org.texi 590 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @set VERSION 7.01trans
  6. @set DATE July 2010
  7. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  8. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  9. @set txicodequoteundirected
  10. @set txicodequotebacktick
  11. @c Version and Contact Info
  12. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  13. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  15. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  16. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c Macro definitions
  20. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  21. @iftex
  22. @kindex \key\
  23. @findex \command\
  24. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  25. @end iftex
  26. @ifnottex
  27. @kindex \key\
  28. @findex \command\
  29. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  30. @end ifnottex
  31. @end macro
  32. @macro orgkey{key}
  33. @kindex \key\
  34. @item @kbd{\key\}
  35. @end macro
  36. @iftex
  37. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  38. @end iftex
  39. @macro Ie {}
  40. I.e.,
  41. @end macro
  42. @macro ie {}
  43. i.e.,
  44. @end macro
  45. @macro Eg {}
  46. E.g.,
  47. @end macro
  48. @macro eg {}
  49. e.g.,
  50. @end macro
  51. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  52. @macro tsubheading{text}
  53. @ifinfo
  54. @subsubheading \text\
  55. @end ifinfo
  56. @ifnotinfo
  57. @item @b{\text\}
  58. @end ifnotinfo
  59. @end macro
  60. @copying
  61. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  62. Copyright @copyright{} 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  63. Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  64. @quotation
  65. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  66. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  67. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  68. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  69. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  70. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  71. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  72. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  73. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  74. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  75. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  76. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  77. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  78. @end quotation
  79. @end copying
  80. @dircategory Emacs
  81. @direntry
  82. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  83. @end direntry
  84. @titlepage
  85. @title The Org Manual
  86. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  87. @author by Carsten Dominik
  88. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, and Thomas Dye
  89. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  90. @page
  91. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  92. @insertcopying
  93. @end titlepage
  94. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  95. @contents
  96. @ifnottex
  97. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  98. @top Org Mode Manual
  99. @insertcopying
  100. @end ifnottex
  101. @menu
  102. * Introduction:: Getting started
  103. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  104. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  105. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  106. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  107. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  108. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  109. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  110. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  111. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  112. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  113. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  114. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  115. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  116. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  117. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  118. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  119. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  120. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  121. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  122. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  123. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  124. @detailmenu
  125. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  126. Introduction
  127. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  128. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  129. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  130. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  131. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  132. Document structure
  133. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  134. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  135. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  136. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  137. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  138. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  139. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  140. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  141. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  142. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  143. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  144. Tables
  145. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  146. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  147. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  148. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  149. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  150. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  151. The spreadsheet
  152. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  153. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  154. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  155. * Field formulas:: Formulas valid for a single field
  156. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  157. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  158. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  159. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  160. Hyperlinks
  161. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  162. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  163. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  164. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  165. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  166. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  167. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  168. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  169. Internal links
  170. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  171. TODO items
  172. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  173. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  174. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  175. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  176. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  177. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  178. Extended use of TODO keywords
  179. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  180. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  181. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  182. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  183. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  184. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  185. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  186. Progress logging
  187. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  188. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  189. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  190. Tags
  191. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  192. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  193. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  194. Properties and columns
  195. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  196. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  197. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  198. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  199. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  200. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  201. Column view
  202. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  203. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  204. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  205. Defining columns
  206. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  207. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  208. Dates and times
  209. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  210. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  211. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  212. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  213. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time if you've been idle
  214. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  215. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  216. Creating timestamps
  217. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  218. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  219. Deadlines and scheduling
  220. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  221. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  222. Capture - Refile - Archive
  223. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  224. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  225. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  226. * Protocols:: External (e.g. Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  227. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  228. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  229. Capture
  230. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  231. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  232. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  233. Capture templates
  234. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  235. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  236. Archiving
  237. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  238. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  239. Agenda views
  240. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  241. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  242. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  243. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  244. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  245. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  246. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  247. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  248. The built-in agenda views
  249. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  250. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  251. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  252. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  253. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  254. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  255. Presentation and sorting
  256. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  257. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  258. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  259. Custom agenda views
  260. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  261. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  262. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  263. Markup for rich export
  264. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  265. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  266. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  267. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  268. * Index entries:: Making an index
  269. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  270. * Embedded LaTeX:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  271. Structural markup elements
  272. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  273. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  274. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  275. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  276. * Lists:: Lists
  277. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  278. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  279. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  280. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  281. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  282. Embedded La@TeX{}
  283. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  284. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  285. * LaTeX fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  286. * Previewing LaTeX fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  287. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  288. Exporting
  289. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  290. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  291. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  292. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  293. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  294. * LaTeX and PDF export:: Exporting to La@TeX{}, and processing to PDF
  295. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  296. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  297. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  298. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  299. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  300. HTML export
  301. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  302. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org-mode
  303. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  304. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  305. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  306. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  307. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  308. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  309. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  310. La@TeX{} and PDF export
  311. * LaTeX/PDF export commands:: Which key invokes which commands
  312. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  313. * Quoting LaTeX code:: Incorporating literal La@TeX{} code
  314. * Tables in LaTeX export:: Options for exporting tables to La@TeX{}
  315. * Images in LaTeX export:: How to insert figures into La@TeX{} output
  316. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  317. DocBook export
  318. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  319. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  320. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  321. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  322. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  323. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  324. Publishing
  325. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  326. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  327. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  328. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  329. Configuration
  330. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  331. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  332. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  333. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  334. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML export
  335. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  336. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  337. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  338. Sample configuration
  339. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  340. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  341. Working with source code
  342. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  343. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  344. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  345. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  346. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org-mode buffer
  347. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  348. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  349. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  350. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  351. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org-mode
  352. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  353. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  354. Header arguments
  355. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  356. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  357. Using header arguments
  358. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  359. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  360. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  361. * Header arguments in Org-mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  362. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  363. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  364. Specific header arguments
  365. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  366. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  367. be collected and handled
  368. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  369. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  370. directory for code block execution
  371. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  372. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  373. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  374. code files
  375. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  376. expansion during tangling
  377. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  378. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  379. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  380. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  381. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  382. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  383. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  384. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  385. Miscellaneous
  386. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  387. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  388. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  389. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  390. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  391. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  392. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  393. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  394. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  395. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  396. Interaction with other packages
  397. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  398. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  399. Hacking
  400. * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals
  401. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  402. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  403. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  404. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for La@TeX{} and other programs
  405. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  406. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  407. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  408. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  409. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  410. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  411. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  412. * A LaTeX example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  413. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  414. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  415. MobileOrg
  416. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  417. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  418. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  419. @end detailmenu
  420. @end menu
  421. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  422. @chapter Introduction
  423. @cindex introduction
  424. @menu
  425. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  426. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  427. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  428. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  429. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  430. @end menu
  431. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  432. @section Summary
  433. @cindex summary
  434. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  435. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  436. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  437. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  438. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  439. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  440. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  441. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  442. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  443. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  444. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  445. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  446. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  447. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  448. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  449. linked web pages.
  450. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  451. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  452. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  453. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows to work with
  454. embedded source code block in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  455. documentation, and tangling.
  456. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  457. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  458. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  459. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in La@TeX{}. The structure
  460. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  461. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  462. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  463. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  464. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  465. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  466. ends, for example:
  467. @example
  468. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  469. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  470. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  471. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  472. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  473. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  474. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and La@TeX{} export}
  475. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  476. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  477. @end example
  478. @cindex FAQ
  479. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  480. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  481. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  482. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  483. @page
  484. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  485. @section Installation
  486. @cindex installation
  487. @cindex XEmacs
  488. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  489. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  490. to @ref{Activation}.}
  491. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  492. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
  493. to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
  494. top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs
  495. binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
  496. directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have
  497. access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
  498. the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
  499. Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  500. @example
  501. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  502. @end example
  503. @noindent
  504. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  505. step for this directory:
  506. @example
  507. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  508. @end example
  509. @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
  510. @example
  511. make
  512. @end example
  513. @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
  514. all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
  515. administrator)
  516. @example
  517. make install
  518. @end example
  519. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  520. @file{install-info} program. In Debian it copies the info files into the
  521. correct directory and modifies the info directory file. In many other
  522. systems, the files need to be copied to the correct directory separately, and
  523. @file{install-info} then only modifies the directory file. Check your system
  524. documentation to find out which of the following commands you need:
  525. @example
  526. make install-info
  527. make install-info-debian
  528. @end example
  529. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  530. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  531. when Org-mode starts.
  532. @lisp
  533. (require 'org-install)
  534. @end lisp
  535. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  536. @page
  537. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  538. @section Activation
  539. @cindex activation
  540. @cindex autoload
  541. @cindex global key bindings
  542. @cindex key bindings, global
  543. Add the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file. The last three lines
  544. define @emph{global} keys for the commands @command{org-store-link},
  545. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb}---please choose suitable
  546. keys yourself.
  547. @lisp
  548. ;; The following lines are always needed. Choose your own keys.
  549. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  550. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  551. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  552. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  553. @end lisp
  554. Furthermore, you must activate @code{font-lock-mode} in Org
  555. buffers, because significant functionality depends on font-locking being
  556. active. You can do this with either one of the following two lines
  557. (XEmacs users must use the second option):
  558. @lisp
  559. (global-font-lock-mode 1) ; for all buffers
  560. (add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock) ; Org buffers only
  561. @end lisp
  562. @cindex Org-mode, turning on
  563. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  564. into Org-mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  565. like this:
  566. @example
  567. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  568. @end example
  569. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  570. @noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what
  571. the file's name is. See also the variable
  572. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  573. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  574. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  575. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  576. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  577. @lisp
  578. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  579. @end lisp
  580. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  581. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  582. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  583. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  584. @section Feedback
  585. @cindex feedback
  586. @cindex bug reports
  587. @cindex maintainer
  588. @cindex author
  589. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  590. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  591. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  592. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  593. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  594. moderators have to do.}.
  595. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  596. version of Org available - if you are running an outdated version, it is
  597. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  598. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  599. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  600. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  601. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  602. @example
  603. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  604. @end example
  605. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  606. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  607. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  608. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  609. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  610. about:
  611. @enumerate
  612. @item What exactly did you do?
  613. @item What did you expect to happen?
  614. @item What happened instead?
  615. @end enumerate
  616. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  617. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  618. @cindex backtrace of an error
  619. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  620. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  621. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  622. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  623. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  624. @enumerate
  625. @item
  626. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org-mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  627. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  628. To do this, use
  629. @example
  630. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  631. @end example
  632. @noindent
  633. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  634. menu.
  635. @item
  636. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  637. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  638. @item
  639. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  640. document the steps you take.
  641. @item
  642. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  643. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  644. attach it to your bug report.
  645. @end enumerate
  646. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  647. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  648. Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
  649. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  650. @table @code
  651. @item TODO
  652. @itemx WAITING
  653. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  654. user-defined.
  655. @item boss
  656. @itemx ARCHIVE
  657. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  658. meaning are written with all capitals.
  659. @item Release
  660. @itemx PRIORITY
  661. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  662. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  663. @end table
  664. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  665. @chapter Document structure
  666. @cindex document structure
  667. @cindex structure of document
  668. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  669. edit the structure of the document.
  670. @menu
  671. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  672. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  673. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  674. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  675. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  676. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  677. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  678. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  679. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  680. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  681. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  682. @end menu
  683. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  684. @section Outlines
  685. @cindex outlines
  686. @cindex Outline mode
  687. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  688. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  689. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  690. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  691. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  692. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  693. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  694. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  695. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  696. @section Headlines
  697. @cindex headlines
  698. @cindex outline tree
  699. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  700. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  701. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  702. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  703. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  704. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  705. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  706. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.}. For example:
  707. @example
  708. * Top level headline
  709. ** Second level
  710. *** 3rd level
  711. some text
  712. *** 3rd level
  713. more text
  714. * Another top level headline
  715. @end example
  716. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  717. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  718. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  719. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  720. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  721. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  722. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  723. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  724. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  725. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  726. @section Visibility cycling
  727. @cindex cycling, visibility
  728. @cindex visibility cycling
  729. @cindex trees, visibility
  730. @cindex show hidden text
  731. @cindex hide text
  732. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  733. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  734. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  735. @cindex subtree visibility states
  736. @cindex subtree cycling
  737. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  738. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  739. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  740. @table @asis
  741. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  742. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  743. @example
  744. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  745. '-----------------------------------'
  746. @end example
  747. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  748. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  749. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  750. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  751. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  752. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  753. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  754. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  755. @cindex global visibility states
  756. @cindex global cycling
  757. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  758. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  759. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  760. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  761. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  762. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  763. @example
  764. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  765. '--------------------------------------'
  766. @end example
  767. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  768. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  769. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  770. @cindex show all, command
  771. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  772. Show all, including drawers.
  773. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  774. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  775. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  776. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  777. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  778. level, all sibling headings. With double prefix arg, also show the entire
  779. subtree of the parent.
  780. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  781. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  782. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  783. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  784. buffer
  785. @ifinfo
  786. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  787. @end ifinfo
  788. @ifnotinfo
  789. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  790. @end ifnotinfo
  791. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  792. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  793. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  794. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  795. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  796. the previously used indirect buffer.
  797. @end table
  798. @vindex org-startup-folded
  799. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  800. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  801. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  802. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  803. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  804. OVERVIEW, i.e. only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  805. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  806. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  807. buffer:
  808. @example
  809. #+STARTUP: overview
  810. #+STARTUP: content
  811. #+STARTUP: showall
  812. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  813. @end example
  814. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  815. @noindent
  816. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  817. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  818. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  819. @code{all}.
  820. @table @asis
  821. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  822. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e. whatever is
  823. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  824. entries.
  825. @end table
  826. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  827. @section Motion
  828. @cindex motion, between headlines
  829. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  830. @cindex headline navigation
  831. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  832. @table @asis
  833. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  834. Next heading.
  835. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  836. Previous heading.
  837. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  838. Next heading same level.
  839. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  840. Previous heading same level.
  841. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  842. Backward to higher level heading.
  843. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  844. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  845. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  846. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  847. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  848. @example
  849. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  850. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  851. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  852. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  853. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  854. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  855. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  856. u @r{One level up.}
  857. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  858. q @r{Quit}
  859. @end example
  860. @vindex org-goto-interface
  861. @noindent
  862. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  863. @end table
  864. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  865. @section Structure editing
  866. @cindex structure editing
  867. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  868. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  869. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  870. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  871. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  872. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  873. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  874. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  875. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  876. @table @asis
  877. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  878. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  879. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a
  880. plain list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force
  881. creation of a new headline, use a prefix argument, or first press @key{RET}
  882. to get to the beginning of the next line. When this command is used in
  883. the middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes
  884. the new headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split,
  885. customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the
  886. command is used at the beginning of a headline, the new headline is
  887. created before the current line. If at the beginning of any other line,
  888. the content of that line is made the new heading. If the command is
  889. used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e. behind the ellipses at the end
  890. of a headline), then a headline like the current one will be inserted
  891. after the end of the subtree.
  892. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  893. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  894. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  895. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  896. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  897. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  898. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  899. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  900. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  901. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  902. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  903. subtree.
  904. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  905. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  906. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  907. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  908. to the initial level.
  909. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  910. Promote current heading by one level.
  911. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  912. Demote current heading by one level.
  913. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  914. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  915. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  916. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  917. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  918. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  919. level).
  920. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  921. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  922. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  923. Kill subtree, i.e. remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  924. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  925. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  926. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  927. sequential subtrees.
  928. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  929. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  930. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  931. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  932. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  933. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  934. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  935. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  936. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  937. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  938. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  939. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  940. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  941. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  942. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  943. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  944. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  945. folding.
  946. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  947. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  948. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  949. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  950. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  951. more details, see the docstring of the command
  952. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  953. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  954. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  955. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort-entries-or-items}
  956. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  957. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  958. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  959. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  960. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  961. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  962. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  963. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  964. sorting will be case-sensitive. With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, duplicate
  965. entries will also be removed.
  966. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  967. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  968. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  969. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  970. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  971. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  972. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  973. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  974. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  975. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  976. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  977. @end table
  978. @cindex region, active
  979. @cindex active region
  980. @cindex transient mark mode
  981. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  982. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  983. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  984. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  985. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  986. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  987. functionality.
  988. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  989. @section Sparse trees
  990. @cindex sparse trees
  991. @cindex trees, sparse
  992. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  993. @cindex occur, command
  994. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  995. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  996. @vindex org-show-siblings
  997. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  998. An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  999. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1000. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1001. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1002. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1003. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1004. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1005. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1006. Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1007. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1008. @table @asis
  1009. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1010. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1011. @kindex C-c / r
  1012. @item C-c / r
  1013. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1014. Occur. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1015. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1016. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1017. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1018. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1019. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1020. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1021. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1022. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1023. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1024. @end table
  1025. @noindent
  1026. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1027. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1028. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1029. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1030. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1031. For example:
  1032. @lisp
  1033. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1034. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1035. @end lisp
  1036. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1037. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1038. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1039. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1040. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1041. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1042. @cindex visible text, printing
  1043. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1044. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1045. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1046. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1047. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1048. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1049. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1050. @section Plain lists
  1051. @cindex plain lists
  1052. @cindex lists, plain
  1053. @cindex lists, ordered
  1054. @cindex ordered lists
  1055. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1056. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of
  1057. checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists,
  1058. and the HTML exporter (@pxref{Exporting}) parses and formats them.
  1059. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1060. @itemize @bullet
  1061. @item
  1062. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1063. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1064. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1065. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star are
  1066. visually indistinguishable from true headlines. In short: even though
  1067. @samp{*} is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.}
  1068. as bullets.
  1069. @item
  1070. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1071. a right parenthesis, such as @samp{1.} or @samp{1)}. If you want a list to
  1072. start a different value (e.g. 20), start the text of the item with
  1073. @code{[@@start:20]}.
  1074. @item
  1075. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1076. separator @samp{ :: } to separate the description @emph{term} from the
  1077. description.
  1078. @end itemize
  1079. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1080. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1081. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1082. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1083. list. Indentation also determines the end of a list item. It ends before
  1084. the next line that is indented like the bullet/number, or less. Empty lines
  1085. are part of the previous item, so you can have several paragraphs in one
  1086. item. If you would like an empty line to terminate all currently open plain
  1087. lists, configure the variable @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.
  1088. Here is an example:
  1089. @example
  1090. @group
  1091. ** Lord of the Rings
  1092. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1093. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1094. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1095. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1096. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1097. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1098. - on DVD only
  1099. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1100. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1101. Important actors in this film are:
  1102. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1103. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1104. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1105. @end group
  1106. @end example
  1107. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1108. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1109. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1110. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1111. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1112. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1113. blocks can be indented to signal that they should be part of a list item.
  1114. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1115. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1116. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1117. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}.
  1118. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line
  1119. of an item (the line with the bullet or number).
  1120. @table @asis
  1121. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1122. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1123. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1124. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1125. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. to @code{integrate}, plain list items
  1126. will be treated like low-level. The level of an item is then given by the
  1127. indentation of the bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real
  1128. headlines, however; the hierarchies remain completely separated.
  1129. If @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists} has not been set, @key{TAB}
  1130. fixes the indentation of the current line in a heuristic way.
  1131. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1132. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1133. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1134. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1135. of a line, the line is @emph{split} and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1136. item@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the variable
  1137. @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed in the
  1138. @emph{whitespace before a bullet or number}, the new item is created
  1139. @emph{before} the current item. If the command is executed in the white
  1140. space before the text that is part of an item but does not contain the
  1141. bullet, a bullet is added to the current line.
  1142. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1143. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1144. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1145. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1146. In a new item with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the item to
  1147. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1148. and so on, all the way to the left margin. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you
  1149. are back to the initial level.
  1150. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1151. @item S-@key{up}
  1152. @itemx S-@key{down}
  1153. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1154. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1155. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list, but only if
  1156. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1157. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1158. similar effect.
  1159. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  1160. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  1161. @item M-S-@key{up}
  1162. @itemx M-S-@key{down}
  1163. Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item
  1164. of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering is
  1165. automatic.
  1166. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1167. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1168. @item M-@key{left}
  1169. @itemx M-@key{right}
  1170. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1171. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1172. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1173. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1174. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1175. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1176. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation.
  1177. When these commands are executed several times in direct succession,
  1178. the initially selected region is used, even if the new indentation
  1179. would imply a different hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break
  1180. the command chain with a cursor motion or so.
  1181. @kindex C-c C-c
  1182. @item C-c C-c
  1183. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1184. state of the checkbox. If not, this command makes sure that all the
  1185. items on this list level use the same bullet. Furthermore, if this is
  1186. an ordered list, make sure the numbering is OK.
  1187. @kindex C-c -
  1188. @item C-c -
  1189. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1190. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}). With a numeric prefix
  1191. argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an active
  1192. region when calling this, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1193. first line already was a list item, any item markers will be removed from the
  1194. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1195. converted into a list item.
  1196. @kindex C-c *
  1197. @item C-c *
  1198. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1199. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1200. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1201. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1202. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  1203. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1204. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1205. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1206. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1207. @kindex C-c ^
  1208. @item C-c ^
  1209. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1210. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1211. @end table
  1212. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1213. @section Drawers
  1214. @cindex drawers
  1215. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1216. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1217. @vindex org-drawers
  1218. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1219. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org-mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1220. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1221. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
  1222. with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}. Drawers
  1223. look like this:
  1224. @example
  1225. ** This is a headline
  1226. Still outside the drawer
  1227. :DRAWERNAME:
  1228. This is inside the drawer.
  1229. :END:
  1230. After the drawer.
  1231. @end example
  1232. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1233. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1234. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1235. press @key{TAB} there. Org-mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1236. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1237. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1238. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1239. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way as this is
  1240. done by state changes, use
  1241. @table @kbd
  1242. @kindex C-c C-z
  1243. @item C-c C-z
  1244. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1245. @end table
  1246. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1247. @section Blocks
  1248. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1249. @cindex blocks, folding
  1250. Org-mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1251. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1252. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1253. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1254. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1255. or on a per-file basis by using
  1256. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1257. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1258. @example
  1259. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1260. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1261. @end example
  1262. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1263. @section Footnotes
  1264. @cindex footnotes
  1265. Org-mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1266. @file{footnote.el} package, Org-mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1267. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1268. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e. a footnote is
  1269. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1270. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1271. inside a footnote, use the La@TeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1272. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1273. @example
  1274. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1275. ...
  1276. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1277. @end example
  1278. Org-mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1279. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1280. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1281. encouraged because of possible conflicts with La@TeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1282. LaTeX}). Here are the valid references:
  1283. @table @code
  1284. @item [1]
  1285. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1286. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1287. snippet.
  1288. @item [fn:name]
  1289. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1290. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1291. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1292. A La@TeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1293. reference point.
  1294. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1295. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1296. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1297. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1298. @end table
  1299. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1300. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1301. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1302. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords, see the docstring of that variable
  1303. for details.
  1304. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1305. @table @kbd
  1306. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1307. @item C-c C-x f
  1308. The footnote action command.
  1309. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1310. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1311. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1312. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1313. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1314. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1315. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1316. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1317. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1318. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1319. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1320. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1321. options is offered:
  1322. @example
  1323. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1324. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1325. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1326. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1327. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1328. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1329. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1330. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1331. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1332. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1333. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1334. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1335. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1336. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g. sending}
  1337. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1338. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1339. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1340. @r{to it.}
  1341. @end example
  1342. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1343. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1344. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1345. deletion.
  1346. @kindex C-c C-c
  1347. @item C-c C-c
  1348. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1349. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1350. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1351. @kindex C-c C-o
  1352. @kindex mouse-1
  1353. @kindex mouse-2
  1354. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1355. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1356. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1357. @end table
  1358. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1359. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1360. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1361. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1362. If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode structure editing and list
  1363. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1364. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1365. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1366. turn it on by default, for example in Mail mode, with one of:
  1367. @lisp
  1368. (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1369. (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1370. @end lisp
  1371. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1372. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1373. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1374. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1375. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadow. When you use
  1376. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1377. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1378. item.
  1379. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1380. @chapter Tables
  1381. @cindex tables
  1382. @cindex editing tables
  1383. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1384. calculations are supported in connection with the Emacs @file{calc}
  1385. package
  1386. @ifinfo
  1387. (@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1388. @end ifinfo
  1389. @ifnotinfo
  1390. (see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
  1391. calculator).
  1392. @end ifnotinfo
  1393. @menu
  1394. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1395. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1396. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1397. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1398. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1399. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1400. @end menu
  1401. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1402. @section The built-in table editor
  1403. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1404. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with
  1405. @samp{|} as the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a
  1406. table. @samp{|} is also the column separator. A table might look like
  1407. this:
  1408. @example
  1409. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1410. |-------+-------+-----|
  1411. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1412. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1413. @end example
  1414. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1415. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1416. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1417. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1418. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1419. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1420. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1421. create the above table, you would only type
  1422. @example
  1423. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1424. |-
  1425. @end example
  1426. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1427. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1428. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1429. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1430. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1431. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1432. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1433. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1434. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1435. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1436. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1437. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1438. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1439. @table @kbd
  1440. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1441. @kindex C-c |
  1442. @item C-c |
  1443. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1444. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1445. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1446. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1447. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1448. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1449. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1450. @*
  1451. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1452. table. But it's easier just to start typing, like
  1453. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1454. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1455. @kindex C-c C-c
  1456. @item C-c C-c
  1457. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1458. @c
  1459. @kindex @key{TAB}
  1460. @item @key{TAB}
  1461. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1462. necessary.
  1463. @c
  1464. @kindex S-@key{TAB}
  1465. @item S-@key{TAB}
  1466. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1467. @c
  1468. @kindex @key{RET}
  1469. @item @key{RET}
  1470. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1471. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1472. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1473. @c
  1474. @kindex M-a
  1475. @item M-a
  1476. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1477. @kindex M-e
  1478. @item M-e
  1479. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1480. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1481. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1482. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1483. @item M-@key{left}
  1484. @itemx M-@key{right}
  1485. Move the current column left/right.
  1486. @c
  1487. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1488. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1489. Kill the current column.
  1490. @c
  1491. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1492. @item M-S-@key{right}
  1493. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1494. @c
  1495. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1496. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1497. @item M-@key{up}
  1498. @itemx M-@key{down}
  1499. Move the current row up/down.
  1500. @c
  1501. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  1502. @item M-S-@key{up}
  1503. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1504. @c
  1505. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  1506. @item M-S-@key{down}
  1507. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1508. created below the current one.
  1509. @c
  1510. @kindex C-c -
  1511. @item C-c -
  1512. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1513. is created above the current line.
  1514. @c
  1515. @kindex C-c @key{RET}
  1516. @item C-c @key{RET}
  1517. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1518. below that line.
  1519. @c
  1520. @kindex C-c ^
  1521. @item C-c ^
  1522. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1523. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1524. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1525. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1526. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1527. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1528. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1529. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1530. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1531. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1532. @kindex C-c C-x M-w
  1533. @item C-c C-x M-w
  1534. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1535. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1536. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1537. @c
  1538. @kindex C-c C-x C-w
  1539. @item C-c C-x C-w
  1540. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1541. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1542. @c
  1543. @kindex C-c C-x C-y
  1544. @item C-c C-x C-y
  1545. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1546. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1547. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1548. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1549. lines.
  1550. @c
  1551. @kindex M-@key{RET}
  1552. @itemx M-@kbd{RET}
  1553. Wrap several fields in a column like a paragraph. If there is an active
  1554. region, and both point and mark are in the same column, the text in the
  1555. column is wrapped to minimum width for the given number of lines. A numeric
  1556. prefix argument may be used to change the number of desired lines. If there
  1557. is no region, the current field is split at the cursor position and the text
  1558. fragment to the right of the cursor is prepended to the field one line
  1559. down. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument, the current
  1560. field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field above.
  1561. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1562. @cindex formula, in tables
  1563. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1564. @cindex region, active
  1565. @cindex active region
  1566. @cindex transient mark mode
  1567. @kindex C-c +
  1568. @item C-c +
  1569. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1570. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1571. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1572. @c
  1573. @kindex S-@key{RET}
  1574. @item S-@key{RET}
  1575. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1576. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1577. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1578. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1579. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1580. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1581. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1582. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1583. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1584. @kindex C-c `
  1585. @item C-c `
  1586. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1587. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1588. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1589. edited in place.
  1590. @c
  1591. @item M-x org-table-import
  1592. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1593. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1594. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1595. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1596. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1597. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1598. separator.
  1599. @item C-c |
  1600. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1601. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1602. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1603. @c
  1604. @item M-x org-table-export
  1605. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1606. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1607. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1608. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1609. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1610. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1611. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1612. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1613. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1614. detailed description.
  1615. @end table
  1616. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1617. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1618. it off with
  1619. @lisp
  1620. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1621. @end lisp
  1622. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1623. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1624. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1625. @section Column width and alignment
  1626. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1627. @cindex alignment in tables
  1628. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1629. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1630. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1631. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1632. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1633. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1634. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1635. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1636. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1637. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1638. @example
  1639. @group
  1640. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1641. | | | | | <6> |
  1642. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1643. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1644. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1645. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1646. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1647. @end group
  1648. @end example
  1649. @noindent
  1650. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1651. Note that the full text is still in the buffer, it is only invisible.
  1652. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1653. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1654. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1655. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1656. C-c}.
  1657. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1658. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1659. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1660. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1661. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1662. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1663. on a per-file basis with:
  1664. @example
  1665. #+STARTUP: align
  1666. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1667. @end example
  1668. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1669. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you and use @samp{<r>},
  1670. @samp{c}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1671. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  1672. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1673. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1674. automatically when exporting the document.
  1675. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1676. @section Column groups
  1677. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1678. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1679. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1680. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1681. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1682. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1683. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1684. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1685. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} to make a column
  1686. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1687. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1688. @example
  1689. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1690. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1691. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1692. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1693. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1694. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1695. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1696. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1697. @end example
  1698. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1699. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1700. @example
  1701. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1702. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1703. | / | < | | | < | |
  1704. @end example
  1705. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  1706. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  1707. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1708. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1709. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  1710. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  1711. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  1712. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1713. example in mail mode, use
  1714. @lisp
  1715. (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1716. @end lisp
  1717. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  1718. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  1719. construct La@TeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  1720. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  1721. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  1722. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  1723. @section The spreadsheet
  1724. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1725. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  1726. @cindex @file{calc} package
  1727. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  1728. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  1729. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  1730. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  1731. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  1732. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  1733. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  1734. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  1735. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  1736. @menu
  1737. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  1738. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  1739. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  1740. * Field formulas:: Formulas valid for a single field
  1741. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  1742. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  1743. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  1744. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  1745. @end menu
  1746. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  1747. @subsection References
  1748. @cindex references
  1749. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  1750. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  1751. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  1752. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  1753. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  1754. @subsubheading Field references
  1755. @cindex field references
  1756. @cindex references, to fields
  1757. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  1758. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  1759. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  1760. @c Such references are always fixed to that field, they don't change
  1761. @c when you copy and paste a formula to a different field. So
  1762. @c Org's @code{B3} behaves like @code{$B$3} in other spreadsheets.
  1763. @noindent
  1764. Org also uses another, more general operator that looks like this:
  1765. @example
  1766. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  1767. @end example
  1768. @noindent
  1769. Column references can be absolute like @samp{1}, @samp{2},...@samp{@var{N}},
  1770. or relative to the current column like @samp{+1} or @samp{-2}.
  1771. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal
  1772. separator lines (hlines). You can use absolute row numbers
  1773. @samp{1}...@samp{@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the current row like
  1774. @samp{+3} or @samp{-1}. Or specify the row relative to one of the
  1775. hlines: @samp{I} refers to the first hline@footnote{Note that only
  1776. hlines are counted that @emph{separate} table lines. If the table
  1777. starts with a hline above the header, it does not count.}, @samp{II} to
  1778. the second, etc@. @samp{-I} refers to the first such line above the
  1779. current line, @samp{+I} to the first such line below the current line.
  1780. You can also write @samp{III+2} which is the second data line after the
  1781. third hline in the table.
  1782. @samp{0} refers to the current row and column. Also, if you omit
  1783. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current
  1784. row/column is implied.
  1785. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  1786. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  1787. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  1788. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  1789. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  1790. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  1791. As a special case, references like @samp{$LR5} and @samp{$LR12} can be used
  1792. to refer in a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the
  1793. table.
  1794. Here are a few examples:
  1795. @example
  1796. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column}
  1797. C2 @r{same as previous}
  1798. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row}
  1799. E& @r{same as previous}
  1800. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  1801. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  1802. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  1803. @end example
  1804. @subsubheading Range references
  1805. @cindex range references
  1806. @cindex references, to ranges
  1807. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  1808. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  1809. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  1810. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  1811. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  1812. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  1813. @example
  1814. $1..$3 @r{First three fields in the current row.}
  1815. $P..$Q @r{Range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  1816. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields.}
  1817. A2..C4 @r{Same as above.}
  1818. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  1819. @end example
  1820. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  1821. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  1822. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  1823. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  1824. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  1825. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  1826. @cindex field coordinates
  1827. @cindex coordinates, of field
  1828. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  1829. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  1830. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  1831. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  1832. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  1833. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  1834. @example
  1835. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  1836. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  1837. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  1838. @end example
  1839. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  1840. as the current table. Inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  1841. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  1842. number of rows.
  1843. @subsubheading Named references
  1844. @cindex named references
  1845. @cindex references, named
  1846. @cindex name, of column or field
  1847. @cindex constants, in calculations
  1848. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  1849. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  1850. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  1851. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  1852. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  1853. line like
  1854. @example
  1855. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  1856. @end example
  1857. @noindent
  1858. @vindex constants-unit-system
  1859. @pindex constants.el
  1860. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  1861. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  1862. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  1863. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  1864. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  1865. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  1866. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  1867. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  1868. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  1869. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  1870. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  1871. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  1872. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  1873. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  1874. numbers.
  1875. @subsubheading Remote references
  1876. @cindex remote references
  1877. @cindex references, remote
  1878. @cindex references, to a different table
  1879. @cindex name, of column or field
  1880. @cindex constants, in calculations
  1881. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  1882. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  1883. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  1884. @example
  1885. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  1886. @end example
  1887. @noindent
  1888. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  1889. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  1890. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  1891. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  1892. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  1893. referenced table.
  1894. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  1895. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  1896. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  1897. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  1898. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  1899. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  1900. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  1901. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  1902. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  1903. Your Programs,calc-eval,Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs,Calc,GNU
  1904. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  1905. @c FIXME: The link to the Calc manual in HTML does not work.
  1906. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  1907. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  1908. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  1909. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  1910. @cindex format specifier
  1911. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  1912. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  1913. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  1914. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  1915. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  1916. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  1917. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  1918. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  1919. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  1920. @example
  1921. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  1922. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  1923. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  1924. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  1925. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  1926. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  1927. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  1928. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  1929. T @r{force text interpretation}
  1930. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  1931. L @r{literal}
  1932. @end example
  1933. @noindent
  1934. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  1935. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  1936. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  1937. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  1938. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  1939. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  1940. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  1941. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  1942. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  1943. A few examples:
  1944. @example
  1945. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  1946. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  1947. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  1948. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  1949. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  1950. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  1951. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  1952. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  1953. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  1954. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  1955. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  1956. @end example
  1957. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  1958. @example
  1959. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{``teen'' if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  1960. @end example
  1961. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Field formulas, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  1962. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  1963. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  1964. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful
  1965. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's
  1966. functionality is not enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote
  1967. followed by an opening parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form.
  1968. The evaluation should return either a string or a number. Just as with
  1969. @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes and a printf format after a
  1970. semicolon. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way
  1971. field references are interpolated into the form. By default, a
  1972. reference will be interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes)
  1973. containing the field. If you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all
  1974. referenced elements will be numbers (non-number fields will be zero) and
  1975. interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If you provide the
  1976. @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally, without quotes.
  1977. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string by the Lisp
  1978. form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes, like
  1979. @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  1980. embed them in list or vector syntax. A few examples, note how the
  1981. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp.
  1982. @example
  1983. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  1984. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  1985. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  1986. '(+ $1 $2);N
  1987. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  1988. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  1989. @end example
  1990. @node Field formulas, Column formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  1991. @subsection Field formulas
  1992. @cindex field formula
  1993. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  1994. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the
  1995. field, preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=$1+$2}. When you
  1996. press @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in
  1997. the field, the formula will be stored as the formula for this field,
  1998. evaluated, and the current field replaced with the result.
  1999. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2000. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:}
  2001. directly below the table. If you typed the equation in the 4th field of
  2002. the 3rd data line in the table, the formula will look like
  2003. @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows
  2004. with the appropriate commands, @i{absolute references} (but not relative
  2005. ones) in stored formulas are modified in order to still reference the
  2006. same field. Of course this is not true if you edit the table structure
  2007. with normal editing commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2008. The left-hand side of a formula may also be a named field (@pxref{Advanced
  2009. features}), or a last-row reference like @samp{$LR3}.
  2010. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2011. following command
  2012. @table @kbd
  2013. @kindex C-u C-c =
  2014. @item C-u C-c =
  2015. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2016. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2017. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2018. @end table
  2019. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field formulas, The spreadsheet
  2020. @subsection Column formulas
  2021. @cindex column formula
  2022. @cindex formula, for table column
  2023. Often in a table, the same formula should be used for all fields in a
  2024. particular column. Instead of having to copy the formula to all fields
  2025. in that column, Org allows you to assign a single formula to an entire
  2026. column. If the table contains horizontal separator hlines, everything
  2027. before the first such line is considered part of the table @emph{header}
  2028. and will not be modified by column formulas.
  2029. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2030. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2031. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2032. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2033. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2034. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2035. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2036. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The left-hand
  2037. side of a column formula cannot currently be the name of column, it
  2038. must be the numeric column reference.
  2039. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2040. following command:
  2041. @table @kbd
  2042. @kindex C-c =
  2043. @item C-c =
  2044. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2045. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2046. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2047. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g. @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2048. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2049. @end table
  2050. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2051. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2052. @cindex formula editing
  2053. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2054. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2055. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2056. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2057. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2058. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2059. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2060. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2061. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2062. @table @kbd
  2063. @kindex C-c =
  2064. @kindex C-u C-c =
  2065. @item C-c =
  2066. @itemx C-u C-c =
  2067. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2068. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field formulas}.
  2069. @kindex C-u C-u C-c =
  2070. @item C-u C-u C-c =
  2071. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2072. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2073. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2074. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2075. @kindex C-c ?
  2076. @item C-c ?
  2077. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2078. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2079. @kindex C-c @}
  2080. @item C-c @}
  2081. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using
  2082. overlays. These are updated each time the table is aligned; you can
  2083. force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2084. @kindex C-c @{
  2085. @item C-c @{
  2086. Toggle the formula debugger on and off. See below.
  2087. @kindex C-c '
  2088. @item C-c '
  2089. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2090. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2091. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2092. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2093. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2094. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2095. @table @kbd
  2096. @kindex C-c C-c
  2097. @kindex C-x C-s
  2098. @item C-c C-c
  2099. @itemx C-x C-s
  2100. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2101. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2102. @kindex C-c C-q
  2103. @item C-c C-q
  2104. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2105. @kindex C-c C-r
  2106. @item C-c C-r
  2107. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2108. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2109. @kindex @key{TAB}
  2110. @item @key{TAB}
  2111. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2112. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2113. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2114. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2115. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  2116. @item M-@key{TAB}
  2117. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2118. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2119. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2120. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2121. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2122. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2123. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2124. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2125. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2126. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  2127. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  2128. @item M-S-@key{up}/@key{down}
  2129. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2130. down.
  2131. @kindex M-@key{up}
  2132. @kindex M-@key{down}
  2133. @item M-@key{up}/@key{down}
  2134. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2135. @kindex C-c @}
  2136. @item C-c @}
  2137. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2138. @end table
  2139. @end table
  2140. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2141. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2142. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2143. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2144. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2145. @kindex C-c C-c
  2146. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2147. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2148. recalculation commands in the table.
  2149. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2150. @cindex formula debugging
  2151. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2152. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2153. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2154. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2155. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2156. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2157. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2158. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2159. @subsection Updating the table
  2160. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2161. @cindex updating, table
  2162. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2163. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2164. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2165. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2166. following commands:
  2167. @table @kbd
  2168. @kindex C-c *
  2169. @item C-c *
  2170. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2171. from left to right, and all field formulas in the current row.
  2172. @c
  2173. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2174. @item C-u C-c *
  2175. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2176. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2177. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2178. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2179. @c
  2180. @kindex C-u C-u C-c *
  2181. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-c
  2182. @item C-u C-u C-c *
  2183. @itemx C-u C-u C-c C-c
  2184. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2185. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2186. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2187. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2188. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2189. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2190. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2191. dependencies.
  2192. @end table
  2193. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2194. @subsection Advanced features
  2195. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if
  2196. you want to be able to assign @i{names} to fields and columns, you need
  2197. to reserve the first column of the table for special marking characters.
  2198. @table @kbd
  2199. @kindex C-#
  2200. @item C-#
  2201. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2202. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2203. change all marks in the region.
  2204. @end table
  2205. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2206. makes use of these features:
  2207. @example
  2208. @group
  2209. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2210. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2211. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2212. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2213. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2214. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2215. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2216. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2217. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2218. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2219. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2220. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2221. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2222. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2223. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2224. @end group
  2225. @end example
  2226. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2227. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2228. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2229. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2230. empty first field.
  2231. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2232. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2233. @table @samp
  2234. @item !
  2235. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2236. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2237. @item ^
  2238. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2239. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2240. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2241. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2242. @item _
  2243. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2244. @emph{below}.
  2245. @item $
  2246. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2247. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2248. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2249. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2250. a per-table basis.
  2251. @item #
  2252. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2253. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2254. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2255. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2256. @item *
  2257. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2258. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2259. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2260. @item
  2261. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2262. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2263. or @samp{*}.
  2264. @item /
  2265. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2266. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2267. @end table
  2268. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2269. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2270. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2271. functions.
  2272. @example
  2273. @group
  2274. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2275. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2276. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2277. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2278. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2279. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2280. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2281. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2282. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2283. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2284. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2285. @end group
  2286. @end example
  2287. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2288. @section Org-Plot
  2289. @cindex graph, in tables
  2290. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2291. @cindex #+PLOT
  2292. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2293. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2294. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2295. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2296. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2297. @example
  2298. @group
  2299. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2300. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2301. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2302. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2303. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2304. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2305. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2306. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2307. @end group
  2308. @end example
  2309. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2310. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2311. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2312. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2313. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2314. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.php}.
  2315. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2316. @table @code
  2317. @item set
  2318. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2319. @item title
  2320. Specify the title of the plot.
  2321. @item ind
  2322. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2323. @item deps
  2324. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2325. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2326. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2327. column).
  2328. @item type
  2329. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2330. @item with
  2331. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2332. (e.g. @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2333. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2334. @item file
  2335. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2336. @item labels
  2337. List of labels to be used for the deps (defaults to the column headers if
  2338. they exist).
  2339. @item line
  2340. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2341. @item map
  2342. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2343. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2344. @item timefmt
  2345. Specify format of Org-mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2346. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2347. @item script
  2348. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2349. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2350. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2351. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2352. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2353. the data file.
  2354. @end table
  2355. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2356. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2357. @cindex hyperlinks
  2358. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2359. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2360. @menu
  2361. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2362. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2363. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2364. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2365. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2366. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2367. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2368. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2369. @end menu
  2370. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2371. @section Link format
  2372. @cindex link format
  2373. @cindex format, of links
  2374. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2375. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2376. @example
  2377. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2378. @end example
  2379. @noindent
  2380. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2381. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2382. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2383. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2384. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2385. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2386. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2387. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2388. cursor on the link.
  2389. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2390. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2391. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2392. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2393. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2394. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2395. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2396. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2397. @section Internal links
  2398. @cindex internal links
  2399. @cindex links, internal
  2400. @cindex targets, for links
  2401. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2402. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2403. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2404. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2405. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2406. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2407. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2408. in a file.
  2409. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2410. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2411. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2412. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2413. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2414. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2415. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2416. comment line. For example
  2417. @example
  2418. # <<My Target>>
  2419. @end example
  2420. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2421. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2422. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2423. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2424. first headline.}.
  2425. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2426. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2427. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2428. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2429. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2430. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2431. link text, in the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2432. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2433. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2434. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2435. earlier.
  2436. @menu
  2437. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2438. @end menu
  2439. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2440. @subsection Radio targets
  2441. @cindex radio targets
  2442. @cindex targets, radio
  2443. @cindex links, radio targets
  2444. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2445. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2446. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2447. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2448. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2449. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2450. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2451. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2452. cursor on or at a target.
  2453. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2454. @section External links
  2455. @cindex links, external
  2456. @cindex external links
  2457. @cindex links, external
  2458. @cindex Gnus links
  2459. @cindex BBDB links
  2460. @cindex IRC links
  2461. @cindex URL links
  2462. @cindex file links
  2463. @cindex VM links
  2464. @cindex RMAIL links
  2465. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2466. @cindex MH-E links
  2467. @cindex USENET links
  2468. @cindex SHELL links
  2469. @cindex Info links
  2470. @cindex Elisp links
  2471. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2472. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2473. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2474. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2475. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2476. @example
  2477. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2478. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2479. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2480. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2481. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2482. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2483. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2484. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2485. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file with line number to jump to}
  2486. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2487. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}
  2488. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2489. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open file in doc-view mode at page NNN}
  2490. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2491. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2492. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2493. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2494. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2495. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2496. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2497. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2498. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2499. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2500. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2501. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2502. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2503. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2504. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2505. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2506. info:org:External%20links @r{Info node link (with encoded space)}
  2507. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2508. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2509. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2510. @end example
  2511. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2512. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2513. format}), for example:
  2514. @example
  2515. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2516. @end example
  2517. @noindent
  2518. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2519. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2520. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2521. image,
  2522. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2523. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2524. @cindex plain text external links
  2525. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2526. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2527. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2528. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2529. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2530. @section Handling links
  2531. @cindex links, handling
  2532. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2533. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2534. @table @kbd
  2535. @kindex C-c l
  2536. @cindex storing links
  2537. @item C-c l
  2538. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2539. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2540. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2541. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2542. buffer:
  2543. @b{Org-mode buffers}@*
  2544. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2545. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2546. be the description.
  2547. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2548. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2549. @cindex property, ID
  2550. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2551. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2552. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2553. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2554. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2555. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2556. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2557. to use.
  2558. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2559. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2560. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2561. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2562. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2563. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2564. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2565. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2566. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2567. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2568. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2569. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2570. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2571. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2572. @b{Other files}@*
  2573. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2574. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2575. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2576. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2577. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2578. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2579. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2580. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2581. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2582. entry referenced by the current line.
  2583. @c
  2584. @kindex C-c C-l
  2585. @cindex link completion
  2586. @cindex completion, of links
  2587. @cindex inserting links
  2588. @item C-c C-l
  2589. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2590. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2591. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2592. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2593. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2594. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2595. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2596. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2597. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2598. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2599. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2600. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2601. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2602. becomes the default description.
  2603. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2604. All links stored during the
  2605. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2606. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2607. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2608. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2609. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2610. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2611. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2612. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2613. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2614. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2615. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2616. @kindex C-u C-c C-l
  2617. @cindex file name completion
  2618. @cindex completion, of file names
  2619. @item C-u C-c C-l
  2620. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2621. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2622. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2623. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2624. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2625. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2626. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2627. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2628. @c
  2629. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2630. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2631. link and description parts of the link.
  2632. @c
  2633. @cindex following links
  2634. @kindex C-c C-o
  2635. @kindex @key{RET}
  2636. @item C-c C-o @ @r{(or, if @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, also} @key{RET}
  2637. @vindex org-file-apps
  2638. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2639. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2640. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2641. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2642. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2643. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2644. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2645. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2646. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  2647. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  2648. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  2649. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  2650. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  2651. headline and entry text.
  2652. @c
  2653. @kindex mouse-2
  2654. @kindex mouse-1
  2655. @item mouse-2
  2656. @itemx mouse-1
  2657. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  2658. would. Under Emacs 22, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  2659. @c
  2660. @kindex mouse-3
  2661. @item mouse-3
  2662. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  2663. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  2664. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  2665. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  2666. @c
  2667. @cindex inlining images
  2668. @cindex images, inlining
  2669. @kindex C-c C-x C-v
  2670. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  2671. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2672. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2673. @item C-c C-x C-v
  2674. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  2675. images that have no description part in the link, i.e. images that will also
  2676. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  2677. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  2678. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  2679. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  2680. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  2681. @cindex mark ring
  2682. @kindex C-c %
  2683. @item C-c %
  2684. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  2685. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  2686. @c
  2687. @cindex links, returning to
  2688. @kindex C-c &
  2689. @item C-c &
  2690. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  2691. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  2692. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  2693. previously recorded positions.
  2694. @c
  2695. @kindex C-c C-x C-n
  2696. @kindex C-c C-x C-p
  2697. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  2698. @item C-c C-x C-n
  2699. @itemx C-c C-x C-p
  2700. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  2701. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  2702. bindings for this are really too long, you might want to bind this also
  2703. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  2704. @lisp
  2705. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  2706. (lambda ()
  2707. (define-key 'org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  2708. (define-key 'org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  2709. @end lisp
  2710. @end table
  2711. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  2712. @section Using links outside Org
  2713. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  2714. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  2715. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  2716. yourself):
  2717. @lisp
  2718. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  2719. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  2720. @end lisp
  2721. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  2722. @section Link abbreviations
  2723. @cindex link abbreviations
  2724. @cindex abbreviation, links
  2725. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  2726. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  2727. abbreviated link looks like this
  2728. @example
  2729. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  2730. @end example
  2731. @noindent
  2732. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  2733. where the tag is optional.
  2734. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  2735. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  2736. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  2737. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  2738. @smalllisp
  2739. @group
  2740. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  2741. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  2742. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  2743. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  2744. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  2745. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  2746. @end group
  2747. @end smalllisp
  2748. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  2749. replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
  2750. in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will
  2751. be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  2752. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  2753. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  2754. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  2755. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  2756. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  2757. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  2758. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  2759. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  2760. can define them in the file with
  2761. @cindex #+LINK
  2762. @example
  2763. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  2764. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  2765. @end example
  2766. @noindent
  2767. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  2768. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  2769. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g. completion)
  2770. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  2771. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  2772. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  2773. @section Search options in file links
  2774. @cindex search option in file links
  2775. @cindex file links, searching
  2776. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  2777. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  2778. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  2779. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  2780. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  2781. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  2782. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  2783. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  2784. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  2785. link, together with an explanation:
  2786. @example
  2787. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  2788. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  2789. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  2790. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  2791. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  2792. @end example
  2793. @table @code
  2794. @item 255
  2795. Jump to line 255.
  2796. @item My Target
  2797. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  2798. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  2799. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  2800. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  2801. the linked file.
  2802. @item *My Target
  2803. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  2804. @item #my-custom-id
  2805. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  2806. @item /regexp/
  2807. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  2808. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  2809. target file is in Org-mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  2810. sparse tree with the matches.
  2811. @c If the target file is a directory,
  2812. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  2813. @end table
  2814. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  2815. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  2816. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  2817. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  2818. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  2819. @section Custom Searches
  2820. @cindex custom search strings
  2821. @cindex search strings, custom
  2822. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  2823. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  2824. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  2825. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  2826. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  2827. citation key.
  2828. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  2829. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  2830. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  2831. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  2832. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  2833. to be added to the hook variables
  2834. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  2835. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  2836. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  2837. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  2838. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  2839. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  2840. @chapter TODO items
  2841. @cindex TODO items
  2842. Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  2843. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  2844. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  2845. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  2846. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  2847. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  2848. item emerged is always present.
  2849. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  2850. throughout your notes file. Org-mode compensates for this by providing
  2851. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  2852. @menu
  2853. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  2854. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  2855. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  2856. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  2857. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  2858. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  2859. @end menu
  2860. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  2861. @section Basic TODO functionality
  2862. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  2863. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  2864. @example
  2865. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  2866. @end example
  2867. @noindent
  2868. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  2869. @table @kbd
  2870. @kindex C-c C-t
  2871. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  2872. @item C-c C-t
  2873. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  2874. @example
  2875. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  2876. '--------------------------------'
  2877. @end example
  2878. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  2879. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  2880. @kindex C-u C-c C-t
  2881. @item C-u C-c C-t
  2882. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  2883. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  2884. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  2885. more information.
  2886. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2887. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2888. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  2889. @item S-@key{right}
  2890. @itemx S-@key{left}
  2891. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  2892. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  2893. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  2894. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  2895. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  2896. @kindex C-c / t
  2897. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  2898. @itemx C-c / t
  2899. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  2900. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  2901. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  2902. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  2903. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  2904. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  2905. entries that match any one of these keywords. With numeric prefix argument
  2906. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  2907. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  2908. both un-done and done.
  2909. @kindex C-c a t
  2910. @item C-c a t
  2911. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  2912. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  2913. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  2914. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  2915. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  2916. @kindex S-M-@key{RET}
  2917. @item S-M-@key{RET}
  2918. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  2919. @end table
  2920. @noindent
  2921. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  2922. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  2923. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  2924. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  2925. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  2926. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  2927. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  2928. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  2929. DONE. Org-mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  2930. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  2931. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  2932. files.
  2933. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  2934. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  2935. @menu
  2936. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  2937. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  2938. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  2939. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  2940. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  2941. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  2942. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  2943. @end menu
  2944. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  2945. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  2946. @cindex TODO workflow
  2947. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  2948. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  2949. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  2950. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org-mode in a
  2951. buffer.}:
  2952. @lisp
  2953. (setq org-todo-keywords
  2954. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  2955. @end lisp
  2956. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  2957. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  2958. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  2959. state.
  2960. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  2961. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  2962. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  2963. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  2964. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  2965. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  2966. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  2967. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  2968. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  2969. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  2970. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  2971. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  2972. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  2973. @cindex TODO types
  2974. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  2975. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  2976. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  2977. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  2978. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  2979. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  2980. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  2981. be set up like this:
  2982. @lisp
  2983. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  2984. @end lisp
  2985. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  2986. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  2987. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org-mode supports this style by adapting
  2988. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  2989. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  2990. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  2991. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  2992. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  2993. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  2994. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  2995. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  2996. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  2997. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  2998. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  2999. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3000. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3001. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3002. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3003. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3004. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3005. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3006. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3007. like this:
  3008. @lisp
  3009. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3010. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3011. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3012. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3013. @end lisp
  3014. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org-mode to keep track
  3015. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3016. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3017. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3018. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3019. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3020. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3021. @table @kbd
  3022. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3023. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3024. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3025. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3026. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3027. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3028. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3029. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3030. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3031. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3032. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3033. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3034. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3035. @item S-@key{right}
  3036. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3037. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3038. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3039. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3040. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3041. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3042. @end table
  3043. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3044. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3045. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3046. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3047. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section
  3048. key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3049. @lisp
  3050. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3051. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3052. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3053. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3054. @end lisp
  3055. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3056. If you then press @code{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3057. will be switched to this state. @key{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3058. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3059. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3060. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3061. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3062. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3063. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3064. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3065. @cindex keyword options
  3066. @cindex per-file keywords
  3067. @cindex #+TODO
  3068. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3069. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3070. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3071. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3072. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3073. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3074. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3075. file:
  3076. @example
  3077. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3078. @end example
  3079. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3080. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3081. @example
  3082. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3083. @end example
  3084. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3085. @example
  3086. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3087. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3088. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3089. @end example
  3090. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3091. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3092. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3093. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3094. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3095. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3096. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3097. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3098. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3099. known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode parses these lines only when
  3100. Org-mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3101. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org-mode
  3102. for the current buffer.}.
  3103. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3104. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3105. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3106. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3107. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3108. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3109. Org-mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3110. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3111. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3112. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3113. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3114. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3115. @lisp
  3116. @group
  3117. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3118. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3119. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3120. @end group
  3121. @end lisp
  3122. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3123. work, this does not aways seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3124. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3125. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3126. foreground or a background color.
  3127. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3128. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3129. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3130. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3131. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3132. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3133. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3134. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3135. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3136. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3137. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3138. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3139. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3140. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3141. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3142. example:
  3143. @example
  3144. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3145. ** DONE one
  3146. ** TODO two
  3147. * Parent
  3148. :PROPERTIES:
  3149. :ORDERED: t
  3150. :END:
  3151. ** TODO a
  3152. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3153. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3154. @end example
  3155. @table @kbd
  3156. @kindex C-c C-x o
  3157. @item C-c C-x o
  3158. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3159. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3160. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3161. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3162. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3163. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3164. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3165. @kindex C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3166. @item C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3167. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3168. @end table
  3169. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3170. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3171. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3172. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3173. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3174. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3175. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3176. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3177. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3178. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3179. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3180. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3181. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3182. @page
  3183. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3184. @section Progress logging
  3185. @cindex progress logging
  3186. @cindex logging, of progress
  3187. Org-mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3188. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3189. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3190. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3191. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3192. work time}.
  3193. @menu
  3194. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3195. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3196. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3197. @end menu
  3198. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3199. @subsection Closing items
  3200. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3201. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3202. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}.
  3203. @lisp
  3204. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3205. @end lisp
  3206. @noindent
  3207. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3208. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3209. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3210. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3211. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3212. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3213. @lisp
  3214. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3215. @end lisp
  3216. @noindent
  3217. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3218. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3219. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3220. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3221. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3222. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3223. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3224. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3225. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3226. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3227. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3228. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3229. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3230. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3231. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3232. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3233. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3234. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3235. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3236. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this
  3237. behavior---the recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}. You can
  3238. also overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3239. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3240. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org-mode
  3241. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3242. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) and @samp{@@} (for a note)
  3243. in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the setting
  3244. @lisp
  3245. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3246. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3247. @end lisp
  3248. @noindent
  3249. @vindex org-log-done
  3250. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3251. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3252. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org-mode will record two timestamps
  3253. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3254. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3255. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3256. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3257. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3258. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3259. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3260. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3261. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3262. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3263. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3264. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3265. configured.
  3266. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3267. to a buffer:
  3268. @example
  3269. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3270. @end example
  3271. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3272. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3273. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3274. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3275. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3276. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3277. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3278. @example
  3279. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3280. :PROPERTIES:
  3281. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3282. :END:
  3283. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3284. :PROPERTIES:
  3285. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3286. :END:
  3287. * TODO No logging at all
  3288. :PROPERTIES:
  3289. :LOGGING: nil
  3290. :END:
  3291. @end example
  3292. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3293. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3294. @cindex habits
  3295. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3296. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3297. @enumerate
  3298. @item
  3299. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3300. @code{org-modules}.
  3301. @item
  3302. The habit is a TODO, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3303. @item
  3304. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3305. @item
  3306. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3307. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3308. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3309. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3310. @item
  3311. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3312. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3313. three days, but at most every two days.
  3314. @item
  3315. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3316. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it's not
  3317. enabled it's not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3318. meaningless.
  3319. @end enumerate
  3320. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3321. actual habit with some history:
  3322. @example
  3323. ** TODO Shave
  3324. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3325. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3326. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3327. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3328. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3329. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3330. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3331. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3332. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3333. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3334. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3335. :PROPERTIES:
  3336. :STYLE: habit
  3337. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3338. :END:
  3339. @end example
  3340. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3341. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3342. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3343. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3344. after four days have elapsed.
  3345. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3346. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3347. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3348. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3349. @table @code
  3350. @item Blue
  3351. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3352. @item Green
  3353. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3354. @item Yellow
  3355. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3356. @item Red
  3357. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3358. @end table
  3359. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3360. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3361. the current day falls in the graph.
  3362. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3363. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3364. @table @code
  3365. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3366. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3367. overwrite any text in that column, so it's a good idea to keep your habits'
  3368. titles brief and to the point.
  3369. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3370. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3371. @item org-habit-following-days
  3372. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3373. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3374. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3375. default.
  3376. @end table
  3377. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3378. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3379. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3380. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3381. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3382. @section Priorities
  3383. @cindex priorities
  3384. If you use Org-mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3385. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3386. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3387. @example
  3388. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3389. @end example
  3390. @noindent
  3391. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3392. By default, Org-mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3393. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3394. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3395. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3396. have no inherent meaning to Org-mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3397. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3398. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3399. items.
  3400. @table @kbd
  3401. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3402. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3403. Set the priority of the current headline. The command prompts for a
  3404. priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}. When you press
  3405. @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the headline.
  3406. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3407. agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3408. @c
  3409. @kindex S-@key{up}
  3410. @kindex S-@key{down}
  3411. @item S-@key{up}
  3412. @itemx S-@key{down}
  3413. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3414. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3415. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3416. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3417. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3418. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3419. @end table
  3420. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3421. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3422. @vindex org-default-priority
  3423. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3424. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3425. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3426. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3427. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3428. priority):
  3429. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3430. @example
  3431. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3432. @end example
  3433. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3434. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3435. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3436. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3437. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3438. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3439. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3440. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3441. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3442. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3443. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3444. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3445. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3446. @example
  3447. * Organize Party [33%]
  3448. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3449. *** TODO Peter
  3450. *** DONE Sarah
  3451. ** TODO Buy food
  3452. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3453. @end example
  3454. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3455. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3456. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3457. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3458. this issue.
  3459. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3460. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3461. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3462. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3463. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3464. property.
  3465. @example
  3466. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3467. :PROPERTIES:
  3468. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3469. :END:
  3470. @end example
  3471. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3472. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3473. @example
  3474. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3475. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3476. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3477. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3478. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3479. @end example
  3480. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3481. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3482. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3483. @section Checkboxes
  3484. @cindex checkboxes
  3485. Every item in a plain list (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a
  3486. checkbox by starting it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is
  3487. similar to TODO items (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight.
  3488. Checkboxes are not included into the global TODO list, so they are often
  3489. great to split a task into a number of simple steps. Or you can use
  3490. them in a shopping list. To toggle a checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or
  3491. use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3492. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3493. @example
  3494. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3495. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3496. - [ ] Peter
  3497. - [X] Sarah
  3498. - [ ] Sam
  3499. - [X] order food
  3500. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3501. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3502. @end example
  3503. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3504. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3505. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3506. checked.
  3507. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3508. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3509. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3510. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3511. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3512. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3513. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3514. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3515. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3516. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3517. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3518. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3519. represent the all checkboxes below the cookie, not just the direct
  3520. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3521. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3522. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3523. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3524. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3525. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3526. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3527. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3528. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3529. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3530. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3531. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3532. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3533. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3534. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3535. @table @kbd
  3536. @kindex C-c C-c
  3537. @item C-c C-c
  3538. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3539. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3540. intermediate state.
  3541. @kindex C-c C-x C-b
  3542. @item C-c C-x C-b
  3543. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3544. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3545. intermediate state.
  3546. @itemize @minus
  3547. @item
  3548. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3549. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3550. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3551. @item
  3552. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3553. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3554. @item
  3555. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3556. @end itemize
  3557. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  3558. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  3559. Insert a new item with a checkbox.
  3560. This works only if the cursor is already in a plain list item
  3561. (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3562. @kindex C-c C-x o
  3563. @item C-c C-x o
  3564. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3565. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3566. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3567. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3568. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3569. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3570. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3571. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3572. @kindex C-c #
  3573. @item C-c #
  3574. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3575. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3576. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3577. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3578. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3579. hand, use this command to get things back into sync. Or simply toggle any
  3580. entry twice (checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c}).
  3581. @end table
  3582. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3583. @chapter Tags
  3584. @cindex tags
  3585. @cindex headline tagging
  3586. @cindex matching, tags
  3587. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3588. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3589. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org-mode has extensive
  3590. support for tags.
  3591. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3592. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3593. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3594. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3595. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3596. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3597. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3598. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3599. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3600. @menu
  3601. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3602. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3603. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3604. @end menu
  3605. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3606. @section Tag inheritance
  3607. @cindex tag inheritance
  3608. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3609. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3610. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3611. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3612. well. For example, in the list
  3613. @example
  3614. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3615. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3616. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3617. @end example
  3618. @noindent
  3619. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3620. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3621. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3622. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3623. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3624. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3625. changes in the line.}:
  3626. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3627. @example
  3628. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3629. @end example
  3630. @noindent
  3631. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3632. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3633. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  3634. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  3635. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3636. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3637. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3638. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3639. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3640. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3641. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3642. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3643. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  3644. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  3645. @section Setting tags
  3646. @cindex setting tags
  3647. @cindex tags, setting
  3648. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3649. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  3650. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  3651. also a special command for inserting tags:
  3652. @table @kbd
  3653. @kindex C-c C-q
  3654. @item C-c C-q
  3655. @cindex completion, of tags
  3656. @vindex org-tags-column
  3657. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org-mode will either offer
  3658. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  3659. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  3660. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  3661. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  3662. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  3663. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  3664. @kindex C-c C-c
  3665. @item C-c C-c
  3666. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  3667. @end table
  3668. @vindex org-tag-alist
  3669. Org will support tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  3670. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  3671. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  3672. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  3673. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  3674. @cindex #+TAGS
  3675. @example
  3676. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  3677. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  3678. @end example
  3679. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  3680. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  3681. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  3682. @example
  3683. #+TAGS:
  3684. @end example
  3685. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  3686. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  3687. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  3688. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  3689. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  3690. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  3691. @example
  3692. #+STARTUP: noptag
  3693. @end example
  3694. By default Org-mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  3695. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  3696. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  3697. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  3698. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  3699. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  3700. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  3701. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  3702. like:
  3703. @lisp
  3704. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  3705. @end lisp
  3706. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  3707. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  3708. @example
  3709. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  3710. @end example
  3711. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  3712. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  3713. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  3714. @example
  3715. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  3716. @end example
  3717. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  3718. @example
  3719. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  3720. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  3721. @end example
  3722. @noindent
  3723. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  3724. braces, as in:
  3725. @example
  3726. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  3727. @end example
  3728. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  3729. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  3730. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  3731. these lines to activate any changes.
  3732. @noindent
  3733. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  3734. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  3735. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  3736. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  3737. configuration:
  3738. @lisp
  3739. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  3740. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  3741. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  3742. (:endgroup . nil)
  3743. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  3744. @end lisp
  3745. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  3746. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  3747. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  3748. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  3749. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  3750. keys:
  3751. @table @kbd
  3752. @item a-z...
  3753. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  3754. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  3755. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  3756. @kindex @key{TAB}
  3757. @item @key{TAB}
  3758. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  3759. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  3760. @kindex @key{SPC}
  3761. @item @key{SPC}
  3762. Clear all tags for this line.
  3763. @kindex @key{RET}
  3764. @item @key{RET}
  3765. Accept the modified set.
  3766. @item C-g
  3767. Abort without installing changes.
  3768. @item q
  3769. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  3770. @item !
  3771. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  3772. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  3773. @item C-c
  3774. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  3775. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  3776. selection window.
  3777. @end table
  3778. @noindent
  3779. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  3780. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  3781. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  3782. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  3783. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  3784. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  3785. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  3786. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  3787. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  3788. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  3789. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  3790. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  3791. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  3792. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  3793. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  3794. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  3795. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  3796. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  3797. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  3798. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  3799. @section Tag searches
  3800. @cindex tag searches
  3801. @cindex searching for tags
  3802. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  3803. information into special lists.
  3804. @table @kbd
  3805. @kindex C-c \
  3806. @kindex C-c / m
  3807. @item C-c \
  3808. @itemx C-c / m
  3809. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  3810. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  3811. @kindex C-c a m
  3812. @item C-c a m
  3813. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  3814. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  3815. @kindex C-c a M
  3816. @item C-c a M
  3817. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3818. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  3819. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  3820. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  3821. @end table
  3822. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  3823. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  3824. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  3825. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  3826. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  3827. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  3828. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  3829. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  3830. @chapter Properties and columns
  3831. @cindex properties
  3832. Properties are a set of key-value pairs associated with an entry. There
  3833. are two main applications for properties in Org-mode. First, properties
  3834. are like tags, but with a value. Second, you can use properties to
  3835. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. For
  3836. an example of the first application, imagine maintaining a file where
  3837. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  3838. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, one can use a
  3839. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  3840. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. For an example of the second
  3841. application of properties, imagine keeping track of your music CDs,
  3842. where properties could be things such as the album, artist, date of
  3843. release, number of tracks, and so on.
  3844. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  3845. (@pxref{Column view}).
  3846. @menu
  3847. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  3848. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  3849. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  3850. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  3851. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  3852. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  3853. @end menu
  3854. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  3855. @section Property syntax
  3856. @cindex property syntax
  3857. @cindex drawer, for properties
  3858. Properties are key-value pairs. They need to be inserted into a special
  3859. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  3860. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  3861. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  3862. @example
  3863. * CD collection
  3864. ** Classic
  3865. *** Goldberg Variations
  3866. :PROPERTIES:
  3867. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  3868. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  3869. :Artist: Glen Gould
  3870. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  3871. :NDisks: 1
  3872. :END:
  3873. @end example
  3874. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  3875. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  3876. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  3877. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  3878. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  3879. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  3880. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  3881. @example
  3882. * CD collection
  3883. :PROPERTIES:
  3884. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  3885. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  3886. :END:
  3887. @end example
  3888. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  3889. file, use a line like
  3890. @cindex property, _ALL
  3891. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  3892. @example
  3893. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  3894. @end example
  3895. @vindex org-global-properties
  3896. Property values set with the global variable
  3897. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  3898. Org files.
  3899. @noindent
  3900. The following commands help to work with properties:
  3901. @table @kbd
  3902. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3903. @item M-@key{TAB}
  3904. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  3905. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  3906. @kindex C-c C-x p
  3907. @item C-c C-x p
  3908. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  3909. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  3910. @item M-x org-insert-property-drawer
  3911. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  3912. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  3913. information like deadlines.
  3914. @kindex C-c C-c
  3915. @item C-c C-c
  3916. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  3917. @item C-c C-c s
  3918. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  3919. can be inserted using completion.
  3920. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3921. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3922. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  3923. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  3924. @item C-c C-c d
  3925. Remove a property from the current entry.
  3926. @item C-c C-c D
  3927. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  3928. @item C-c C-c c
  3929. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  3930. nearest column format definition.
  3931. @end table
  3932. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  3933. @section Special properties
  3934. @cindex properties, special
  3935. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org-mode
  3936. features, like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the
  3937. previous chapters. This interface exists so that you can include
  3938. these states in a column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in
  3939. queries. The following property names are special and should not be
  3940. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  3941. @cindex property, special, TODO
  3942. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  3943. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  3944. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  3945. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  3946. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  3947. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  3948. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  3949. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  3950. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  3951. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  3952. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  3953. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  3954. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  3955. @example
  3956. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  3957. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  3958. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  3959. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  3960. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  3961. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  3962. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  3963. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  3964. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  3965. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  3966. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  3967. @r{must be run first to compute the values.}
  3968. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  3969. ITEM @r{The content of the entry.}
  3970. @end example
  3971. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  3972. @section Property searches
  3973. @cindex properties, searching
  3974. @cindex searching, of properties
  3975. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  3976. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  3977. @table @kbd
  3978. @kindex C-c \
  3979. @kindex C-c / m
  3980. @item C-c \
  3981. @itemx C-c / m
  3982. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  3983. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  3984. @kindex C-c a m
  3985. @item C-c a m
  3986. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  3987. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  3988. @kindex C-c a M
  3989. @item C-c a M
  3990. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3991. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  3992. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  3993. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  3994. @end table
  3995. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  3996. properties}.
  3997. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  3998. single property:
  3999. @table @kbd
  4000. @kindex C-c / p
  4001. @item C-c / p
  4002. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4003. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4004. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4005. value. If you enclose the value into curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4006. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4007. @end table
  4008. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4009. @section Property Inheritance
  4010. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4011. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4012. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4013. The outline structure of Org-mode documents lends itself for an
  4014. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4015. property, the children can inherit this property. Org-mode does not
  4016. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4017. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4018. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4019. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4020. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4021. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4022. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4023. interpreted as an explicit undefine of he property, so that inheritance
  4024. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4025. Org-mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4026. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4027. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4028. @table @code
  4029. @item COLUMNS
  4030. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4031. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4032. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4033. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4034. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4035. @item CATEGORY
  4036. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4037. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4038. applies to the entire subtree.
  4039. @item ARCHIVE
  4040. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4041. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4042. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4043. @item LOGGING
  4044. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4045. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4046. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4047. @end table
  4048. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4049. @section Column view
  4050. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4051. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4052. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4053. entries. Org-mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4054. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4055. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4056. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4057. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4058. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4059. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4060. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4061. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4062. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4063. @menu
  4064. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4065. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4066. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4067. @end menu
  4068. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4069. @subsection Defining columns
  4070. @cindex column view, for properties
  4071. @cindex properties, column view
  4072. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4073. done by defining a column format line.
  4074. @menu
  4075. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4076. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4077. @end menu
  4078. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4079. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4080. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4081. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4082. @example
  4083. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4084. @end example
  4085. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4086. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4087. @example
  4088. ** Top node for columns view
  4089. :PROPERTIES:
  4090. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4091. :END:
  4092. @end example
  4093. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4094. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4095. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4096. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4097. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4098. deeper part of the tree.
  4099. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4100. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4101. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4102. definition looks like this:
  4103. @example
  4104. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4105. @end example
  4106. @noindent
  4107. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4108. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4109. @example
  4110. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4111. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4112. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4113. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4114. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4115. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4116. @r{name is used.}
  4117. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4118. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4119. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4120. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4121. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4122. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4123. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4124. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4125. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4126. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4127. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4128. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4129. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4130. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4131. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4132. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4133. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4134. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4135. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4136. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4137. @end example
  4138. @noindent
  4139. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4140. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4141. same summary information.
  4142. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4143. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4144. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4145. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much woark is required, or
  4146. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4147. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4148. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4149. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4150. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4151. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4152. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4153. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4154. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4155. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4156. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4157. values.
  4158. @example
  4159. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4160. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4161. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4162. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4163. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4164. @end example
  4165. @noindent
  4166. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4167. item itself, i.e. of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4168. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4169. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4170. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4171. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4172. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4173. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4174. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4175. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4176. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4177. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4178. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4179. in the subtree.
  4180. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4181. @subsection Using column view
  4182. @table @kbd
  4183. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4184. @kindex C-c C-x C-c
  4185. @item C-c C-x C-c
  4186. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4187. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4188. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4189. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4190. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4191. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4192. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4193. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4194. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4195. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4196. @kindex r
  4197. @item r
  4198. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4199. @kindex g
  4200. @item g
  4201. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4202. @kindex q
  4203. @item q
  4204. Exit column view.
  4205. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4206. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4207. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4208. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4209. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4210. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4211. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4212. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4213. @item 1..9,0
  4214. Directly select the nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4215. @kindex n
  4216. @kindex p
  4217. @itemx n / p
  4218. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4219. @kindex e
  4220. @item e
  4221. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4222. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4223. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4224. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4225. @kindex C-c C-c
  4226. @item C-c C-c
  4227. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4228. @kindex v
  4229. @item v
  4230. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4231. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4232. @kindex a
  4233. @item a
  4234. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4235. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4236. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4237. current column view.
  4238. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4239. @kindex <
  4240. @kindex >
  4241. @item < / >
  4242. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4243. @kindex S-M-@key{right}
  4244. @item S-M-@key{right}
  4245. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4246. @kindex S-M-@key{left}
  4247. @item S-M-@key{left}
  4248. Delete the current column.
  4249. @end table
  4250. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4251. @subsection Capturing column view
  4252. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4253. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4254. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4255. of this block looks like this:
  4256. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4257. @example
  4258. * The column view
  4259. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4260. #+END:
  4261. @end example
  4262. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4263. @table @code
  4264. @item :id
  4265. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4266. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4267. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4268. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4269. @cindex property, ID
  4270. @example
  4271. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4272. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4273. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4274. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4275. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4276. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4277. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4278. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4279. @end example
  4280. @item :hlines
  4281. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4282. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4283. @item :vlines
  4284. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4285. @item :maxlevel
  4286. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4287. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4288. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4289. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4290. @end table
  4291. @noindent
  4292. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4293. @table @kbd
  4294. @kindex C-c C-x i
  4295. @item C-c C-x i
  4296. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4297. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4298. @kindex C-c C-c
  4299. @item C-c C-c
  4300. @kindex C-c C-x C-u
  4301. @itemx C-c C-x C-u
  4302. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4303. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4304. @kindex C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4305. @item C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4306. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4307. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  4308. @end table
  4309. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4310. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4311. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4312. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4313. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4314. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4315. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4316. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4317. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4318. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4319. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4320. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4321. @section The Property API
  4322. @cindex properties, API
  4323. @cindex API, for properties
  4324. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4325. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4326. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4327. property API}.
  4328. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4329. @chapter Dates and times
  4330. @cindex dates
  4331. @cindex times
  4332. @cindex timestamp
  4333. @cindex date stamp
  4334. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4335. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4336. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org-mode. This may be a
  4337. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4338. something was created or last changed. However, in Org-mode this term
  4339. is used in a much wider sense.
  4340. @menu
  4341. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4342. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4343. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4344. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4345. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time if you've been idle
  4346. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4347. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4348. @end menu
  4349. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4350. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4351. @cindex timestamps
  4352. @cindex ranges, time
  4353. @cindex date stamps
  4354. @cindex deadlines
  4355. @cindex scheduling
  4356. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4357. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or
  4358. @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue
  4359. 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601 date/time
  4360. format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time format}.}. A
  4361. timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree entry.
  4362. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda
  4363. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4364. @table @var
  4365. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4366. @cindex timestamp
  4367. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4368. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4369. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4370. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4371. @example
  4372. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4373. * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4374. @end example
  4375. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4376. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4377. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4378. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4379. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4380. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4381. @example
  4382. * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4383. @end example
  4384. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4385. For more complex date specifications, Org-mode supports using the
  4386. special sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4387. package. For example
  4388. @example
  4389. * The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4390. <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  4391. @end example
  4392. @item Time/Date range
  4393. @cindex timerange
  4394. @cindex date range
  4395. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4396. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4397. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4398. @example
  4399. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4400. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4401. @end example
  4402. @item Inactive timestamp
  4403. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4404. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4405. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4406. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4407. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4408. @example
  4409. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4410. @end example
  4411. @end table
  4412. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4413. @section Creating timestamps
  4414. @cindex creating timestamps
  4415. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4416. For Org-mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4417. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4418. format.
  4419. @table @kbd
  4420. @kindex C-c .
  4421. @item C-c .
  4422. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4423. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4424. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4425. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4426. @c
  4427. @kindex C-c !
  4428. @item C-c !
  4429. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4430. an agenda entry.
  4431. @c
  4432. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4433. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4434. @item C-u C-c .
  4435. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4436. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4437. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4438. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4439. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4440. @c
  4441. @kindex C-c <
  4442. @item C-c <
  4443. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4444. @c
  4445. @kindex C-c >
  4446. @item C-c >
  4447. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4448. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4449. instead.
  4450. @c
  4451. @kindex C-c C-o
  4452. @item C-c C-o
  4453. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4454. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4455. @c
  4456. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4457. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4458. @item S-@key{left}
  4459. @itemx S-@key{right}
  4460. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4461. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4462. @c
  4463. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4464. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4465. @item S-@key{up}
  4466. @itemx S-@key{down}
  4467. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4468. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4469. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4470. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4471. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4472. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4473. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4474. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4475. @c
  4476. @kindex C-c C-y
  4477. @cindex evaluate time range
  4478. @item C-c C-y
  4479. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4480. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4481. the following column).
  4482. @end table
  4483. @menu
  4484. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  4485. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4486. @end menu
  4487. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4488. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4489. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4490. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4491. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4492. When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4493. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4494. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4495. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4496. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4497. copied from an email message. Org-mode will find whatever information is in
  4498. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4499. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4500. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4501. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4502. information, Org-mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4503. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4504. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4505. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4506. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4507. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4508. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4509. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4510. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org-mode are
  4511. in @b{bold}.
  4512. @example
  4513. 3-2-5 --> 2003-02-05
  4514. 2/5/3 --> 2003-02-05
  4515. 14 --> @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4516. 12 --> @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4517. 2/5 --> @b{2007}-02-05
  4518. Fri --> nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4519. sep 15 --> @b{2006}-09-15
  4520. feb 15 --> @b{2007}-02-15
  4521. sep 12 9 --> 2009-09-12
  4522. 12:45 --> @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4523. 22 sept 0:34 --> @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4524. w4 --> ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4525. 2012 w4 fri --> Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4526. 2012-w04-5 --> Same as above
  4527. @end example
  4528. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4529. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4530. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4531. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4532. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4533. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4534. the nth such day. E.g.
  4535. @example
  4536. +0 --> today
  4537. . --> today
  4538. +4d --> four days from today
  4539. +4 --> same as above
  4540. +2w --> two weeks from today
  4541. ++5 --> five days from default date
  4542. +2tue --> second Tuesday from now.
  4543. @end example
  4544. @vindex parse-time-months
  4545. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4546. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4547. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4548. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4549. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4550. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use '-' or '--' as the separator
  4551. in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter case. E.g.
  4552. @example
  4553. 11am-1:15pm --> 11:00-13:15
  4554. 11am--1:15pm --> same as above
  4555. 11am+2:15 --> same as above
  4556. @end example
  4557. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4558. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4559. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4560. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4561. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4562. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4563. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4564. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4565. from the minibuffer:
  4566. @kindex <
  4567. @kindex >
  4568. @kindex M-v
  4569. @kindex C-v
  4570. @kindex mouse-1
  4571. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4572. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4573. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4574. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4575. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4576. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4577. @kindex @key{RET}
  4578. @example
  4579. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4580. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4581. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4582. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4583. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4584. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4585. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4586. @end example
  4587. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4588. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4589. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4590. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4591. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4592. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4593. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4594. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4595. @subsection Custom time format
  4596. @cindex custom date/time format
  4597. @cindex time format, custom
  4598. @cindex date format, custom
  4599. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4600. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4601. Org-mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4602. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4603. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4604. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4605. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4606. @table @kbd
  4607. @kindex C-c C-x C-t
  4608. @item C-c C-x C-t
  4609. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4610. @end table
  4611. @noindent
  4612. Org-mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  4613. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  4614. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  4615. following consequences:
  4616. @itemize @bullet
  4617. @item
  4618. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  4619. after.
  4620. @item
  4621. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  4622. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  4623. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  4624. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  4625. time will be changed by one minute.
  4626. @item
  4627. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  4628. will not be overlayed, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  4629. @item
  4630. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  4631. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  4632. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  4633. @item
  4634. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  4635. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  4636. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  4637. @end itemize
  4638. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  4639. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  4640. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  4641. @table @var
  4642. @item DEADLINE
  4643. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  4644. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  4645. to be finished on that date.
  4646. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4647. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  4648. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  4649. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  4650. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  4651. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  4652. @example
  4653. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  4654. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  4655. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  4656. @end example
  4657. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  4658. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  4659. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  4660. @item SCHEDULED
  4661. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  4662. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  4663. date.
  4664. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  4665. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  4666. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  4667. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  4668. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  4669. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE.
  4670. I.e. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  4671. @example
  4672. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  4673. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  4674. @end example
  4675. @noindent
  4676. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org-mode should @i{not} be
  4677. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  4678. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  4679. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  4680. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  4681. Org users. In Org-mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  4682. want to start working on an action item.
  4683. @end table
  4684. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  4685. entries. Org-mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  4686. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  4687. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  4688. @c
  4689. @code{<%%(diary-float t 42)>}
  4690. @c
  4691. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org-mode does not
  4692. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  4693. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  4694. sexp entry matches.
  4695. @menu
  4696. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  4697. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  4698. @end menu
  4699. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  4700. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  4701. The following commands allow you to quickly insert a deadline or to schedule
  4702. an item:
  4703. @table @kbd
  4704. @c
  4705. @kindex C-c C-d
  4706. @item C-c C-d
  4707. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  4708. in the line directly following the headline. When called with a prefix arg,
  4709. an existing deadline will be removed from the entry. Depending on the
  4710. variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  4711. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  4712. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4713. deadline.
  4714. @c FIXME Any CLOSED timestamp will be removed.????????
  4715. @c
  4716. @kindex C-c C-s
  4717. @item C-c C-s
  4718. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  4719. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  4720. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  4721. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  4722. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  4723. keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline}, and
  4724. @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4725. scheduling time.
  4726. @c
  4727. @kindex C-c C-x C-k
  4728. @kindex k a
  4729. @kindex k s
  4730. @item C-c C-x C-k
  4731. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  4732. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  4733. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  4734. schedule the marked item.
  4735. @c
  4736. @kindex C-c / d
  4737. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  4738. @item C-c / d
  4739. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4740. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  4741. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  4742. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  4743. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  4744. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  4745. @c
  4746. @kindex C-c / b
  4747. @item C-c / b
  4748. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  4749. @c
  4750. @kindex C-c / a
  4751. @item C-c / a
  4752. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  4753. @end table
  4754. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  4755. @subsection Repeated tasks
  4756. @cindex tasks, repeated
  4757. @cindex repeated tasks
  4758. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org-mode helps to
  4759. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  4760. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  4761. @example
  4762. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4763. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  4764. @end example
  4765. @noindent
  4766. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  4767. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  4768. from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in
  4769. a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last:
  4770. @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  4771. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  4772. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  4773. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  4774. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  4775. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  4776. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  4777. repeated entry will not be active. Org-mode deals with this in the following
  4778. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  4779. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  4780. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  4781. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  4782. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  4783. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  4784. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  4785. switch the date like this:
  4786. @example
  4787. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4788. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  4789. @end example
  4790. @vindex org-log-repeat
  4791. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  4792. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  4793. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  4794. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  4795. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  4796. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  4797. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  4798. will be visible.
  4799. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  4800. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  4801. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  4802. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  4803. forgot to call you father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  4804. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  4805. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  4806. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org-mode has
  4807. special repeaters markers with @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  4808. @example
  4809. ** TODO Call Father
  4810. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  4811. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  4812. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  4813. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  4814. and marked it done on Saturday.
  4815. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  4816. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  4817. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  4818. today.
  4819. @end example
  4820. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  4821. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  4822. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  4823. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  4824. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  4825. @node Clocking work time, Resolving idle time, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  4826. @section Clocking work time
  4827. Org-mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  4828. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock.
  4829. When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the
  4830. clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It
  4831. also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project. And it
  4832. remembers a history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly
  4833. between a number of tasks absorbing your time.
  4834. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  4835. @lisp
  4836. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  4837. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  4838. @end lisp
  4839. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  4840. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  4841. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  4842. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  4843. what to do with it.
  4844. @table @kbd
  4845. @kindex C-c C-x C-i
  4846. @item C-c C-x C-i
  4847. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  4848. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  4849. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  4850. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  4851. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  4852. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  4853. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  4854. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task.
  4855. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task,
  4856. with letter @kbd{d}.@*
  4857. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  4858. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  4859. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  4860. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  4861. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  4862. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  4863. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  4864. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  4865. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  4866. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  4867. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  4868. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  4869. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  4870. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  4871. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  4872. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  4873. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  4874. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  4875. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  4876. @kindex C-c C-x C-o
  4877. @item C-c C-x C-o
  4878. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  4879. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  4880. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  4881. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  4882. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  4883. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  4884. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  4885. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  4886. @kindex C-c C-x C-e
  4887. @item C-c C-x C-e
  4888. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  4889. @kindex C-c C-y
  4890. @kindex C-c C-c
  4891. @item C-c C-y @ @ @r{or}@ @ C-c C-c
  4892. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  4893. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  4894. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  4895. @kindex C-c C-t
  4896. @item C-c C-t
  4897. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  4898. if it is running in this same item.
  4899. @kindex C-c C-x C-x
  4900. @item C-c C-x C-x
  4901. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  4902. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  4903. @kindex C-c C-x C-j
  4904. @item C-c C-x C-j
  4905. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  4906. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  4907. @kindex C-c C-x C-d
  4908. @item C-c C-x C-d
  4909. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  4910. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This
  4911. puts overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time
  4912. recorded under that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You
  4913. can use visibility cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear
  4914. when you change the buffer (see variable
  4915. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  4916. @kindex C-c C-x C-r
  4917. @item C-c C-x C-r
  4918. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  4919. report as an Org-mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  4920. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  4921. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  4922. update it.
  4923. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  4924. @example
  4925. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  4926. #+END: clocktable
  4927. @end example
  4928. @noindent
  4929. If such a block already exists at point, its content is replaced by the
  4930. new table. The @samp{BEGIN} line can specify options:
  4931. @example
  4932. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  4933. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  4934. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  4935. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  4936. file @r{the full current buffer}
  4937. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  4938. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  4939. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  4940. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  4941. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  4942. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  4943. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  4944. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  4945. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  4946. @r{these formats:}
  4947. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  4948. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  4949. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  4950. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  4951. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  4952. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  4953. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  4954. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  4955. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  4956. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  4957. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  4958. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  4959. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  4960. :stepskip0 @r{Don't show steps that have zero time}
  4961. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute}
  4962. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  4963. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  4964. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  4965. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula.}
  4966. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  4967. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  4968. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  4969. @end example
  4970. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  4971. day, you could write
  4972. @example
  4973. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  4974. #+END: clocktable
  4975. @end example
  4976. @noindent
  4977. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  4978. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  4979. only to fit it into the manual.}
  4980. @example
  4981. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  4982. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  4983. #+END: clocktable
  4984. @end example
  4985. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  4986. @example
  4987. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  4988. #+END: clocktable
  4989. @end example
  4990. @kindex C-c C-c
  4991. @item C-c C-c
  4992. @kindex C-c C-x C-u
  4993. @itemx C-c C-x C-u
  4994. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4995. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4996. @kindex C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4997. @item C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4998. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4999. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5000. @kindex S-@key{left}
  5001. @kindex S-@key{right}
  5002. @item S-@key{left}
  5003. @itemx S-@key{right}
  5004. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5005. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5006. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5007. @end table
  5008. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5009. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5010. worked on or closed during a day.
  5011. @node Resolving idle time, Effort estimates, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5012. @section Resolving idle time
  5013. @cindex resolve idle time
  5014. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5015. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5016. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5017. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5018. applying it to another one.
  5019. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5020. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5021. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5022. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5023. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5024. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5025. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5026. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5027. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5028. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5029. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5030. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5031. @table @kbd
  5032. @item k
  5033. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5034. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5035. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5036. @item K
  5037. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5038. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5039. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5040. @item s
  5041. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5042. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5043. @item S
  5044. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5045. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5046. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5047. @item C
  5048. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5049. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5050. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5051. log with an empty entry.
  5052. @end table
  5053. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5054. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5055. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5056. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5057. the next task you clock in on.
  5058. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5059. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5060. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5061. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5062. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5063. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5064. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5065. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5066. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5067. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness, it's just happening due
  5068. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5069. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5070. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5071. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Resolving idle time, Dates and Times
  5072. @section Effort estimates
  5073. @cindex effort estimates
  5074. @cindex property, Effort
  5075. @vindex org-effort-property
  5076. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5077. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5078. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5079. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5080. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5081. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5082. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5083. for an entry with the following commands:
  5084. @table @kbd
  5085. @kindex C-c C-x e
  5086. @item C-c C-x e
  5087. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5088. argument, set it to the NTH allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5089. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5090. @kindex C-c C-x C-e
  5091. @item C-c C-x C-e
  5092. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5093. @end table
  5094. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5095. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5096. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5097. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5098. buffer you can use
  5099. @example
  5100. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00
  5101. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5102. @end example
  5103. @noindent
  5104. @vindex org-global-properties
  5105. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5106. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5107. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5108. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5109. setup may be advised.
  5110. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5111. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5112. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5113. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5114. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5115. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5116. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5117. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5118. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5119. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5120. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5121. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5122. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5123. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5124. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5125. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5126. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5127. @node Relative timer, , Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5128. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5129. @cindex relative timer
  5130. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5131. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5132. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5133. @table @kbd
  5134. @kindex C-c C-x .
  5135. @item C-c C-x .
  5136. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5137. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5138. restarted.
  5139. @kindex C-c C-x -
  5140. @item C-c C-x -
  5141. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5142. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5143. @kindex M-@key{RET}
  5144. @item M-@key{RET}
  5145. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5146. new timer items.
  5147. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5148. @item C-c C-x ,
  5149. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused.
  5150. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5151. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5152. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5153. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5154. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5155. @kindex C-c C-x 0
  5156. @item C-c C-x 0
  5157. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5158. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5159. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5160. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5161. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5162. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5163. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5164. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5165. @end table
  5166. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5167. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5168. @cindex capture
  5169. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5170. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5171. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5172. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5173. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5174. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5175. @menu
  5176. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5177. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5178. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5179. * Protocols:: External (e.g. Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5180. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5181. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5182. @end menu
  5183. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5184. @section Capture
  5185. @cindex capture
  5186. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5187. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5188. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org-mode for
  5189. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5190. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5191. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5192. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5193. @example
  5194. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5195. @end example
  5196. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5197. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5198. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5199. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5200. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5201. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5202. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5203. @menu
  5204. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5205. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5206. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5207. @end menu
  5208. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5209. @subsection Setting up capture
  5210. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5211. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5212. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5213. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5214. @example
  5215. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5216. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5217. @end example
  5218. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5219. @subsection Using capture
  5220. @table @kbd
  5221. @kindex C-c c
  5222. @item C-c c
  5223. Call the command @code{org-capture}. If you have templates defined
  5224. @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for selection or use
  5225. a new Org outline node as the default template. It will insert the template
  5226. into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer narrowed to this new
  5227. node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5228. @kindex C-c C-c
  5229. @item C-c C-c
  5230. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer,
  5231. @kbd{C-c C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture
  5232. process, so that you can resume your work without further distraction.
  5233. @kindex C-c C-w
  5234. @item C-c C-w
  5235. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5236. a different place.
  5237. @kindex C-c C-k
  5238. @item C-c C-k
  5239. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5240. @end table
  5241. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5242. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5243. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5244. rather than to the current date.
  5245. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5246. @subsection Capture templates
  5247. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5248. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5249. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5250. through the customize interface.
  5251. @table @kbd
  5252. @kindex C-c c C
  5253. @item C-c c C
  5254. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5255. @end table
  5256. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5257. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5258. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5259. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5260. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5261. would look like:
  5262. @example
  5263. (setq org-capture-templates
  5264. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5265. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5266. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5267. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5268. @end example
  5269. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5270. for you like this:
  5271. @example
  5272. * TODO
  5273. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5274. @end example
  5275. @noindent
  5276. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5277. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5278. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5279. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same
  5280. place where you started the capture process.
  5281. @menu
  5282. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  5283. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  5284. @end menu
  5285. @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates
  5286. @subsubsection Template elements
  5287. Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in
  5288. @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items:
  5289. @table @var
  5290. @item keys
  5291. The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters
  5292. only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a
  5293. single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using
  5294. several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential
  5295. in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the
  5296. prefix key, for example
  5297. @example
  5298. ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy")
  5299. @end example
  5300. @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will
  5301. be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable.
  5302. @item description
  5303. A short string describing the template, which will be shown during
  5304. selection.
  5305. @item type
  5306. The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are:
  5307. @table @code
  5308. @item entry
  5309. An Org-mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the
  5310. target entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org-mode
  5311. file.
  5312. @item item
  5313. A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target
  5314. location. Again the target file should be an Org file.
  5315. @item checkitem
  5316. A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the
  5317. default template.
  5318. @item table-line
  5319. a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the
  5320. line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and
  5321. @code{:table-line-pos} (see below).
  5322. @item plain
  5323. Text to be inserted as it is.
  5324. @end table
  5325. @item target
  5326. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5327. Specification of where the captured item should be placed. In Org-mode
  5328. files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become children of this
  5329. node, other types will be added to the table or list in the body of this
  5330. node. Most target specifications contain a file name. If that file name is
  5331. the empty string, it defaults to @code{org-default-notes-file}.
  5332. Valid values are:
  5333. @table @code
  5334. @item (file "path/to/file")
  5335. Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file.
  5336. @item (id "id of existing org entry")
  5337. Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry.
  5338. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline")
  5339. Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file.
  5340. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...)
  5341. For non-unique headings, the full path is safer.
  5342. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location")
  5343. Use a regular expression to position the cursor.
  5344. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file")
  5345. Will create a heading in a date tree.
  5346. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location)
  5347. A function to find the right location in the file.
  5348. @item (clock)
  5349. File to the entry that is currently being clocked.
  5350. @item (function function-finding-location)
  5351. Most general way, write your own function to find both
  5352. file and location.
  5353. @end table
  5354. @item template
  5355. The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an
  5356. appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with
  5357. escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the
  5358. capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file,
  5359. using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for
  5360. more details.
  5361. @item properties
  5362. The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options.
  5363. Recognized properties are:
  5364. @table @code
  5365. @item :prepend
  5366. Normally new captured information will be appended at
  5367. the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...).
  5368. Setting this property will change that.
  5369. @item :immediate-finish
  5370. When set, do not offer to edit the information, just
  5371. file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs
  5372. information that can be added automatically.
  5373. @item :empty-lines
  5374. Set this to the number of lines to insert
  5375. before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1.
  5376. @item :clock-in
  5377. Start the clock in this item.
  5378. @item :clock-resume
  5379. If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished
  5380. with the capture.
  5381. @item :unnarrowed
  5382. Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to
  5383. narrow it so that you only see the new material.
  5384. @end table
  5385. @end table
  5386. @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates
  5387. @subsubsection Template expansion
  5388. In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of
  5389. these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow
  5390. dynamic insertion of content:
  5391. @comment SJE: should these sentences terminate in period?
  5392. @smallexample
  5393. %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
  5394. @r{You may specify a default value and a completion table with}
  5395. @r{%^@{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...@}}
  5396. @r{The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history.}
  5397. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}}
  5398. %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part}
  5399. %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the}
  5400. @r{region is active.}
  5401. @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
  5402. %t @r{timestamp, date only}
  5403. %T @r{timestamp with date and time}
  5404. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps}
  5405. %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}}
  5406. @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}}
  5407. %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name})}
  5408. %c @r{Current kill ring head.}
  5409. %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.}
  5410. %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.}
  5411. %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.}
  5412. %k @r{title of the currently clocked task}
  5413. %K @r{link to the currently clocked task}
  5414. %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.}
  5415. %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.}
  5416. %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}}
  5417. %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below}
  5418. %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}}
  5419. %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result}
  5420. @end smallexample
  5421. @noindent
  5422. For specific link types, the following keywords will be
  5423. defined@footnote{If you define your own link types (@pxref{Adding
  5424. hyperlink types}), any property you store with
  5425. @code{org-store-link-props} can be accessed in capture templates in a
  5426. similar way.}:
  5427. @vindex org-from-is-user-regexp
  5428. @smallexample
  5429. Link type | Available keywords
  5430. -------------------+----------------------------------------------
  5431. bbdb | %:name %:company
  5432. irc | %:server %:port %:nick
  5433. vm, wl, mh, mew, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id
  5434. | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress
  5435. | %:to %:toname %:toaddress
  5436. | %:date @r{(message date header field)}
  5437. | %:date-timestamp @r{(date as active timestamp)}
  5438. | %:date-timestamp-inactive @r{(date as inactive timestamp)}
  5439. | %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}}
  5440. gnus | %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields}
  5441. w3, w3m | %:url
  5442. info | %:file %:node
  5443. calendar | %:date
  5444. @end smallexample
  5445. @noindent
  5446. To place the cursor after template expansion use:
  5447. @smallexample
  5448. %? @r{After completing the template, position cursor here.}
  5449. @end smallexample
  5450. @node Attachments, RSS Feeds, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5451. @section Attachments
  5452. @cindex attachments
  5453. @vindex org-attach-directory
  5454. It is often useful to associate reference material with an outline node/task.
  5455. Small chunks of plain text can simply be stored in the subtree of a project.
  5456. Hyperlinks (@pxref{Hyperlinks}) can establish associations with
  5457. files that live elsewhere on your computer or in the cloud, like emails or
  5458. source code files belonging to a project. Another method is @i{attachments},
  5459. which are files located in a directory belonging to an outline node. Org
  5460. uses directories named by the unique ID of each entry. These directories are
  5461. located in the @file{data} directory which lives in the same directory where
  5462. your Org file lives@footnote{If you move entries or Org files from one
  5463. directory to another, you may want to configure @code{org-attach-directory}
  5464. to contain an absolute path.}. If you initialize this directory with
  5465. @code{git init}, Org will automatically commit changes when it sees them.
  5466. The attachment system has been contributed to Org by John Wiegley.
  5467. In cases where it seems better to do so, you can also attach a directory of your
  5468. choice to an entry. You can also make children inherit the attachment
  5469. directory from a parent, so that an entire subtree uses the same attached
  5470. directory.
  5471. @noindent The following commands deal with attachments:
  5472. @table @kbd
  5473. @kindex C-c C-a
  5474. @item C-c C-a
  5475. The dispatcher for commands related to the attachment system. After these
  5476. keys, a list of commands is displayed and you must press an additional key
  5477. to select a command:
  5478. @table @kbd
  5479. @kindex C-c C-a a
  5480. @item a
  5481. @vindex org-attach-method
  5482. Select a file and move it into the task's attachment directory. The file
  5483. will be copied, moved, or linked, depending on @code{org-attach-method}.
  5484. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5485. @kindex C-c C-a c
  5486. @kindex C-c C-a m
  5487. @kindex C-c C-a l
  5488. @item c/m/l
  5489. Attach a file using the copy/move/link method.
  5490. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5491. @kindex C-c C-a n
  5492. @item n
  5493. Create a new attachment as an Emacs buffer.
  5494. @kindex C-c C-a z
  5495. @item z
  5496. Synchronize the current task with its attachment directory, in case you added
  5497. attachments yourself.
  5498. @kindex C-c C-a o
  5499. @item o
  5500. @vindex org-file-apps
  5501. Open current task's attachment. If there is more than one, prompt for a
  5502. file name first. Opening will follow the rules set by @code{org-file-apps}.
  5503. For more details, see the information on following hyperlinks
  5504. (@pxref{Handling links}).
  5505. @kindex C-c C-a O
  5506. @item O
  5507. Also open the attachment, but force opening the file in Emacs.
  5508. @kindex C-c C-a f
  5509. @item f
  5510. Open the current task's attachment directory.
  5511. @kindex C-c C-a F
  5512. @item F
  5513. Also open the directory, but force using @command{dired} in Emacs.
  5514. @kindex C-c C-a d
  5515. @item d
  5516. Select and delete a single attachment.
  5517. @kindex C-c C-a D
  5518. @item D
  5519. Delete all of a task's attachments. A safer way is to open the directory in
  5520. @command{dired} and delete from there.
  5521. @kindex C-c C-a s
  5522. @item C-c C-a s
  5523. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR
  5524. Set a specific directory as the entry's attachment directory. This works by
  5525. putting the directory path into the @code{ATTACH_DIR} property.
  5526. @kindex C-c C-a i
  5527. @item C-c C-a i
  5528. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT
  5529. Set the @code{ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT} property, so that children will use the
  5530. same directory for attachments as the parent does.
  5531. @end table
  5532. @end table
  5533. @node RSS Feeds, Protocols, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5534. @section RSS feeds
  5535. @cindex RSS feeds
  5536. @cindex Atom feeds
  5537. Org can add and change entries based on information found in RSS feeds and
  5538. Atom feeds. You could use this to make a task out of each new podcast in a
  5539. podcast feed. Or you could use a phone-based note-creating service on the
  5540. web to import tasks into Org. To access feeds, configure the variable
  5541. @code{org-feed-alist}. The docstring of this variable has detailed
  5542. information. Here is just an example:
  5543. @example
  5544. (setq org-feed-alist
  5545. '(("Slashdot"
  5546. "http://rss.slashdot.org/Slashdot/slashdot"
  5547. "~/txt/org/feeds.org" "Slashdot Entries")))
  5548. @end example
  5549. @noindent
  5550. will configure that new items from the feed provided by
  5551. @code{rss.slashdot.org} will result in new entries in the file
  5552. @file{~/org/feeds.org} under the heading @samp{Slashdot Entries}, whenever
  5553. the following command is used:
  5554. @table @kbd
  5555. @kindex C-c C-x g
  5556. @item C-c C-x g
  5557. Collect items from the feeds configured in @code{org-feed-alist} and act upon
  5558. them.
  5559. @kindex C-c C-x G
  5560. @item C-c C-x G
  5561. Prompt for a feed name and go to the inbox configured for this feed.
  5562. @end table
  5563. Under the same headline, Org will create a drawer @samp{FEEDSTATUS} in which
  5564. it will store information about the status of items in the feed, to avoid
  5565. adding the same item several times. You should add @samp{FEEDSTATUS} to the
  5566. list of drawers in that file:
  5567. @example
  5568. #+DRAWERS: LOGBOOK PROPERTIES FEEDSTATUS
  5569. @end example
  5570. For more information, including how to read atom feeds, see
  5571. @file{org-feed.el} and the docstring of @code{org-feed-alist}.
  5572. @node Protocols, Refiling notes, RSS Feeds, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5573. @section Protocols for external access
  5574. @cindex protocols, for external access
  5575. @cindex emacsserver
  5576. You can set up Org for handling protocol calls from outside applications that
  5577. are passed to Emacs through the @file{emacsserver}. For example, you can
  5578. configure bookmarks in your web browser to send a link to the current page to
  5579. Org and create a note from it using capture (@pxref{Capture}). Or you
  5580. could create a bookmark that will tell Emacs to open the local source file of
  5581. a remote website you are looking at with the browser. See
  5582. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/org-protocol.php} for detailed
  5583. documentation and setup instructions.
  5584. @node Refiling notes, Archiving, Protocols, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5585. @section Refiling notes
  5586. @cindex refiling notes
  5587. When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile some of the entries
  5588. into a different list, for example into a project. Cutting, finding the
  5589. right location, and then pasting the note is cumbersome. To simplify this
  5590. process, you can use the following special command:
  5591. @table @kbd
  5592. @kindex C-c C-w
  5593. @item C-c C-w
  5594. @vindex org-reverse-note-order
  5595. @vindex org-refile-targets
  5596. @vindex org-refile-use-outline-path
  5597. @vindex org-outline-path-complete-in-steps
  5598. @vindex org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes
  5599. @vindex org-log-refile
  5600. @vindex org-refile-use-cache
  5601. Refile the entry or region at point. This command offers possible locations
  5602. for refiling the entry and lets you select one with completion. The item (or
  5603. all items in the region) is filed below the target heading as a subitem.
  5604. Depending on @code{org-reverse-note-order}, it will be either the first or
  5605. last subitem.@*
  5606. By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are considered to be
  5607. targets, but you can have more complex definitions across a number of files.
  5608. See the variable @code{org-refile-targets} for details. If you would like to
  5609. select a location via a file-path-like completion along the outline path, see
  5610. the variables @code{org-refile-use-outline-path} and
  5611. @code{org-outline-path-complete-in-steps}. If you would like to be able to
  5612. create new nodes as new parents for refiling on the fly, check the
  5613. variable @code{org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes}.
  5614. When the variable @code{org-log-refile}@footnote{with corresponding
  5615. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logrefile}, @code{lognoterefile},
  5616. and @code{nologrefile}} is set, a time stamp or a note will be
  5617. recorded when an entry has been refiled.
  5618. @kindex C-u C-c C-w
  5619. @item C-u C-c C-w
  5620. Use the refile interface to jump to a heading.
  5621. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5622. @item C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5623. Jump to the location where @code{org-refile} last moved a tree to.
  5624. @item C-2 C-c C-w
  5625. Refile as the child of the item currently being clocked.
  5626. @item C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5627. Clear the target cache. Caching of refile targets can be turned on by
  5628. setting @code{org-refile-use-cache}. To make the command seen new possible
  5629. targets, you have to clear the cache with this command.
  5630. @end table
  5631. @node Archiving, , Refiling notes, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5632. @section Archiving
  5633. @cindex archiving
  5634. When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
  5635. to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
  5636. agenda. Archiving is important to keep your working files compact and global
  5637. searches like the construction of agenda views fast.
  5638. @table @kbd
  5639. @kindex C-c C-x C-a
  5640. @item C-c C-x C-a
  5641. @vindex org-archive-default-command
  5642. Archive the current entry using the command specified in the variable
  5643. @code{org-archive-default-command}.
  5644. @end table
  5645. @menu
  5646. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  5647. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  5648. @end menu
  5649. @node Moving subtrees, Internal archiving, Archiving, Archiving
  5650. @subsection Moving a tree to the archive file
  5651. @cindex external archiving
  5652. The most common archiving action is to move a project tree to another file,
  5653. the archive file.
  5654. @table @kbd
  5655. @kindex C-c $
  5656. @kindex C-c C-x C-s
  5657. @item C-c C-x C-s@ @r{or short} @ C-c $
  5658. @vindex org-archive-location
  5659. Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
  5660. given by @code{org-archive-location}.
  5661. @kindex C-u C-c C-x C-s
  5662. @item C-u C-c C-x C-s
  5663. Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to
  5664. the archive. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.
  5665. If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive
  5666. location. If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command
  5667. is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.
  5668. @end table
  5669. @cindex archive locations
  5670. The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
  5671. current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
  5672. current file name. For information and examples on how to change this,
  5673. see the documentation string of the variable
  5674. @code{org-archive-location}. There is also an in-buffer option for
  5675. setting this variable, for example@footnote{For backward compatibility,
  5676. the following also works: If there are several such lines in a file,
  5677. each specifies the archive location for the text below it. The first
  5678. such line also applies to any text before its definition. However,
  5679. using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is incompatible
  5680. with the outline structure of the document. The correct method for
  5681. setting multiple archive locations in a buffer is using properties.}:
  5682. @cindex #+ARCHIVE
  5683. @example
  5684. #+ARCHIVE: %s_done::
  5685. @end example
  5686. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  5687. @noindent
  5688. If you would like to have a special ARCHIVE location for a single entry
  5689. or a (sub)tree, give the entry an @code{:ARCHIVE:} property with the
  5690. location as the value (@pxref{Properties and Columns}).
  5691. @vindex org-archive-save-context-info
  5692. When a subtree is moved, it receives a number of special properties that
  5693. record context information like the file from where the entry came, its
  5694. outline path the archiving time etc. Configure the variable
  5695. @code{org-archive-save-context-info} to adjust the amount of information
  5696. added.
  5697. @node Internal archiving, , Moving subtrees, Archiving
  5698. @subsection Internal archiving
  5699. If you want to just switch off (for agenda views) certain subtrees without
  5700. moving them to a different file, you can use the @code{ARCHIVE tag}.
  5701. A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at
  5702. its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way:
  5703. @itemize @minus
  5704. @item
  5705. @vindex org-cycle-open-archived-trees
  5706. It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling
  5707. command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}). You can force cycling archived
  5708. subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option
  5709. @code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}. Also normal outline commands like
  5710. @code{show-all} will open archived subtrees.
  5711. @item
  5712. @vindex org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees
  5713. During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in
  5714. archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option
  5715. @code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}.
  5716. @item
  5717. @vindex org-agenda-skip-archived-trees
  5718. During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda Views}), the content of
  5719. archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option
  5720. @code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}, in which case these trees will always
  5721. be included. In the agenda you can press @kbd{v a} to get archives
  5722. temporarily included.
  5723. @item
  5724. @vindex org-export-with-archived-trees
  5725. Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline
  5726. is. Configure the details using the variable
  5727. @code{org-export-with-archived-trees}.
  5728. @item
  5729. @vindex org-columns-skip-archived-trees
  5730. Archived trees are excluded from column view unless the variable
  5731. @code{org-columns-skip-archived-trees} is configured to @code{nil}.
  5732. @end itemize
  5733. The following commands help manage the ARCHIVE tag:
  5734. @table @kbd
  5735. @kindex C-c C-x a
  5736. @item C-c C-x a
  5737. Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline. When the tag is set,
  5738. the headline changes to a shadowed face, and the subtree below it is
  5739. hidden.
  5740. @kindex C-u C-c C-x a
  5741. @item C-u C-c C-x a
  5742. Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived.
  5743. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries. If none are
  5744. found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child. If the
  5745. cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the
  5746. level 1 trees will be checked.
  5747. @kindex C-@kbd{TAB}
  5748. @item C-@kbd{TAB}
  5749. Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE.
  5750. @kindex C-c C-x A
  5751. @item C-c C-x A
  5752. Move the current entry to the @emph{Archive Sibling}. This is a sibling of
  5753. the entry with the heading @samp{Archive} and the tag @samp{ARCHIVE}. The
  5754. entry becomes a child of that sibling and in this way retains a lot of its
  5755. original context, including inherited tags and approximate position in the
  5756. outline.
  5757. @end table
  5758. @node Agenda Views, Markup, Capture - Refile - Archive, Top
  5759. @chapter Agenda views
  5760. @cindex agenda views
  5761. Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and
  5762. tagged headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of
  5763. files. To get an overview of open action items, or of events that are
  5764. important for a particular date, this information must be collected,
  5765. sorted and displayed in an organized way.
  5766. Org can select items based on various criteria and display them
  5767. in a separate buffer. Seven different view types are provided:
  5768. @itemize @bullet
  5769. @item
  5770. an @emph{agenda} that is like a calendar and shows information
  5771. for specific dates,
  5772. @item
  5773. a @emph{TODO list} that covers all unfinished
  5774. action items,
  5775. @item
  5776. a @emph{match view}, showings headlines based on the tags, properties, and
  5777. TODO state associated with them,
  5778. @item
  5779. a @emph{timeline view} that shows all events in a single Org file,
  5780. in time-sorted view,
  5781. @item
  5782. a @emph{text search view} that shows all entries from multiple files
  5783. that contain specified keywords,
  5784. @item
  5785. a @emph{stuck projects view} showing projects that currently don't move
  5786. along, and
  5787. @item
  5788. @emph{custom views} that are special searches and combinations of different
  5789. views.
  5790. @end itemize
  5791. @noindent
  5792. The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda
  5793. buffer}. This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the
  5794. corresponding locations in the original Org files, and even to
  5795. edit these files remotely.
  5796. @vindex org-agenda-window-setup
  5797. @vindex org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit
  5798. Two variables control how the agenda buffer is displayed and whether the
  5799. window configuration is restored when the agenda exits:
  5800. @code{org-agenda-window-setup} and
  5801. @code{org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit}.
  5802. @menu
  5803. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  5804. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  5805. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  5806. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  5807. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  5808. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  5809. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  5810. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  5811. @end menu
  5812. @node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views, Agenda Views
  5813. @section Agenda files
  5814. @cindex agenda files
  5815. @cindex files for agenda
  5816. @vindex org-agenda-files
  5817. The information to be shown is normally collected from all @emph{agenda
  5818. files}, the files listed in the variable
  5819. @code{org-agenda-files}@footnote{If the value of that variable is not a
  5820. list, but a single file name, then the list of agenda files will be
  5821. maintained in that external file.}. If a directory is part of this list,
  5822. all files with the extension @file{.org} in this directory will be part
  5823. of the list.
  5824. Thus, even if you only work with a single Org file, that file should
  5825. be put into the list@footnote{When using the dispatcher, pressing
  5826. @kbd{<} before selecting a command will actually limit the command to
  5827. the current file, and ignore @code{org-agenda-files} until the next
  5828. dispatcher command.}. You can customize @code{org-agenda-files}, but
  5829. the easiest way to maintain it is through the following commands
  5830. @cindex files, adding to agenda list
  5831. @table @kbd
  5832. @kindex C-c [
  5833. @item C-c [
  5834. Add current file to the list of agenda files. The file is added to
  5835. the front of the list. If it was already in the list, it is moved to
  5836. the front. With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the end.
  5837. @kindex C-c ]
  5838. @item C-c ]
  5839. Remove current file from the list of agenda files.
  5840. @kindex C-,
  5841. @kindex C-'
  5842. @item C-,
  5843. @itemx C-'
  5844. Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.
  5845. @kindex M-x org-iswitchb
  5846. @item M-x org-iswitchb
  5847. Command to use an @code{iswitchb}-like interface to switch to and between Org
  5848. buffers.
  5849. @end table
  5850. @noindent
  5851. The Org menu contains the current list of files and can be used
  5852. to visit any of them.
  5853. If you would like to focus the agenda temporarily on a file not in
  5854. this list, or on just one file in the list, or even on only a subtree in a
  5855. file, then this can be done in different ways. For a single agenda command,
  5856. you may press @kbd{<} once or several times in the dispatcher
  5857. (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}). To restrict the agenda scope for an
  5858. extended period, use the following commands:
  5859. @table @kbd
  5860. @kindex C-c C-x <
  5861. @item C-c C-x <
  5862. Permanently restrict the agenda to the current subtree. When with a
  5863. prefix argument, or with the cursor before the first headline in a file,
  5864. the agenda scope is set to the entire file. This restriction remains in
  5865. effect until removed with @kbd{C-c C-x >}, or by typing either @kbd{<}
  5866. or @kbd{>} in the agenda dispatcher. If there is a window displaying an
  5867. agenda view, the new restriction takes effect immediately.
  5868. @kindex C-c C-x >
  5869. @item C-c C-x >
  5870. Remove the permanent restriction created by @kbd{C-c C-x <}.
  5871. @end table
  5872. @noindent
  5873. When working with @file{speedbar.el}, you can use the following commands in
  5874. the Speedbar frame:
  5875. @table @kbd
  5876. @kindex <
  5877. @item < @r{in the speedbar frame}
  5878. Permanently restrict the agenda to the item---either an Org file or a subtree
  5879. in such a file---at the cursor in the Speedbar frame.
  5880. If there is a window displaying an agenda view, the new restriction takes
  5881. effect immediately.
  5882. @kindex >
  5883. @item > @r{in the speedbar frame}
  5884. Lift the restriction.
  5885. @end table
  5886. @node Agenda dispatcher, Built-in agenda views, Agenda files, Agenda Views
  5887. @section The agenda dispatcher
  5888. @cindex agenda dispatcher
  5889. @cindex dispatching agenda commands
  5890. The views are created through a dispatcher, which should be bound to a
  5891. global key---for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Installation}). In the
  5892. following we will assume that @kbd{C-c a} is indeed how the dispatcher
  5893. is accessed and list keyboard access to commands accordingly. After
  5894. pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a
  5895. command. The dispatcher offers the following default commands:
  5896. @table @kbd
  5897. @item a
  5898. Create the calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  5899. @item t @r{/} T
  5900. Create a list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}).
  5901. @item m @r{/} M
  5902. Create a list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching
  5903. tags and properties}).
  5904. @item L
  5905. Create the timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}).
  5906. @item s
  5907. Create a list of entries selected by a boolean expression of keywords
  5908. and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in the entry.
  5909. @item /
  5910. @vindex org-agenda-text-search-extra-files
  5911. Search for a regular expression in all agenda files and additionally in
  5912. the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}. This
  5913. uses the Emacs command @code{multi-occur}. A prefix argument can be
  5914. used to specify the number of context lines for each match, default is
  5915. 1.
  5916. @item # @r{/} !
  5917. Create a list of stuck projects (@pxref{Stuck projects}).
  5918. @item <
  5919. Restrict an agenda command to the current buffer@footnote{For backward
  5920. compatibility, you can also press @kbd{1} to restrict to the current
  5921. buffer.}. After pressing @kbd{<}, you still need to press the character
  5922. selecting the command.
  5923. @item < <
  5924. If there is an active region, restrict the following agenda command to
  5925. the region. Otherwise, restrict it to the current subtree@footnote{For
  5926. backward compatibility, you can also press @kbd{0} to restrict to the
  5927. current region/subtree.}. After pressing @kbd{< <}, you still need to press the
  5928. character selecting the command.
  5929. @end table
  5930. You can also define custom commands that will be accessible through the
  5931. dispatcher, just like the default commands. This includes the
  5932. possibility to create extended agenda buffers that contain several
  5933. blocks together, for example the weekly agenda, the global TODO list and
  5934. a number of special tags matches. @xref{Custom agenda views}.
  5935. @node Built-in agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views
  5936. @section The built-in agenda views
  5937. In this section we describe the built-in views.
  5938. @menu
  5939. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  5940. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  5941. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  5942. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  5943. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  5944. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  5945. @end menu
  5946. @node Weekly/daily agenda, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views, Built-in agenda views
  5947. @subsection The weekly/daily agenda
  5948. @cindex agenda
  5949. @cindex weekly agenda
  5950. @cindex daily agenda
  5951. The purpose of the weekly/daily @emph{agenda} is to act like a page of a
  5952. paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day.
  5953. @table @kbd
  5954. @cindex org-agenda, command
  5955. @kindex C-c a a
  5956. @item C-c a a
  5957. @vindex org-agenda-ndays
  5958. Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of Org files. The agenda
  5959. shows the entries for each day. With a numeric prefix@footnote{For backward
  5960. compatibility, the universal prefix @kbd{C-u} causes all TODO entries to be
  5961. listed before the agenda. This feature is deprecated, use the dedicated TODO
  5962. list, or a block agenda instead (@pxref{Block agenda}).} (like @kbd{C-u 2 1
  5963. C-c a a}) you may set the number of days to be displayed (see also the
  5964. variable @code{org-agenda-ndays})
  5965. @end table
  5966. Remote editing from the agenda buffer means, for example, that you can
  5967. change the dates of deadlines and appointments from the agenda buffer.
  5968. The commands available in the Agenda buffer are listed in @ref{Agenda
  5969. commands}.
  5970. @subsubheading Calendar/Diary integration
  5971. @cindex calendar integration
  5972. @cindex diary integration
  5973. Emacs contains the calendar and diary by Edward M. Reingold. The
  5974. calendar displays a three-month calendar with holidays from different
  5975. countries and cultures. The diary allows you to keep track of
  5976. anniversaries, lunar phases, sunrise/set, recurrent appointments
  5977. (weekly, monthly) and more. In this way, it is quite complementary to
  5978. Org. It can be very useful to combine output from Org with
  5979. the diary.
  5980. In order to include entries from the Emacs diary into Org-mode's
  5981. agenda, you only need to customize the variable
  5982. @lisp
  5983. (setq org-agenda-include-diary t)
  5984. @end lisp
  5985. @noindent After that, everything will happen automatically. All diary
  5986. entries including holidays, anniversaries, etc., will be included in the
  5987. agenda buffer created by Org-mode. @key{SPC}, @key{TAB}, and
  5988. @key{RET} can be used from the agenda buffer to jump to the diary
  5989. file in order to edit existing diary entries. The @kbd{i} command to
  5990. insert new entries for the current date works in the agenda buffer, as
  5991. well as the commands @kbd{S}, @kbd{M}, and @kbd{C} to display
  5992. Sunrise/Sunset times, show lunar phases and to convert to other
  5993. calendars, respectively. @kbd{c} can be used to switch back and forth
  5994. between calendar and agenda.
  5995. If you are using the diary only for sexp entries and holidays, it is
  5996. faster to not use the above setting, but instead to copy or even move
  5997. the entries into an Org file. Org-mode evaluates diary-style sexp
  5998. entries, and does it faster because there is no overhead for first
  5999. creating the diary display. Note that the sexp entries must start at
  6000. the left margin, no whitespace is allowed before them. For example,
  6001. the following segment of an Org file will be processed and entries
  6002. will be made in the agenda:
  6003. @example
  6004. * Birthdays and similar stuff
  6005. #+CATEGORY: Holiday
  6006. %%(org-calendar-holiday) ; special function for holiday names
  6007. #+CATEGORY: Ann
  6008. %%(diary-anniversary 5 14 1956)@footnote{Note that the order of the arguments (month, day, year) depends on the setting of @code{calendar-date-style}.} Arthur Dent is %d years old
  6009. %%(diary-anniversary 10 2 1869) Mahatma Gandhi would be %d years old
  6010. @end example
  6011. @subsubheading Anniversaries from BBDB
  6012. @cindex BBDB, anniversaries
  6013. @cindex anniversaries, from BBDB
  6014. If you are using the Big Brothers Database to store your contacts, you will
  6015. very likely prefer to store anniversaries in BBDB rather than in a
  6016. separate Org or diary file. Org supports this and will show BBDB
  6017. anniversaries as part of the agenda. All you need to do is to add the
  6018. following to one your your agenda files:
  6019. @example
  6020. * Anniversaries
  6021. :PROPERTIES:
  6022. :CATEGORY: Anniv
  6023. :END:
  6024. %%(org-bbdb-anniversaries)
  6025. @end example
  6026. You can then go ahead and define anniversaries for a BBDB record. Basically,
  6027. you need to press @kbd{C-o anniversary @key{RET}} with the cursor in a BBDB
  6028. record and then add the date in the format @code{YYYY-MM-DD}, followed by a
  6029. space and the class of the anniversary (@samp{birthday} or @samp{wedding}, or
  6030. a format string). If you omit the class, it will default to @samp{birthday}.
  6031. Here are a few examples, the header for the file @file{org-bbdb.el} contains
  6032. more detailed information.
  6033. @example
  6034. 1973-06-22
  6035. 1955-08-02 wedding
  6036. 2008-04-14 %s released version 6.01 of org-mode, %d years ago
  6037. @end example
  6038. After a change to BBDB, or for the first agenda display during an Emacs
  6039. session, the agenda display will suffer a short delay as Org updates its
  6040. hash with anniversaries. However, from then on things will be very fast---much
  6041. faster in fact than a long list of @samp{%%(diary-anniversary)} entries
  6042. in an Org or Diary file.
  6043. @subsubheading Appointment reminders
  6044. @cindex @file{appt.el}
  6045. @cindex appointment reminders
  6046. Org can interact with Emacs appointments notification facility. To add all
  6047. the appointments of your agenda files, use the command
  6048. @code{org-agenda-to-appt}. This command also lets you filter through the
  6049. list of your appointments and add only those belonging to a specific category
  6050. or matching a regular expression. See the docstring for details.
  6051. @node Global TODO list, Matching tags and properties, Weekly/daily agenda, Built-in agenda views
  6052. @subsection The global TODO list
  6053. @cindex global TODO list
  6054. @cindex TODO list, global
  6055. The global TODO list contains all unfinished TODO items formatted and
  6056. collected into a single place.
  6057. @table @kbd
  6058. @kindex C-c a t
  6059. @item C-c a t
  6060. Show the global TODO list. This collects the TODO items from all agenda
  6061. files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. By default, this lists
  6062. items with a state the is not a DONE state. The buffer is in
  6063. @code{agenda-mode}, so there are commands to examine and manipulate the TODO
  6064. entries directly from that buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  6065. @kindex C-c a T
  6066. @item C-c a T
  6067. @cindex TODO keyword matching
  6068. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  6069. Like the above, but allows selection of a specific TODO keyword. You can
  6070. also do this by specifying a prefix argument to @kbd{C-c a t}. You are
  6071. prompted for a keyword, and you may also specify several keywords by
  6072. separating them with @samp{|} as the boolean OR operator. With a numeric
  6073. prefix, the nth keyword in @code{org-todo-keywords} is selected.
  6074. @kindex r
  6075. The @kbd{r} key in the agenda buffer regenerates it, and you can give
  6076. a prefix argument to this command to change the selected TODO keyword,
  6077. for example @kbd{3 r}. If you often need a search for a specific
  6078. keyword, define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).@*
  6079. Matching specific TODO keywords can also be done as part of a tags
  6080. search (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  6081. @end table
  6082. Remote editing of TODO items means that you can change the state of a
  6083. TODO entry with a single key press. The commands available in the
  6084. TODO list are described in @ref{Agenda commands}.
  6085. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into TODO list
  6086. Normally the global TODO list simply shows all headlines with TODO
  6087. keywords. This list can become very long. There are two ways to keep
  6088. it more compact:
  6089. @itemize @minus
  6090. @item
  6091. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled
  6092. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines
  6093. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date
  6094. Some people view a TODO item that has been @emph{scheduled} for execution or
  6095. have a @emph{deadline} (@pxref{Timestamps}) as no longer @emph{open}.
  6096. Configure the variables @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled},
  6097. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines}, and/or
  6098. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date} to exclude such items from the
  6099. global TODO list.
  6100. @item
  6101. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  6102. TODO items may have sublevels to break up the task into subtasks. In
  6103. such cases it may be enough to list only the highest level TODO headline
  6104. and omit the sublevels from the global list. Configure the variable
  6105. @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels} to get this behavior.
  6106. @end itemize
  6107. @node Matching tags and properties, Timeline, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views
  6108. @subsection Matching tags and properties
  6109. @cindex matching, of tags
  6110. @cindex matching, of properties
  6111. @cindex tags view
  6112. @cindex match view
  6113. If headlines in the agenda files are marked with @emph{tags} (@pxref{Tags}),
  6114. or have properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), you can select headlines
  6115. based on this metadata and collect them into an agenda buffer. The match
  6116. syntax described here also applies when creating sparse trees with @kbd{C-c /
  6117. m}.
  6118. @table @kbd
  6119. @kindex C-c a m
  6120. @item C-c a m
  6121. Produce a list of all headlines that match a given set of tags. The
  6122. command prompts for a selection criterion, which is a boolean logic
  6123. expression with tags, like @samp{+work+urgent-withboss} or
  6124. @samp{work|home} (@pxref{Tags}). If you often need a specific search,
  6125. define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  6126. @kindex C-c a M
  6127. @item C-c a M
  6128. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  6129. @vindex org-agenda-tags-todo-honor-ignore-options
  6130. Like @kbd{C-c a m}, but only select headlines that are also TODO items in a
  6131. not-DONE state and force checking subitems (see variable
  6132. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}). To exclude scheduled/deadline items,
  6133. see the variable @code{org-agenda-tags-todo-honor-ignore-options}. Matching
  6134. specific TODO keywords together with a tags match is also possible, see
  6135. @ref{Tag searches}.
  6136. @end table
  6137. The commands available in the tags list are described in @ref{Agenda
  6138. commands}.
  6139. @subsubheading Match syntax
  6140. @cindex Boolean logic, for tag/property searches
  6141. A search string can use Boolean operators @samp{&} for AND and @samp{|} for
  6142. OR. @samp{&} binds more strongly than @samp{|}. Parentheses are currently
  6143. not implemented. Each element in the search is either a tag, a regular
  6144. expression matching tags, or an expression like @code{PROPERTY OPERATOR
  6145. VALUE} with a comparison operator, accessing a property value. Each element
  6146. may be preceded by @samp{-}, to select against it, and @samp{+} is syntactic
  6147. sugar for positive selection. The AND operator @samp{&} is optional when
  6148. @samp{+} or @samp{-} is present. Here are some examples, using only tags.
  6149. @table @samp
  6150. @item +work-boss
  6151. Select headlines tagged @samp{:work:}, but discard those also tagged
  6152. @samp{:boss:}.
  6153. @item work|laptop
  6154. Selects lines tagged @samp{:work:} or @samp{:laptop:}.
  6155. @item work|laptop+night
  6156. Like before, but require the @samp{:laptop:} lines to be tagged also
  6157. @samp{:night:}.
  6158. @end table
  6159. @cindex regular expressions, with tags search
  6160. Instead of a tag, you may also specify a regular expression enclosed in curly
  6161. braces. For example,
  6162. @samp{work+@{^boss.*@}} matches headlines that contain the tag
  6163. @samp{:work:} and any tag @i{starting} with @samp{boss}.
  6164. @cindex TODO keyword matching, with tags search
  6165. @cindex level, require for tags/property match
  6166. @cindex category, require for tags/property match
  6167. @vindex org-odd-levels-only
  6168. You may also test for properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) at the same
  6169. time as matching tags. The properties may be real properties, or special
  6170. properties that represent other metadata (@pxref{Special properties}). For
  6171. example, the ``property'' @code{TODO} represents the TODO keyword of the
  6172. entry. Or, the ``property'' @code{LEVEL} represents the level of an entry.
  6173. So a search @samp{+LEVEL=3+boss-TODO="DONE"} lists all level three headlines
  6174. that have the tag @samp{boss} and are @emph{not} marked with the TODO keyword
  6175. DONE. In buffers with @code{org-odd-levels-only} set, @samp{LEVEL} does not
  6176. count the number of stars, but @samp{LEVEL=2} will correspond to 3 stars etc.
  6177. Here are more examples:
  6178. @table @samp
  6179. @item work+TODO="WAITING"
  6180. Select @samp{:work:}-tagged TODO lines with the specific TODO
  6181. keyword @samp{WAITING}.
  6182. @item work+TODO="WAITING"|home+TODO="WAITING"
  6183. Waiting tasks both at work and at home.
  6184. @end table
  6185. When matching properties, a number of different operators can be used to test
  6186. the value of a property. Here is a complex example:
  6187. @example
  6188. +work-boss+PRIORITY="A"+Coffee="unlimited"+Effort<2 \
  6189. +With=@{Sarah\|Denny@}+SCHEDULED>="<2008-10-11>"
  6190. @end example
  6191. @noindent
  6192. The type of comparison will depend on how the comparison value is written:
  6193. @itemize @minus
  6194. @item
  6195. If the comparison value is a plain number, a numerical comparison is done,
  6196. and the allowed operators are @samp{<}, @samp{=}, @samp{>}, @samp{<=},
  6197. @samp{>=}, and @samp{<>}.
  6198. @item
  6199. If the comparison value is enclosed in double-quotes,
  6200. a string comparison is done, and the same operators are allowed.
  6201. @item
  6202. If the comparison value is enclosed in double-quotes @emph{and} angular
  6203. brackets (like @samp{DEADLINE<="<2008-12-24 18:30>"}), both values are
  6204. assumed to be date/time specifications in the standard Org way, and the
  6205. comparison will be done accordingly. Special values that will be recognized
  6206. are @code{"<now>"} for now (including time), and @code{"<today>"}, and
  6207. @code{"<tomorrow>"} for these days at 0:00 hours, i.e. without a time
  6208. specification. Also strings like @code{"<+5d>"} or @code{"<-2m>"} with units
  6209. @code{d}, @code{w}, @code{m}, and @code{y} for day, week, month, and year,
  6210. respectively, can be used.
  6211. @item
  6212. If the comparison value is enclosed
  6213. in curly braces, a regexp match is performed, with @samp{=} meaning that the
  6214. regexp matches the property value, and @samp{<>} meaning that it does not
  6215. match.
  6216. @end itemize
  6217. So the search string in the example finds entries tagged @samp{:work:} but
  6218. not @samp{:boss:}, which also have a priority value @samp{A}, a
  6219. @samp{:Coffee:} property with the value @samp{unlimited}, an @samp{Effort}
  6220. property that is numerically smaller than 2, a @samp{:With:} property that is
  6221. matched by the regular expression @samp{Sarah\|Denny}, and that are scheduled
  6222. on or after October 11, 2008.
  6223. Accessing TODO, LEVEL, and CATEGORY during a search is fast. Accessing any
  6224. other properties will slow down the search. However, once you have paid the
  6225. price by accessing one property, testing additional properties is cheap
  6226. again.
  6227. You can configure Org-mode to use property inheritance during a search, but
  6228. beware that this can slow down searches considerably. See @ref{Property
  6229. inheritance}, for details.
  6230. For backward compatibility, and also for typing speed, there is also a
  6231. different way to test TODO states in a search. For this, terminate the
  6232. tags/property part of the search string (which may include several terms
  6233. connected with @samp{|}) with a @samp{/} and then specify a Boolean
  6234. expression just for TODO keywords. The syntax is then similar to that for
  6235. tags, but should be applied with care: for example, a positive selection on
  6236. several TODO keywords cannot meaningfully be combined with boolean AND.
  6237. However, @emph{negative selection} combined with AND can be meaningful. To
  6238. make sure that only lines are checked that actually have any TODO keyword
  6239. (resulting in a speed-up), use @kbd{C-c a M}, or equivalently start the TODO
  6240. part after the slash with @samp{!}. Using @kbd{C-c a M} or @samp{/!} will
  6241. not match TODO keywords in a DONE state. Examples:
  6242. @table @samp
  6243. @item work/WAITING
  6244. Same as @samp{work+TODO="WAITING"}
  6245. @item work/!-WAITING-NEXT
  6246. Select @samp{:work:}-tagged TODO lines that are neither @samp{WAITING}
  6247. nor @samp{NEXT}
  6248. @item work/!+WAITING|+NEXT
  6249. Select @samp{:work:}-tagged TODO lines that are either @samp{WAITING} or
  6250. @samp{NEXT}.
  6251. @end table
  6252. @node Timeline, Search view, Matching tags and properties, Built-in agenda views
  6253. @subsection Timeline for a single file
  6254. @cindex timeline, single file
  6255. @cindex time-sorted view
  6256. The timeline summarizes all time-stamped items from a single Org-mode
  6257. file in a @emph{time-sorted view}. The main purpose of this command is
  6258. to give an overview over events in a project.
  6259. @table @kbd
  6260. @kindex C-c a L
  6261. @item C-c a L
  6262. Show a time-sorted view of the Org file, with all time-stamped items.
  6263. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all unfinished TODO entries
  6264. (scheduled or not) are also listed under the current date.
  6265. @end table
  6266. @noindent
  6267. The commands available in the timeline buffer are listed in
  6268. @ref{Agenda commands}.
  6269. @node Search view, Stuck projects, Timeline, Built-in agenda views
  6270. @subsection Search view
  6271. @cindex search view
  6272. @cindex text search
  6273. @cindex searching, for text
  6274. This agenda view is a general text search facility for Org-mode entries.
  6275. It is particularly useful to find notes.
  6276. @table @kbd
  6277. @kindex C-c a s
  6278. @item C-c a s
  6279. This is a special search that lets you select entries by matching a substring
  6280. or specific words using a boolean logic.
  6281. @end table
  6282. For example, the search string @samp{computer equipment} will find entries
  6283. that contain @samp{computer equipment} as a substring. If the two words are
  6284. separated by more space or a line break, the search will still match.
  6285. Search view can also search for specific keywords in the entry, using Boolean
  6286. logic. The search string @samp{+computer +wifi -ethernet -@{8\.11[bg]@}}
  6287. will search for note entries that contain the keywords @code{computer}
  6288. and @code{wifi}, but not the keyword @code{ethernet}, and which are also
  6289. not matched by the regular expression @code{8\.11[bg]}, meaning to
  6290. exclude both 8.11b and 8.11g. The first @samp{+} is necessary to turn on
  6291. word search, other @samp{+} characters are optional. For more details, see
  6292. the docstring of the command @code{org-search-view}.
  6293. @vindex org-agenda-text-search-extra-files
  6294. Note that in addition to the agenda files, this command will also search
  6295. the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}.
  6296. @node Stuck projects, , Search view, Built-in agenda views
  6297. @subsection Stuck projects
  6298. If you are following a system like David Allen's GTD to organize your
  6299. work, one of the ``duties'' you have is a regular review to make sure
  6300. that all projects move along. A @emph{stuck} project is a project that
  6301. has no defined next actions, so it will never show up in the TODO lists
  6302. Org-mode produces. During the review, you need to identify such
  6303. projects and define next actions for them.
  6304. @table @kbd
  6305. @kindex C-c a #
  6306. @item C-c a #
  6307. List projects that are stuck.
  6308. @kindex C-c a !
  6309. @item C-c a !
  6310. @vindex org-stuck-projects
  6311. Customize the variable @code{org-stuck-projects} to define what a stuck
  6312. project is and how to find it.
  6313. @end table
  6314. You almost certainly will have to configure this view before it will
  6315. work for you. The built-in default assumes that all your projects are
  6316. level-2 headlines, and that a project is not stuck if it has at least
  6317. one entry marked with a TODO keyword TODO or NEXT or NEXTACTION.
  6318. Let's assume that you, in your own way of using Org-mode, identify
  6319. projects with a tag PROJECT, and that you use a TODO keyword MAYBE to
  6320. indicate a project that should not be considered yet. Let's further
  6321. assume that the TODO keyword DONE marks finished projects, and that NEXT
  6322. and TODO indicate next actions. The tag @@SHOP indicates shopping and
  6323. is a next action even without the NEXT tag. Finally, if the project
  6324. contains the special word IGNORE anywhere, it should not be listed
  6325. either. In this case you would start by identifying eligible projects
  6326. with a tags/todo match@footnote{@xref{Tag searches}.}
  6327. @samp{+PROJECT/-MAYBE-DONE}, and then check for TODO, NEXT, @@SHOP, and
  6328. IGNORE in the subtree to identify projects that are not stuck. The
  6329. correct customization for this is
  6330. @lisp
  6331. (setq org-stuck-projects
  6332. '("+PROJECT/-MAYBE-DONE" ("NEXT" "TODO") ("@@SHOP")
  6333. "\\<IGNORE\\>"))
  6334. @end lisp
  6335. Note that if a project is identified as non-stuck, the subtree of this entry
  6336. will still be searched for stuck projects.
  6337. @node Presentation and sorting, Agenda commands, Built-in agenda views, Agenda Views
  6338. @section Presentation and sorting
  6339. @cindex presentation, of agenda items
  6340. @vindex org-agenda-prefix-format
  6341. Before displaying items in an agenda view, Org-mode visually prepares
  6342. the items and sorts them. Each item occupies a single line. The line
  6343. starts with a @emph{prefix} that contains the @emph{category}
  6344. (@pxref{Categories}) of the item and other important information. You can
  6345. customize the prefix using the option @code{org-agenda-prefix-format}.
  6346. The prefix is followed by a cleaned-up version of the outline headline
  6347. associated with the item.
  6348. @menu
  6349. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  6350. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  6351. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  6352. @end menu
  6353. @node Categories, Time-of-day specifications, Presentation and sorting, Presentation and sorting
  6354. @subsection Categories
  6355. @cindex category
  6356. @cindex #+CATEGORY
  6357. The category is a broad label assigned to each agenda item. By default,
  6358. the category is simply derived from the file name, but you can also
  6359. specify it with a special line in the buffer, like this@footnote{For
  6360. backward compatibility, the following also works: if there are several
  6361. such lines in a file, each specifies the category for the text below it.
  6362. The first category also applies to any text before the first CATEGORY
  6363. line. However, using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is
  6364. incompatible with the outline structure of the document. The correct
  6365. method for setting multiple categories in a buffer is using a
  6366. property.}:
  6367. @example
  6368. #+CATEGORY: Thesis
  6369. @end example
  6370. @noindent
  6371. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  6372. If you would like to have a special CATEGORY for a single entry or a
  6373. (sub)tree, give the entry a @code{:CATEGORY:} property with the
  6374. special category you want to apply as the value.
  6375. @noindent
  6376. The display in the agenda buffer looks best if the category is not
  6377. longer than 10 characters.
  6378. @node Time-of-day specifications, Sorting of agenda items, Categories, Presentation and sorting
  6379. @subsection Time-of-day specifications
  6380. @cindex time-of-day specification
  6381. Org-mode checks each agenda item for a time-of-day specification. The
  6382. time can be part of the timestamp that triggered inclusion into the
  6383. agenda, for example as in @w{@samp{<2005-05-10 Tue 19:00>}}. Time
  6384. ranges can be specified with two timestamps, like
  6385. @c
  6386. @w{@samp{<2005-05-10 Tue 20:30>--<2005-05-10 Tue 22:15>}}.
  6387. In the headline of the entry itself, a time(range) may also appear as
  6388. plain text (like @samp{12:45} or a @samp{8:30-1pm}). If the agenda
  6389. integrates the Emacs diary (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), time
  6390. specifications in diary entries are recognized as well.
  6391. For agenda display, Org-mode extracts the time and displays it in a
  6392. standard 24 hour format as part of the prefix. The example times in
  6393. the previous paragraphs would end up in the agenda like this:
  6394. @example
  6395. 8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer
  6396. 12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub
  6397. 19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem
  6398. 20:30-22:15 Marvin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge
  6399. @end example
  6400. @cindex time grid
  6401. If the agenda is in single-day mode, or for the display of today, the
  6402. timed entries are embedded in a time grid, like
  6403. @example
  6404. 8:00...... ------------------
  6405. 8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer
  6406. 10:00...... ------------------
  6407. 12:00...... ------------------
  6408. 12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub
  6409. 14:00...... ------------------
  6410. 16:00...... ------------------
  6411. 18:00...... ------------------
  6412. 19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem
  6413. 20:00...... ------------------
  6414. 20:30-22:15 Marvin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge
  6415. @end example
  6416. @vindex org-agenda-use-time-grid
  6417. @vindex org-agenda-time-grid
  6418. The time grid can be turned on and off with the variable
  6419. @code{org-agenda-use-time-grid}, and can be configured with
  6420. @code{org-agenda-time-grid}.
  6421. @node Sorting of agenda items, , Time-of-day specifications, Presentation and sorting
  6422. @subsection Sorting of agenda items
  6423. @cindex sorting, of agenda items
  6424. @cindex priorities, of agenda items
  6425. Before being inserted into a view, the items are sorted. How this is
  6426. done depends on the type of view.
  6427. @itemize @bullet
  6428. @item
  6429. @vindex org-agenda-files
  6430. For the daily/weekly agenda, the items for each day are sorted. The
  6431. default order is to first collect all items containing an explicit
  6432. time-of-day specification. These entries will be shown at the beginning
  6433. of the list, as a @emph{schedule} for the day. After that, items remain
  6434. grouped in categories, in the sequence given by @code{org-agenda-files}.
  6435. Within each category, items are sorted by priority (@pxref{Priorities}),
  6436. which is composed of the base priority (2000 for priority @samp{A}, 1000
  6437. for @samp{B}, and 0 for @samp{C}), plus additional increments for
  6438. overdue scheduled or deadline items.
  6439. @item
  6440. For the TODO list, items remain in the order of categories, but within
  6441. each category, sorting takes place according to priority
  6442. (@pxref{Priorities}). The priority used for sorting derives from the
  6443. priority cookie, with additions depending on how close an item is to its due
  6444. or scheduled date.
  6445. @item
  6446. For tags matches, items are not sorted at all, but just appear in the
  6447. sequence in which they are found in the agenda files.
  6448. @end itemize
  6449. @vindex org-agenda-sorting-strategy
  6450. Sorting can be customized using the variable
  6451. @code{org-agenda-sorting-strategy}, and may also include criteria based on
  6452. the estimated effort of an entry (@pxref{Effort estimates}).
  6453. @node Agenda commands, Custom agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda Views
  6454. @section Commands in the agenda buffer
  6455. @cindex commands, in agenda buffer
  6456. Entries in the agenda buffer are linked back to the Org file or diary
  6457. file where they originate. You are not allowed to edit the agenda
  6458. buffer itself, but commands are provided to show and jump to the
  6459. original entry location, and to edit the Org files ``remotely'' from
  6460. the agenda buffer. In this way, all information is stored only once,
  6461. removing the risk that your agenda and note files may diverge.
  6462. Some commands can be executed with mouse clicks on agenda lines. For
  6463. the other commands, the cursor needs to be in the desired line.
  6464. @table @kbd
  6465. @tsubheading{Motion}
  6466. @cindex motion commands in agenda
  6467. @kindex n
  6468. @item n
  6469. Next line (same as @key{up} and @kbd{C-p}).
  6470. @kindex p
  6471. @item p
  6472. Previous line (same as @key{down} and @kbd{C-n}).
  6473. @tsubheading{View/Go to Org file}
  6474. @kindex mouse-3
  6475. @kindex @key{SPC}
  6476. @item mouse-3
  6477. @itemx @key{SPC}
  6478. Display the original location of the item in another window.
  6479. With prefix arg, make sure that the entire entry is made visible in the
  6480. outline, not only the heading.
  6481. @c
  6482. @kindex L
  6483. @item L
  6484. Display original location and recenter that window.
  6485. @c
  6486. @kindex mouse-2
  6487. @kindex mouse-1
  6488. @kindex @key{TAB}
  6489. @item mouse-2
  6490. @itemx mouse-1
  6491. @itemx @key{TAB}
  6492. Go to the original location of the item in another window. Under Emacs
  6493. 22, @kbd{mouse-1} will also works for this.
  6494. @c
  6495. @kindex @key{RET}
  6496. @itemx @key{RET}
  6497. Go to the original location of the item and delete other windows.
  6498. @c
  6499. @kindex F
  6500. @item F
  6501. @vindex org-agenda-start-with-follow-mode
  6502. Toggle Follow mode. In Follow mode, as you move the cursor through
  6503. the agenda buffer, the other window always shows the corresponding
  6504. location in the Org file. The initial setting for this mode in new
  6505. agenda buffers can be set with the variable
  6506. @code{org-agenda-start-with-follow-mode}.
  6507. @c
  6508. @kindex C-c C-x b
  6509. @item C-c C-x b
  6510. Display the entire subtree of the current item in an indirect buffer. With a
  6511. numeric prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  6512. negative, go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove the
  6513. previously used indirect buffer.
  6514. @kindex C-c C-o
  6515. @item C-c C-o
  6516. Follow a link in the entry. This will offer a selection of any links in the
  6517. text belonging to the referenced Org node. If there is only one link, it
  6518. will be followed without a selection prompt.
  6519. @tsubheading{Change display}
  6520. @cindex display changing, in agenda
  6521. @kindex o
  6522. @item o
  6523. Delete other windows.
  6524. @c
  6525. @kindex v d
  6526. @kindex d
  6527. @kindex v w
  6528. @kindex w
  6529. @kindex v m
  6530. @kindex v y
  6531. @item v d @ @r{or short} @ d
  6532. @itemx v w @ @r{or short} @ w
  6533. @itemx v m
  6534. @itemx v y
  6535. Switch to day/week/month/year view. When switching to day or week view,
  6536. this setting becomes the default for subsequent agenda commands. Since
  6537. month and year views are slow to create, they do not become the default.
  6538. A numeric prefix argument may be used to jump directly to a specific day
  6539. of the year, ISO week, month, or year, respectively. For example,
  6540. @kbd{32 d} jumps to February 1st, @kbd{9 w} to ISO week number 9. When
  6541. setting day, week, or month view, a year may be encoded in the prefix
  6542. argument as well. For example, @kbd{200712 w} will jump to week 12 in
  6543. 2007. If such a year specification has only one or two digits, it will
  6544. be mapped to the interval 1938-2037.
  6545. @c
  6546. @kindex f
  6547. @item f
  6548. @vindex org-agenda-ndays
  6549. Go forward in time to display the following @code{org-agenda-ndays} days.
  6550. For example, if the display covers a week, switch to the following week.
  6551. With prefix arg, go forward that many times @code{org-agenda-ndays} days.
  6552. @c
  6553. @kindex b
  6554. @item b
  6555. Go backward in time to display earlier dates.
  6556. @c
  6557. @kindex .
  6558. @item .
  6559. Go to today.
  6560. @c
  6561. @kindex j
  6562. @item j
  6563. Prompt for a date and go there.
  6564. @c
  6565. @kindex J
  6566. @item J
  6567. Go to the currently clocked in task in the agenda buffer.
  6568. @c
  6569. @kindex D
  6570. @item D
  6571. Toggle the inclusion of diary entries. See @ref{Weekly/daily agenda}.
  6572. @c
  6573. @kindex v l
  6574. @kindex v L
  6575. @kindex l
  6576. @item v l @ @r{or short} @ l
  6577. @vindex org-log-done
  6578. @vindex org-agenda-log-mode-items
  6579. Toggle Logbook mode. In Logbook mode, entries that were marked DONE while
  6580. logging was on (variable @code{org-log-done}) are shown in the agenda, as are
  6581. entries that have been clocked on that day. You can configure the entry
  6582. types that should be included in log mode using the variable
  6583. @code{org-agenda-log-mode-items}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, show
  6584. all possible logbook entries, including state changes. When called with two
  6585. prefix args @kbd{C-u C-u}, show only logging information, nothing else.
  6586. @kbd{v L} is equivalent to @kbd{C-u v l}.
  6587. @c
  6588. @kindex v [
  6589. @kindex [
  6590. @item v [ @ @r{or short} @ [
  6591. Include inactive timestamps into the current view. Only for weekly/daily
  6592. agenda and timeline views.
  6593. @c
  6594. @kindex v a
  6595. @kindex v A
  6596. @item v a
  6597. @itemx v A
  6598. Toggle Archives mode. In Archives mode, trees that are marked
  6599. @code{ARCHIVED} are also scanned when producing the agenda. When you use the
  6600. capital @kbd{A}, even all archive files are included. To exit archives mode,
  6601. press @kbd{v a} again.
  6602. @c
  6603. @kindex v R
  6604. @kindex R
  6605. @item v R @ @r{or short} @ R
  6606. @vindex org-agenda-start-with-clockreport-mode
  6607. Toggle Clockreport mode. In Clockreport mode, the daily/weekly agenda will
  6608. always show a table with the clocked times for the timespan and file scope
  6609. covered by the current agenda view. The initial setting for this mode in new
  6610. agenda buffers can be set with the variable
  6611. @code{org-agenda-start-with-clockreport-mode}.
  6612. @c
  6613. @kindex v E
  6614. @kindex E
  6615. @item v E @ @r{or short} @ E
  6616. @vindex org-agenda-start-with-entry-text-mode
  6617. @vindex org-agenda-entry-text-maxlines
  6618. Toggle entry text mode. In entry text mode, a number of lines from the Org
  6619. outline node referenced by an agenda line will be displayed below the line.
  6620. The maximum number of lines is given by the variable
  6621. @code{org-agenda-entry-text-maxlines}. Calling this command with a numeric
  6622. prefix argument will temporarily modify that number to the prefix value.
  6623. @c
  6624. @kindex G
  6625. @item G
  6626. @vindex org-agenda-use-time-grid
  6627. @vindex org-agenda-time-grid
  6628. Toggle the time grid on and off. See also the variables
  6629. @code{org-agenda-use-time-grid} and @code{org-agenda-time-grid}.
  6630. @c
  6631. @kindex r
  6632. @item r
  6633. Recreate the agenda buffer, for example to reflect the changes after
  6634. modification of the timestamps of items with @kbd{S-@key{left}} and
  6635. @kbd{S-@key{right}}. When the buffer is the global TODO list, a prefix
  6636. argument is interpreted to create a selective list for a specific TODO
  6637. keyword.
  6638. @kindex g
  6639. @item g
  6640. Same as @kbd{r}.
  6641. @c
  6642. @kindex s
  6643. @kindex C-x C-s
  6644. @item s
  6645. @itemx C-x C-s
  6646. Save all Org buffers in the current Emacs session, and also the locations of