org.texi 674 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @set VERSION 7.7
  6. @set DATE July 2011
  7. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  8. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  9. @set txicodequoteundirected
  10. @set txicodequotebacktick
  11. @c Version and Contact Info
  12. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  13. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  15. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  16. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  20. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  21. @c =======================================
  22. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  23. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  24. @set cmdnames
  25. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  26. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  27. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  28. @c xorgcmd{key,cmmand} Key with command name as @itemx
  29. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  30. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  31. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  32. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  33. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  34. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  35. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  36. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  37. @c a key but no command
  38. @c Inserts: @item key
  39. @macro orgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @item @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @macro xorgkey{key}
  44. @kindex \key\
  45. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  46. @end macro
  47. @c one key with a command
  48. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  49. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  50. @ifset cmdnames
  51. @kindex \key\
  52. @findex \command\
  53. @iftex
  54. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  55. @end iftex
  56. @ifnottex
  57. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  58. @end ifnottex
  59. @end ifset
  60. @ifclear cmdnames
  61. @kindex \key\
  62. @item @kbd{\key\}
  63. @end ifclear
  64. @end macro
  65. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  66. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  67. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  68. @ifset cmdnames
  69. @kindex \key\
  70. @findex \command\
  71. @iftex
  72. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  73. @end iftex
  74. @ifnottex
  75. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  76. @end ifnottex
  77. @end ifset
  78. @ifclear cmdnames
  79. @kindex \key\
  80. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  81. @end ifclear
  82. @end macro
  83. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  84. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  85. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  86. @ifset cmdnames
  87. @findex \command\
  88. @iftex
  89. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  90. @end iftex
  91. @ifnottex
  92. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  93. @end ifnottex
  94. @end ifset
  95. @ifclear cmdnames
  96. @item @kbd{\key\}
  97. @end ifclear
  98. @end macro
  99. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  100. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  101. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  102. @ifset cmdnames
  103. @kindex \key\
  104. @findex \command\
  105. @iftex
  106. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  107. @end iftex
  108. @ifnottex
  109. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  110. @end ifnottex
  111. @end ifset
  112. @ifclear cmdnames
  113. @kindex \key\
  114. @item @kbd{\text\}
  115. @end ifclear
  116. @end macro
  117. @c two keys with one command
  118. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  119. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  120. @ifset cmdnames
  121. @kindex \key1\
  122. @kindex \key2\
  123. @findex \command\
  124. @iftex
  125. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  126. @end iftex
  127. @ifnottex
  128. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  129. @end ifnottex
  130. @end ifset
  131. @ifclear cmdnames
  132. @kindex \key1\
  133. @kindex \key2\
  134. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  135. @end ifclear
  136. @end macro
  137. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  138. @c @itemx
  139. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  140. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  141. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  142. @ifset cmdnames
  143. @kindex \key1\
  144. @kindex \key2\
  145. @findex \command\
  146. @iftex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  149. @end iftex
  150. @ifnottex
  151. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  152. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  153. @end ifnottex
  154. @end ifset
  155. @ifclear cmdnames
  156. @kindex \key1\
  157. @kindex \key2\
  158. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  159. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  160. @end ifclear
  161. @end macro
  162. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  163. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  164. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  165. @ifset cmdnames
  166. @kindex \key1\
  167. @kindex \key2\
  168. @findex \command\
  169. @iftex
  170. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  171. @end iftex
  172. @ifnottex
  173. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  174. @end ifnottex
  175. @end ifset
  176. @ifclear cmdnames
  177. @kindex \key1\
  178. @kindex \key2\
  179. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  180. @end ifclear
  181. @end macro
  182. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  183. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  184. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  185. @ifset cmdnames
  186. @kindex \key1\
  187. @kindex \key2\
  188. @findex \command\
  189. @iftex
  190. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  191. @end iftex
  192. @ifnottex
  193. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  194. @end ifnottex
  195. @end ifset
  196. @ifclear cmdnames
  197. @kindex \key1\
  198. @kindex \key2\
  199. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  200. @end ifclear
  201. @end macro
  202. @c two keys with two commands
  203. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  204. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  205. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  206. @ifset cmdnames
  207. @kindex \key1\
  208. @kindex \key2\
  209. @findex \command1\
  210. @findex \command2\
  211. @iftex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  214. @end iftex
  215. @ifnottex
  216. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  217. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  218. @end ifnottex
  219. @end ifset
  220. @ifclear cmdnames
  221. @kindex \key1\
  222. @kindex \key2\
  223. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  224. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  225. @end ifclear
  226. @end macro
  227. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  228. @iftex
  229. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  230. @end iftex
  231. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  232. @macro tsubheading{text}
  233. @ifinfo
  234. @subsubheading \text\
  235. @end ifinfo
  236. @ifnotinfo
  237. @item @b{\text\}
  238. @end ifnotinfo
  239. @end macro
  240. @copying
  241. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  242. Copyright @copyright{} 2004-2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  243. @quotation
  244. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  245. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  246. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  247. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  248. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  249. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  250. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  251. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  252. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  253. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  254. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  255. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  256. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  257. @end quotation
  258. @end copying
  259. @dircategory Emacs
  260. @direntry
  261. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  262. @end direntry
  263. @titlepage
  264. @title The Org Manual
  265. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  266. @author by Carsten Dominik
  267. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, Thomas Dye and Jambunathan K.
  268. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  269. @page
  270. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  271. @insertcopying
  272. @end titlepage
  273. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  274. @contents
  275. @ifnottex
  276. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  277. @top Org Mode Manual
  278. @insertcopying
  279. @end ifnottex
  280. @menu
  281. * Introduction:: Getting started
  282. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  283. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  284. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  285. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  286. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  287. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  288. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  289. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  290. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  291. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  292. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  293. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  294. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  295. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  296. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  297. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  298. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  299. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  300. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  301. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  302. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  303. @detailmenu
  304. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  305. Introduction
  306. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  307. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  308. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  309. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  310. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  311. Document structure
  312. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  313. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  314. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  315. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  316. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  317. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  318. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  319. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  320. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  321. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  322. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  323. Tables
  324. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  325. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  326. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  327. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  328. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  329. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  330. The spreadsheet
  331. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  332. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  333. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  334. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  335. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  336. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  337. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  338. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  339. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  340. Hyperlinks
  341. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  342. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  343. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  344. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  345. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  346. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  347. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  348. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  349. Internal links
  350. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  351. TODO items
  352. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  353. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  354. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  355. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  356. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  357. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  358. Extended use of TODO keywords
  359. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  360. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  361. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  362. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  363. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  364. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  365. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  366. Progress logging
  367. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  368. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  369. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  370. Tags
  371. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  372. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  373. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  374. Properties and columns
  375. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  376. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  377. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  378. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  379. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  380. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  381. Column view
  382. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  383. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  384. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  385. Defining columns
  386. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  387. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  388. Dates and times
  389. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  390. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  391. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  392. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  393. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  394. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  395. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  396. Creating timestamps
  397. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  398. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  399. Deadlines and scheduling
  400. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  401. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  402. Clocking work time
  403. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  404. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  405. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  406. Capture - Refile - Archive
  407. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  408. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  409. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  410. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  411. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  412. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  413. Capture
  414. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  415. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  416. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  417. Capture templates
  418. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  419. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  420. Archiving
  421. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  422. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  423. Agenda views
  424. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  425. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  426. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  427. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  428. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  429. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  430. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  431. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  432. The built-in agenda views
  433. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  434. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  435. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  436. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  437. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  438. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  439. Presentation and sorting
  440. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  441. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  442. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  443. Custom agenda views
  444. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  445. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  446. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  447. Markup for rich export
  448. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  449. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  450. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  451. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  452. * Index entries:: Making an index
  453. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  454. * Embedded LaTeX:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  455. Structural markup elements
  456. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  457. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  458. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  459. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  460. * Lists:: Lists
  461. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  462. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  463. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  464. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  465. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  466. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  467. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  468. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  469. * LaTeX fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  470. * Previewing LaTeX fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  471. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  472. Exporting
  473. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  474. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  475. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  476. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  477. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  478. * LaTeX and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  479. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  480. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  481. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  482. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  483. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  484. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  485. HTML export
  486. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  487. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  488. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org-mode
  489. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  490. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  491. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  492. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  493. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  494. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  495. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  496. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  497. * LaTeX/PDF export commands:: Which key invokes which commands
  498. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  499. * Quoting LaTeX code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  500. * Tables in LaTeX export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  501. * Images in LaTeX export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  502. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  503. DocBook export
  504. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  505. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  506. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  507. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  508. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  509. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  510. OpenDocument Text export
  511. * Pre-requisites for @acronym{ODT} export:: What packages @acronym{ODT} exporter relies on
  512. * @acronym{ODT} export commands:: How to invoke @acronym{ODT} export
  513. * Applying custom styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  514. * Links in @acronym{ODT} export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  515. * Tables in @acronym{ODT} export:: How Tables are exported
  516. * Images in @acronym{ODT} export:: How to insert images
  517. * Math formatting in @acronym{ODT} export:: How @LaTeX{} fragments are formatted
  518. * Literal examples in @acronym{ODT} export:: How source and example blocks are formatted
  519. * Advanced topics in @acronym{ODT} export:: Read this if you are a power user
  520. Math formatting in @acronym{ODT} export
  521. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: How to embed @LaTeX{} math fragments
  522. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: How to embed equations in native format
  523. Advanced topics in @acronym{ODT} export
  524. * Exporting and converting to other formats:: How to produce @samp{pdf} and other formats
  525. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Explore the internals
  526. * Creating one-off styles:: How to produce custom highlighting etc
  527. * Customizing tables in @acronym{ODT} export:: How to define and use Table templates
  528. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: How to debug corrupt OpenDocument files
  529. Publishing
  530. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  531. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  532. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  533. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  534. Configuration
  535. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  536. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  537. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  538. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  539. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  540. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  541. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  542. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  543. Sample configuration
  544. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  545. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  546. Working with source code
  547. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  548. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  549. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  550. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  551. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org-mode buffer
  552. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  553. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  554. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  555. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  556. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org-mode
  557. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  558. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  559. Header arguments
  560. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  561. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  562. Using header arguments
  563. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  564. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  565. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  566. * Header arguments in Org-mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  567. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  568. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  569. Specific header arguments
  570. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  571. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  572. be collected and handled
  573. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  574. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  575. directory for code block execution
  576. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  577. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  578. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  579. files during tangling
  580. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  581. code files
  582. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  583. code files
  584. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  585. expansion during tangling
  586. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  587. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  588. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  589. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  590. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  591. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  592. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  593. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  594. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  595. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  596. Miscellaneous
  597. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  598. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  599. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  600. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  601. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  602. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  603. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  604. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  605. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  606. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  607. * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files
  608. Interaction with other packages
  609. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  610. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  611. Hacking
  612. * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals
  613. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  614. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  615. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  616. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  617. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  618. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  619. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  620. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  621. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  622. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  623. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  624. * A LaTeX example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  625. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  626. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  627. MobileOrg
  628. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  629. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  630. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  631. @end detailmenu
  632. @end menu
  633. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  634. @chapter Introduction
  635. @cindex introduction
  636. @menu
  637. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  638. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  639. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  640. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  641. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  642. @end menu
  643. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  644. @section Summary
  645. @cindex summary
  646. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  647. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  648. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  649. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  650. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  651. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  652. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  653. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  654. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  655. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  656. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  657. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  658. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  659. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  660. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  661. linked web pages.
  662. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  663. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  664. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  665. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  666. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  667. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  668. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  669. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  670. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  671. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  672. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  673. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  674. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  675. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  676. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  677. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  678. ends, for example:
  679. @example
  680. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  681. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  682. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  683. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  684. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  685. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  686. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  687. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  688. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  689. @end example
  690. @cindex FAQ
  691. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  692. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  693. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  694. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  695. @cindex print edition
  696. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  697. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  698. Theory Ltd.}
  699. @page
  700. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  701. @section Installation
  702. @cindex installation
  703. @cindex XEmacs
  704. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  705. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  706. to @ref{Activation}. To see what version of Org (if any) is part of your
  707. Emacs distribution, type @kbd{M-x load-library RET org} and then @kbd{M-x
  708. org-version}.}
  709. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  710. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
  711. to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
  712. top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs
  713. binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
  714. directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have
  715. access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
  716. the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
  717. Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  718. @example
  719. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  720. @end example
  721. @noindent
  722. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  723. step for this directory:
  724. @example
  725. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  726. @end example
  727. @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
  728. @example
  729. make
  730. @end example
  731. @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
  732. all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
  733. administrator)
  734. @example
  735. make install
  736. @end example
  737. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  738. @file{install-info} program. The following should correctly install the Info
  739. files on most systems, please send a bug report if not@footnote{The output
  740. from install-info (if any) is also system dependent. In particular Debian
  741. and its derivatives use two different versions of install-info and you may
  742. see the message:
  743. @example
  744. This is not dpkg install-info anymore, but GNU install-info
  745. See the man page for ginstall-info for command line arguments
  746. @end example
  747. @noindent which can be safely ignored.}.
  748. @example
  749. make install-info
  750. @end example
  751. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  752. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  753. when Org-mode starts.
  754. @lisp
  755. (require 'org-install)
  756. @end lisp
  757. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  758. @page
  759. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  760. @section Activation
  761. @cindex activation
  762. @cindex autoload
  763. @cindex global key bindings
  764. @cindex key bindings, global
  765. To make sure files with extension @file{.org} use Org mode, add the following
  766. line to your @file{.emacs} file.
  767. @lisp
  768. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  769. @end lisp
  770. @noindent Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on - this is the
  771. default in Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in
  772. Org buffer with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  773. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  774. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  775. global keys (i.e.@: anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  776. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  777. liking.
  778. @lisp
  779. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  780. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  781. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  782. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  783. @end lisp
  784. @cindex Org-mode, turning on
  785. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  786. into Org-mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  787. like this:
  788. @example
  789. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  790. @end example
  791. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  792. @noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what
  793. the file's name is. See also the variable
  794. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  795. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  796. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  797. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  798. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  799. @lisp
  800. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  801. @end lisp
  802. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  803. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  804. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  805. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  806. @section Feedback
  807. @cindex feedback
  808. @cindex bug reports
  809. @cindex maintainer
  810. @cindex author
  811. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  812. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  813. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  814. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  815. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  816. moderators have to do.}.
  817. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  818. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  819. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  820. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  821. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  822. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  823. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  824. @example
  825. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  826. @end example
  827. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  828. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  829. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  830. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org-mode
  831. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  832. customisations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  833. if the problem is with your customisation or with Org-mode itself. You can
  834. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  835. @example
  836. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  837. @end example
  838. However if you are using Org-mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  839. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as @code{emacs
  840. -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as shown below.
  841. @example
  842. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'
  843. ;; activate debugging
  844. (setq debug-on-error t
  845. debug-on-signal nil
  846. debug-on-quit nil)
  847. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  848. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  849. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp"))
  850. ;; activate org
  851. (require 'org-install)
  852. @end example
  853. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  854. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  855. about:
  856. @enumerate
  857. @item What exactly did you do?
  858. @item What did you expect to happen?
  859. @item What happened instead?
  860. @end enumerate
  861. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  862. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  863. @cindex backtrace of an error
  864. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  865. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  866. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  867. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  868. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  869. @enumerate
  870. @item
  871. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org-mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  872. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  873. To do this, use
  874. @example
  875. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  876. @end example
  877. @noindent
  878. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  879. menu.
  880. @item
  881. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  882. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  883. @item
  884. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  885. document the steps you take.
  886. @item
  887. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  888. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  889. attach it to your bug report.
  890. @end enumerate
  891. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  892. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  893. Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
  894. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  895. @table @code
  896. @item TODO
  897. @itemx WAITING
  898. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  899. user-defined.
  900. @item boss
  901. @itemx ARCHIVE
  902. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  903. meaning are written with all capitals.
  904. @item Release
  905. @itemx PRIORITY
  906. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  907. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  908. @end table
  909. The manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for accessing
  910. functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different functions,
  911. depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has a generic
  912. name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever possible,
  913. give the function that is internally called by the generic command. For
  914. example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will be
  915. listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it will
  916. be listed to call org-table-move-column-right.
  917. If you prefer, you can compile the manual without the command names by
  918. unsetting the flag @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  919. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  920. @chapter Document structure
  921. @cindex document structure
  922. @cindex structure of document
  923. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  924. edit the structure of the document.
  925. @menu
  926. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  927. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  928. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  929. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  930. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  931. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  932. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  933. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  934. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  935. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  936. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  937. @end menu
  938. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  939. @section Outlines
  940. @cindex outlines
  941. @cindex Outline mode
  942. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  943. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  944. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  945. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  946. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  947. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  948. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  949. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  950. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  951. @section Headlines
  952. @cindex headlines
  953. @cindex outline tree
  954. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  955. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  956. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  957. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  958. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  959. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  960. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  961. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.}. For example:
  962. @example
  963. * Top level headline
  964. ** Second level
  965. *** 3rd level
  966. some text
  967. *** 3rd level
  968. more text
  969. * Another top level headline
  970. @end example
  971. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  972. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  973. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  974. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  975. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  976. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  977. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  978. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  979. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  980. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  981. @section Visibility cycling
  982. @cindex cycling, visibility
  983. @cindex visibility cycling
  984. @cindex trees, visibility
  985. @cindex show hidden text
  986. @cindex hide text
  987. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  988. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  989. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  990. @cindex subtree visibility states
  991. @cindex subtree cycling
  992. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  993. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  994. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  995. @table @asis
  996. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  997. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  998. @example
  999. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1000. '-----------------------------------'
  1001. @end example
  1002. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1003. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1004. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1005. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1006. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1007. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1008. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1009. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1010. @cindex global visibility states
  1011. @cindex global cycling
  1012. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1013. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1014. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1015. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1016. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1017. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1018. @example
  1019. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1020. '--------------------------------------'
  1021. @end example
  1022. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1023. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1024. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1025. @cindex show all, command
  1026. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  1027. Show all, including drawers.
  1028. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1029. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1030. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1031. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1032. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1033. level, all sibling headings. With double prefix arg, also show the entire
  1034. subtree of the parent.
  1035. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1036. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1037. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1038. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1039. buffer
  1040. @ifinfo
  1041. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1042. @end ifinfo
  1043. @ifnotinfo
  1044. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1045. @end ifnotinfo
  1046. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1047. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1048. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1049. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1050. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1051. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1052. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1053. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1054. @end table
  1055. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1056. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1057. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1058. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1059. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1060. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1061. OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1062. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1063. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1064. buffer:
  1065. @example
  1066. #+STARTUP: overview
  1067. #+STARTUP: content
  1068. #+STARTUP: showall
  1069. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1070. @end example
  1071. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1072. @noindent
  1073. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1074. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1075. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1076. @code{all}.
  1077. @table @asis
  1078. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1079. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.@: whatever is
  1080. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1081. entries.
  1082. @end table
  1083. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1084. @section Motion
  1085. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1086. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1087. @cindex headline navigation
  1088. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1089. @table @asis
  1090. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1091. Next heading.
  1092. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1093. Previous heading.
  1094. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1095. Next heading same level.
  1096. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1097. Previous heading same level.
  1098. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1099. Backward to higher level heading.
  1100. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1101. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1102. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1103. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1104. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1105. @example
  1106. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1107. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1108. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1109. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1110. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1111. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1112. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1113. u @r{One level up.}
  1114. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1115. q @r{Quit}
  1116. @end example
  1117. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1118. @noindent
  1119. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1120. @end table
  1121. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1122. @section Structure editing
  1123. @cindex structure editing
  1124. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1125. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1126. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1127. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1128. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1129. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1130. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1131. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1132. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1133. @table @asis
  1134. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1135. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1136. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1137. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1138. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1139. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1140. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1141. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1142. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1143. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1144. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.@:
  1145. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1146. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1147. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1148. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1149. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1150. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1151. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1152. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1153. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1154. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1155. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1156. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1157. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1158. subtree.
  1159. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1160. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1161. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1162. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1163. to the initial level.
  1164. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1165. Promote current heading by one level.
  1166. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1167. Demote current heading by one level.
  1168. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1169. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1170. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1171. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1172. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1173. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1174. level).
  1175. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1176. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1177. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1178. Kill subtree, i.e.@: remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1179. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1180. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1181. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1182. sequential subtrees.
  1183. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1184. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1185. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1186. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1187. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1188. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1189. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1190. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1191. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1192. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1193. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1194. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1195. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1196. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1197. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1198. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1199. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1200. folding.
  1201. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1202. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1203. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1204. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1205. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1206. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1207. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1208. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1209. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  1210. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort-entries-or-items}
  1211. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1212. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1213. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1214. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1215. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1216. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1217. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1218. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1219. sorting will be case-sensitive. With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, duplicate
  1220. entries will also be removed.
  1221. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1222. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1223. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1224. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1225. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1226. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1227. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1228. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1229. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1230. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1231. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1232. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1233. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1234. @end table
  1235. @cindex region, active
  1236. @cindex active region
  1237. @cindex transient mark mode
  1238. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1239. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1240. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1241. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1242. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1243. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1244. functionality.
  1245. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1246. @section Sparse trees
  1247. @cindex sparse trees
  1248. @cindex trees, sparse
  1249. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1250. @cindex occur, command
  1251. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1252. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1253. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1254. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1255. An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1256. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1257. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1258. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1259. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1260. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1261. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1262. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1263. Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1264. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1265. @table @asis
  1266. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1267. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1268. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1269. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1270. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1271. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1272. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1273. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1274. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1275. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1276. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1277. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1278. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1279. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1280. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1281. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1282. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1283. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1284. @end table
  1285. @noindent
  1286. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1287. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1288. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1289. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1290. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1291. For example:
  1292. @lisp
  1293. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1294. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1295. @end lisp
  1296. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1297. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1298. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1299. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1300. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1301. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1302. @cindex visible text, printing
  1303. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1304. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1305. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1306. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1307. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1308. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1309. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1310. @section Plain lists
  1311. @cindex plain lists
  1312. @cindex lists, plain
  1313. @cindex lists, ordered
  1314. @cindex ordered lists
  1315. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1316. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1317. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1318. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1319. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1320. @itemize @bullet
  1321. @item
  1322. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1323. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1324. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1325. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1326. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1327. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1328. bullets.
  1329. @item
  1330. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1331. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1332. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1333. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1334. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1335. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1336. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1337. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1338. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1339. list to start with a different value (e.g.@: 20), start the text of the item
  1340. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1341. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1342. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1343. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1344. @item
  1345. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1346. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1347. description.
  1348. @end itemize
  1349. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1350. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1351. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1352. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1353. than its bullet/number.
  1354. @vindex org-list-ending-method
  1355. @vindex org-list-end-regexp
  1356. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1357. Two methods@footnote{To disable either of them, configure
  1358. @code{org-list-ending-method}.} are provided to terminate lists. A list ends
  1359. whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less or equally
  1360. indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1361. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1362. that case, all items are closed. For finer control, you can end lists with
  1363. any pattern set in @code{org-list-end-regexp}. Here is an example:
  1364. @example
  1365. @group
  1366. ** Lord of the Rings
  1367. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1368. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1369. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1370. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1371. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1372. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1373. - on DVD only
  1374. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1375. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1376. Important actors in this film are:
  1377. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1378. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1379. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1380. @end group
  1381. @end example
  1382. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1383. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1384. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1385. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1386. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1387. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1388. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1389. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1390. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1391. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1392. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1393. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1394. indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1395. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1396. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1397. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1398. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1399. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1400. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1401. to disable them individually.
  1402. @table @asis
  1403. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1404. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1405. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1406. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1407. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1408. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1409. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the
  1410. indentation of the bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real
  1411. headlines, however; the hierarchies remain completely separated.
  1412. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1413. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1414. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1415. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1416. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1417. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1418. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1419. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1420. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1421. one.
  1422. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1423. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1424. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1425. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1426. In a new item with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the item to
  1427. become a child of the previous one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to
  1428. meaningful levels in the list and eventually get it back to its initial
  1429. position.
  1430. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1431. @item S-@key{up}
  1432. @itemx S-@key{down}
  1433. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1434. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1435. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1436. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1437. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1438. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1439. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1440. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1441. similar effect.
  1442. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1443. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1444. @item M-@key{up}
  1445. @itemx M-@key{down}
  1446. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1447. @code{org-liste-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1448. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1449. is automatic.
  1450. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1451. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1452. @item M-@key{left}
  1453. @itemx M-@key{right}
  1454. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1455. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1456. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1457. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1458. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1459. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1460. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1461. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1462. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1463. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1464. motion or so.
  1465. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1466. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1467. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1468. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1469. @kindex C-c C-c
  1470. @item C-c C-c
  1471. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1472. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1473. consistency in the whole list.
  1474. @kindex C-c -
  1475. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1476. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1477. @item C-c -
  1478. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1479. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1480. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1481. and its position@footnote{See @code{bullet} rule in
  1482. @code{org-list-automatic-rules} for more information.}. With a numeric
  1483. prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an
  1484. active region when calling this, selected text will be changed into an item.
  1485. With a prefix argument, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1486. first line already was a list item, any item marker will be removed from the
  1487. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1488. converted into a list item.
  1489. @kindex C-c *
  1490. @item C-c *
  1491. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1492. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1493. @kindex C-c C-*
  1494. @item C-c C-*
  1495. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1496. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1497. (resp. checked).
  1498. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1499. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1500. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  1501. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1502. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1503. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1504. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1505. @kindex C-c ^
  1506. @item C-c ^
  1507. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1508. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1509. @end table
  1510. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1511. @section Drawers
  1512. @cindex drawers
  1513. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1514. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1515. @vindex org-drawers
  1516. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1517. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org-mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1518. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1519. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
  1520. with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}. Drawers
  1521. look like this:
  1522. @example
  1523. ** This is a headline
  1524. Still outside the drawer
  1525. :DRAWERNAME:
  1526. This is inside the drawer.
  1527. :END:
  1528. After the drawer.
  1529. @end example
  1530. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1531. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1532. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1533. press @key{TAB} there. Org-mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1534. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1535. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1536. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1537. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1538. @table @kbd
  1539. @kindex C-c C-z
  1540. @item C-c C-z
  1541. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1542. @end table
  1543. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1544. @section Blocks
  1545. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1546. @cindex blocks, folding
  1547. Org-mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1548. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1549. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1550. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1551. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1552. or on a per-file basis by using
  1553. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1554. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1555. @example
  1556. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1557. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1558. @end example
  1559. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1560. @section Footnotes
  1561. @cindex footnotes
  1562. Org-mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1563. @file{footnote.el} package, Org-mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1564. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1565. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e.@: a footnote is
  1566. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1567. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1568. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1569. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1570. @example
  1571. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1572. ...
  1573. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1574. @end example
  1575. Org-mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1576. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1577. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1578. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1579. LaTeX}). Here are the valid references:
  1580. @table @code
  1581. @item [1]
  1582. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1583. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1584. snippet.
  1585. @item [fn:name]
  1586. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1587. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1588. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1589. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1590. reference point.
  1591. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1592. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1593. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1594. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1595. @end table
  1596. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1597. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1598. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1599. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1600. for details.
  1601. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1602. @table @kbd
  1603. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1604. @item C-c C-x f
  1605. The footnote action command.
  1606. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1607. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1608. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1609. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1610. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1611. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1612. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1613. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1614. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1615. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1616. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1617. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1618. options is offered:
  1619. @example
  1620. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1621. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1622. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1623. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1624. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1625. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1626. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1627. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1628. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1629. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1630. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1631. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1632. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1633. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g.@: sending}
  1634. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1635. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1636. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1637. @r{to it.}
  1638. @end example
  1639. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1640. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1641. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1642. deletion.
  1643. @kindex C-c C-c
  1644. @item C-c C-c
  1645. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1646. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1647. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1648. @kindex C-c C-o
  1649. @kindex mouse-1
  1650. @kindex mouse-2
  1651. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1652. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1653. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1654. @end table
  1655. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1656. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1657. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1658. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1659. If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode structure editing and list
  1660. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1661. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1662. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1663. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1664. @lisp
  1665. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1666. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1667. @end lisp
  1668. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1669. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1670. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1671. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1672. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1673. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1674. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1675. item.
  1676. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1677. @chapter Tables
  1678. @cindex tables
  1679. @cindex editing tables
  1680. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1681. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1682. @ifinfo
  1683. (@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1684. @end ifinfo
  1685. @ifnotinfo
  1686. (see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
  1687. calculator).
  1688. @end ifnotinfo
  1689. @menu
  1690. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1691. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1692. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1693. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1694. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1695. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1696. @end menu
  1697. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1698. @section The built-in table editor
  1699. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1700. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1701. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1702. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1703. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1704. might look like this:
  1705. @example
  1706. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1707. |-------+-------+-----|
  1708. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1709. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1710. @end example
  1711. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1712. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1713. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1714. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1715. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1716. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1717. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1718. create the above table, you would only type
  1719. @example
  1720. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1721. |-
  1722. @end example
  1723. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1724. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1725. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1726. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1727. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1728. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1729. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1730. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1731. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1732. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1733. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1734. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1735. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1736. @table @kbd
  1737. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1738. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1739. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1740. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1741. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1742. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1743. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1744. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1745. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1746. @*
  1747. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1748. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1749. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1750. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1751. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1752. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1753. @c
  1754. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1755. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1756. necessary.
  1757. @c
  1758. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1759. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1760. @c
  1761. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1762. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1763. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1764. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1765. @c
  1766. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1767. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1768. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1769. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1770. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1771. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1772. Move the current column left/right.
  1773. @c
  1774. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1775. Kill the current column.
  1776. @c
  1777. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1778. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1779. @c
  1780. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1781. Move the current row up/down.
  1782. @c
  1783. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1784. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1785. @c
  1786. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1787. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1788. created below the current one.
  1789. @c
  1790. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1791. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1792. is created above the current line.
  1793. @c
  1794. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1795. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1796. below that line.
  1797. @c
  1798. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1799. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1800. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1801. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1802. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1803. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1804. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1805. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1806. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1807. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1808. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1809. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1810. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1811. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1812. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1813. @c
  1814. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1815. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1816. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1817. @c
  1818. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1819. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1820. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1821. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1822. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1823. lines.
  1824. @c
  1825. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1826. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1827. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1828. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1829. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1830. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1831. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1832. above.
  1833. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1834. @cindex formula, in tables
  1835. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1836. @cindex region, active
  1837. @cindex active region
  1838. @cindex transient mark mode
  1839. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1840. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1841. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1842. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1843. @c
  1844. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1845. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1846. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1847. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1848. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1849. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1850. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1851. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1852. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1853. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1854. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1855. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1856. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1857. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1858. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1859. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1860. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1861. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1862. @c
  1863. @item M-x org-table-import
  1864. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1865. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1866. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1867. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1868. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1869. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1870. separator.
  1871. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1872. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1873. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1874. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1875. @c
  1876. @item M-x org-table-export
  1877. @findex org-table-export
  1878. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1879. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1880. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1881. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1882. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1883. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1884. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1885. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1886. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1887. detailed description.
  1888. @end table
  1889. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1890. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1891. it off with
  1892. @lisp
  1893. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1894. @end lisp
  1895. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1896. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1897. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1898. @section Column width and alignment
  1899. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1900. @cindex alignment in tables
  1901. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1902. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1903. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1904. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1905. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1906. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1907. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1908. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1909. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1910. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1911. @example
  1912. @group
  1913. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1914. | | | | | <6> |
  1915. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1916. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1917. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1918. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1919. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1920. @end group
  1921. @end example
  1922. @noindent
  1923. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1924. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1925. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1926. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1927. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1928. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1929. C-c}.
  1930. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1931. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1932. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1933. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1934. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1935. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1936. on a per-file basis with:
  1937. @example
  1938. #+STARTUP: align
  1939. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1940. @end example
  1941. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1942. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  1943. @samp{c}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1944. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  1945. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1946. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1947. automatically when exporting the document.
  1948. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1949. @section Column groups
  1950. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1951. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1952. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1953. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1954. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1955. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1956. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1957. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1958. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} to make a column
  1959. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1960. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1961. @example
  1962. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1963. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1964. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1965. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1966. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1967. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1968. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1969. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1970. @end example
  1971. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1972. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1973. @example
  1974. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1975. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1976. | / | < | | | < | |
  1977. @end example
  1978. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  1979. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  1980. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1981. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1982. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  1983. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  1984. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  1985. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1986. example in Message mode, use
  1987. @lisp
  1988. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1989. @end lisp
  1990. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  1991. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  1992. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  1993. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  1994. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  1995. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  1996. @section The spreadsheet
  1997. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1998. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  1999. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2000. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2001. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2002. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2003. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2004. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2005. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2006. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2007. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2008. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2009. @menu
  2010. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2011. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2012. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2013. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2014. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2015. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2016. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2017. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2018. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2019. @end menu
  2020. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  2021. @subsection References
  2022. @cindex references
  2023. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2024. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2025. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2026. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2027. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2028. @subsubheading Field references
  2029. @cindex field references
  2030. @cindex references, to fields
  2031. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2032. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2033. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2034. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2035. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2036. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2037. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  2038. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2039. representation that looks like this:
  2040. @example
  2041. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2042. @end example
  2043. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2044. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e.@: the
  2045. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2046. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2047. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2048. column from the right.
  2049. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2050. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2051. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2052. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2053. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2054. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2055. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2056. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2057. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2058. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2059. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc@. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2060. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2061. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2062. after the third hline in the table.
  2063. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2064. i.e. to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2065. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2066. implied.
  2067. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2068. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2069. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2070. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2071. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2072. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2073. Here are a few examples:
  2074. @example
  2075. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2076. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2077. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2078. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2079. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2080. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2081. @end example
  2082. @subsubheading Range references
  2083. @cindex range references
  2084. @cindex references, to ranges
  2085. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2086. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2087. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2088. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2089. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2090. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2091. @example
  2092. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2093. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2094. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2095. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2096. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2097. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2098. @end example
  2099. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2100. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2101. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2102. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2103. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2104. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2105. @cindex field coordinates
  2106. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2107. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2108. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2109. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2110. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2111. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2112. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2113. @example
  2114. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2115. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2116. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2117. @end example
  2118. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2119. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2120. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2121. number of rows.
  2122. @subsubheading Named references
  2123. @cindex named references
  2124. @cindex references, named
  2125. @cindex name, of column or field
  2126. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2127. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2128. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2129. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2130. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2131. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2132. line like
  2133. @example
  2134. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2135. @end example
  2136. @noindent
  2137. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2138. @pindex constants.el
  2139. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2140. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2141. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2142. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2143. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2144. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2145. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2146. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2147. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2148. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2149. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2150. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2151. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2152. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2153. numbers.
  2154. @subsubheading Remote references
  2155. @cindex remote references
  2156. @cindex references, remote
  2157. @cindex references, to a different table
  2158. @cindex name, of column or field
  2159. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2160. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2161. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2162. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2163. @example
  2164. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2165. @end example
  2166. @noindent
  2167. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2168. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2169. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2170. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2171. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2172. referenced table.
  2173. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2174. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2175. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2176. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2177. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2178. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2179. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2180. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2181. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2182. Your Programs,calc-eval,Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs,Calc,GNU
  2183. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2184. @c FIXME: The link to the Calc manual in HTML does not work.
  2185. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2186. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2187. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2188. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2189. @cindex format specifier
  2190. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2191. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2192. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2193. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2194. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2195. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2196. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2197. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2198. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2199. @example
  2200. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2201. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2202. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2203. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2204. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2205. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2206. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2207. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  2208. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  2209. L @r{literal}
  2210. @end example
  2211. @noindent
  2212. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2213. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2214. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2215. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2216. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2217. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2218. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2219. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2220. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2221. A few examples:
  2222. @example
  2223. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2224. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2225. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2226. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2227. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2228. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2229. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2230. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2231. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  2232. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2233. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2234. @end example
  2235. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2236. @example
  2237. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{"teen" if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  2238. @end example
  2239. Note that you can also use two org-specific flags @code{T} and @code{t} for
  2240. durations computations @ref{Durations and time values}.
  2241. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2242. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2243. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2244. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful for
  2245. string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is not
  2246. enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening
  2247. parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should
  2248. return either a string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you
  2249. can specify modes and a printf format after a semicolon. With Emacs Lisp
  2250. forms, you need to be conscious about the way field references are
  2251. interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be interpolated as
  2252. a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If you provide the
  2253. @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers (non-number
  2254. fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If
  2255. you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally,
  2256. without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string
  2257. by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes,
  2258. like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  2259. embed them in list or vector syntax. Here are a few examples---note how the
  2260. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp:
  2261. @example
  2262. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2263. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2264. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2265. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2266. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2267. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2268. @end example
  2269. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2270. @subsection Durations and time values
  2271. @cindex Duration, computing
  2272. @cindex Time, computing
  2273. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2274. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2275. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2276. @example
  2277. @group
  2278. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2279. |---------+----------+----------|
  2280. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2281. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2282. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2283. @end group
  2284. @end example
  2285. Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2286. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2287. as @code{[HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2288. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the variable
  2289. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2290. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2291. example above).
  2292. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2293. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2294. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2295. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2296. @cindex field formula
  2297. @cindex range formula
  2298. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2299. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2300. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2301. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2302. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2303. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2304. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2305. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2306. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2307. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2308. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2309. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2310. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2311. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2312. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2313. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2314. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2315. of cause not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2316. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2317. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2318. command
  2319. @table @kbd
  2320. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2321. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2322. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2323. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2324. @end table
  2325. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2326. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2327. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2328. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2329. directly.
  2330. @table @code
  2331. @item $2=
  2332. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2333. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2334. @item @@3=
  2335. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2336. the last row.
  2337. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2338. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2339. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2340. @item $name=
  2341. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2342. @end table
  2343. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2344. @subsection Column formulas
  2345. @cindex column formula
  2346. @cindex formula, for table column
  2347. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2348. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2349. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2350. hlines, everything before the first such line is considered part of the table
  2351. @emph{header} and will not be modified by column formulas. (ii) Fields that
  2352. already get a value from a field/range formula will be left alone by column
  2353. formulas. These conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2354. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2355. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2356. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2357. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2358. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2359. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2360. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2361. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2362. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2363. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2364. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2365. following command:
  2366. @table @kbd
  2367. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2368. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2369. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2370. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2371. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g.@: @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2372. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2373. @end table
  2374. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2375. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2376. @cindex formula editing
  2377. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2378. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2379. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2380. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2381. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2382. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2383. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2384. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2385. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2386. @table @kbd
  2387. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2388. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2389. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2390. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2391. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2392. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2393. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2394. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2395. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2396. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2397. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2398. @kindex C-c @}
  2399. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2400. @item C-c @}
  2401. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2402. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2403. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2404. @kindex C-c @{
  2405. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2406. @item C-c @{
  2407. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2408. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2409. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2410. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2411. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2412. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2413. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2414. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2415. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2416. @table @kbd
  2417. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2418. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2419. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2420. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2421. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2422. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2423. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2424. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2425. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2426. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2427. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2428. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2429. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2430. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2431. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2432. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2433. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2434. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2435. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2436. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2437. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2438. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2439. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2440. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2441. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2442. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2443. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2444. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2445. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2446. down.
  2447. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2448. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2449. @kindex C-c @}
  2450. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2451. @item C-c @}
  2452. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2453. @end table
  2454. @end table
  2455. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2456. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2457. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2458. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2459. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2460. @kindex C-c C-c
  2461. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2462. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2463. recalculation commands in the table.
  2464. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2465. @cindex formula debugging
  2466. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2467. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2468. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2469. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2470. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2471. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2472. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2473. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2474. @subsection Updating the table
  2475. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2476. @cindex updating, table
  2477. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2478. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2479. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2480. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2481. following commands:
  2482. @table @kbd
  2483. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2484. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2485. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2486. @c
  2487. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2488. @item C-u C-c *
  2489. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2490. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2491. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2492. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2493. @c
  2494. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2495. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2496. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2497. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2498. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2499. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2500. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2501. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2502. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2503. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2504. dependencies.
  2505. @end table
  2506. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2507. @subsection Advanced features
  2508. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2509. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2510. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2511. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2512. special marking characters.
  2513. @table @kbd
  2514. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2515. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2516. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2517. change all marks in the region.
  2518. @end table
  2519. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2520. makes use of these features:
  2521. @example
  2522. @group
  2523. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2524. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2525. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2526. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2527. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2528. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2529. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2530. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2531. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2532. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2533. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2534. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2535. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2536. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2537. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2538. @end group
  2539. @end example
  2540. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2541. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2542. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2543. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2544. empty first field.
  2545. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2546. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2547. @table @samp
  2548. @item !
  2549. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2550. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2551. @item ^
  2552. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2553. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2554. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2555. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2556. @item _
  2557. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2558. @emph{below}.
  2559. @item $
  2560. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2561. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2562. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2563. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2564. a per-table basis.
  2565. @item #
  2566. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2567. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2568. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2569. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2570. @item *
  2571. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2572. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2573. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2574. @item
  2575. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2576. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2577. or @samp{*}.
  2578. @item /
  2579. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2580. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2581. @end table
  2582. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2583. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2584. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2585. functions.
  2586. @example
  2587. @group
  2588. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2589. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2590. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2591. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2592. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2593. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2594. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2595. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2596. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2597. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2598. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2599. @end group
  2600. @end example
  2601. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2602. @section Org-Plot
  2603. @cindex graph, in tables
  2604. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2605. @cindex #+PLOT
  2606. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2607. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2608. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2609. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2610. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2611. @example
  2612. @group
  2613. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2614. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2615. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2616. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2617. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2618. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2619. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2620. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2621. @end group
  2622. @end example
  2623. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2624. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2625. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2626. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2627. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2628. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2629. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2630. @table @code
  2631. @item set
  2632. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2633. @item title
  2634. Specify the title of the plot.
  2635. @item ind
  2636. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2637. @item deps
  2638. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2639. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2640. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2641. column).
  2642. @item type
  2643. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2644. @item with
  2645. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2646. (e.g.@: @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2647. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2648. @item file
  2649. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2650. @item labels
  2651. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2652. if they exist).
  2653. @item line
  2654. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2655. @item map
  2656. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2657. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2658. @item timefmt
  2659. Specify format of Org-mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2660. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2661. @item script
  2662. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2663. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2664. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2665. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2666. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2667. the data file.
  2668. @end table
  2669. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2670. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2671. @cindex hyperlinks
  2672. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2673. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2674. @menu
  2675. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2676. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2677. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2678. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2679. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2680. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2681. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2682. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2683. @end menu
  2684. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2685. @section Link format
  2686. @cindex link format
  2687. @cindex format, of links
  2688. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2689. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2690. @example
  2691. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2692. @end example
  2693. @noindent
  2694. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2695. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2696. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2697. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2698. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2699. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2700. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2701. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2702. cursor on the link.
  2703. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2704. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2705. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2706. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2707. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2708. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2709. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2710. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2711. @section Internal links
  2712. @cindex internal links
  2713. @cindex links, internal
  2714. @cindex targets, for links
  2715. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2716. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2717. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2718. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2719. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2720. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2721. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2722. in a file.
  2723. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2724. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2725. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2726. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2727. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2728. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2729. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2730. comment line. For example
  2731. @example
  2732. # <<My Target>>
  2733. @end example
  2734. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2735. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2736. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2737. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2738. first headline.}.
  2739. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2740. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2741. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2742. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2743. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2744. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2745. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2746. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2747. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2748. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2749. earlier.
  2750. @menu
  2751. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2752. @end menu
  2753. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2754. @subsection Radio targets
  2755. @cindex radio targets
  2756. @cindex targets, radio
  2757. @cindex links, radio targets
  2758. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2759. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2760. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2761. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2762. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2763. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2764. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2765. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2766. cursor on or at a target.
  2767. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2768. @section External links
  2769. @cindex links, external
  2770. @cindex external links
  2771. @cindex links, external
  2772. @cindex Gnus links
  2773. @cindex BBDB links
  2774. @cindex IRC links
  2775. @cindex URL links
  2776. @cindex file links
  2777. @cindex VM links
  2778. @cindex RMAIL links
  2779. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2780. @cindex MH-E links
  2781. @cindex USENET links
  2782. @cindex SHELL links
  2783. @cindex Info links
  2784. @cindex Elisp links
  2785. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2786. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2787. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2788. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2789. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2790. @example
  2791. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2792. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2793. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2794. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2795. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2796. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2797. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2798. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2799. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  2800. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2801. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  2802. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  2803. the variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  2804. is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  2805. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  2806. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  2807. will be queried to create it.}
  2808. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2809. file+sys:/path/to/file @r{open via OS, like double-click}
  2810. file+emacs:/path/to/file @r{force opening by Emacs}
  2811. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  2812. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2813. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2814. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2815. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2816. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2817. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2818. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2819. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2820. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2821. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2822. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2823. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2824. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2825. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2826. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2827. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2828. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  2829. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2830. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2831. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2832. @end example
  2833. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2834. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2835. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2836. format}), for example:
  2837. @example
  2838. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2839. @end example
  2840. @noindent
  2841. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2842. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2843. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2844. image,
  2845. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2846. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2847. @cindex plain text external links
  2848. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2849. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2850. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2851. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2852. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2853. @section Handling links
  2854. @cindex links, handling
  2855. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2856. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2857. @table @kbd
  2858. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2859. @cindex storing links
  2860. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2861. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2862. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2863. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2864. buffer:
  2865. @b{Org-mode buffers}@*
  2866. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2867. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2868. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  2869. removed from the link and result in a wrong link -- you should avoid putting
  2870. timestamp in the headline.}.
  2871. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2872. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2873. @cindex property, ID
  2874. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2875. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2876. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2877. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2878. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2879. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2880. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2881. to use.
  2882. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2883. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2884. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2885. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2886. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2887. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2888. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2889. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2890. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2891. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2892. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2893. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2894. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2895. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2896. @b{Other files}@*
  2897. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2898. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2899. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2900. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2901. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2902. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2903. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2904. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2905. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2906. entry referenced by the current line.
  2907. @c
  2908. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  2909. @cindex link completion
  2910. @cindex completion, of links
  2911. @cindex inserting links
  2912. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2913. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2914. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2915. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2916. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2917. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2918. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2919. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2920. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2921. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2922. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2923. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2924. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2925. becomes the default description.
  2926. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2927. All links stored during the
  2928. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2929. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2930. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2931. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2932. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2933. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2934. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2935. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2936. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2937. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2938. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2939. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  2940. @cindex file name completion
  2941. @cindex completion, of file names
  2942. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2943. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2944. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2945. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2946. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2947. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2948. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2949. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2950. @c
  2951. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2952. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2953. link and description parts of the link.
  2954. @c
  2955. @cindex following links
  2956. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  2957. @vindex org-file-apps
  2958. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  2959. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2960. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2961. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2962. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2963. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2964. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2965. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2966. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2967. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  2968. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  2969. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  2970. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  2971. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  2972. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  2973. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  2974. @orgkey @key{RET}
  2975. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  2976. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  2977. the link at point.
  2978. @c
  2979. @kindex mouse-2
  2980. @kindex mouse-1
  2981. @item mouse-2
  2982. @itemx mouse-1
  2983. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  2984. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  2985. @c
  2986. @kindex mouse-3
  2987. @item mouse-3
  2988. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  2989. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  2990. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  2991. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  2992. @c
  2993. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  2994. @cindex inlining images
  2995. @cindex images, inlining
  2996. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  2997. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2998. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2999. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3000. images that have no description part in the link, i.e.@: images that will also
  3001. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3002. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3003. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3004. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3005. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  3006. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3007. @cindex mark ring
  3008. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3009. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3010. @c
  3011. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3012. @cindex links, returning to
  3013. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3014. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3015. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3016. previously recorded positions.
  3017. @c
  3018. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3019. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3020. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3021. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3022. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3023. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3024. @lisp
  3025. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3026. (lambda ()
  3027. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3028. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3029. @end lisp
  3030. @end table
  3031. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  3032. @section Using links outside Org
  3033. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3034. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3035. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3036. yourself):
  3037. @lisp
  3038. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3039. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3040. @end lisp
  3041. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  3042. @section Link abbreviations
  3043. @cindex link abbreviations
  3044. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3045. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3046. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3047. abbreviated link looks like this
  3048. @example
  3049. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3050. @end example
  3051. @noindent
  3052. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3053. where the tag is optional.
  3054. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3055. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3056. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3057. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3058. @smalllisp
  3059. @group
  3060. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3061. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3062. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3063. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3064. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3065. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3066. @end group
  3067. @end smalllisp
  3068. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3069. replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
  3070. in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will
  3071. be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3072. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3073. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3074. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3075. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3076. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3077. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3078. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3079. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3080. can define them in the file with
  3081. @cindex #+LINK
  3082. @example
  3083. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3084. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3085. @end example
  3086. @noindent
  3087. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3088. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3089. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g.@: completion)
  3090. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3091. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3092. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3093. @section Search options in file links
  3094. @cindex search option in file links
  3095. @cindex file links, searching
  3096. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3097. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3098. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3099. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3100. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3101. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3102. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3103. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3104. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3105. link, together with an explanation:
  3106. @example
  3107. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3108. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3109. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3110. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3111. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3112. @end example
  3113. @table @code
  3114. @item 255
  3115. Jump to line 255.
  3116. @item My Target
  3117. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3118. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3119. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3120. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3121. the linked file.
  3122. @item *My Target
  3123. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3124. @item #my-custom-id
  3125. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3126. @item /regexp/
  3127. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3128. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3129. target file is in Org-mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3130. sparse tree with the matches.
  3131. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3132. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3133. @end table
  3134. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3135. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3136. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3137. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3138. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3139. @section Custom Searches
  3140. @cindex custom search strings
  3141. @cindex search strings, custom
  3142. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3143. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3144. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3145. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3146. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3147. citation key.
  3148. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3149. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3150. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3151. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3152. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3153. to be added to the hook variables
  3154. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3155. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3156. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3157. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3158. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3159. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3160. @chapter TODO items
  3161. @cindex TODO items
  3162. Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3163. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3164. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3165. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3166. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3167. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3168. item emerged is always present.
  3169. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3170. throughout your notes file. Org-mode compensates for this by providing
  3171. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3172. @menu
  3173. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3174. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3175. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3176. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3177. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3178. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3179. @end menu
  3180. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3181. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3182. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3183. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3184. @example
  3185. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3186. @end example
  3187. @noindent
  3188. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3189. @table @kbd
  3190. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3191. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3192. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3193. @example
  3194. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3195. '--------------------------------'
  3196. @end example
  3197. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3198. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3199. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3200. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  3201. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  3202. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  3203. more information.
  3204. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3205. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3206. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3207. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3208. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3209. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3210. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3211. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3212. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3213. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-key}
  3214. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3215. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3216. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3217. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3218. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3219. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3220. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3221. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3222. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3223. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3224. both un-done and done.
  3225. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3226. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3227. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3228. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3229. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3230. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3231. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3232. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3233. @end table
  3234. @noindent
  3235. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3236. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3237. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3238. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3239. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3240. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3241. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3242. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3243. DONE. Org-mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3244. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3245. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3246. files.
  3247. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3248. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3249. @menu
  3250. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3251. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3252. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3253. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3254. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3255. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3256. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3257. @end menu
  3258. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3259. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3260. @cindex TODO workflow
  3261. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3262. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3263. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3264. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org-mode in a
  3265. buffer.}:
  3266. @lisp
  3267. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3268. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3269. @end lisp
  3270. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3271. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3272. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3273. state.
  3274. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3275. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3276. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  3277. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3278. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  3279. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3280. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3281. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3282. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3283. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3284. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3285. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3286. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3287. @cindex TODO types
  3288. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3289. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3290. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3291. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3292. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3293. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3294. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3295. be set up like this:
  3296. @lisp
  3297. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3298. @end lisp
  3299. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3300. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3301. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org-mode supports this style by adapting
  3302. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3303. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3304. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3305. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3306. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3307. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3308. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3309. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3310. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3311. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3312. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3313. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3314. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3315. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3316. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3317. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3318. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3319. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3320. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3321. like this:
  3322. @lisp
  3323. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3324. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3325. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3326. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3327. @end lisp
  3328. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org-mode to keep track
  3329. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3330. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3331. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3332. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3333. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3334. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3335. @table @kbd
  3336. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3337. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3338. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3339. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3340. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3341. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3342. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3343. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3344. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3345. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3346. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3347. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3348. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3349. @item S-@key{right}
  3350. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3351. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3352. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3353. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3354. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3355. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3356. @end table
  3357. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3358. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3359. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3360. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3361. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section
  3362. key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3363. @lisp
  3364. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3365. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3366. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3367. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3368. @end lisp
  3369. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3370. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3371. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3372. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3373. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3374. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3375. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3376. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3377. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3378. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3379. @cindex keyword options
  3380. @cindex per-file keywords
  3381. @cindex #+TODO
  3382. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3383. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3384. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3385. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3386. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3387. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3388. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3389. file:
  3390. @example
  3391. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3392. @end example
  3393. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3394. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3395. @example
  3396. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3397. @end example
  3398. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3399. @example
  3400. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3401. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3402. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3403. @end example
  3404. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3405. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3406. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3407. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3408. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3409. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3410. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3411. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3412. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3413. known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode parses these lines only when
  3414. Org-mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3415. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org-mode
  3416. for the current buffer.}.
  3417. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3418. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3419. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3420. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3421. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3422. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3423. Org-mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3424. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3425. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3426. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3427. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3428. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3429. @lisp
  3430. @group
  3431. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3432. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3433. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3434. @end group
  3435. @end lisp
  3436. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3437. work, this does not aways seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3438. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3439. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3440. foreground or a background color.
  3441. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3442. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3443. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3444. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3445. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3446. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3447. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3448. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3449. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3450. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3451. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3452. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3453. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3454. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3455. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3456. example:
  3457. @example
  3458. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3459. ** DONE one
  3460. ** TODO two
  3461. * Parent
  3462. :PROPERTIES:
  3463. :ORDERED: t
  3464. :END:
  3465. ** TODO a
  3466. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3467. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3468. @end example
  3469. @table @kbd
  3470. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3471. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3472. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3473. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3474. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3475. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3476. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3477. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3478. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3479. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3480. @end table
  3481. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3482. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3483. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3484. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3485. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3486. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3487. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3488. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3489. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3490. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3491. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3492. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3493. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3494. @page
  3495. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3496. @section Progress logging
  3497. @cindex progress logging
  3498. @cindex logging, of progress
  3499. Org-mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3500. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3501. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3502. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3503. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3504. work time}.
  3505. @menu
  3506. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3507. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3508. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3509. @end menu
  3510. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3511. @subsection Closing items
  3512. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3513. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3514. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3515. @lisp
  3516. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3517. @end lisp
  3518. @noindent
  3519. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3520. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3521. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3522. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3523. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3524. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3525. @lisp
  3526. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3527. @end lisp
  3528. @noindent
  3529. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3530. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3531. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3532. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3533. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3534. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3535. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3536. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3537. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3538. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3539. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3540. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3541. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3542. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3543. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3544. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3545. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3546. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3547. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3548. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this
  3549. behavior---the recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}. You can
  3550. also overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3551. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3552. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org-mode
  3553. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3554. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3555. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3556. setting
  3557. @lisp
  3558. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3559. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3560. @end lisp
  3561. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3562. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3563. @noindent
  3564. @vindex org-log-done
  3565. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3566. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3567. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org-mode will record two timestamps
  3568. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3569. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3570. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3571. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3572. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3573. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3574. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3575. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3576. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3577. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3578. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3579. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3580. configured.
  3581. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3582. to a buffer:
  3583. @example
  3584. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3585. @end example
  3586. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3587. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3588. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3589. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3590. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3591. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3592. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3593. @example
  3594. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3595. :PROPERTIES:
  3596. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3597. :END:
  3598. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3599. :PROPERTIES:
  3600. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3601. :END:
  3602. * TODO No logging at all
  3603. :PROPERTIES:
  3604. :LOGGING: nil
  3605. :END:
  3606. @end example
  3607. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3608. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3609. @cindex habits
  3610. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3611. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3612. @enumerate
  3613. @item
  3614. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3615. @code{org-modules}.
  3616. @item
  3617. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3618. @item
  3619. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3620. @item
  3621. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3622. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3623. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3624. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3625. @item
  3626. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3627. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3628. three days, but at most every two days.
  3629. @item
  3630. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3631. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it is not
  3632. enabled it is not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3633. meaningless.
  3634. @end enumerate
  3635. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3636. actual habit with some history:
  3637. @example
  3638. ** TODO Shave
  3639. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3640. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3641. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3642. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3643. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3644. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3645. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3646. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3647. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3648. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3649. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3650. :PROPERTIES:
  3651. :STYLE: habit
  3652. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3653. :END:
  3654. @end example
  3655. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3656. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3657. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3658. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3659. after four days have elapsed.
  3660. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3661. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3662. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3663. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3664. @table @code
  3665. @item Blue
  3666. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3667. @item Green
  3668. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3669. @item Yellow
  3670. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3671. @item Red
  3672. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3673. @end table
  3674. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3675. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3676. the current day falls in the graph.
  3677. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3678. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3679. @table @code
  3680. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3681. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3682. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3683. titles brief and to the point.
  3684. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3685. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3686. @item org-habit-following-days
  3687. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3688. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3689. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3690. default.
  3691. @end table
  3692. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3693. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3694. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3695. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3696. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3697. @section Priorities
  3698. @cindex priorities
  3699. If you use Org-mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3700. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3701. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3702. @example
  3703. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3704. @end example
  3705. @noindent
  3706. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3707. By default, Org-mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3708. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3709. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3710. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3711. have no inherent meaning to Org-mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3712. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3713. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3714. items.
  3715. @table @kbd
  3716. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3717. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3718. @findex org-priority
  3719. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3720. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3721. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3722. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3723. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3724. @c
  3725. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3726. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3727. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3728. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3729. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3730. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3731. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3732. @end table
  3733. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3734. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3735. @vindex org-default-priority
  3736. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3737. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3738. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3739. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3740. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3741. priority):
  3742. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3743. @example
  3744. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3745. @end example
  3746. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3747. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3748. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3749. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3750. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3751. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3752. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3753. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3754. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3755. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3756. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3757. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3758. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3759. @example
  3760. * Organize Party [33%]
  3761. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3762. *** TODO Peter
  3763. *** DONE Sarah
  3764. ** TODO Buy food
  3765. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3766. @end example
  3767. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3768. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3769. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3770. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3771. this issue.
  3772. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3773. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3774. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3775. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3776. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3777. property.
  3778. @example
  3779. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3780. :PROPERTIES:
  3781. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3782. :END:
  3783. @end example
  3784. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3785. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3786. @example
  3787. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3788. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3789. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3790. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3791. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3792. @end example
  3793. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3794. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3795. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3796. @section Checkboxes
  3797. @cindex checkboxes
  3798. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3799. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3800. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3801. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3802. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3803. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3804. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3805. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3806. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3807. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3808. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3809. @example
  3810. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3811. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3812. - [ ] Peter
  3813. - [X] Sarah
  3814. - [ ] Sam
  3815. - [X] order food
  3816. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3817. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3818. @end example
  3819. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3820. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3821. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3822. checked.
  3823. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3824. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3825. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3826. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3827. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3828. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3829. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3830. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3831. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3832. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3833. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3834. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3835. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3836. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3837. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3838. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3839. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3840. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3841. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3842. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3843. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3844. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3845. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3846. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3847. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3848. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3849. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3850. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3851. @table @kbd
  3852. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3853. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3854. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3855. intermediate state.
  3856. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3857. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3858. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3859. intermediate state.
  3860. @itemize @minus
  3861. @item
  3862. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3863. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3864. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3865. @item
  3866. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3867. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3868. @item
  3869. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3870. @end itemize
  3871. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3872. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  3873. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3874. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3875. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3876. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3877. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3878. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3879. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3880. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3881. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3882. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3883. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  3884. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3885. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3886. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3887. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3888. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3889. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  3890. @end table
  3891. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3892. @chapter Tags
  3893. @cindex tags
  3894. @cindex headline tagging
  3895. @cindex matching, tags
  3896. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3897. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3898. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org-mode has extensive
  3899. support for tags.
  3900. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3901. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3902. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3903. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3904. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3905. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3906. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3907. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3908. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3909. @menu
  3910. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3911. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3912. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3913. @end menu
  3914. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3915. @section Tag inheritance
  3916. @cindex tag inheritance
  3917. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3918. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3919. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3920. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3921. well. For example, in the list
  3922. @example
  3923. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3924. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3925. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3926. @end example
  3927. @noindent
  3928. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3929. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3930. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3931. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3932. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3933. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3934. changes in the line.}:
  3935. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3936. @example
  3937. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3938. @end example
  3939. @noindent
  3940. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3941. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3942. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  3943. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  3944. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3945. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3946. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3947. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3948. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3949. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3950. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3951. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3952. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  3953. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  3954. @section Setting tags
  3955. @cindex setting tags
  3956. @cindex tags, setting
  3957. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3958. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  3959. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  3960. also a special command for inserting tags:
  3961. @table @kbd
  3962. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  3963. @cindex completion, of tags
  3964. @vindex org-tags-column
  3965. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org-mode will either offer
  3966. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  3967. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  3968. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  3969. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  3970. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  3971. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  3972. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  3973. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  3974. @end table
  3975. @vindex org-tag-alist
  3976. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  3977. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  3978. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  3979. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  3980. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  3981. @cindex #+TAGS
  3982. @example
  3983. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  3984. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  3985. @end example
  3986. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  3987. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  3988. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  3989. @example
  3990. #+TAGS:
  3991. @end example
  3992. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  3993. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  3994. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  3995. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  3996. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  3997. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  3998. @example
  3999. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4000. @end example
  4001. By default Org-mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4002. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4003. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4004. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4005. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  4006. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  4007. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  4008. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4009. like:
  4010. @lisp
  4011. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4012. @end lisp
  4013. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4014. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4015. @example
  4016. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4017. @end example
  4018. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4019. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4020. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4021. @example
  4022. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4023. @end example
  4024. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4025. @example
  4026. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4027. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4028. @end example
  4029. @noindent
  4030. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4031. braces, as in:
  4032. @example
  4033. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4034. @end example
  4035. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4036. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4037. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4038. these lines to activate any changes.
  4039. @noindent
  4040. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  4041. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4042. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4043. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4044. configuration:
  4045. @lisp
  4046. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4047. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4048. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4049. (:endgroup . nil)
  4050. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4051. @end lisp
  4052. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4053. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4054. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4055. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4056. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4057. keys:
  4058. @table @kbd
  4059. @item a-z...
  4060. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4061. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4062. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4063. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4064. @item @key{TAB}
  4065. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4066. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4067. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4068. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4069. @item @key{SPC}
  4070. Clear all tags for this line.
  4071. @kindex @key{RET}
  4072. @item @key{RET}
  4073. Accept the modified set.
  4074. @item C-g
  4075. Abort without installing changes.
  4076. @item q
  4077. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4078. @item !
  4079. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4080. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4081. @item C-c
  4082. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4083. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4084. selection window.
  4085. @end table
  4086. @noindent
  4087. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4088. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4089. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4090. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4091. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4092. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4093. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4094. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4095. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4096. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4097. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  4098. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  4099. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  4100. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  4101. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  4102. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  4103. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  4104. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  4105. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4106. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4107. @section Tag searches
  4108. @cindex tag searches
  4109. @cindex searching for tags
  4110. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4111. information into special lists.
  4112. @table @kbd
  4113. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4114. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4115. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4116. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4117. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4118. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4119. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4120. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4121. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4122. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4123. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4124. @end table
  4125. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4126. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4127. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4128. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4129. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4130. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4131. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4132. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4133. @chapter Properties and columns
  4134. @cindex properties
  4135. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4136. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4137. or with every entry in an Org-mode file.
  4138. There are two main applications for properties in Org-mode. First,
  4139. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4140. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4141. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4142. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4143. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4144. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4145. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4146. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4147. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4148. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4149. @menu
  4150. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4151. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  4152. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4153. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4154. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4155. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4156. @end menu
  4157. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4158. @section Property syntax
  4159. @cindex property syntax
  4160. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4161. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4162. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special
  4163. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4164. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4165. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4166. @example
  4167. * CD collection
  4168. ** Classic
  4169. *** Goldberg Variations
  4170. :PROPERTIES:
  4171. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4172. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4173. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4174. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4175. :NDisks: 1
  4176. :END:
  4177. @end example
  4178. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4179. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the sub-tree
  4180. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4181. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4182. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4183. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4184. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4185. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4186. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4187. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4188. @example
  4189. * CD collection
  4190. :PROPERTIES:
  4191. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4192. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4193. :END:
  4194. @end example
  4195. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4196. file, use a line like
  4197. @cindex property, _ALL
  4198. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4199. @example
  4200. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4201. @end example
  4202. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4203. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4204. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4205. @cindex property, +
  4206. @example
  4207. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4208. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4209. @end example
  4210. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4211. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4212. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4213. @cindex property, +
  4214. @example
  4215. * CD collection
  4216. ** Classic
  4217. :PROPERTIES:
  4218. :GENRES: Classic
  4219. :END:
  4220. *** Goldberg Variations
  4221. :PROPERTIES:
  4222. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4223. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4224. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4225. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4226. :NDisks: 1
  4227. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4228. :END:
  4229. @end example
  4230. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4231. @vindex org-global-properties
  4232. Property values set with the global variable
  4233. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4234. Org files.
  4235. @noindent
  4236. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4237. @table @kbd
  4238. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4239. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4240. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4241. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4242. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4243. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4244. @item M-x org-insert-property-drawer
  4245. @findex org-insert-property-drawer
  4246. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4247. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4248. information like deadlines.
  4249. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4250. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4251. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4252. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4253. can be inserted using completion.
  4254. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4255. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4256. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4257. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4258. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4259. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4260. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4261. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4262. nearest column format definition.
  4263. @end table
  4264. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4265. @section Special properties
  4266. @cindex properties, special
  4267. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org-mode features,
  4268. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4269. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4270. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4271. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4272. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4273. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4274. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4275. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4276. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4277. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4278. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4279. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4280. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4281. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4282. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4283. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4284. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4285. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4286. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4287. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4288. @example
  4289. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4290. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4291. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4292. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4293. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4294. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4295. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4296. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4297. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4298. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4299. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4300. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4301. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4302. ITEM @r{The content of the entry.}
  4303. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4304. @end example
  4305. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4306. @section Property searches
  4307. @cindex properties, searching
  4308. @cindex searching, of properties
  4309. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4310. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4311. @table @kbd
  4312. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4313. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4314. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4315. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4316. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4317. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4318. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4319. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4320. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4321. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4322. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4323. @end table
  4324. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4325. properties}.
  4326. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4327. single property:
  4328. @table @kbd
  4329. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4330. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4331. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4332. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4333. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4334. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4335. @end table
  4336. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4337. @section Property Inheritance
  4338. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4339. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4340. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4341. The outline structure of Org-mode documents lends itself to an
  4342. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4343. property, the children can inherit this property. Org-mode does not
  4344. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4345. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4346. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4347. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4348. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4349. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4350. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4351. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4352. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4353. Org-mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4354. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4355. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4356. @table @code
  4357. @item COLUMNS
  4358. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4359. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4360. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4361. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4362. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4363. @item CATEGORY
  4364. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4365. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4366. applies to the entire subtree.
  4367. @item ARCHIVE
  4368. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4369. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4370. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4371. @item LOGGING
  4372. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4373. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4374. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4375. @end table
  4376. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4377. @section Column view
  4378. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4379. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4380. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4381. entries. Org-mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4382. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4383. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4384. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4385. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4386. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4387. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4388. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4389. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4390. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4391. @menu
  4392. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4393. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4394. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4395. @end menu
  4396. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4397. @subsection Defining columns
  4398. @cindex column view, for properties
  4399. @cindex properties, column view
  4400. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4401. done by defining a column format line.
  4402. @menu
  4403. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4404. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4405. @end menu
  4406. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4407. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4408. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4409. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4410. @example
  4411. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4412. @end example
  4413. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4414. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4415. @example
  4416. ** Top node for columns view
  4417. :PROPERTIES:
  4418. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4419. :END:
  4420. @end example
  4421. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4422. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4423. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4424. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4425. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4426. deeper part of the tree.
  4427. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4428. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4429. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4430. definition looks like this:
  4431. @example
  4432. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4433. @end example
  4434. @noindent
  4435. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4436. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4437. @example
  4438. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4439. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4440. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4441. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4442. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4443. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4444. @r{name is used.}
  4445. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4446. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4447. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4448. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4449. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4450. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4451. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4452. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4453. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4454. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4455. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4456. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4457. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4458. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4459. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4460. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4461. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4462. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4463. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4464. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4465. @end example
  4466. @noindent
  4467. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4468. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4469. same summary information.
  4470. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4471. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4472. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4473. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4474. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4475. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4476. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4477. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4478. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4479. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4480. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4481. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4482. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4483. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4484. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4485. values.
  4486. @example
  4487. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4488. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4489. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4490. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4491. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4492. @end example
  4493. @noindent
  4494. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4495. item itself, i.e.@: of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4496. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4497. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4498. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4499. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4500. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4501. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4502. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4503. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4504. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4505. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4506. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4507. in the subtree.
  4508. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4509. @subsection Using column view
  4510. @table @kbd
  4511. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4512. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4513. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4514. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4515. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4516. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4517. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4518. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4519. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4520. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4521. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4522. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4523. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4524. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4525. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4526. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4527. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4528. Exit column view.
  4529. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4530. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4531. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4532. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4533. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4534. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4535. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4536. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4537. @item 1..9,0
  4538. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4539. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4540. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4541. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4542. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4543. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4544. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4545. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4546. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4547. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4548. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4549. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4550. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4551. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4552. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4553. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4554. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4555. current column view.
  4556. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4557. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4558. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4559. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4560. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4561. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4562. Delete the current column.
  4563. @end table
  4564. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4565. @subsection Capturing column view
  4566. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4567. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4568. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4569. of this block looks like this:
  4570. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4571. @example
  4572. * The column view
  4573. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4574. #+END:
  4575. @end example
  4576. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4577. @table @code
  4578. @item :id
  4579. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4580. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4581. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4582. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4583. @cindex property, ID
  4584. @example
  4585. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4586. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4587. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4588. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4589. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4590. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4591. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4592. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4593. @end example
  4594. @item :hlines
  4595. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4596. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4597. @item :vlines
  4598. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4599. @item :maxlevel
  4600. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4601. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4602. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4603. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4604. @end table
  4605. @noindent
  4606. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4607. @table @kbd
  4608. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4609. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4610. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4611. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4612. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4613. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4614. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4615. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4616. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4617. blocks in a buffer.
  4618. @end table
  4619. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4620. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4621. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4622. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4623. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4624. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4625. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4626. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4627. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4628. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4629. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4630. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4631. @section The Property API
  4632. @cindex properties, API
  4633. @cindex API, for properties
  4634. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4635. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4636. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4637. property API}.
  4638. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4639. @chapter Dates and times
  4640. @cindex dates
  4641. @cindex times
  4642. @cindex timestamp
  4643. @cindex date stamp
  4644. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4645. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4646. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org-mode. This may be a
  4647. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4648. something was created or last changed. However, in Org-mode this term
  4649. is used in a much wider sense.
  4650. @menu
  4651. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4652. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4653. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4654. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4655. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4656. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4657. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4658. @end menu
  4659. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4660. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4661. @cindex timestamps
  4662. @cindex ranges, time
  4663. @cindex date stamps
  4664. @cindex deadlines
  4665. @cindex scheduling
  4666. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4667. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>}@footnote{In this
  4668. simplest form, the day name is optional when you type the date yourself.
  4669. However, any dates inserted or modified by Org will add that day name, for
  4670. reading convenience.} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
  4671. Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601
  4672. date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time
  4673. format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org
  4674. tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the
  4675. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4676. @table @var
  4677. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4678. @cindex timestamp
  4679. @cindex appointment
  4680. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4681. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4682. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4683. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4684. @example
  4685. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4686. * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4687. @end example
  4688. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4689. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4690. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4691. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4692. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4693. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4694. @example
  4695. * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4696. @end example
  4697. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4698. For more complex date specifications, Org-mode supports using the special
  4699. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4700. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  4701. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  4702. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  4703. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  4704. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  4705. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  4706. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org-mode users
  4707. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  4708. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  4709. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  4710. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For example
  4711. @example
  4712. * The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4713. <%%(org-float t 4 2)>
  4714. @end example
  4715. @item Time/Date range
  4716. @cindex timerange
  4717. @cindex date range
  4718. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4719. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4720. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4721. @example
  4722. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4723. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4724. @end example
  4725. @item Inactive timestamp
  4726. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4727. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4728. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4729. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4730. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4731. @example
  4732. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4733. @end example
  4734. @end table
  4735. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4736. @section Creating timestamps
  4737. @cindex creating timestamps
  4738. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4739. For Org-mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4740. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4741. format.
  4742. @table @kbd
  4743. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4744. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4745. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4746. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4747. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4748. @c
  4749. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4750. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4751. an agenda entry.
  4752. @c
  4753. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4754. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4755. @item C-u C-c .
  4756. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4757. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4758. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4759. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4760. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4761. @c
  4762. @orgkey{C-c C-c}
  4763. Normalize timestamp, insert/fix day name if missing or wrong.
  4764. @c
  4765. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4766. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4767. @c
  4768. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4769. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4770. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4771. instead.
  4772. @c
  4773. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4774. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4775. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4776. @c
  4777. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4778. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4779. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4780. @c
  4781. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4782. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4783. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4784. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4785. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4786. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4787. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4788. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4789. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4790. @c
  4791. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4792. @cindex evaluate time range
  4793. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4794. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4795. the following column).
  4796. @end table
  4797. @menu
  4798. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  4799. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4800. @end menu
  4801. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4802. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4803. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4804. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4805. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4806. When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4807. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4808. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4809. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4810. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4811. copied from an email message. Org-mode will find whatever information is in
  4812. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4813. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4814. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4815. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4816. information, Org-mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4817. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4818. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4819. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4820. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4821. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4822. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4823. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4824. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org-mode are
  4825. in @b{bold}.
  4826. @example
  4827. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4828. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4829. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4830. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4831. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4832. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4833. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4834. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4835. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4836. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4837. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4838. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4839. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4840. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4841. @end example
  4842. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4843. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4844. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4845. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4846. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4847. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4848. the Nth such day, e.g.@:
  4849. @example
  4850. +0 @result{} today
  4851. . @result{} today
  4852. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4853. +4 @result{} same as above
  4854. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4855. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4856. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4857. @end example
  4858. @vindex parse-time-months
  4859. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4860. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4861. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4862. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4863. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  4864. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  4865. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  4866. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  4867. read the docstring of the variable
  4868. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  4869. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4870. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  4871. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  4872. case, e.g.@:
  4873. @example
  4874. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  4875. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  4876. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  4877. @end example
  4878. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4879. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4880. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4881. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4882. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4883. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4884. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4885. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4886. from the minibuffer:
  4887. @kindex <
  4888. @kindex >
  4889. @kindex M-v
  4890. @kindex C-v
  4891. @kindex mouse-1
  4892. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4893. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4894. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4895. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4896. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4897. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4898. @kindex @key{RET}
  4899. @example
  4900. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4901. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4902. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4903. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4904. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4905. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4906. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4907. @end example
  4908. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4909. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4910. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4911. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4912. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4913. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4914. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4915. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4916. @subsection Custom time format
  4917. @cindex custom date/time format
  4918. @cindex time format, custom
  4919. @cindex date format, custom
  4920. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4921. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4922. Org-mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4923. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4924. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4925. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4926. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4927. @table @kbd
  4928. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  4929. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4930. @end table
  4931. @noindent
  4932. Org-mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  4933. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  4934. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  4935. following consequences:
  4936. @itemize @bullet
  4937. @item
  4938. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  4939. after.
  4940. @item
  4941. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  4942. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  4943. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  4944. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  4945. time will be changed by one minute.
  4946. @item
  4947. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  4948. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  4949. @item
  4950. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  4951. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  4952. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  4953. @item
  4954. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  4955. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  4956. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  4957. @end itemize
  4958. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  4959. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  4960. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  4961. @table @var
  4962. @item DEADLINE
  4963. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  4964. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  4965. to be finished on that date.
  4966. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4967. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  4968. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  4969. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  4970. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  4971. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  4972. @example
  4973. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  4974. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  4975. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  4976. @end example
  4977. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  4978. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  4979. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  4980. @item SCHEDULED
  4981. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  4982. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  4983. date.
  4984. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  4985. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  4986. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  4987. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  4988. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  4989. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.@:
  4990. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  4991. @example
  4992. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  4993. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  4994. @end example
  4995. @noindent
  4996. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org-mode should @i{not} be
  4997. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  4998. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  4999. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  5000. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  5001. Org users. In Org-mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  5002. want to start working on an action item.
  5003. @end table
  5004. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  5005. entries. Org-mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  5006. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  5007. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  5008. @c
  5009. @code{<%%(org-float t 42)>}
  5010. @c
  5011. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org-mode does not
  5012. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  5013. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  5014. sexp entry matches.
  5015. @menu
  5016. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  5017. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  5018. @end menu
  5019. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  5020. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  5021. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  5022. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  5023. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  5024. an item:
  5025. @table @kbd
  5026. @c
  5027. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  5028. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  5029. in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be
  5030. removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed
  5031. from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  5032. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  5033. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5034. deadline.
  5035. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  5036. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  5037. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  5038. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  5039. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  5040. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  5041. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  5042. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5043. scheduling time.
  5044. @c
  5045. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  5046. @kindex k a
  5047. @kindex k s
  5048. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  5049. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  5050. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  5051. schedule the marked item.
  5052. @c
  5053. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  5054. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  5055. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5056. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  5057. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  5058. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  5059. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  5060. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  5061. @c
  5062. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  5063. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  5064. @c
  5065. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  5066. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  5067. @end table
  5068. Note that @code{org-schedule} and @code{org-deadline} supports
  5069. setting the date by indicating a relative time: e.g. +1d will set
  5070. the date to the next day after today, and --1w will set the date
  5071. to the previous week before any current timestamp.
  5072. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  5073. @subsection Repeated tasks
  5074. @cindex tasks, repeated
  5075. @cindex repeated tasks
  5076. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org-mode helps to
  5077. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  5078. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  5079. @example
  5080. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5081. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  5082. @end example
  5083. @noindent
  5084. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  5085. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  5086. from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in
  5087. a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last:
  5088. @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  5089. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  5090. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  5091. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  5092. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  5093. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  5094. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  5095. repeated entry will not be active. Org-mode deals with this in the following
  5096. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  5097. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  5098. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  5099. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  5100. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  5101. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  5102. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  5103. switch the date like this:
  5104. @example
  5105. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5106. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  5107. @end example
  5108. @vindex org-log-repeat
  5109. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  5110. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  5111. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  5112. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  5113. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  5114. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  5115. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  5116. will be visible.
  5117. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  5118. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  5119. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  5120. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  5121. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  5122. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  5123. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  5124. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org-mode has
  5125. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  5126. @example
  5127. ** TODO Call Father
  5128. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  5129. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  5130. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  5131. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  5132. and marked it done on Saturday.
  5133. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  5134. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  5135. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  5136. today.
  5137. @end example
  5138. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  5139. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  5140. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  5141. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  5142. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  5143. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  5144. @section Clocking work time
  5145. @cindex clocking time
  5146. @cindex time clocking
  5147. Org-mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  5148. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock.
  5149. When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the
  5150. clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It
  5151. also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project. And it
  5152. remembers a history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly
  5153. between a number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5154. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5155. @lisp
  5156. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5157. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5158. @end lisp
  5159. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5160. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5161. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5162. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5163. what to do with it.
  5164. @menu
  5165. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5166. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5167. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5168. @end menu
  5169. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5170. @subsection Clocking commands
  5171. @table @kbd
  5172. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5173. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5174. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  5175. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5176. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5177. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5178. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5179. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule
  5180. the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  5181. @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  5182. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5183. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5184. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task.
  5185. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task,
  5186. with letter @kbd{d}.@*
  5187. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5188. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5189. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5190. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5191. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5192. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5193. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5194. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5195. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5196. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5197. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5198. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5199. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5200. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5201. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5202. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5203. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5204. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5205. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5206. @c
  5207. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5208. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5209. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5210. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5211. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5212. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5213. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5214. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5215. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5216. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5217. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5218. @kindex C-c C-y
  5219. @kindex C-c C-c
  5220. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5221. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5222. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5223. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5224. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{up/down},org-clock-timestamps-up/down}
  5225. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease both timestamps at the same
  5226. time so that duration keeps the same.
  5227. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5228. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5229. if it is running in this same item.
  5230. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-cancel}
  5231. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5232. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5233. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5234. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5235. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5236. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5237. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5238. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts
  5239. overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under
  5240. that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility
  5241. cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the
  5242. buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press
  5243. @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5244. @end table
  5245. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5246. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5247. worked on or closed during a day.
  5248. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5249. @subsection The clock table
  5250. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5251. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5252. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5253. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5254. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5255. @table @kbd
  5256. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5257. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5258. report as an Org-mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5259. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5260. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5261. update it. The clock table always includes also trees with
  5262. @code{:ARCHIVE:} tag.
  5263. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5264. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5265. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5266. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5267. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5268. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5269. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5270. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5271. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5272. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5273. @end table
  5274. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5275. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5276. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5277. @example
  5278. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5279. #+END: clocktable
  5280. @end example
  5281. @noindent
  5282. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5283. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5284. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5285. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5286. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5287. be selected:
  5288. @example
  5289. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5290. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5291. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5292. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5293. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5294. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5295. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5296. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5297. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5298. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5299. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5300. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5301. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5302. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5303. @r{these formats:}
  5304. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5305. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5306. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5307. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5308. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5309. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5310. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5311. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5312. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5313. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5314. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5315. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5316. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5317. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5318. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5319. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5320. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5321. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5322. @end example
  5323. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5324. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5325. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5326. @example
  5327. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5328. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5329. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5330. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5331. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5332. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5333. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5334. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5335. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5336. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5337. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5338. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5339. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5340. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5341. :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each}
  5342. @r{property will get its own column.}
  5343. :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.}
  5344. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5345. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5346. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5347. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5348. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5349. @end example
  5350. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5351. day, you could write
  5352. @example
  5353. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5354. #+END: clocktable
  5355. @end example
  5356. @noindent
  5357. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5358. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5359. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5360. @example
  5361. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5362. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5363. #+END: clocktable
  5364. @end example
  5365. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5366. @example
  5367. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5368. #+END: clocktable
  5369. @end example
  5370. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5371. would be
  5372. @example
  5373. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5374. #+END: clocktable
  5375. @end example
  5376. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5377. @subsection Resolving idle time
  5378. @cindex resolve idle time
  5379. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5380. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5381. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5382. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5383. applying it to another one.
  5384. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5385. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5386. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5387. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5388. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5389. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5390. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5391. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5392. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5393. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5394. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5395. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5396. @table @kbd
  5397. @item k
  5398. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5399. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5400. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5401. @item K
  5402. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5403. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5404. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5405. @item s
  5406. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5407. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5408. @item S
  5409. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5410. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5411. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5412. @item C
  5413. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5414. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5415. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5416. log with an empty entry.
  5417. @end table
  5418. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5419. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5420. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5421. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5422. the next task you clock in on.
  5423. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5424. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5425. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5426. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5427. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5428. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5429. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5430. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5431. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5432. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due
  5433. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5434. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5435. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5436. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5437. @section Effort estimates
  5438. @cindex effort estimates
  5439. @cindex property, Effort
  5440. @vindex org-effort-property
  5441. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5442. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5443. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5444. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5445. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5446. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5447. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5448. for an entry with the following commands:
  5449. @table @kbd
  5450. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5451. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5452. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5453. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5454. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5455. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5456. @end table
  5457. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5458. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5459. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5460. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5461. buffer you can use
  5462. @example
  5463. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
  5464. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5465. @end example
  5466. @noindent
  5467. @vindex org-global-properties
  5468. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5469. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5470. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5471. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5472. setup may be advised.
  5473. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5474. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5475. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5476. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5477. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5478. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5479. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5480. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5481. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5482. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5483. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5484. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5485. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5486. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5487. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5488. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5489. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5490. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5491. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5492. @cindex relative timer
  5493. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5494. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5495. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5496. @table @kbd
  5497. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5498. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5499. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5500. restarted.
  5501. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5502. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5503. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5504. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5505. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5506. new timer items.
  5507. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5508. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5509. @item C-c C-x ,
  5510. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5511. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5512. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5513. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5514. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5515. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5516. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5517. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5518. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5519. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5520. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5521. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5522. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5523. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5524. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5525. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5526. @end table
  5527. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5528. @section Countdown timer
  5529. @cindex Countdown timer
  5530. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5531. @kindex ;
  5532. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org-mode buffer runs a countdown
  5533. timer. Use @kbd{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everwhere else.
  5534. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5535. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5536. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5537. default value.
  5538. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5539. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5540. @cindex capture
  5541. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5542. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5543. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5544. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5545. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5546. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5547. @menu
  5548. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5549. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5550. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5551. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5552. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5553. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5554. @end menu
  5555. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5556. @section Capture
  5557. @cindex capture
  5558. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5559. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5560. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org-mode for
  5561. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5562. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5563. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5564. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5565. @example
  5566. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5567. @end example
  5568. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5569. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5570. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5571. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5572. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5573. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5574. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5575. @menu
  5576. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5577. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5578. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5579. @end menu
  5580. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5581. @subsection Setting up capture
  5582. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5583. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5584. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5585. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5586. @example
  5587. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5588. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5589. @end example
  5590. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5591. @subsection Using capture
  5592. @table @kbd
  5593. @orgcmd{C-c c,org-capture}
  5594. Call the command @code{org-capture}. Note that this keybinding is global and
  5595. not active by default - you need to install it. If you have templates
  5596. @cindex date tree
  5597. defined @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for
  5598. selection or use a new Org outline node as the default template. It will
  5599. insert the template into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer
  5600. narrowed to this new node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5601. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-capture-finalize}
  5602. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer, @kbd{C-c
  5603. C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture process,
  5604. so that you can resume your work without further distraction. When called
  5605. with a prefix arg, finalize and then jump to the captured item.
  5606. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-capture-refile}
  5607. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5608. a different place. Please realize that this is a normal refiling command
  5609. that will be executed---so the cursor position at the moment you run this
  5610. command is important. If you have inserted a tree with a parent and
  5611. children, first move the cursor back to the parent. Any prefix argument
  5612. given to this command will be passed on to the @code{org-refile} command.
  5613. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,org-capture-kill}
  5614. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5615. @end table
  5616. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5617. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5618. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5619. rather than to the current date.
  5620. To find the locations of the last stored capture, use @code{org-capture} with
  5621. prefix commands:
  5622. @table @kbd
  5623. @orgkey{C-u C-c c}
  5624. Visit the target location of a capture template. You get to select the
  5625. template in the usual way.
  5626. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-c c}
  5627. Visit the last stored capture item in its buffer.
  5628. @end table
  5629. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5630. @subsection Capture templates
  5631. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5632. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5633. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5634. through the customize interface.
  5635. @table @kbd
  5636. @orgkey{C-c c C}
  5637. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5638. @end table
  5639. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5640. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5641. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5642. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5643. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5644. would look like:
  5645. @example
  5646. (setq org-capture-templates
  5647. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5648. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5649. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5650. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5651. @end example
  5652. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5653. for you like this:
  5654. @example
  5655. * TODO
  5656. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5657. @end example
  5658. @noindent
  5659. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5660. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5661. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5662. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same
  5663. place where you started the capture process.
  5664. To define special keys to capture to a particular template without going
  5665. through the interactive template selection, you can create your key binding
  5666. like this:
  5667. @lisp
  5668. (define-key global-map "\C-cx"
  5669. (lambda () (interactive) (org-capture nil "x")))
  5670. @end lisp
  5671. @menu
  5672. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  5673. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  5674. @end menu
  5675. @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates
  5676. @subsubsection Template elements
  5677. Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in
  5678. @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items:
  5679. @table @var
  5680. @item keys
  5681. The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters
  5682. only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a
  5683. single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using
  5684. several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential
  5685. in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the
  5686. prefix key, for example
  5687. @example
  5688. ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy")
  5689. @end example
  5690. @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will
  5691. be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable.
  5692. @item description
  5693. A short string describing the template, which will be shown during
  5694. selection.
  5695. @item type
  5696. The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are:
  5697. @table @code
  5698. @item entry
  5699. An Org-mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the target
  5700. entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org-mode file.
  5701. @item item
  5702. A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target
  5703. location. Again the target file should be an Org file.
  5704. @item checkitem
  5705. A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the
  5706. default template.
  5707. @item table-line
  5708. a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the
  5709. line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and
  5710. @code{:table-line-pos} (see below).
  5711. @item plain
  5712. Text to be inserted as it is.
  5713. @end table
  5714. @item target
  5715. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5716. Specification of where the captured item should be placed. In Org-mode
  5717. files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become children of this
  5718. node. Other types will be added to the table or list in the body of this
  5719. node. Most target specifications contain a file name. If that file name is
  5720. the empty string, it defaults to @code{org-default-notes-file}. A file can
  5721. also be given as a variable, function, or Emacs Lisp form.
  5722. Valid values are:
  5723. @table @code
  5724. @item (file "path/to/file")
  5725. Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file.
  5726. @item (id "id of existing org entry")
  5727. Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry.
  5728. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline")
  5729. Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file.
  5730. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...)
  5731. For non-unique headings, the full path is safer.
  5732. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location")
  5733. Use a regular expression to position the cursor.
  5734. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file")
  5735. Will create a heading in a date tree for today's date.
  5736. @item (file+datetree+prompt "path/to/file")
  5737. Will create a heading in a date tree, but will prompt for the date.
  5738. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location)
  5739. A function to find the right location in the file.
  5740. @item (clock)
  5741. File to the entry that is currently being clocked.
  5742. @item (function function-finding-location)
  5743. Most general way, write your own function to find both
  5744. file and location.
  5745. @end table
  5746. @item template
  5747. The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an
  5748. appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with
  5749. escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the
  5750. capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file,
  5751. using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for
  5752. more details.
  5753. @item properties
  5754. The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options.
  5755. Recognized properties are:
  5756. @table @code
  5757. @item :prepend
  5758. Normally new captured information will be appended at
  5759. the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...).
  5760. Setting this property will change that.
  5761. @item :immediate-finish
  5762. When set, do not offer to edit the information, just
  5763. file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs
  5764. information that can be added automatically.
  5765. @item :empty-lines
  5766. Set this to the number of lines to insert
  5767. before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1.
  5768. @item :clock-in
  5769. Start the clock in this item.
  5770. @item :clock-keep
  5771. Keep the clock running when filing the captured entry.
  5772. @item :clock-resume
  5773. If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished
  5774. with the capture. Note that @code{:clock-keep} has precedence over
  5775. @code{:clock-resume}. When setting both to @code{t}, the current clock will
  5776. run and the previous one will not be resumed.
  5777. @item :unnarrowed
  5778. Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to
  5779. narrow it so that you only see the new material.
  5780. @item :table-line-pos
  5781. Specification of the location in the table where the new line should be
  5782. inserted. It should be a string like @code{"II-3"} meaning that the new
  5783. line should become the third line before the second horizontal separator
  5784. line.
  5785. @item :kill-buffer
  5786. If the target file was not yet visited when capture was invoked, kill the
  5787. buffer again after capture is completed.
  5788. @end table
  5789. @end table
  5790. @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates
  5791. @subsubsection Template expansion
  5792. In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of
  5793. these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow
  5794. dynamic insertion of content. The templates are expanded in the order given here:
  5795. @smallexample
  5796. %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}.}
  5797. %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result.}
  5798. %<...> @r{the result of format-time-string on the ... format specification.}
  5799. %t @r{timestamp, date only.}
  5800. %T @r{timestamp with date and time.}
  5801. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps.}
  5802. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}.}
  5803. %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the}
  5804. @r{region is active.}
  5805. @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
  5806. %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part.}
  5807. %c @r{Current kill ring head.}
  5808. %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.}
  5809. %k @r{title of the currently clocked task.}
  5810. %K @r{link to the currently clocked task.}
  5811. %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name}).}
  5812. %f @r{file visited by current buffer when org-capture was called.}
  5813. %F @r{full path of the file or directory visited by current buffer.}
  5814. %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below.}
  5815. %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.}
  5816. %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.}
  5817. %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}.}
  5818. @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}.}
  5819. %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.}
  5820. %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.}
  5821. %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}.}
  5822. %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
  5823. @r{You may specify a default value and a completion table with}
  5824. @r{%^@{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...@}.}
  5825. @r{The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history.}
  5826. @end smallexample
  5827. @noindent
  5828. For specific link types, the following keywords will be
  5829. defined@footnote{If you define your own link types (@pxref{Adding
  5830. hyperlink types}), any property you store with
  5831. @code{org-store-link-props} can be accessed in capture templates in a
  5832. similar way.}:
  5833. @vindex org-from-is-user-regexp
  5834. @smallexample
  5835. Link type | Available keywords
  5836. ------------------------+----------------------------------------------
  5837. bbdb | %:name %:company
  5838. irc | %:server %:port %:nick
  5839. vm, wl, mh, mew, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id
  5840. | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress
  5841. | %:to %:toname %:toaddress
  5842. | %:date @r{(message date header field)}
  5843. | %:date-timestamp @r{(date as active timestamp)}
  5844. | %:date-timestamp-inactive @r{(date as inactive timestamp)}
  5845. | %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}}
  5846. gnus | %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields}
  5847. w3, w3m | %:url
  5848. info | %:file %:node
  5849. calendar | %:date
  5850. @end smallexample
  5851. @noindent
  5852. To place the cursor after template expansion use:
  5853. @smallexample
  5854. %? @r{After completing the template, position cursor here.}
  5855. @end smallexample
  5856. @node Attachments, RSS Feeds, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5857. @section Attachments
  5858. @cindex attachments
  5859. @vindex org-attach-directory
  5860. It is often useful to associate reference material with an outline node/task.
  5861. Small chunks of plain text can simply be stored in the subtree of a project.
  5862. Hyperlinks (@pxref{Hyperlinks}) can establish associations with
  5863. files that live elsewhere on your computer or in the cloud, like emails or
  5864. source code files belonging to a project. Another method is @i{attachments},
  5865. which are files located in a directory belonging to an outline node. Org
  5866. uses directories named by the unique ID of each entry. These directories are
  5867. located in the @file{data} directory which lives in the same directory where
  5868. your Org file lives@footnote{If you move entries or Org files from one
  5869. directory to another, you may want to configure @code{org-attach-directory}
  5870. to contain an absolute path.}. If you initialize this directory with
  5871. @code{git init}, Org will automatically commit changes when it sees them.
  5872. The attachment system has been contributed to Org by John Wiegley.
  5873. In cases where it seems better to do so, you can also attach a directory of your
  5874. choice to an entry. You can also make children inherit the attachment
  5875. directory from a parent, so that an entire subtree uses the same attached
  5876. directory.
  5877. @noindent The following commands deal with attachments:
  5878. @table @kbd
  5879. @orgcmd{C-c C-a,org-attach}
  5880. The dispatcher for commands related to the attachment system. After these
  5881. keys, a list of commands is displayed and you must press an additional key
  5882. to select a command:
  5883. @table @kbd
  5884. @orgcmdtkc{a,C-c C-a a,org-attach-attach}
  5885. @vindex org-attach-method
  5886. Select a file and move it into the task's attachment directory. The file
  5887. will be copied, moved, or linked, depending on @code{org-attach-method}.
  5888. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5889. @kindex C-c C-a c
  5890. @kindex C-c C-a m
  5891. @kindex C-c C-a l
  5892. @item c/m/l
  5893. Attach a file using the copy/move/link method.
  5894. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5895. @orgcmdtkc{n,C-c C-a n,org-attach-new}
  5896. Create a new attachment as an Emacs buffer.
  5897. @orgcmdtkc{z,C-c C-a z,org-attach-sync}
  5898. Synchronize the current task with its attachment directory, in case you added
  5899. attachments yourself.
  5900. @orgcmdtkc{o,C-c C-a o,org-attach-open}
  5901. @vindex org-file-apps
  5902. Open current task's attachment. If there is more than one, prompt for a
  5903. file name first. Opening will follow the rules set by @code{org-file-apps}.
  5904. For more details, see the information on following hyperlinks
  5905. (@pxref{Handling links}).
  5906. @orgcmdtkc{O,C-c C-a O,org-attach-open-in-emacs}
  5907. Also open the attachment, but force opening the file in Emacs.
  5908. @orgcmdtkc{f,C-c C-a f,org-attach-reveal}
  5909. Open the current task's attachment directory.
  5910. @orgcmdtkc{F,C-c C-a F,org-attach-reveal-in-emacs}
  5911. Also open the directory, but force using @command{dired} in Emacs.
  5912. @orgcmdtkc{d,C-c C-a d,org-attach-delete-one}
  5913. Select and delete a single attachment.
  5914. @orgcmdtkc{D,C-c C-a D,org-attach-delete-all}
  5915. Delete all of a task's attachments. A safer way is to open the directory in
  5916. @command{dired} and delete from there.
  5917. @orgcmdtkc{s,C-c C-a s,org-attach-set-directory}
  5918. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR
  5919. Set a specific directory as the entry's attachment directory. This works by
  5920. putting the directory path into the @code{ATTACH_DIR}