamp by the same duration.
  5309. For example, if you hit @kbd{S-M-@key{up}} to increase a clocked-out timestamp
  5310. by five minutes, then the clocked-in timestamp of the next clock will be
  5311. increased by five minutes.
  5312. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5313. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5314. if it is running in this same item.
  5315. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-q,org-clock-cancel}
  5316. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5317. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5318. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5319. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5320. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5321. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5322. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5323. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts
  5324. overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under
  5325. that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility
  5326. cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the
  5327. buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press
  5328. @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5329. @end table
  5330. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5331. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5332. worked on or closed during a day.
  5333. @strong{Important:} note that both @code{org-clock-out} and
  5334. @code{org-clock-in-last} can have a global keybinding and will not
  5335. modify the window disposition.
  5336. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5337. @subsection The clock table
  5338. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5339. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5340. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5341. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5342. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5343. @table @kbd
  5344. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5345. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5346. report as an Org mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5347. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5348. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5349. update it. The clock table always includes also trees with
  5350. @code{:ARCHIVE:} tag.
  5351. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5352. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5353. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5354. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5355. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5356. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5357. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5358. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5359. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5360. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5361. @end table
  5362. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5363. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5364. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5365. @example
  5366. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5367. #+END: clocktable
  5368. @end example
  5369. @noindent
  5370. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5371. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5372. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5373. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5374. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5375. be selected:
  5376. @example
  5377. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5378. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5379. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5380. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5381. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5382. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5383. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5384. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5385. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5386. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5387. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5388. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5389. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5390. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5391. @r{these formats:}
  5392. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5393. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5394. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5395. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5396. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5397. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5398. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5399. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5400. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5401. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5402. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5403. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5404. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5405. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5406. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5407. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5408. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5409. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5410. @end example
  5411. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5412. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5413. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5414. @example
  5415. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5416. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5417. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5418. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5419. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5420. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5421. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5422. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5423. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5424. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5425. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5426. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5427. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5428. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5429. :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each}
  5430. @r{property will get its own column.}
  5431. :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.}
  5432. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5433. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5434. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5435. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5436. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5437. @end example
  5438. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5439. day, you could write
  5440. @example
  5441. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5442. #+END: clocktable
  5443. @end example
  5444. @noindent
  5445. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5446. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5447. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5448. @example
  5449. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5450. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5451. #+END: clocktable
  5452. @end example
  5453. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5454. @example
  5455. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5456. #+END: clocktable
  5457. @end example
  5458. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5459. would be
  5460. @example
  5461. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5462. #+END: clocktable
  5463. @end example
  5464. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5465. @subsection Resolving idle time and continuous clocking
  5466. @subsubheading Resolving idle time
  5467. @cindex resolve idle time
  5468. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5469. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5470. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5471. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5472. applying it to another one.
  5473. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5474. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5475. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5476. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5477. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5478. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5479. @code{contrib/scripts} directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same
  5480. general treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs
  5481. idle time only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will
  5482. be a question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle
  5483. time has passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a
  5484. set of choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5485. @table @kbd
  5486. @item k
  5487. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5488. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5489. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5490. @item K
  5491. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5492. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5493. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5494. @item s
  5495. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5496. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5497. @item S
  5498. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5499. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5500. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5501. @item C
  5502. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5503. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5504. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5505. log with an empty entry.
  5506. @end table
  5507. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5508. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5509. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5510. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5511. the next task you clock in on.
  5512. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5513. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5514. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5515. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5516. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5517. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5518. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5519. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5520. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5521. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due
  5522. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5523. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5524. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks RET} (or @kbd{C-c C-x C-z}).
  5525. @subsubheading Continuous clocking
  5526. @cindex continuous clocking
  5527. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5528. You may want to start clocking from the time when you clocked out the
  5529. previous task. To enable this systematically, set @code{org-clock-continuously}
  5530. to @code{t}. Each time you clock in, Org retrieves the clock-out time of the
  5531. last clocked entry for this session, and start the new clock from there.
  5532. If you only want this from time to time, use three universal prefix arguments
  5533. with @code{org-clock-in} and two @kbd{C-u C-u} with @code{org-clock-in-last}.
  5534. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5535. @section Effort estimates
  5536. @cindex effort estimates
  5537. @cindex property, Effort
  5538. @vindex org-effort-property
  5539. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5540. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5541. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5542. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5543. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5544. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5545. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5546. for an entry with the following commands:
  5547. @table @kbd
  5548. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5549. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5550. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5551. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5552. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5553. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5554. @end table
  5555. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5556. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5557. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5558. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5559. buffer you can use
  5560. @example
  5561. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
  5562. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5563. @end example
  5564. @noindent
  5565. @vindex org-global-properties
  5566. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5567. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5568. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5569. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5570. setup may be advised.
  5571. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5572. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5573. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5574. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5575. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5576. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5577. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5578. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5579. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5580. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5581. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5582. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5583. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5584. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5585. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5586. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5587. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5588. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5589. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5590. @cindex relative timer
  5591. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5592. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5593. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5594. @table @kbd
  5595. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5596. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5597. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5598. restarted.
  5599. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5600. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5601. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5602. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5603. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5604. new timer items.
  5605. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5606. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5607. @item C-c C-x ,
  5608. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5609. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5610. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5611. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5612. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5613. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5614. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5615. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5616. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5617. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5618. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5619. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5620. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5621. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5622. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5623. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5624. @end table
  5625. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5626. @section Countdown timer
  5627. @cindex Countdown timer
  5628. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5629. @kindex ;
  5630. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org mode buffer runs a countdown
  5631. timer. Use @kbd{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everywhere else.
  5632. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5633. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5634. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5635. default value.
  5636. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5637. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5638. @cindex capture
  5639. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5640. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5641. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5642. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5643. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5644. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5645. @menu
  5646. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5647. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5648. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5649. * Protocols:: External (e.g., Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5650. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5651. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5652. @end menu
  5653. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5654. @section Capture
  5655. @cindex capture
  5656. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5657. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5658. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org mode for
  5659. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5660. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5661. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5662. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5663. @example
  5664. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5665. @end example
  5666. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5667. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5668. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5669. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5670. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5671. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5672. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5673. @menu
  5674. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5675. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5676. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5677. @end menu
  5678. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5679. @subsection Setting up capture
  5680. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5681. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5682. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5683. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5684. @example
  5685. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5686. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5687. @end example
  5688. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5689. @subsection Using capture
  5690. @table @kbd
  5691. @orgcmd{C-c c,org-capture}
  5692. Call the command @code{org-capture}. Note that this keybinding is global and
  5693. not active by default: you need to install it. If you have templates
  5694. @cindex date tree
  5695. defined @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for
  5696. selection or use a new Org outline node as the default template. It will
  5697. insert the template into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer
  5698. narrowed to this new node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5699. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-capture-finalize}
  5700. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer, @kbd{C-c
  5701. C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture process,
  5702. so that you can resume your work without further distraction. When called
  5703. with a prefix arg, finalize and then jump to the captured item.
  5704. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-capture-refile}
  5705. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5706. a different place. Please realize that this is a normal refiling command
  5707. that will be executed---so the cursor position at the moment you run this
  5708. command is important. If you have inserted a tree with a parent and
  5709. children, first move the cursor back to the parent. Any prefix argument
  5710. given to this command will be passed on to the @code{org-refile} command.
  5711. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,org-capture-kill}
  5712. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5713. @end table
  5714. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5715. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5716. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5717. rather than to the current date.
  5718. To find the locations of the last stored capture, use @code{org-capture} with
  5719. prefix commands:
  5720. @table @kbd
  5721. @orgkey{C-u C-c c}
  5722. Visit the target location of a capture template. You get to select the
  5723. template in the usual way.
  5724. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-c c}
  5725. Visit the last stored capture item in its buffer.
  5726. @end table
  5727. @vindex org-capture-bookmark
  5728. @cindex org-capture-last-stored
  5729. You can also jump to the bookmark @code{org-capture-last-stored}, which will
  5730. automatically be created unless you set @code{org-capture-bookmark} to
  5731. @code{nil}.
  5732. To insert the capture at point in an Org buffer, call @code{org-capture} with
  5733. a @code{C-0} prefix argument.
  5734. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5735. @subsection Capture templates
  5736. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5737. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5738. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5739. through the customize interface.
  5740. @table @kbd
  5741. @orgkey{C-c c C}
  5742. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5743. @end table
  5744. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5745. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5746. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5747. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5748. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5749. wou