org.texi 721 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include org-version.inc
  6. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  7. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  8. @set txicodequoteundirected
  9. @set txicodequotebacktick
  10. @c Version and Contact Info
  11. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers web page}
  12. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  13. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  15. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  16. @documentencoding UTF-8
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  20. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  21. @c =======================================
  22. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  23. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  24. @set cmdnames
  25. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  26. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  27. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  28. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  29. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  30. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  31. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  32. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  33. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  34. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  35. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  36. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  37. @c a key but no command
  38. @c Inserts: @item key
  39. @macro orgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @item @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @macro xorgkey{key}
  44. @kindex \key\
  45. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  46. @end macro
  47. @c one key with a command
  48. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  49. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  50. @ifset cmdnames
  51. @kindex \key\
  52. @findex \command\
  53. @iftex
  54. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  55. @end iftex
  56. @ifnottex
  57. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  58. @end ifnottex
  59. @end ifset
  60. @ifclear cmdnames
  61. @kindex \key\
  62. @item @kbd{\key\}
  63. @end ifclear
  64. @end macro
  65. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  66. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  67. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  68. @ifset cmdnames
  69. @kindex \key\
  70. @findex \command\
  71. @iftex
  72. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  73. @end iftex
  74. @ifnottex
  75. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  76. @end ifnottex
  77. @end ifset
  78. @ifclear cmdnames
  79. @kindex \key\
  80. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  81. @end ifclear
  82. @end macro
  83. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  84. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  85. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  86. @ifset cmdnames
  87. @findex \command\
  88. @iftex
  89. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  90. @end iftex
  91. @ifnottex
  92. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  93. @end ifnottex
  94. @end ifset
  95. @ifclear cmdnames
  96. @item @kbd{\key\}
  97. @end ifclear
  98. @end macro
  99. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  100. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  101. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  102. @ifset cmdnames
  103. @kindex \key\
  104. @findex \command\
  105. @iftex
  106. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  107. @end iftex
  108. @ifnottex
  109. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  110. @end ifnottex
  111. @end ifset
  112. @ifclear cmdnames
  113. @kindex \key\
  114. @item @kbd{\text\}
  115. @end ifclear
  116. @end macro
  117. @c two keys with one command
  118. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  119. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  120. @ifset cmdnames
  121. @kindex \key1\
  122. @kindex \key2\
  123. @findex \command\
  124. @iftex
  125. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  126. @end iftex
  127. @ifnottex
  128. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  129. @end ifnottex
  130. @end ifset
  131. @ifclear cmdnames
  132. @kindex \key1\
  133. @kindex \key2\
  134. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  135. @end ifclear
  136. @end macro
  137. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  138. @c @itemx
  139. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  140. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  141. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  142. @ifset cmdnames
  143. @kindex \key1\
  144. @kindex \key2\
  145. @findex \command\
  146. @iftex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  149. @end iftex
  150. @ifnottex
  151. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  152. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  153. @end ifnottex
  154. @end ifset
  155. @ifclear cmdnames
  156. @kindex \key1\
  157. @kindex \key2\
  158. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  159. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  160. @end ifclear
  161. @end macro
  162. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  163. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  164. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  165. @ifset cmdnames
  166. @kindex \key1\
  167. @kindex \key2\
  168. @findex \command\
  169. @iftex
  170. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  171. @end iftex
  172. @ifnottex
  173. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  174. @end ifnottex
  175. @end ifset
  176. @ifclear cmdnames
  177. @kindex \key1\
  178. @kindex \key2\
  179. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  180. @end ifclear
  181. @end macro
  182. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  183. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  184. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  185. @ifset cmdnames
  186. @kindex \key1\
  187. @kindex \key2\
  188. @findex \command\
  189. @iftex
  190. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  191. @end iftex
  192. @ifnottex
  193. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  194. @end ifnottex
  195. @end ifset
  196. @ifclear cmdnames
  197. @kindex \key1\
  198. @kindex \key2\
  199. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  200. @end ifclear
  201. @end macro
  202. @c two keys with two commands
  203. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  204. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  205. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  206. @ifset cmdnames
  207. @kindex \key1\
  208. @kindex \key2\
  209. @findex \command1\
  210. @findex \command2\
  211. @iftex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  214. @end iftex
  215. @ifnottex
  216. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  217. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  218. @end ifnottex
  219. @end ifset
  220. @ifclear cmdnames
  221. @kindex \key1\
  222. @kindex \key2\
  223. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  224. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  225. @end ifclear
  226. @end macro
  227. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  228. @iftex
  229. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  230. @end iftex
  231. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  232. @macro tsubheading{text}
  233. @ifinfo
  234. @subsubheading \text\
  235. @end ifinfo
  236. @ifnotinfo
  237. @item @b{\text\}
  238. @end ifnotinfo
  239. @end macro
  240. @copying
  241. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  242. Copyright @copyright{} 2004--2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  243. @quotation
  244. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  245. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  246. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  247. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  248. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  249. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  250. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  251. modify this GNU manual.''
  252. @end quotation
  253. @end copying
  254. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  255. @direntry
  256. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  257. @end direntry
  258. @titlepage
  259. @title The Org Manual
  260. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  261. @author by Carsten Dominik
  262. with contributions by Bastien Guerry, Nicolas Goaziou, Eric Schulte,
  263. Jambunathan K, Dan Davison, Thomas Dye, David O'Toole, and Philip Rooke.
  264. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  265. @page
  266. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  267. @insertcopying
  268. @end titlepage
  269. @c Output the short table of contents at the beginning.
  270. @shortcontents
  271. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  272. @contents
  273. @ifnottex
  274. @c FIXME These hand-written next,prev,up node pointers make editing a lot
  275. @c harder. There should be no need for them, makeinfo can do it
  276. @c automatically for any document with a normal structure.
  277. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  278. @top Org Mode Manual
  279. @insertcopying
  280. @end ifnottex
  281. @menu
  282. * Introduction:: Getting started
  283. * Document structure:: A tree works like your brain
  284. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  285. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  286. * TODO items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  287. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  288. * Properties and columns:: Storing information about an entry
  289. * Dates and times:: Making items useful for planning
  290. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  291. * Agenda views:: Collecting information into views
  292. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  293. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing notes
  294. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  295. * Working with source code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  296. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  297. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  298. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  299. * History and acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  300. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
  301. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  302. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  303. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  304. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  305. @detailmenu
  306. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  307. Introduction
  308. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  309. * Installation:: Installing Org
  310. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  311. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  312. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  313. Document structure
  314. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  315. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  316. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  317. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  318. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  319. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  320. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  321. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  322. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  323. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  324. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  325. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  326. Visibility cycling
  327. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  328. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  329. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  330. Tables
  331. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  332. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  333. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  334. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  335. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  336. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  337. The spreadsheet
  338. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  339. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  340. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  341. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  342. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  343. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  344. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  345. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  346. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  347. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  348. Hyperlinks
  349. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  350. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  351. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  352. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  353. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  354. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  355. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  356. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  357. Internal links
  358. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  359. TODO items
  360. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  361. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  362. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  363. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  364. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  365. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  366. Extended use of TODO keywords
  367. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  368. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  369. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  370. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  371. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  372. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  373. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  374. Progress logging
  375. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  376. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  377. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  378. Tags
  379. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  380. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  381. * Tag groups:: Use one tag to search for several tags
  382. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  383. Properties and columns
  384. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  385. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  386. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  387. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  388. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  389. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  390. Column view
  391. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  392. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  393. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  394. Defining columns
  395. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  396. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  397. Dates and times
  398. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  399. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  400. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  401. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  402. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  403. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  404. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  405. Creating timestamps
  406. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  407. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  408. Deadlines and scheduling
  409. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  410. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  411. Clocking work time
  412. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  413. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  414. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  415. Capture - Refile - Archive
  416. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  417. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  418. * RSS feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  419. * Protocols:: External (e.g., Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  420. * Refile and copy:: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another
  421. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  422. Capture
  423. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  424. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  425. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  426. Capture templates
  427. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  428. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  429. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context
  430. Archiving
  431. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  432. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  433. Agenda views
  434. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  435. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  436. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  437. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  438. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  439. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  440. * Exporting agenda views:: Writing a view to a file
  441. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  442. The built-in agenda views
  443. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  444. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  445. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  446. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  447. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  448. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  449. Presentation and sorting
  450. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  451. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  452. * Sorting agenda items:: The order of things
  453. * Filtering/limiting agenda items:: Dynamically narrow the agenda
  454. Custom agenda views
  455. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  456. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  457. * Setting options:: Changing the rules
  458. Markup for rich export
  459. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  460. * Images and tables:: Images, tables and caption mechanism
  461. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  462. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  463. * Index entries:: Making an index
  464. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create templates
  465. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  466. * Special blocks:: Containers targeted at export back-ends
  467. Structural markup elements
  468. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  469. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  470. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  471. * Lists:: Lists
  472. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  473. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  474. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  475. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  476. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  477. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  478. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  479. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  480. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  481. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  482. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  483. Exporting
  484. * The export dispatcher:: The main exporter interface
  485. * Export back-ends:: Built-in export formats
  486. * Export settings:: Generic export settings
  487. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  488. * Beamer export:: Exporting as a Beamer presentation
  489. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  490. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  491. * Markdown export:: Exporting to Markdown
  492. * OpenDocument text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  493. * Org export:: Exporting to Org
  494. * iCalendar export:: Exporting to iCalendar
  495. * Other built-in back-ends:: Exporting to @code{Texinfo} or a man page
  496. * Export in foreign buffers:: Author tables and lists in Org syntax
  497. * Advanced configuration:: Fine-tuning the export output
  498. HTML export
  499. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  500. * HTML doctypes:: Org can export to various (X)HTML flavors
  501. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  502. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org mode
  503. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  504. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  505. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  506. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  507. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  508. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  509. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  510. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  511. * @LaTeX{} export commands:: How to export to LaTeX and PDF
  512. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  513. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  514. * @LaTeX{} specific attributes:: Controlling @LaTeX{} output
  515. OpenDocument text export
  516. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: What packages ODT exporter relies on
  517. * ODT export commands:: How to invoke ODT export
  518. * Extending ODT export:: How to produce @samp{doc}, @samp{pdf} files
  519. * Applying custom styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  520. * Links in ODT export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  521. * Tables in ODT export:: How Tables are exported
  522. * Images in ODT export:: How to insert images
  523. * Math formatting in ODT export:: How @LaTeX{} fragments are formatted
  524. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: How captions are rendered
  525. * Literal examples in ODT export:: How source and example blocks are formatted
  526. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: Read this if you are a power user
  527. Math formatting in ODT export
  528. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: How to embed @LaTeX{} math fragments
  529. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: How to embed equations in native format
  530. Advanced topics in ODT export
  531. * Configuring a document converter:: How to register a document converter
  532. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Explore the internals
  533. * Creating one-off styles:: How to produce custom highlighting etc
  534. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: How to define and use Table templates
  535. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: How to debug corrupt OpenDocument files
  536. Publishing
  537. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  538. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  539. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  540. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  541. Configuration
  542. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  543. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  544. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  545. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  546. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  547. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  548. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  549. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  550. Sample configuration
  551. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  552. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  553. Working with source code
  554. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  555. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  556. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  557. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  558. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  559. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  560. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  561. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  562. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  563. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  564. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  565. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  566. Header arguments
  567. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  568. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  569. Using header arguments
  570. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  571. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  572. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  573. * Language-specific header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set language-specific default values for a buffer or heading
  574. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  575. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  576. Specific header arguments
  577. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  578. * Results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  579. be collected and handled
  580. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  581. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  582. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  583. directory for code block execution
  584. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  585. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  586. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  587. files during tangling
  588. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  589. code files
  590. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  591. code files
  592. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  593. expansion during tangling
  594. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  595. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  596. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  597. * noweb-sep:: String used to separate noweb references
  598. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  599. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  600. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  601. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  602. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  603. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  604. * tangle-mode:: Set permission of tangled files
  605. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  606. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  607. * post:: Post processing of code block results
  608. * prologue:: Text to prepend to code block body
  609. * epilogue:: Text to append to code block body
  610. Miscellaneous
  611. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  612. * Easy templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  613. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  614. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  615. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  616. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  617. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  618. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  619. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  620. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  621. * org-crypt:: Encrypting Org files
  622. Interaction with other packages
  623. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  624. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  625. Hacking
  626. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  627. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  628. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  629. * Adding export back-ends:: How to write new export back-ends
  630. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  631. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  632. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  633. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  634. * Speeding up your agendas:: Tips on how to speed up your agendas
  635. * Extracting agenda information:: Post-processing of agenda information
  636. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  637. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  638. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  639. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  640. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  641. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  642. * Radio lists:: Sending and receiving lists
  643. MobileOrg
  644. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  645. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  646. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  647. @end detailmenu
  648. @end menu
  649. @node Introduction
  650. @chapter Introduction
  651. @cindex introduction
  652. @menu
  653. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  654. * Installation:: Installing Org
  655. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  656. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  657. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  658. @end menu
  659. @node Summary
  660. @section Summary
  661. @cindex summary
  662. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and project planning
  663. with a fast and effective plain-text system. It also is an authoring system
  664. with unique support for literate programming and reproducible research.
  665. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep
  666. the content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and structure
  667. editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created with a
  668. built-in table editor. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites,
  669. emails, Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  670. Org develops organizational tasks around notes files that contain lists or
  671. information about projects as plain text. Project planning and task
  672. management makes use of metadata which is part of an outline node. Based on
  673. this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and create dynamic
  674. @i{agenda views} that also integrate the Emacs calendar and diary. Org can
  675. be used to implement many different project planning schemes, such as David
  676. Allen's GTD system.
  677. Org files can serve as a single source authoring system with export to many
  678. different formats such as HTML, @LaTeX{}, Open Document, and Markdown. New
  679. export backends can be derived from existing ones, or defined from scratch.
  680. Org files can include source code blocks, which makes Org uniquely suited for
  681. authoring technical documents with code examples. Org source code blocks are
  682. fully functional; they can be evaluated in place and their results can be
  683. captured in the file. This makes it possible to create a single file
  684. reproducible research compendium.
  685. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should feel like a
  686. straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not imposed, but a
  687. large amount of functionality is available when needed. Org is a toolbox.
  688. Many users usilize only a (very personal) fraction of Org's capabilities, and
  689. know that there is more whenever they need it.
  690. All of this is achieved with strictly plain text files, the most portable and
  691. future-proof file format. Org runs in Emacs. Emacs is one of the most
  692. widely ported programs, so that Org mode is available on every major
  693. platform.
  694. @cindex FAQ
  695. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  696. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  697. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc. This page is located at
  698. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  699. @cindex print edition
  700. An earlier version (7.3) of this manual is available as a
  701. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from
  702. Network Theory Ltd.}
  703. @page
  704. @node Installation
  705. @section Installation
  706. @cindex installation
  707. @cindex XEmacs
  708. Org is part of recent distributions of GNU Emacs, so you normally don't need
  709. to install it. If, for one reason or another, you want to install Org on top
  710. of this pre-packaged version, there are three ways to do it:
  711. @itemize @bullet
  712. @item By using Emacs package system.
  713. @item By downloading Org as an archive.
  714. @item By using Org's git repository.
  715. @end itemize
  716. We @b{strongly recommend} to stick to a single installation method.
  717. @subsubheading Using Emacs packaging system
  718. Recent Emacs distributions include a packaging system which lets you install
  719. Elisp libraries. You can install Org with @kbd{M-x package-install RET org}.
  720. You need to do this in a session where no @code{.org} file has been visited.
  721. Then, to make sure your Org configuration is taken into account, initialize
  722. the package system with @code{(package-initialize)} in your @file{.emacs}
  723. before setting any Org option. If you want to use Org's package repository,
  724. check out the @uref{http://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}.
  725. @subsubheading Downloading Org as an archive
  726. You can download Org latest release from @uref{http://orgmode.org/, Org's
  727. website}. In this case, make sure you set the load-path correctly in your
  728. @file{.emacs}:
  729. @lisp
  730. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  731. @end lisp
  732. The downloaded archive contains contributed libraries that are not included
  733. in Emacs. If you want to use them, add the @file{contrib} directory to your
  734. load-path:
  735. @lisp
  736. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  737. @end lisp
  738. Optionally, you can compile the files and/or install them in your system.
  739. Run @code{make help} to list compilation and installation options.
  740. @subsubheading Using Org's git repository
  741. You can clone Org's repository and install Org like this:
  742. @example
  743. $ cd ~/src/
  744. $ git clone git://orgmode.org/org-mode.git
  745. $ make autoloads
  746. @end example
  747. Note that in this case, @code{make autoloads} is mandatory: it defines Org's
  748. version in @file{org-version.el} and Org's autoloads in
  749. @file{org-loaddefs.el}.
  750. Remember to add the correct load-path as described in the method above.
  751. You can also compile with @code{make}, generate the documentation with
  752. @code{make doc}, create a local configuration with @code{make config} and
  753. install Org with @code{make install}. Please run @code{make help} to get
  754. the list of compilation/installation options.
  755. For more detailed explanations on Org's build system, please check the Org
  756. Build System page on @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html,
  757. Worg}.
  758. @node Activation
  759. @section Activation
  760. @cindex activation
  761. @cindex autoload
  762. @cindex ELPA
  763. @cindex global key bindings
  764. @cindex key bindings, global
  765. @findex org-agenda
  766. @findex org-capture
  767. @findex org-store-link
  768. @findex org-iswitchb
  769. Since Emacs 22.2, files with the @file{.org} extension use Org mode by
  770. default. If you are using an earlier version of Emacs, add this line to your
  771. @file{.emacs} file:
  772. @lisp
  773. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  774. @end lisp
  775. Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on: this is the default in
  776. Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer
  777. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  778. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  779. packages, please take the time to check the list (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  780. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  781. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  782. global keys (i.e., anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  783. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  784. liking.
  785. @lisp
  786. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  787. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  788. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  789. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  790. @end lisp
  791. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  792. To turn on Org mode in a file that does not have the extension @file{.org},
  793. make the first line of a file look like this:
  794. @example
  795. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  796. @end example
  797. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  798. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  799. the file's name is. See also the variable
  800. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  801. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  802. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  803. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  804. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  805. @lisp
  806. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  807. @end lisp
  808. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  809. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  810. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  811. @node Feedback
  812. @section Feedback
  813. @cindex feedback
  814. @cindex bug reports
  815. @cindex maintainer
  816. @cindex author
  817. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  818. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  819. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  820. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  821. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  822. moderators have to do.}.
  823. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  824. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  825. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  826. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  827. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  828. (@kbd{M-x org-version RET}), as well as the Org related setup in
  829. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  830. @example
  831. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report RET}
  832. @end example
  833. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  834. that you only need to add your description. If you are not sending the Email
  835. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  836. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  837. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  838. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  839. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  840. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  841. @example
  842. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  843. @end example
  844. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  845. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as
  846. @code{emacs -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  847. shown below.
  848. @lisp
  849. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'
  850. ;; activate debugging
  851. (setq debug-on-error t
  852. debug-on-signal nil
  853. debug-on-quit nil)
  854. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  855. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  856. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t))
  857. @end lisp
  858. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  859. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  860. about:
  861. @enumerate
  862. @item What exactly did you do?
  863. @item What did you expect to happen?
  864. @item What happened instead?
  865. @end enumerate
  866. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  867. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  868. @cindex backtrace of an error
  869. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  870. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  871. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  872. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  873. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  874. @enumerate
  875. @item
  876. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  877. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  878. To do this, use
  879. @example
  880. @kbd{C-u M-x org-reload RET}
  881. @end example
  882. @noindent
  883. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  884. menu.
  885. @item
  886. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  887. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  888. @item
  889. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  890. document the steps you take.
  891. @item
  892. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  893. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  894. attach it to your bug report.
  895. @end enumerate
  896. @node Conventions
  897. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  898. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  899. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  900. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  901. @table @code
  902. @item TODO
  903. @itemx WAITING
  904. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  905. user-defined.
  906. @item boss
  907. @itemx ARCHIVE
  908. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  909. meaning are written with all capitals.
  910. @item Release
  911. @itemx PRIORITY
  912. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  913. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  914. @end table
  915. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  916. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_HTML} to start a @code{HTML}
  917. environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to enhance its
  918. readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org files@footnote{Easy
  919. templates insert lowercase keywords and Babel dynamically inserts
  920. @code{#+results}.}.
  921. @subsubheading Keybindings and commands
  922. @kindex C-c a
  923. @findex org-agenda
  924. @kindex C-c c
  925. @findex org-capture
  926. The manual suggests a few global keybindings, in particular @kbd{C-c a} for
  927. @code{org-agenda} and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only
  928. suggestions, but the rest of the manual assumes that these keybindings are in
  929. place in order to list commands by key access.
  930. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  931. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  932. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  933. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  934. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  935. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will
  936. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  937. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  938. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  939. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  940. @node Document structure
  941. @chapter Document structure
  942. @cindex document structure
  943. @cindex structure of document
  944. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  945. edit the structure of the document.
  946. @menu
  947. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  948. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  949. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  950. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  951. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  952. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  953. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  954. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  955. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  956. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  957. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  958. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  959. @end menu
  960. @node Outlines
  961. @section Outlines
  962. @cindex outlines
  963. @cindex Outline mode
  964. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  965. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  966. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  967. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  968. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  969. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  970. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  971. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  972. @node Headlines
  973. @section Headlines
  974. @cindex headlines
  975. @cindex outline tree
  976. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  977. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  978. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  979. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  980. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  981. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  982. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  983. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  984. headings indented less then 30 stars.}. For example:
  985. @example
  986. * Top level headline
  987. ** Second level
  988. *** 3rd level
  989. some text
  990. *** 3rd level
  991. more text
  992. * Another top level headline
  993. @end example
  994. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  995. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  996. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  997. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  998. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  999. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  1000. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  1001. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  1002. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  1003. @node Visibility cycling
  1004. @section Visibility cycling
  1005. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1006. @cindex visibility cycling
  1007. @cindex trees, visibility
  1008. @cindex show hidden text
  1009. @cindex hide text
  1010. @menu
  1011. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  1012. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  1013. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  1014. @end menu
  1015. @node Global and local cycling
  1016. @subsection Global and local cycling
  1017. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1018. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1019. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1020. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1021. @cindex subtree cycling
  1022. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1023. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1024. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1025. @table @asis
  1026. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1027. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1028. @example
  1029. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1030. '-----------------------------------'
  1031. @end example
  1032. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1033. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1034. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1035. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1036. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1037. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1038. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1039. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1040. @cindex global visibility states
  1041. @cindex global cycling
  1042. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1043. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1044. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1045. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1046. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1047. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1048. @example
  1049. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1050. '--------------------------------------'
  1051. @end example
  1052. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1053. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1054. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1055. @cindex set startup visibility, command
  1056. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1057. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer (@pxref{Initial visibility}).
  1058. @cindex show all, command
  1059. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  1060. Show all, including drawers.
  1061. @cindex revealing context
  1062. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1063. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1064. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1065. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1066. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1067. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1068. entire subtree of the parent.
  1069. @cindex show branches, command
  1070. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1071. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1072. @cindex show children, command
  1073. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},show-children}
  1074. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1075. expose all children down to level N@.
  1076. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1077. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1078. buffer
  1079. @ifinfo
  1080. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1081. @end ifinfo
  1082. @ifnotinfo
  1083. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1084. @end ifnotinfo
  1085. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1086. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1087. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1088. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1089. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1090. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1091. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1092. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1093. @end table
  1094. @node Initial visibility
  1095. @subsection Initial visibility
  1096. @cindex visibility, initialize
  1097. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1098. @vindex org-agenda-inhibit-startup
  1099. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1100. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1101. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1102. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1103. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to OVERVIEW,
  1104. i.e., only the top level headlines are visible@footnote{When
  1105. @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} is non-@code{nil}, Org will not honor the default
  1106. visibility state when first opening a file for the agenda (@pxref{Speeding up
  1107. your agendas}).} This can be configured through the variable
  1108. @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a per-file basis by adding one of the
  1109. following lines anywhere in the buffer:
  1110. @example
  1111. #+STARTUP: overview
  1112. #+STARTUP: content
  1113. #+STARTUP: showall
  1114. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1115. @end example
  1116. The startup visibility options are ignored when the file is open for the
  1117. first time during the agenda generation: if you want the agenda to honor
  1118. the startup visibility, set @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} to @code{nil}.
  1119. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1120. @noindent
  1121. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1122. and columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1123. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1124. @code{all}.
  1125. @table @asis
  1126. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1127. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e., whatever is
  1128. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1129. entries.
  1130. @end table
  1131. @node Catching invisible edits
  1132. @subsection Catching invisible edits
  1133. @vindex org-catch-invisible-edits
  1134. @cindex edits, catching invisible
  1135. Sometimes you may inadvertently edit an invisible part of the buffer and be
  1136. confused on what has been edited and how to undo the mistake. Setting
  1137. @code{org-catch-invisible-edits} to non-@code{nil} will help prevent this. See the
  1138. docstring of this option on how Org should catch invisible edits and process
  1139. them.
  1140. @node Motion
  1141. @section Motion
  1142. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1143. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1144. @cindex headline navigation
  1145. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1146. @table @asis
  1147. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1148. Next heading.
  1149. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1150. Previous heading.
  1151. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1152. Next heading same level.
  1153. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1154. Previous heading same level.
  1155. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1156. Backward to higher level heading.
  1157. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1158. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1159. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1160. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1161. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1162. @example
  1163. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1164. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1165. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1166. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1167. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1168. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1169. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1170. u @r{One level up.}
  1171. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1172. q @r{Quit}
  1173. @end example
  1174. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1175. @noindent
  1176. See also the option @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1177. @end table
  1178. @node Structure editing
  1179. @section Structure editing
  1180. @cindex structure editing
  1181. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1182. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1183. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1184. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1185. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1186. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1187. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1188. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1189. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1190. @table @asis
  1191. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1192. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1193. Insert a new heading/item with the same level as the one at point.
  1194. If the cursor is in a plain list item, a new item is created
  1195. (@pxref{Plain lists}). To prevent this behavior in lists, call the
  1196. command with a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1197. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes
  1198. the new item or headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be
  1199. split, customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If
  1200. the command is used at the @emph{beginning} of a headline, the new
  1201. headline is created before the current line. If the command is used
  1202. at the @emph{end} of a folded subtree (i.e., behind the ellipses at
  1203. the end of a headline), then a headline will be
  1204. inserted after the end of the subtree. Calling this command with
  1205. @kbd{C-u C-u} will unconditionally respect the headline's content and
  1206. create a new item at the end of the parent subtree.
  1207. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1208. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1209. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1210. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1211. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1212. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1213. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1214. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1215. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1216. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1217. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1218. subtree.
  1219. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1220. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1221. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1222. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1223. to the initial level.
  1224. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1225. Promote current heading by one level.
  1226. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1227. Demote current heading by one level.
  1228. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1229. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1230. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1231. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1232. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1233. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1234. level).
  1235. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1236. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1237. @orgcmd{M-h,org-mark-element}
  1238. Mark the element at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent elements
  1239. of the one just marked. E.g., hitting @key{M-h} on a paragraph will mark it,
  1240. hitting @key{M-h} immediately again will mark the next one.
  1241. @orgcmd{C-c @@,org-mark-subtree}
  1242. Mark the subtree at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent subtrees
  1243. of the same level than the marked subtree.
  1244. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1245. Kill subtree, i.e., remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1246. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1247. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1248. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1249. sequential subtrees.
  1250. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1251. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1252. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1253. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1254. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1255. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1256. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1257. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1258. Depending on the options @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1259. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1260. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1261. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1262. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1263. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1264. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1265. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1266. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1267. folding.
  1268. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1269. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1270. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1271. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1272. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1273. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1274. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1275. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1276. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refile and copy}.
  1277. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1278. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1279. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1280. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1281. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1282. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1283. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1284. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1285. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1286. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1287. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1288. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1289. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1290. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1291. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1292. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1293. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1294. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1295. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1296. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1297. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1298. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1299. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1300. @end table
  1301. @cindex region, active
  1302. @cindex active region
  1303. @cindex transient mark mode
  1304. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1305. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1306. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1307. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1308. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1309. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1310. functionality.
  1311. @node Sparse trees
  1312. @section Sparse trees
  1313. @cindex sparse trees
  1314. @cindex trees, sparse
  1315. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1316. @cindex occur, command
  1317. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1318. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1319. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1320. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1321. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1322. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1323. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1324. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1325. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1326. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1327. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1328. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1329. Org mode contains several commands for creating such trees, all these
  1330. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1331. @table @asis
  1332. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1333. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1334. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1335. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1336. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1337. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1338. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1339. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1340. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1341. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1342. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1343. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1344. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1345. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1346. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1347. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1348. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1349. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1350. @end table
  1351. @noindent
  1352. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1353. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1354. use the option @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1355. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1356. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1357. For example:
  1358. @lisp
  1359. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1360. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1361. @end lisp
  1362. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1363. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1364. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1365. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1366. @kindex C-c C-e C-v
  1367. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1368. @cindex visible text, printing
  1369. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1370. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1371. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1372. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1373. Or you can use @kbd{C-c C-e C-v} to export only the visible part of
  1374. the document and print the resulting file.
  1375. @node Plain lists
  1376. @section Plain lists
  1377. @cindex plain lists
  1378. @cindex lists, plain
  1379. @cindex lists, ordered
  1380. @cindex ordered lists
  1381. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1382. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1383. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1384. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1385. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1386. @itemize @bullet
  1387. @item
  1388. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1389. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1390. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1391. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1392. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1393. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1394. bullets.
  1395. @item
  1396. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1397. @vindex org-list-allow-alphabetical
  1398. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1399. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1400. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1401. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1402. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-list-allow-alphabetical}. To minimize
  1403. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1404. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1405. list to start with a different value (e.g., 20), start the text of the item
  1406. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1407. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1408. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1409. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1410. @item
  1411. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1412. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1413. description.
  1414. @end itemize
  1415. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1416. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1417. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1418. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1419. than its bullet/number.
  1420. @vindex org-list-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1421. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1422. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1423. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-list-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}.
  1424. In that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1425. @example
  1426. @group
  1427. ** Lord of the Rings
  1428. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1429. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1430. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1431. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1432. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1433. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1434. - on DVD only
  1435. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1436. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1437. Important actors in this film are:
  1438. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1439. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1440. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1441. @end group
  1442. @end example
  1443. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1444. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1445. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1446. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1447. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1448. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1449. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1450. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1451. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1452. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1453. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1454. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1455. indentation between items and their sub-items, customize
  1456. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1457. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1458. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1459. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1460. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1461. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1462. to disable them individually.
  1463. @table @asis
  1464. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1465. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1466. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1467. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1468. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1469. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1470. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1471. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1472. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1473. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1474. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1475. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1476. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1477. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1478. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1479. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1480. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1481. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1482. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1483. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1484. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1485. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1486. one.
  1487. @end table
  1488. @table @kbd
  1489. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1490. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1491. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1492. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1493. @item S-up
  1494. @itemx S-down
  1495. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1496. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1497. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1498. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1499. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1500. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1501. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1502. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1503. similar effect.
  1504. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1505. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1506. @item M-up
  1507. @itemx M-down
  1508. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1509. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1510. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1511. is automatic.
  1512. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1513. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1514. @item M-left
  1515. @itemx M-right
  1516. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1517. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1518. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1519. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1520. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1521. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1522. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1523. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1524. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1525. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1526. motion or so.
  1527. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1528. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1529. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1530. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1531. @kindex C-c C-c
  1532. @item C-c C-c
  1533. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1534. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1535. consistency in the whole list.
  1536. @kindex C-c -
  1537. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1538. @item C-c -
  1539. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1540. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1541. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1542. and its indentation. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet
  1543. from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, selected
  1544. text will be changed into an item. With a prefix argument, all lines will be
  1545. converted to list items. If the first line already was a list item, any item
  1546. marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1547. region, a normal line will be converted into a list item.
  1548. @kindex C-c *
  1549. @item C-c *
  1550. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1551. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1552. @kindex C-c C-*
  1553. @item C-c C-*
  1554. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1555. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1556. (resp. checked).
  1557. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1558. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1559. @item S-left/right
  1560. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1561. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1562. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1563. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1564. @kindex C-c ^
  1565. @cindex sorting, of plain list
  1566. @item C-c ^
  1567. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1568. numerically, alphabetically, by time, by checked status for check lists,
  1569. or by a custom function.
  1570. @end table
  1571. @node Drawers
  1572. @section Drawers
  1573. @cindex drawers
  1574. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1575. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  1576. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1577. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1578. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}. They
  1579. can contain anything but a headline and another drawer. Drawers look like
  1580. this:
  1581. @example
  1582. ** This is a headline
  1583. Still outside the drawer
  1584. :DRAWERNAME:
  1585. This is inside the drawer.
  1586. :END:
  1587. After the drawer.
  1588. @end example
  1589. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1590. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1591. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1592. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add a
  1593. property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1594. keywords is also possible using @key{M-TAB}.
  1595. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1596. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1597. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1598. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1599. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}), and you can also arrange
  1600. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1601. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1602. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state
  1603. changes, use
  1604. @table @kbd
  1605. @kindex C-c C-z
  1606. @item C-c C-z
  1607. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1608. @end table
  1609. @vindex org-export-with-drawers
  1610. @vindex org-export-with-properties
  1611. You can select the name of the drawers which should be exported with
  1612. @code{org-export-with-drawers}. In that case, drawer contents will appear in
  1613. export output. Property drawers are not affected by this variable: configure
  1614. @code{org-export-with-properties} instead.
  1615. @node Blocks
  1616. @section Blocks
  1617. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1618. @cindex blocks, folding
  1619. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1620. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1621. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1622. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1623. folded at startup by configuring the option @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1624. or on a per-file basis by using
  1625. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1626. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1627. @example
  1628. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1629. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1630. @end example
  1631. @node Footnotes
  1632. @section Footnotes
  1633. @cindex footnotes
  1634. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1635. @file{footnote.el} package, Org mode's footnotes are designed for work on
  1636. a larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails.
  1637. A footnote is started by a footnote marker in square brackets in column 0, no
  1638. indentation allowed. It ends at the next footnote definition, headline, or
  1639. after two consecutive empty lines. The footnote reference is simply the
  1640. marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1641. @example
  1642. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1643. ...
  1644. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1645. @end example
  1646. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1647. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1648. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1649. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1650. @LaTeX{}}). Here are the valid references:
  1651. @table @code
  1652. @item [1]
  1653. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1654. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1655. snippet.
  1656. @item [fn:name]
  1657. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1658. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1659. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1660. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1661. reference point.
  1662. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1663. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1664. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1665. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1666. @end table
  1667. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1668. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1669. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1670. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1671. for details.
  1672. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1673. @table @kbd
  1674. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1675. @item C-c C-x f
  1676. The footnote action command.
  1677. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1678. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1679. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1680. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1681. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1682. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the option
  1683. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1684. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1685. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1686. separately into the location determined by the option
  1687. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1688. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1689. options is offered:
  1690. @example
  1691. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1692. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1693. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1694. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1695. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1696. @r{option @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1697. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1698. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the option}
  1699. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1700. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1701. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1702. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1703. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1704. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g., sending}
  1705. @r{off an email).}
  1706. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1707. @r{to it.}
  1708. @end example
  1709. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1710. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1711. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1712. deletion.
  1713. @kindex C-c C-c
  1714. @item C-c C-c
  1715. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1716. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1717. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1718. @kindex C-c C-o
  1719. @kindex mouse-1
  1720. @kindex mouse-2
  1721. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1722. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1723. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1724. @end table
  1725. @node Orgstruct mode
  1726. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1727. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1728. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1729. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1730. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1731. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1732. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode RET}, or
  1733. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1734. @lisp
  1735. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1736. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1737. @end lisp
  1738. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1739. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1740. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1741. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1742. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows.
  1743. When you use @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and
  1744. autofill settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first
  1745. line of an item.
  1746. @vindex orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp
  1747. You can also use Org structure editing to fold and unfold headlines in
  1748. @emph{any} file, provided you defined @code{orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp}:
  1749. the regular expression must match the local prefix to use before Org's
  1750. headlines. For example, if you set this variable to @code{";; "} in Emacs
  1751. Lisp files, you will be able to fold and unfold headlines in Emacs Lisp
  1752. commented lines. Some commands like @code{org-demote} are disabled when the
  1753. prefix is set, but folding/unfolding will work correctly.
  1754. @node Org syntax
  1755. @section Org syntax
  1756. @cindex Org syntax
  1757. A reference document providing a formal description of Org's syntax is
  1758. available as @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-syntax.html, a draft on
  1759. Worg}, written and maintained by Nicolas Goaziou. It defines Org's core
  1760. internal concepts such as @code{headlines}, @code{sections}, @code{affiliated
  1761. keywords}, @code{(greater) elements} and @code{objects}. Each part of an Org
  1762. file falls into one of the categories above.
  1763. To explore the abstract structure of an Org buffer, run this in a buffer:
  1764. @lisp
  1765. M-: (org-element-parse-buffer) RET
  1766. @end lisp
  1767. It will output a list containing the buffer's content represented as an
  1768. abstract structure. The export engine relies on the information stored in
  1769. this list. Most interactive commands (e.g., for structure editing) also
  1770. rely on the syntactic meaning of the surrounding context.
  1771. @node Tables
  1772. @chapter Tables
  1773. @cindex tables
  1774. @cindex editing tables
  1775. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1776. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1777. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1778. @menu
  1779. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1780. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1781. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1782. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1783. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1784. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1785. @end menu
  1786. @node Built-in table editor
  1787. @section The built-in table editor
  1788. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1789. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII@. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1790. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1791. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1792. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1793. might look like this:
  1794. @example
  1795. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1796. |-------+-------+-----|
  1797. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1798. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1799. @end example
  1800. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1801. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1802. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1803. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1804. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1805. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1806. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1807. create the above table, you would only type
  1808. @example
  1809. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1810. |-
  1811. @end example
  1812. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1813. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1814. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1815. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1816. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1817. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1818. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1819. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1820. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1821. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1822. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1823. unpredictable for you, configure the options
  1824. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1825. @table @kbd
  1826. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1827. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1828. Convert the active region to a table. If every line contains at least one
  1829. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1830. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1831. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1832. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1833. C-u} forces TAB, @kbd{C-u C-u C-u} will prompt for a regular expression to
  1834. match the separator, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1835. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1836. @*
  1837. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1838. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1839. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1840. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1841. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1842. Re-align the table and don't move to another field.
  1843. @c
  1844. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1845. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1846. necessary.
  1847. @c
  1848. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1849. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1850. @c
  1851. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1852. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1853. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1854. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1855. @c
  1856. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1857. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1858. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1859. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1860. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1861. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1862. Move the current column left/right.
  1863. @c
  1864. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1865. Kill the current column.
  1866. @c
  1867. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1868. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1869. @c
  1870. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1871. Move the current row up/down.
  1872. @c
  1873. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1874. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1875. @c
  1876. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1877. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1878. created below the current one.
  1879. @c
  1880. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1881. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1882. is created above the current line.
  1883. @c
  1884. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1885. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1886. below that line.
  1887. @c
  1888. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1889. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1890. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1891. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1892. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1893. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1894. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1895. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1896. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1897. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1898. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1899. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1900. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1901. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1902. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1903. @c
  1904. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1905. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1906. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1907. @c
  1908. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1909. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1910. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1911. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1912. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1913. lines.
  1914. @c
  1915. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1916. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1917. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1918. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1919. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1920. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1921. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1922. above.
  1923. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1924. @cindex formula, in tables
  1925. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1926. @cindex region, active
  1927. @cindex active region
  1928. @cindex transient mark mode
  1929. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1930. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1931. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1932. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1933. @c
  1934. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1935. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1936. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1937. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1938. Depending on the option @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1939. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1940. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1941. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1942. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1943. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1944. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1945. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1946. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1947. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1948. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1949. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1950. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1951. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1952. @c
  1953. @item M-x org-table-import RET
  1954. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1955. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1956. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1957. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1958. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1959. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1960. separator.
  1961. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1962. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1963. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1964. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1965. @c
  1966. @item M-x org-table-export RET
  1967. @findex org-table-export
  1968. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1969. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1970. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1971. used to export the file can be configured in the option
  1972. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1973. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1974. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1975. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1976. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1977. detailed description.
  1978. @end table
  1979. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1980. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1981. it off with
  1982. @lisp
  1983. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1984. @end lisp
  1985. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1986. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1987. @node Column width and alignment
  1988. @section Column width and alignment
  1989. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1990. @cindex alignment in tables
  1991. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1992. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1993. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1994. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1995. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1996. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1997. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1998. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1999. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  2000. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  2001. @example
  2002. @group
  2003. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  2004. | | | | | <6> |
  2005. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  2006. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  2007. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  2008. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  2009. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  2010. @end group
  2011. @end example
  2012. @noindent
  2013. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  2014. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  2015. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  2016. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  2017. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  2018. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  2019. C-c}.
  2020. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  2021. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  2022. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  2023. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  2024. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  2025. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  2026. on a per-file basis with:
  2027. @example
  2028. #+STARTUP: align
  2029. #+STARTUP: noalign
  2030. @end example
  2031. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  2032. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  2033. @samp{<c>}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  2034. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  2035. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<r10>}.
  2036. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  2037. automatically when exporting the document.
  2038. @node Column groups
  2039. @section Column groups
  2040. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  2041. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  2042. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  2043. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  2044. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  2045. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  2046. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  2047. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  2048. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<}
  2049. and @samp{>}) to make a column
  2050. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  2051. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  2052. @example
  2053. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2054. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2055. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  2056. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  2057. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  2058. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  2059. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2060. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  2061. @end example
  2062. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  2063. every vertical line you would like to have:
  2064. @example
  2065. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2066. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2067. | / | < | | | < | |
  2068. @end example
  2069. @node Orgtbl mode
  2070. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2071. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2072. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2073. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  2074. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  2075. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  2076. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode RET}. To turn it on by default, for
  2077. example in Message mode, use
  2078. @lisp
  2079. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2080. @end lisp
  2081. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2082. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2083. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2084. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2085. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2086. @node The spreadsheet
  2087. @section The spreadsheet
  2088. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2089. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2090. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2091. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2092. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2093. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2094. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2095. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2096. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2097. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2098. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2099. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2100. @menu
  2101. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2102. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2103. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2104. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2105. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2106. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2107. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  2108. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2109. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2110. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2111. @end menu
  2112. @node References
  2113. @subsection References
  2114. @cindex references
  2115. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2116. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2117. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2118. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2119. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2120. @subsubheading Field references
  2121. @cindex field references
  2122. @cindex references, to fields
  2123. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2124. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2125. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2126. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2127. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2128. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2129. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the option
  2130. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2131. representation that looks like this:
  2132. @example
  2133. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2134. @end example
  2135. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2136. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e., the
  2137. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2138. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2139. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2140. column from the right.
  2141. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2142. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2143. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2144. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2145. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2146. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2147. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2148. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2149. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2150. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2151. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2152. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2153. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2154. after the third hline in the table.
  2155. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2156. i.e., to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2157. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2158. implied.
  2159. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2160. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2161. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2162. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2163. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2164. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2165. Here are a few examples:
  2166. @example
  2167. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2168. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2169. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2170. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2171. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2172. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2173. @end example
  2174. @subsubheading Range references
  2175. @cindex range references
  2176. @cindex references, to ranges
  2177. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2178. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2179. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2180. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2181. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2182. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2183. @example
  2184. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2185. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2186. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the last but one}
  2187. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2188. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 fields in the row above, starting from 2 columns on the left}
  2189. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2190. @end example
  2191. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2192. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally suppressed,
  2193. so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields. For other options
  2194. with the mode switches @samp{E}, @samp{N} and examples @pxref{Formula syntax
  2195. for Calc}.
  2196. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2197. @cindex field coordinates
  2198. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2199. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2200. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2201. One of the very first actions during evaluation of Calc formulas and Lisp
  2202. formulas is to substitute @code{@@#} and @code{$#} in the formula with the
  2203. row or column number of the field where the current result will go to. The
  2204. traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline} and
  2205. @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2206. @table @code
  2207. @item if(@@# % 2, $#, string(""))
  2208. Insert column number on odd rows, set field to empty on even rows.
  2209. @item $2 = '(identity remote(FOO, @@@@#$1))
  2210. Copy text or values of each row of column 1 of the table named @code{FOO}
  2211. into column 2 of the current table.
  2212. @item @@3 = 2 * remote(FOO, @@1$$#)
  2213. Insert the doubled value of each column of row 1 of the table named
  2214. @code{FOO} into row 3 of the current table.
  2215. @end table
  2216. @noindent For the second/third example, the table named @code{FOO} must have
  2217. at least as many rows/columns as the current table. Note that this is
  2218. inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as O(N^2) because the table
  2219. named @code{FOO} is parsed for each field to be read.} for large number of
  2220. rows/columns.
  2221. @subsubheading Named references
  2222. @cindex named references
  2223. @cindex references, named
  2224. @cindex name, of column or field
  2225. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2226. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2227. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2228. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2229. constant. Constants are defined globally through the option
  2230. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2231. line like
  2232. @example
  2233. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2234. @end example
  2235. @noindent
  2236. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2237. @pindex constants.el
  2238. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}) can be used as
  2239. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2240. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2241. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2242. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2243. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2244. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2245. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2246. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2247. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2248. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2249. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2250. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2251. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2252. numbers.
  2253. @subsubheading Remote references
  2254. @cindex remote references
  2255. @cindex references, remote
  2256. @cindex references, to a different table
  2257. @cindex name, of column or field
  2258. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2259. @cindex #+NAME, for table
  2260. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2261. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2262. @example
  2263. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2264. @end example
  2265. @noindent
  2266. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2267. @code{#+NAME: Name} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2268. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2269. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2270. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2271. referenced table.
  2272. Indirection of NAME-OR-ID: When NAME-OR-ID has the format @code{@@ROW$COLUMN}
  2273. it will be substituted with the name or ID found in this field of the current
  2274. table. For example @code{remote($1, @@>$2)} => @code{remote(year_2013,
  2275. @@>$1)}. The format @code{B3} is not supported because it can not be
  2276. distinguished from a plain table name or ID.
  2277. @node Formula syntax for Calc
  2278. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2279. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2280. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2281. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs @file{Calc}
  2282. package. Note that @file{calc} has the non-standard convention that @samp{/}
  2283. has lower precedence than @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as
  2284. @samp{a/(b*c)}. Before evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc
  2285. from Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc,
  2286. GNU Emacs Calc Manual}), variable substitution takes place according to the
  2287. rules described above.
  2288. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2289. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2290. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2291. @cindex format specifier
  2292. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2293. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2294. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2295. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2296. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2297. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2298. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2299. compact. The default settings can be configured using the option
  2300. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2301. @noindent List of modes:
  2302. @table @asis
  2303. @item @code{p20}
  2304. Set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits.
  2305. @item @code{n3}, @code{s3}, @code{e2}, @code{f4}
  2306. Normal, scientific, engineering or fixed format of the result of Calc passed
  2307. back to Org. Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as long as the Calc
  2308. calculation precision is greater.
  2309. @item @code{D}, @code{R}
  2310. Degree and radian angle modes of Calc.
  2311. @item @code{F}, @code{S}
  2312. Fraction and symbolic modes of Calc.
  2313. @item @code{T}, @code{t}
  2314. Duration computations in Calc or Lisp, @pxref{Durations and time values}.
  2315. @item @code{E}
  2316. If and how to consider empty fields. Without @samp{E} empty fields in range
  2317. references are suppressed so that the Calc vector or Lisp list contains only
  2318. the non-empty fields. With @samp{E} the empty fields are kept. For empty
  2319. fields in ranges or empty field references the value @samp{nan} (not a
  2320. number) is used in Calc formulas and the empty string is used for Lisp
  2321. formulas. Add @samp{N} to use 0 instead for both formula types. For the
  2322. value of a field the mode @samp{N} has higher precedence than @samp{E}.
  2323. @item @code{N}
  2324. Interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers. See the next section
  2325. to see how this is essential for computations with Lisp formulas. In Calc
  2326. formulas it is used only occasionally because there number strings are
  2327. already interpreted as numbers without @samp{N}.
  2328. @item @code{L}
  2329. Literal, for Lisp formulas only. See the next section.
  2330. @end table
  2331. @noindent
  2332. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation and
  2333. -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2334. @samp{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2335. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2336. formatting@footnote{The @samp{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2337. because the value passed to it is converted into an @samp{integer} or
  2338. @samp{double}. The @samp{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2339. signed value to 32 bits. The @samp{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2340. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}. A
  2341. few examples:
  2342. @example
  2343. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2344. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2345. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2346. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2347. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2348. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2349. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2350. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2351. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2352. @end example
  2353. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations, (@pxref{Logical
  2354. Operations, , Logical Operations, calc, GNU Emacs Calc Manual}). For example
  2355. @table @code
  2356. @item if($1 < 20, teen, string(""))
  2357. "teen" if age $1 is less than 20, else the Org table result field is set to
  2358. empty with the empty string.
  2359. @item if("$1" == "nan" || "$2" == "nan", string(""), $1 + $2); E
  2360. Sum of the first two columns. When at least one of the input fields is empty
  2361. the Org table result field is set to empty.
  2362. @item if(typeof(vmean($1..$7)) == 12, string(""), vmean($1..$7); E
  2363. Mean value of a range unless there is any empty field. Every field in the
  2364. range that is empty is replaced by @samp{nan} which lets @samp{vmean} result
  2365. in @samp{nan}. Then @samp{typeof == 12} detects the @samp{nan} from
  2366. @samp{vmean} and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use this when
  2367. the sample set is expected to never have missing values.
  2368. @item if("$1..$7" == "[]", string(""), vmean($1..$7))
  2369. Mean value of a range with empty fields skipped. Every field in the range
  2370. that is empty is skipped. When all fields in the range are empty the mean
  2371. value is not defined and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use
  2372. this when the sample set can have a variable size.
  2373. @item vmean($1..$7); EN
  2374. To complete the example before: Mean value of a range with empty fields
  2375. counting as samples with value 0. Use this only when incomplete sample sets
  2376. should be padded with 0 to the full size.
  2377. @end table
  2378. You can add your own Calc functions defined in Emacs Lisp with @code{defmath}
  2379. and use them in formula syntax for Calc.
  2380. @node Formula syntax for Lisp
  2381. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2382. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2383. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be useful
  2384. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is
  2385. not enough.
  2386. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening parenthesis,
  2387. then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a
  2388. string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes
  2389. and a printf format after a semicolon.
  2390. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2391. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be
  2392. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If
  2393. you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers
  2394. (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without
  2395. quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated
  2396. literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted
  2397. as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in
  2398. double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated
  2399. fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax.
  2400. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2401. computations in Lisp:
  2402. @table @code
  2403. @item '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2404. Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1.
  2405. @item '(+ $1 $2);N
  2406. Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}.
  2407. @item '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2408. Compute the sum of columns 1 to 4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}.
  2409. @end table
  2410. @node Durations and time values
  2411. @subsection Durations and time values
  2412. @cindex Duration, computing
  2413. @cindex Time, computing
  2414. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2415. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2416. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2417. @example
  2418. @group
  2419. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2420. |---------+----------+----------|
  2421. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2422. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2423. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2424. @end group
  2425. @end example
  2426. Input duration values must be of the form @code{HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2427. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2428. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2429. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the option
  2430. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2431. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2432. example above).
  2433. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2434. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2435. @node Field and range formulas
  2436. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2437. @cindex field formula
  2438. @cindex range formula
  2439. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2440. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2441. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2442. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2443. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2444. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2445. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2446. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2447. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2448. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2449. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2450. inserting/deleting/swapping columns and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2451. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2452. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this, in
  2453. particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table borders (using
  2454. @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines using the
  2455. @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does of course
  2456. not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2457. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2458. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2459. command
  2460. @table @kbd
  2461. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2462. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2463. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2464. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2465. @end table
  2466. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2467. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2468. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2469. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2470. directly.
  2471. @table @code
  2472. @item $2=
  2473. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2474. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2475. @item @@3=
  2476. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2477. the last row.
  2478. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2479. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2480. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2481. @item $name=
  2482. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2483. @end table
  2484. @node Column formulas
  2485. @subsection Column formulas
  2486. @cindex column formula
  2487. @cindex formula, for table column
  2488. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2489. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2490. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2491. hlines with rows above and below, everything before the first such hline is
  2492. considered part of the table @emph{header} and will not be modified by column
  2493. formulas. Therefore a header is mandatory when you use column formulas and
  2494. want to add hlines to group rows, like for example to separate a total row at
  2495. the bottom from the summand rows above. (ii) Fields that already get a value
  2496. from a field/range formula will be left alone by column formulas. These
  2497. conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2498. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2499. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2500. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2501. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2502. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2503. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2504. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2505. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2506. left-hand side of a column formula cannot be the name of column, it must be
  2507. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2508. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2509. following command:
  2510. @table @kbd
  2511. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2512. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2513. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2514. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2515. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g., @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2516. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2517. @end table
  2518. @node Lookup functions
  2519. @subsection Lookup functions
  2520. @cindex lookup functions in tables
  2521. @cindex table lookup functions
  2522. Org has three predefined Emacs Lisp functions for lookups in tables.
  2523. @table @code
  2524. @item (org-lookup-first VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2525. @findex org-lookup-first
  2526. Searches for the first element @code{S} in list @code{S-LIST} for which
  2527. @lisp
  2528. (PREDICATE VAL S)
  2529. @end lisp
  2530. is @code{t}; returns the value from the corresponding position in list
  2531. @code{R-LIST}. The default @code{PREDICATE} is @code{equal}. Note that the
  2532. parameters @code{VAL} and @code{S} are passed to @code{PREDICATE} in the same
  2533. order as the corresponding parameters are in the call to
  2534. @code{org-lookup-first}, where @code{VAL} precedes @code{S-LIST}. If
  2535. @code{R-LIST} is @code{nil}, the matching element @code{S} of @code{S-LIST}
  2536. is returned.
  2537. @item (org-lookup-last VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2538. @findex org-lookup-last
  2539. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first} above, but searches for the @i{last}
  2540. element for which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}.
  2541. @item (org-lookup-all VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2542. @findex org-lookup-all
  2543. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first}, but searches for @i{all} elements for
  2544. which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}, and returns @i{all} corresponding
  2545. values. This function can not be used by itself in a formula, because it
  2546. returns a list of values. However, powerful lookups can be built when this
  2547. function is combined with other Emacs Lisp functions.
  2548. @end table
  2549. If the ranges used in these functions contain empty fields, the @code{E} mode
  2550. for the formula should usually be specified: otherwise empty fields will not be
  2551. included in @code{S-LIST} and/or @code{R-LIST} which can, for example, result
  2552. in an incorrect mapping from an element of @code{S-LIST} to the corresponding
  2553. element of @code{R-LIST}.
  2554. These three functions can be used to implement associative arrays, count
  2555. matching cells, rank results, group data etc. For practical examples
  2556. see @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-lookups.html, this
  2557. tutorial on Worg}.
  2558. @node Editing and debugging formulas
  2559. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2560. @cindex formula editing
  2561. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2562. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2563. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the field.
  2564. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active formulas of a table.
  2565. When offering a formula for editing, Org converts references to the standard
  2566. format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&}) if possible. If you prefer to only work
  2567. with the internal format (like @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the
  2568. option @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2569. @table @kbd
  2570. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2571. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2572. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2573. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2574. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2575. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2576. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2577. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2578. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2579. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2580. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2581. @kindex C-c @}
  2582. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2583. @item C-c @}
  2584. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2585. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2586. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2587. @kindex C-c @{
  2588. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2589. @item C-c @{
  2590. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2591. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2592. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2593. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2594. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2595. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2596. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2597. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2598. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2599. @table @kbd
  2600. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2601. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2602. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2603. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2604. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2605. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2606. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2607. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2608. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2609. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2610. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2611. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2612. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2613. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2614. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2615. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2616. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2617. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2618. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2619. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2620. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2621. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2622. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2623. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2624. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2625. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2626. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2627. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2628. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2629. down.
  2630. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2631. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2632. @kindex C-c @}
  2633. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2634. @item C-c @}
  2635. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2636. @end table
  2637. @end table
  2638. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2639. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2640. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2641. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2642. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2643. @kindex C-c C-c
  2644. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2645. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2646. recalculation commands in the table.
  2647. @anchor{Using multiple #+TBLFM lines}
  2648. @subsubheading Using multiple #+TBLFM lines
  2649. @cindex #+TBLFM line, multiple
  2650. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2651. @cindex #+TBLFM, switching
  2652. @kindex C-c C-c
  2653. You may apply the formula temporarily. This is useful when you
  2654. switch the formula. Place multiple @samp{#+TBLFM} lines right
  2655. after the table, and then press @kbd{C-c C-c} on the formula to
  2656. apply. Here is an example:
  2657. @example
  2658. | x | y |
  2659. |---+---|
  2660. | 1 | |
  2661. | 2 | |
  2662. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2663. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2664. @end example
  2665. @noindent
  2666. Pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} in the line of @samp{#+TBLFM: $2=$1*2} yields:
  2667. @example
  2668. | x | y |
  2669. |---+---|
  2670. | 1 | 2 |
  2671. | 2 | 4 |
  2672. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2673. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2674. @end example
  2675. @noindent
  2676. Note: If you recalculate this table (with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, for example), you
  2677. will get the following result of applying only the first @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2678. @example
  2679. | x | y |
  2680. |---+---|
  2681. | 1 | 1 |
  2682. | 2 | 2 |
  2683. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2684. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2685. @end example
  2686. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2687. @cindex formula debugging
  2688. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2689. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2690. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2691. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2692. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2693. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2694. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2695. @node Updating the table
  2696. @subsection Updating the table
  2697. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2698. @cindex updating, table
  2699. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2700. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2701. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2702. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2703. following commands:
  2704. @table @kbd
  2705. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2706. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2707. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2708. @c
  2709. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2710. @item C-u C-c *
  2711. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2712. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2713. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2714. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2715. @c
  2716. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2717. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2718. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2719. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2720. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables RET
  2721. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2722. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2723. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables RET
  2724. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2725. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2726. dependencies.
  2727. @end table
  2728. @node Advanced features
  2729. @subsection Advanced features
  2730. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2731. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2732. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2733. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2734. special marking characters.
  2735. @table @kbd
  2736. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2737. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2738. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2739. change all marks in the region.
  2740. @end table
  2741. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2742. makes use of these features:
  2743. @example
  2744. @group
  2745. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2746. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2747. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2748. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2749. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2750. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2751. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2752. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2753. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2754. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2755. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2756. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2757. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2758. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2759. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2760. @end group
  2761. @end example
  2762. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2763. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2764. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2765. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2766. empty first field.
  2767. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2768. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2769. @table @samp
  2770. @item !
  2771. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2772. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2773. @item ^
  2774. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2775. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2776. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2777. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2778. @item _
  2779. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2780. @emph{below}.
  2781. @item $
  2782. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2783. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2784. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2785. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2786. a per-table basis.
  2787. @item #
  2788. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2789. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2790. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2791. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2792. @item *
  2793. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2794. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2795. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2796. @item @w{ }
  2797. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2798. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2799. or @samp{*}.
  2800. @item /
  2801. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2802. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2803. @end table
  2804. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2805. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2806. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2807. functions.
  2808. @example
  2809. @group
  2810. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2811. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2812. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2813. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2814. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2815. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2816. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2817. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2818. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2819. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2820. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2821. @end group
  2822. @end example
  2823. @node Org-Plot
  2824. @section Org-Plot
  2825. @cindex graph, in tables
  2826. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2827. @cindex #+PLOT
  2828. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2829. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2830. @uref{http://xafs.org/BruceRavel/GnuplotMode}. To see this in action, ensure
  2831. that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed on your system, then
  2832. call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2833. @example
  2834. @group
  2835. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2836. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2837. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2838. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2839. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2840. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2841. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2842. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2843. @end group
  2844. @end example
  2845. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2846. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2847. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2848. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2849. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2850. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2851. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2852. @table @code
  2853. @item set
  2854. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2855. @item title
  2856. Specify the title of the plot.
  2857. @item ind
  2858. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2859. @item deps
  2860. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2861. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2862. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2863. column).
  2864. @item type
  2865. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2866. @item with
  2867. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2868. (e.g., @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2869. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2870. @item file
  2871. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2872. @item labels
  2873. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2874. if they exist).
  2875. @item line
  2876. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2877. @item map
  2878. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2879. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2880. @item timefmt
  2881. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2882. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2883. @item script
  2884. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2885. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2886. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2887. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2888. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2889. the data file.
  2890. @end table
  2891. @node Hyperlinks
  2892. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2893. @cindex hyperlinks
  2894. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2895. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2896. @menu
  2897. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2898. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2899. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2900. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2901. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2902. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2903. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2904. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2905. @end menu
  2906. @node Link format
  2907. @section Link format
  2908. @cindex link format
  2909. @cindex format, of links
  2910. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2911. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2912. @example
  2913. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2914. @end example
  2915. @noindent
  2916. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2917. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2918. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2919. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2920. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2921. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2922. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2923. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2924. cursor on the link.
  2925. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2926. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2927. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2928. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2929. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2930. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2931. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2932. @node Internal links
  2933. @section Internal links
  2934. @cindex internal links
  2935. @cindex links, internal
  2936. @cindex targets, for links
  2937. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2938. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2939. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2940. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2941. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. You are responsible yourself
  2942. to make sure these custom IDs are unique in a file.
  2943. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2944. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2945. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2946. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2947. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2948. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets, like
  2949. @samp{<<My Target>>}.
  2950. @cindex #+NAME
  2951. If no dedicated target exists, the link will then try to match the exact name
  2952. of an element within the buffer. Naming is done with the @code{#+NAME}
  2953. keyword, which has to be put in the line before the element it refers to, as
  2954. in the following example
  2955. @example
  2956. #+NAME: My Target
  2957. | a | table |
  2958. |----+------------|
  2959. | of | four cells |
  2960. @end example
  2961. If none of the above succeeds, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2962. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2963. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type
  2964. a star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2965. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2966. completions.}.
  2967. During export, internal links will be used to mark objects and assign them
  2968. a number. Marked objects will then be referenced by links pointing to them.
  2969. In particular, links without a description will appear as the number assigned
  2970. to the marked object@footnote{When targeting a @code{#+NAME} keyword,
  2971. @code{#+CAPTION} keyword is mandatory in order to get proper numbering
  2972. (@pxref{Images and tables}).}. In the following excerpt from an Org buffer
  2973. @example
  2974. - one item
  2975. - <<target>>another item
  2976. Here we refer to item [[target]].
  2977. @end example
  2978. @noindent
  2979. The last sentence will appear as @samp{Here we refer to item 2} when
  2980. exported.
  2981. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the link text. In
  2982. the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2983. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2984. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2985. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2986. earlier.
  2987. @menu
  2988. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2989. @end menu
  2990. @node Radio targets
  2991. @subsection Radio targets
  2992. @cindex radio targets
  2993. @cindex targets, radio
  2994. @cindex links, radio targets
  2995. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2996. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2997. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2998. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2999. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  3000. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  3001. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  3002. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3003. cursor on or at a target.
  3004. @node External links
  3005. @section External links
  3006. @cindex links, external
  3007. @cindex external links
  3008. @cindex Gnus links
  3009. @cindex BBDB links
  3010. @cindex IRC links
  3011. @cindex URL links
  3012. @cindex file links
  3013. @cindex RMAIL links
  3014. @cindex MH-E links
  3015. @cindex USENET links
  3016. @cindex SHELL links
  3017. @cindex Info links
  3018. @cindex Elisp links
  3019. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB
  3020. database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs.
  3021. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short identifying
  3022. string followed by a colon. There can be no space after the colon. The
  3023. following list shows examples for each link type.
  3024. @example
  3025. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  3026. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  3027. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  3028. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  3029. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  3030. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3031. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  3032. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3033. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  3034. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  3035. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  3036. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  3037. the option @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  3038. is @code{nil}, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  3039. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  3040. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  3041. will be queried to create it.}
  3042. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  3043. file+sys:/path/to/file @r{open via OS, like double-click}
  3044. file+emacs:/path/to/file @r{force opening by Emacs}
  3045. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  3046. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  3047. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  3048. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  3049. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  3050. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  3051. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  3052. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  3053. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  3054. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  3055. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  3056. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  3057. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  3058. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  3059. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  3060. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  3061. @end example
  3062. @cindex VM links
  3063. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  3064. On top of these built-in link types, some are available through the
  3065. @code{contrib/} directory (@pxref{Installation}). For example, these links
  3066. to VM or Wanderlust messages are available when you load the corresponding
  3067. libraries from the @code{contrib/} directory:
  3068. @example
  3069. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  3070. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  3071. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  3072. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  3073. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  3074. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  3075. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  3076. @end example
  3077. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  3078. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a descriptive
  3079. text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link format}), for example:
  3080. @example
  3081. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  3082. @end example
  3083. @noindent
  3084. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  3085. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  3086. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  3087. image,
  3088. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  3089. @cindex square brackets, around links
  3090. @cindex plain text external links
  3091. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  3092. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  3093. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  3094. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  3095. @node Handling links
  3096. @section Handling links
  3097. @cindex links, handling
  3098. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  3099. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  3100. @table @kbd
  3101. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  3102. @cindex storing links
  3103. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  3104. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  3105. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  3106. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  3107. buffer:
  3108. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  3109. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  3110. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  3111. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  3112. removed from the link and result in a wrong link---you should avoid putting
  3113. timestamp in the headline.}.
  3114. @vindex org-id-link-to-org-use-id
  3115. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  3116. @cindex property, ID
  3117. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  3118. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  3119. @code{org-id-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will
  3120. be created and/or used to construct a link@footnote{The library
  3121. @file{org-id.el} must first be loaded, either through @code{org-customize} by
  3122. enabling @code{org-id} in @code{org-modules}, or by adding @code{(require
  3123. 'org-id)} in your @file{.emacs}.}. So using this command in Org buffers will
  3124. potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom ID, and one
  3125. that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from file to
  3126. file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one to use.
  3127. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  3128. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  3129. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  3130. constructed from the author and the subject.
  3131. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  3132. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  3133. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  3134. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  3135. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  3136. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  3137. For IRC links, if you set the option @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to @code{t},
  3138. a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for the current
  3139. conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to the
  3140. user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  3141. @b{Other files}@*
  3142. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  3143. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  3144. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  3145. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  3146. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  3147. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  3148. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  3149. @b{Agenda view}@*
  3150. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  3151. entry referenced by the current line.
  3152. @c
  3153. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  3154. @cindex link completion
  3155. @cindex completion, of links
  3156. @cindex inserting links
  3157. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  3158. Insert a link@footnote{Note that you don't have to use this command to
  3159. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  3160. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  3161. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  3162. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  3163. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  3164. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  3165. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  3166. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  3167. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  3168. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  3169. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  3170. becomes the default description.
  3171. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  3172. All links stored during the
  3173. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  3174. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  3175. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  3176. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  3177. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  3178. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  3179. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  3180. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  3181. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  3182. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  3183. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  3184. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  3185. @cindex file name completion
  3186. @cindex completion, of file names
  3187. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  3188. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  3189. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  3190. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  3191. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  3192. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  3193. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  3194. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3195. @c
  3196. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  3197. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  3198. link and description parts of the link.
  3199. @c
  3200. @cindex following links
  3201. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  3202. @vindex org-file-apps
  3203. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3204. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  3205. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  3206. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  3207. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  3208. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  3209. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  3210. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  3211. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3212. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3213. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3214. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3215. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3216. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3217. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3218. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3219. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3220. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3221. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3222. the link at point.
  3223. @c
  3224. @kindex mouse-2
  3225. @kindex mouse-1
  3226. @item mouse-2
  3227. @itemx mouse-1
  3228. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  3229. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  3230. @c
  3231. @kindex mouse-3
  3232. @item mouse-3
  3233. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3234. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3235. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3236. option @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3237. @c
  3238. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3239. @cindex inlining images
  3240. @cindex images, inlining
  3241. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3242. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3243. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3244. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3245. images that have no description part in the link, i.e., images that will also
  3246. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3247. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3248. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3249. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3250. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{noinlineimages}}.
  3251. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3252. @cindex mark ring
  3253. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3254. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3255. @c
  3256. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3257. @cindex links, returning to
  3258. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3259. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3260. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3261. previously recorded positions.
  3262. @c
  3263. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3264. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3265. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3266. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3267. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3268. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3269. @lisp
  3270. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3271. (lambda ()
  3272. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3273. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3274. @end lisp
  3275. @end table
  3276. @node Using links outside Org
  3277. @section Using links outside Org
  3278. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3279. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3280. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3281. yourself):
  3282. @lisp
  3283. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3284. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3285. @end lisp
  3286. @node Link abbreviations
  3287. @section Link abbreviations
  3288. @cindex link abbreviations
  3289. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3290. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3291. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3292. abbreviated link looks like this
  3293. @example
  3294. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3295. @end example
  3296. @noindent
  3297. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3298. where the tag is optional.
  3299. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3300. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3301. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3302. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3303. @smalllisp
  3304. @group
  3305. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3306. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3307. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3308. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3309. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3310. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3311. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3312. @end group
  3313. @end smalllisp
  3314. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3315. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3316. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3317. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3318. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3319. If the replacement text doesn't contain any specifier, it will simply
  3320. be appended to the string in order to create the link.
  3321. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3322. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3323. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3324. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3325. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3326. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3327. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3328. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3329. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3330. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3331. can define them in the file with
  3332. @cindex #+LINK
  3333. @example
  3334. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3335. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3336. @end example
  3337. @noindent
  3338. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3339. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3340. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g., completion)
  3341. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3342. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3343. @node Search options
  3344. @section Search options in file links
  3345. @cindex search option in file links
  3346. @cindex file links, searching
  3347. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3348. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3349. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3350. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3351. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3352. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3353. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3354. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3355. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3356. link, together with an explanation:
  3357. @example
  3358. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3359. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3360. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3361. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3362. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3363. @end example
  3364. @table @code
  3365. @item 255
  3366. Jump to line 255.
  3367. @item My Target
  3368. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3369. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3370. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3371. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3372. the linked file.
  3373. @item *My Target
  3374. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3375. @item #my-custom-id
  3376. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3377. @item /regexp/
  3378. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3379. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3380. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3381. sparse tree with the matches.
  3382. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3383. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3384. @end table
  3385. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3386. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3387. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3388. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3389. @node Custom searches
  3390. @section Custom Searches
  3391. @cindex custom search strings
  3392. @cindex search strings, custom
  3393. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3394. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3395. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3396. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3397. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3398. citation key.
  3399. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3400. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3401. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3402. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3403. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3404. to be added to the hook variables
  3405. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3406. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3407. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3408. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3409. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3410. @node TODO items
  3411. @chapter TODO items
  3412. @cindex TODO items
  3413. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3414. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3415. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3416. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3417. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3418. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3419. item emerged is always present.
  3420. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3421. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3422. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3423. @menu
  3424. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3425. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3426. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3427. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3428. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3429. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3430. @end menu
  3431. @node TODO basics
  3432. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3433. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3434. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3435. @example
  3436. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3437. @end example
  3438. @noindent
  3439. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3440. @table @kbd
  3441. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3442. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3443. @vindex org-use-fast-todo-selection
  3444. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3445. @example
  3446. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3447. '--------------------------------'
  3448. @end example
  3449. If TODO keywords have fast access keys (see @ref{Fast access to TODO
  3450. states}), you will be prompted for a TODO keyword through the fast selection
  3451. interface; this is the default behavior when
  3452. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is non-@code{nil}.
  3453. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and agenda
  3454. buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3455. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3456. When TODO keywords have no selection keys, select a specific keyword using
  3457. completion; otherwise force cycling through TODO states with no prompt. When
  3458. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is set to @code{prefix}, use the fast
  3459. selection interface.
  3460. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3461. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3462. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3463. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3464. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3465. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3466. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3467. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3468. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3469. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-tree}
  3470. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3471. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3472. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3473. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3474. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3475. / T}), search for a specific TODO@. You will be prompted for the keyword,
  3476. and you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3477. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3478. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the option @code{org-todo-keywords}.
  3479. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states, both un-done and done.
  3480. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3481. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3482. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3483. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3484. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3485. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3486. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3487. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3488. @end table
  3489. @noindent
  3490. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3491. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3492. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3493. @node TODO extensions
  3494. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3495. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3496. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3497. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3498. DONE@. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3499. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3500. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3501. files.
  3502. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3503. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3504. @menu
  3505. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3506. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3507. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3508. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3509. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3510. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3511. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3512. @end menu
  3513. @node Workflow states
  3514. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3515. @cindex TODO workflow
  3516. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3517. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3518. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3519. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3520. buffer.}:
  3521. @lisp
  3522. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3523. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3524. @end lisp
  3525. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3526. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3527. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3528. state.
  3529. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3530. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3531. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED@. You may
  3532. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3533. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY@.
  3534. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3535. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3536. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3537. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3538. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3539. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3540. @node TODO types
  3541. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3542. @cindex TODO types
  3543. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3544. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3545. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3546. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3547. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3548. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3549. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3550. be set up like this:
  3551. @lisp
  3552. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3553. @end lisp
  3554. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3555. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3556. person, and later to mark it DONE@. Org mode supports this style by adapting
  3557. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3558. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3559. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3560. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3561. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3562. to DONE@. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3563. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3564. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3565. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3566. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3567. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3568. @node Multiple sets in one file
  3569. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3570. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3571. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3572. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3573. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3574. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3575. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3576. like this:
  3577. @lisp
  3578. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3579. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3580. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3581. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3582. @end lisp
  3583. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3584. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3585. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3586. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3587. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3588. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3589. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3590. @table @kbd
  3591. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3592. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3593. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3594. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3595. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3596. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3597. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3598. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3599. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3600. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3601. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3602. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3603. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3604. @item S-@key{right}
  3605. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3606. @kbd{S-@key{left}} and @kbd{S-@key{right}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3607. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{right}} would switch
  3608. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3609. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3610. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3611. @end table
  3612. @node Fast access to TODO states
  3613. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3614. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3615. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3616. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection character after
  3617. each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except
  3618. @code{@@^!}, which have a special meaning here.}. For example:
  3619. @lisp
  3620. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3621. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3622. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3623. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3624. @end lisp
  3625. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3626. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3627. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3628. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the option
  3629. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3630. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3631. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3632. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3633. @node Per-file keywords
  3634. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3635. @cindex keyword options
  3636. @cindex per-file keywords
  3637. @cindex #+TODO
  3638. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3639. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3640. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3641. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3642. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3643. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3644. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3645. file:
  3646. @example
  3647. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3648. @end example
  3649. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3650. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3651. @example
  3652. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3653. @end example
  3654. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3655. @example
  3656. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3657. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3658. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3659. @end example
  3660. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3661. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3662. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3663. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3664. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3665. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3666. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3667. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3668. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3669. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3670. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3671. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3672. for the current buffer.}.
  3673. @node Faces for TODO keywords
  3674. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3675. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3676. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3677. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3678. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3679. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3680. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3681. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3682. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3683. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the option
  3684. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3685. @lisp
  3686. @group
  3687. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3688. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3689. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3690. @end group
  3691. @end lisp
  3692. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3693. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3694. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The option
  3695. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3696. foreground or a background color.
  3697. @node TODO dependencies
  3698. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3699. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3700. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3701. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3702. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3703. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3704. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3705. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE@. And sometimes
  3706. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3707. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3708. the option @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3709. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE@.
  3710. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3711. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE@. Here is an
  3712. example:
  3713. @example
  3714. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3715. ** DONE one
  3716. ** TODO two
  3717. * Parent
  3718. :PROPERTIES:
  3719. :ORDERED: t
  3720. :END:
  3721. ** TODO a
  3722. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3723. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3724. @end example
  3725. @table @kbd
  3726. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3727. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3728. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3729. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3730. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3731. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3732. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the option
  3733. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3734. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3735. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3736. @end table
  3737. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3738. If you set the option @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3739. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3740. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda views}).
  3741. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3742. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3743. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3744. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the option
  3745. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3746. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3747. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3748. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3749. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3750. @page
  3751. @node Progress logging
  3752. @section Progress logging
  3753. @cindex progress logging
  3754. @cindex logging, of progress
  3755. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3756. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3757. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable; settings can be on a
  3758. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3759. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3760. work time}.
  3761. @menu
  3762. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3763. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3764. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3765. @end menu
  3766. @node Closing items
  3767. @subsection Closing items
  3768. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3769. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3770. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3771. @lisp
  3772. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3773. @end lisp
  3774. @vindex org-closed-keep-when-no-todo
  3775. @noindent
  3776. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any of the
  3777. DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after
  3778. the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item through further
  3779. state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you turn the entry back
  3780. to a non-TODO state (by pressing @key{C-c C-t SPC} for example), that line
  3781. will also be removed, unless you set @code{org-closed-keep-when-no-todo} to
  3782. non-@code{nil}. If you want to record a note along with the timestamp,
  3783. use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP:
  3784. lognotedone}.}
  3785. @lisp
  3786. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3787. @end lisp
  3788. @noindent
  3789. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3790. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3791. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3792. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3793. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3794. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3795. @node Tracking TODO state changes
  3796. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3797. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3798. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3799. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3800. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3801. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3802. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3803. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3804. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3805. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the option
  3806. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3807. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3808. Customize @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the recommended
  3809. drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3810. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3811. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3812. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3813. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3814. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3815. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3816. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3817. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3818. setting
  3819. @lisp
  3820. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3821. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3822. @end lisp
  3823. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3824. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3825. @noindent
  3826. @vindex org-log-done
  3827. You not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3828. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3829. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3830. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3831. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3832. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3833. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3834. WAIT or CANCELED@. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3835. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3836. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3837. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3838. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3839. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3840. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3841. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3842. configured.
  3843. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3844. to a buffer:
  3845. @example
  3846. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3847. @end example
  3848. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3849. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3850. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3851. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to @code{nil}. You may then turn
  3852. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3853. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3854. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3855. @example
  3856. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3857. :PROPERTIES:
  3858. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3859. :END:
  3860. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3861. :PROPERTIES:
  3862. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3863. :END:
  3864. * TODO No logging at all
  3865. :PROPERTIES:
  3866. :LOGGING: nil
  3867. :END:
  3868. @end example
  3869. @node Tracking your habits
  3870. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3871. @cindex habits
  3872. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3873. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3874. @enumerate
  3875. @item
  3876. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing @code{org-modules}.
  3877. @item
  3878. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3879. @item
  3880. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3881. @item
  3882. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3883. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3884. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3885. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3886. @item
  3887. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3888. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3889. three days, but at most every two days.
  3890. @item
  3891. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled
  3892. (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3893. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an
  3894. error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless.
  3895. @end enumerate
  3896. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3897. actual habit with some history:
  3898. @example
  3899. ** TODO Shave
  3900. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3901. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3902. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3903. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3904. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3905. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3906. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3907. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3908. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3909. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3910. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3911. :PROPERTIES:
  3912. :STYLE: habit
  3913. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3914. :END:
  3915. @end example
  3916. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3917. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3918. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3919. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3920. after four days have elapsed.
  3921. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3922. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3923. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3924. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3925. @table @code
  3926. @item Blue
  3927. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3928. @item Green
  3929. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3930. @item Yellow
  3931. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3932. @item Red
  3933. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3934. @end table
  3935. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3936. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3937. the current day falls in the graph.
  3938. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3939. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3940. @table @code
  3941. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3942. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3943. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3944. titles brief and to the point.
  3945. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3946. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3947. @item org-habit-following-days
  3948. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3949. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3950. If non-@code{nil}, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3951. default.
  3952. @end table
  3953. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3954. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3955. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3956. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3957. @node Priorities
  3958. @section Priorities
  3959. @cindex priorities
  3960. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3961. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3962. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3963. @example
  3964. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3965. @end example
  3966. @noindent
  3967. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3968. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3969. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3970. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3971. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3972. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3973. special faces by customizing @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3974. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3975. items.
  3976. @table @kbd
  3977. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3978. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3979. @findex org-priority
  3980. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3981. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3982. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3983. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3984. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3985. @c
  3986. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3987. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3988. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3989. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3990. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3991. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3992. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3993. @end table
  3994. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3995. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3996. @vindex org-default-priority
  3997. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the options
  3998. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3999. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  4000. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  4001. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  4002. priority):
  4003. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  4004. @example
  4005. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  4006. @end example
  4007. @node Breaking down tasks
  4008. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  4009. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  4010. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  4011. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  4012. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  4013. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  4014. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  4015. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  4016. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  4017. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  4018. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  4019. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  4020. @example
  4021. * Organize Party [33%]
  4022. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  4023. *** TODO Peter
  4024. *** DONE Sarah
  4025. ** TODO Buy food
  4026. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  4027. @end example
  4028. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  4029. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  4030. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  4031. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  4032. this issue.
  4033. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  4034. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  4035. subtree (not just direct children), configure
  4036. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  4037. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4038. property.
  4039. @example
  4040. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  4041. :PROPERTIES:
  4042. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  4043. :END:
  4044. @end example
  4045. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  4046. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  4047. @example
  4048. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  4049. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  4050. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  4051. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  4052. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  4053. @end example
  4054. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  4055. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  4056. @node Checkboxes
  4057. @section Checkboxes
  4058. @cindex checkboxes
  4059. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  4060. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  4061. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  4062. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  4063. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  4064. (@pxref{TODO items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  4065. in the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  4066. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  4067. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  4068. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  4069. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  4070. @example
  4071. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  4072. - [-] call people [1/3]
  4073. - [ ] Peter
  4074. - [X] Sarah
  4075. - [ ] Sam
  4076. - [X] order food
  4077. - [ ] think about what music to play
  4078. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  4079. @end example
  4080. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  4081. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  4082. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  4083. checked.
  4084. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  4085. @cindex checkbox statistics
  4086. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  4087. @vindex org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics
  4088. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  4089. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  4090. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  4091. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  4092. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  4093. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  4094. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the option
  4095. @code{org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  4096. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  4097. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  4098. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  4099. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  4100. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  4101. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  4102. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  4103. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4104. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  4105. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  4106. @cindex checkbox blocking
  4107. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4108. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  4109. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  4110. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  4111. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  4112. @table @kbd
  4113. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4114. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
  4115. With a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  4116. one@footnote{@kbd{C-u C-c C-c} on the @emph{first} item of a list with no checkbox
  4117. will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is
  4118. considered to be an intermediate state.
  4119. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4120. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4121. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4122. intermediate state.
  4123. @itemize @minus
  4124. @item
  4125. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  4126. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  4127. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  4128. @item
  4129. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  4130. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  4131. @item
  4132. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  4133. @end itemize
  4134. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  4135. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  4136. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  4137. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  4138. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  4139. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4140. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  4141. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  4142. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  4143. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  4144. for better visibility, customize @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  4145. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  4146. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  4147. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  4148. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  4149. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  4150. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  4151. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  4152. @end table
  4153. @node Tags
  4154. @chapter Tags
  4155. @cindex tags
  4156. @cindex headline tagging
  4157. @cindex matching, tags
  4158. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  4159. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  4160. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  4161. support for tags.
  4162. @vindex org-tag-faces
  4163. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  4164. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  4165. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  4166. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  4167. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  4168. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the option
  4169. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  4170. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  4171. @menu
  4172. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  4173. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  4174. * Tag groups:: Use one tag to search for several tags
  4175. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  4176. @end menu
  4177. @node Tag inheritance
  4178. @section Tag inheritance
  4179. @cindex tag inheritance
  4180. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  4181. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  4182. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  4183. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  4184. well. For example, in the list
  4185. @example
  4186. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  4187. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  4188. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  4189. @end example
  4190. @noindent
  4191. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  4192. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  4193. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  4194. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  4195. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  4196. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  4197. changes in the line.}:
  4198. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  4199. @example
  4200. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  4201. @end example
  4202. @noindent
  4203. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  4204. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  4205. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, use @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  4206. To turn it off entirely, use @code{org-use-tag-inheritance}.
  4207. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4208. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  4209. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  4210. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  4211. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  4212. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  4213. match in a subtree, configure @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not
  4214. recommended).
  4215. @vindex org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance
  4216. Tag inheritance is relevant when the agenda search tries to match a tag,
  4217. either in the @code{tags} or @code{tags-todo} agenda types. In other agenda
  4218. types, @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} has no effect. Still, you may want to
  4219. have your tags correctly set in the agenda, so that tag filtering works fine,
  4220. with inherited tags. Set @code{org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance} to control
  4221. this: the default value includes all agenda types, but setting this to @code{nil}
  4222. can really speed up agenda generation.
  4223. @node Setting tags
  4224. @section Setting tags
  4225. @cindex setting tags
  4226. @cindex tags, setting
  4227. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  4228. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4229. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4230. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4231. @table @kbd
  4232. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4233. @cindex completion, of tags
  4234. @vindex org-tags-column
  4235. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4236. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4237. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4238. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4239. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4240. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4241. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4242. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4243. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4244. @end table
  4245. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4246. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4247. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4248. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4249. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4250. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4251. @cindex #+TAGS
  4252. @example
  4253. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4254. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4255. @end example
  4256. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4257. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4258. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4259. @example
  4260. #+TAGS:
  4261. @end example
  4262. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4263. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4264. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4265. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4266. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4267. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4268. @example
  4269. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4270. @end example
  4271. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4272. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4273. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4274. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4275. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  4276. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  4277. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  4278. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4279. like:
  4280. @lisp
  4281. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4282. @end lisp
  4283. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4284. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4285. @example
  4286. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4287. @end example
  4288. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4289. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4290. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4291. @example
  4292. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4293. @end example
  4294. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4295. @example
  4296. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4297. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4298. @end example
  4299. @noindent
  4300. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4301. braces, as in:
  4302. @example
  4303. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4304. @end example
  4305. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4306. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4307. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4308. these lines to activate any changes.
  4309. @noindent
  4310. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tag-alist},
  4311. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4312. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4313. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4314. configuration:
  4315. @lisp
  4316. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4317. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4318. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4319. (:endgroup . nil)
  4320. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4321. @end lisp
  4322. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4323. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4324. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4325. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4326. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4327. keys:
  4328. @table @kbd
  4329. @item a-z...
  4330. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4331. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4332. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4333. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4334. @item @key{TAB}
  4335. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4336. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4337. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4338. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4339. @item @key{SPC}
  4340. Clear all tags for this line.
  4341. @kindex @key{RET}
  4342. @item @key{RET}
  4343. Accept the modified set.
  4344. @item C-g
  4345. Abort without installing changes.
  4346. @item q
  4347. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4348. @item !
  4349. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4350. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4351. @item C-c
  4352. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4353. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4354. selection window.
  4355. @end table
  4356. @noindent
  4357. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4358. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4359. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4360. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4361. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4362. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4363. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4364. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4365. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4366. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4367. modify your list of tags, set @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}.
  4368. Then you no longer have to press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it
  4369. will immediately exit after the first change. If you then occasionally
  4370. need more keys, press @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag
  4371. selection process (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c}
  4372. instead of @kbd{C-c C-c}). If you set the variable to the value
  4373. @code{expert}, the special window is not even shown for single-key tag
  4374. selection, it comes up only when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4375. @node Tag groups
  4376. @section Tag groups
  4377. @cindex group tags
  4378. @cindex tags, groups
  4379. In a set of mutually exclusive tags, the first tag can be defined as a
  4380. @emph{group tag}. When you search for a group tag, it will return matches
  4381. for all members in the group. In an agenda view, filtering by a group tag
  4382. will display headlines tagged with at least one of the members of the
  4383. group. This makes tag searches and filters even more flexible.
  4384. You can set group tags by inserting a colon between the group tag and other
  4385. tags---beware that all whitespaces are mandatory so that Org can parse this
  4386. line correctly:
  4387. @example
  4388. #+TAGS: @{ @@read : @@read_book @@read_ebook @}
  4389. @end example
  4390. In this example, @samp{@@read} is a @emph{group tag} for a set of three
  4391. tags: @samp{@@read}, @samp{@@read_book} and @samp{@@read_ebook}.
  4392. You can also use the @code{:grouptags} keyword directly when setting
  4393. @code{org-tag-alist}:
  4394. @lisp
  4395. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4396. ("@@read" . nil)
  4397. (:grouptags . nil)
  4398. ("@@read_book" . nil)
  4399. ("@@read_ebook" . nil)
  4400. (:endgroup . nil)))
  4401. @end lisp
  4402. You cannot nest group tags or use a group tag as a tag in another group.
  4403. @kindex C-c C-x q
  4404. @vindex org-group-tags
  4405. If you want to ignore group tags temporarily, toggle group tags support
  4406. with @command{org-toggle-tags-groups}, bound to @kbd{C-c C-x q}. If you
  4407. want to disable tag groups completely, set @code{org-group-tags} to @code{nil}.
  4408. @node Tag searches
  4409. @section Tag searches
  4410. @cindex tag searches
  4411. @cindex searching for tags
  4412. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4413. information into special lists.
  4414. @table @kbd
  4415. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4416. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags/property/TODO search.
  4417. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4418. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4419. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4420. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files. @xref{Matching
  4421. tags and properties}.
  4422. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4423. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4424. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4425. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see the option
  4426. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4427. @end table
  4428. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4429. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4430. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4431. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4432. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4433. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4434. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4435. @node Properties and columns
  4436. @chapter Properties and columns
  4437. @cindex properties
  4438. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4439. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4440. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4441. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4442. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4443. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4444. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4445. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4446. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4447. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4448. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4449. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4450. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4451. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4452. @menu
  4453. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4454. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4455. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4456. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4457. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4458. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4459. @end menu
  4460. @node Property syntax
  4461. @section Property syntax
  4462. @cindex property syntax
  4463. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4464. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4465. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special
  4466. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4467. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4468. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4469. @example
  4470. * CD collection
  4471. ** Classic
  4472. *** Goldberg Variations
  4473. :PROPERTIES:
  4474. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4475. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4476. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4477. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4478. :NDisks: 1
  4479. :END:
  4480. @end example
  4481. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4482. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the sub-tree
  4483. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4484. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4485. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4486. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4487. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4488. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4489. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4490. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4491. @example
  4492. * CD collection
  4493. :PROPERTIES:
  4494. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4495. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4496. :END:
  4497. @end example
  4498. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4499. file, use a line like
  4500. @cindex property, _ALL
  4501. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4502. @example
  4503. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4504. @end example
  4505. Contrary to properties set from a special drawer, you have to refresh the
  4506. buffer with @kbd{C-c C-c} to activate this change.
  4507. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4508. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4509. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4510. @cindex property, +
  4511. @example
  4512. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4513. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4514. @end example
  4515. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4516. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4517. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4518. @cindex property, +
  4519. @example
  4520. * CD collection
  4521. ** Classic
  4522. :PROPERTIES:
  4523. :GENRES: Classic
  4524. :END:
  4525. *** Goldberg Variations
  4526. :PROPERTIES:
  4527. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4528. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4529. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4530. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4531. :NDisks: 1
  4532. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4533. :END:
  4534. @end example
  4535. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4536. @vindex org-global-properties
  4537. Property values set with the global variable
  4538. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4539. Org files.
  4540. @noindent
  4541. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4542. @table @kbd
  4543. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4544. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4545. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4546. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4547. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4548. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4549. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer RET
  4550. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  4551. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4552. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4553. information like deadlines.
  4554. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4555. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4556. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4557. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4558. can be inserted using completion.
  4559. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4560. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4561. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4562. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4563. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4564. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4565. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4566. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4567. nearest column format definition.
  4568. @end table
  4569. @node Special properties
  4570. @section Special properties
  4571. @cindex properties, special
  4572. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4573. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4574. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4575. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4576. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4577. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4578. @cindex property, special, ID
  4579. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4580. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4581. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4582. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4583. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4584. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4585. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4586. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4587. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4588. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4589. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4590. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM_T
  4591. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4592. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4593. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4594. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4595. @example
  4596. ID @r{A globally unique ID used for synchronization during}
  4597. @r{iCalendar or MobileOrg export.}
  4598. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4599. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4600. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4601. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4602. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4603. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4604. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4605. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4606. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4607. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4608. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4609. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4610. CLOCKSUM_T @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree for today.}
  4611. @r{@code{org-clock-sum-today} must be run first to compute the}
  4612. @r{values in the current buffer.}
  4613. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4614. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4615. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4616. @end example
  4617. @node Property searches
  4618. @section Property searches
  4619. @cindex properties, searching
  4620. @cindex searching, of properties
  4621. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4622. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4623. @table @kbd
  4624. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4625. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4626. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4627. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4628. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4629. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4630. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4631. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4632. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4633. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see the option
  4634. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4635. @end table
  4636. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4637. properties}.
  4638. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4639. single property:
  4640. @table @kbd
  4641. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4642. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4643. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4644. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4645. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4646. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4647. @end table
  4648. @node Property inheritance
  4649. @section Property Inheritance
  4650. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4651. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4652. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4653. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4654. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4655. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4656. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4657. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4658. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4659. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4660. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4661. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4662. inherited properties. If a property has the value @code{nil}, this is
  4663. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4664. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4665. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4666. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4667. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4668. @table @code
  4669. @item COLUMNS
  4670. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4671. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4672. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4673. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4674. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4675. @item CATEGORY
  4676. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4677. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4678. applies to the entire subtree.
  4679. @item ARCHIVE
  4680. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4681. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4682. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4683. @item LOGGING
  4684. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4685. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4686. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4687. @end table
  4688. @node Column view
  4689. @section Column view
  4690. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4691. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4692. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4693. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4694. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4695. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4696. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4697. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4698. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4699. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4700. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4701. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda views}) where
  4702. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4703. @menu
  4704. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4705. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4706. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4707. @end menu
  4708. @node Defining columns
  4709. @subsection Defining columns
  4710. @cindex column view, for properties
  4711. @cindex properties, column view
  4712. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4713. done by defining a column format line.
  4714. @menu
  4715. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4716. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4717. @end menu
  4718. @node Scope of column definitions
  4719. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4720. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4721. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4722. @example
  4723. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4724. @end example
  4725. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4726. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4727. @example
  4728. ** Top node for columns view
  4729. :PROPERTIES:
  4730. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4731. :END:
  4732. @end example
  4733. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4734. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4735. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4736. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4737. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4738. deeper part of the tree.
  4739. @node Column attributes
  4740. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4741. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4742. definition looks like this:
  4743. @example
  4744. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4745. @end example
  4746. @noindent
  4747. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4748. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4749. @example
  4750. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4751. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4752. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4753. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4754. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4755. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4756. @r{name is used.}
  4757. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4758. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4759. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4760. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4761. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4762. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4763. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4764. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4765. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4766. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4767. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4768. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4769. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4770. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4771. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4772. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4773. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4774. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4775. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4776. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4777. @end example
  4778. @noindent
  4779. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4780. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4781. same summary information.
  4782. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4783. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4784. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4785. 5--6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4786. 1--10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4787. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4788. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4789. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4790. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4791. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4792. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4793. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4794. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4795. full job more realistically, at 10--15 days.
  4796. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4797. values.
  4798. @example
  4799. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4800. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM %CLOCKSUM_T
  4801. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4802. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4803. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4804. @end example
  4805. @noindent
  4806. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4807. item itself, i.e., of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4808. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4809. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4810. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4811. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4812. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4813. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4814. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4815. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4816. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4817. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4818. @samp{CLOCKSUM} and @samp{CLOCKSUM_T} columns are special, they lists the
  4819. sums of CLOCK intervals in the subtree, either for all clocks or just for
  4820. today.
  4821. @node Using column view
  4822. @subsection Using column view
  4823. @table @kbd
  4824. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4825. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4826. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4827. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4828. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4829. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4830. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4831. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4832. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4833. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4834. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4835. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4836. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4837. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4838. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4839. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4840. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4841. Exit column view.
  4842. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4843. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4844. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4845. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4846. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4847. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4848. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4849. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4850. @item 1..9,0
  4851. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4852. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4853. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4854. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4855. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4856. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4857. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4858. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4859. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4860. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4861. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4862. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4863. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4864. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4865. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4866. in the hierarchy, the modified value is stored there. If no list is
  4867. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4868. current column view.
  4869. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4870. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4871. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4872. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4873. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4874. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4875. Delete the current column.
  4876. @end table
  4877. @node Capturing column view
  4878. @subsection Capturing column view
  4879. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4880. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4881. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4882. of this block looks like this:
  4883. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4884. @example
  4885. * The column view
  4886. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4887. #+END:
  4888. @end example
  4889. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4890. @table @code
  4891. @item :id
  4892. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4893. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4894. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4895. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4896. @cindex property, ID
  4897. @example
  4898. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4899. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4900. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4901. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4902. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4903. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4904. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy RET} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4905. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4906. @end example
  4907. @item :hlines
  4908. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4909. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4910. @item :vlines
  4911. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4912. @item :maxlevel
  4913. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4914. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4915. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4916. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4917. @end table
  4918. @noindent
  4919. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4920. @table @kbd
  4921. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4922. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4923. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4924. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4925. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4926. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4927. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4928. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4929. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4930. blocks in a buffer.
  4931. @end table
  4932. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4933. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4934. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4935. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4936. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4937. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4938. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4939. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4940. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4941. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4942. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4943. @node Property API
  4944. @section The Property API
  4945. @cindex properties, API
  4946. @cindex API, for properties
  4947. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4948. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4949. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4950. property API}.
  4951. @node Dates and times
  4952. @chapter Dates and times
  4953. @cindex dates
  4954. @cindex times
  4955. @cindex timestamp
  4956. @cindex date stamp
  4957. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4958. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4959. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode. This may be a
  4960. little confusing because timestamp is often used to indicate when
  4961. something was created or last changed. However, in Org mode this term
  4962. is used in a much wider sense.
  4963. @menu
  4964. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4965. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4966. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4967. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4968. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4969. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4970. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4971. @end menu
  4972. @node Timestamps
  4973. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4974. @cindex timestamps
  4975. @cindex ranges, time
  4976. @cindex date stamps
  4977. @cindex deadlines
  4978. @cindex scheduling
  4979. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4980. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>}@footnote{In this
  4981. simplest form, the day name is optional when you type the date yourself.
  4982. However, any dates inserted or modified by Org will add that day name, for
  4983. reading convenience.} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
  4984. Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601
  4985. date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time
  4986. format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org
  4987. tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the
  4988. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4989. @table @var
  4990. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4991. @cindex timestamp
  4992. @cindex appointment
  4993. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4994. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4995. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4996. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4997. @example
  4998. * Meet Peter at the movies
  4999. <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  5000. * Discussion on climate change
  5001. <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  5002. @end example
  5003. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  5004. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  5005. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  5006. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  5007. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  5008. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  5009. @example
  5010. * Pick up Sam at school
  5011. <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  5012. @end example
  5013. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  5014. For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the special
  5015. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  5016. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  5017. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depends
  5018. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  5019. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  5020. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  5021. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  5022. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org mode users
  5023. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  5024. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  5025. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  5026. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For
  5027. example with optional time
  5028. @example
  5029. * 22:00-23:00 The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  5030. <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  5031. @end example
  5032. @item Time/Date range
  5033. @cindex timerange
  5034. @cindex date range
  5035. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  5036. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  5037. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  5038. @example
  5039. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  5040. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  5041. @end example
  5042. @item Inactive timestamp
  5043. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  5044. @cindex inactive timestamp
  5045. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  5046. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  5047. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  5048. @example
  5049. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time
  5050. [2006-11-01 Wed]
  5051. @end example
  5052. @end table
  5053. @node Creating timestamps
  5054. @section Creating timestamps
  5055. @cindex creating timestamps
  5056. @cindex timestamps, creating
  5057. For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  5058. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  5059. format.
  5060. @table @kbd
  5061. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  5062. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  5063. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  5064. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  5065. succession, a time range is inserted.
  5066. @c
  5067. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  5068. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  5069. an agenda entry.
  5070. @c
  5071. @kindex C-u C-c .
  5072. @kindex C-u C-c !
  5073. @item C-u C-c .
  5074. @itemx C-u C-c !
  5075. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  5076. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  5077. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  5078. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  5079. @c
  5080. @orgkey{C-c C-c}
  5081. Normalize timestamp, insert/fix day name if missing or wrong.
  5082. @c
  5083. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  5084. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  5085. @c
  5086. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  5087. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  5088. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  5089. instead.
  5090. @c
  5091. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  5092. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  5093. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  5094. @c
  5095. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  5096. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  5097. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  5098. @c
  5099. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  5100. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  5101. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  5102. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  5103. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  5104. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  5105. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  5106. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  5107. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  5108. @c
  5109. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5110. @cindex evaluate time range
  5111. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  5112. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  5113. the following column).
  5114. @end table
  5115. @menu
  5116. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  5117. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  5118. @end menu
  5119. @node The date/time prompt
  5120. @subsection The date/time prompt
  5121. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  5122. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  5123. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  5124. When Org mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  5125. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  5126. format. But it will in fact accept date/time information in a variety of
  5127. formats. Generally, the information should start at the beginning of the
  5128. string. Org mode will find whatever information is in
  5129. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  5130. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  5131. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  5132. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  5133. information, Org mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  5134. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  5135. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  5136. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  5137. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  5138. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  5139. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  5140. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  5141. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org mode are
  5142. in @b{bold}.
  5143. @example
  5144. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  5145. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  5146. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  5147. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  5148. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  5149. Fri @result{} nearest Friday after the default date
  5150. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  5151. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  5152. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  5153. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  5154. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  5155. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  5156. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  5157. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  5158. @end example
  5159. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the @emph{first}
  5160. thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a letter ([hdwmy]) to
  5161. indicate change in hours, days, weeks, months, or years. With a single plus
  5162. or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a double plus or minus,
  5163. it is relative to the default date. If instead of a single letter, you use
  5164. the abbreviation of day name, the date will be the Nth such day, e.g.:
  5165. @example
  5166. +0 @result{} today
  5167. . @result{} today
  5168. +4d @result{} four days from today
  5169. +4 @result{} same as above
  5170. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  5171. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  5172. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now
  5173. -wed @result{} last Wednesday
  5174. @end example
  5175. @vindex parse-time-months
  5176. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  5177. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  5178. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  5179. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  5180. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  5181. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  5182. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  5183. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  5184. read the docstring of the variable
  5185. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  5186. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  5187. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  5188. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  5189. case, e.g.:
  5190. @example
  5191. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  5192. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  5193. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  5194. @end example
  5195. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  5196. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  5197. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  5198. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  5199. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  5200. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  5201. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  5202. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  5203. from the minibuffer:
  5204. @kindex <
  5205. @kindex >
  5206. @kindex M-v
  5207. @kindex C-v
  5208. @kindex mouse-1
  5209. @kindex S-@key{right}
  5210. @kindex S-@key{left}
  5211. @kindex S-@key{down}
  5212. @kindex S-@key{up}
  5213. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  5214. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  5215. @kindex @key{RET}
  5216. @example
  5217. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  5218. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  5219. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  5220. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  5221. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  5222. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  5223. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  5224. @end example
  5225. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  5226. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  5227. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  5228. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  5229. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  5230. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display off with
  5231. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  5232. @node Custom time format
  5233. @subsection Custom time format
  5234. @cindex custom date/time format
  5235. @cindex time format, custom
  5236. @cindex date format, custom
  5237. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  5238. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  5239. Org mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  5240. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  5241. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  5242. customizing the options @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  5243. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  5244. @table @kbd
  5245. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  5246. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  5247. @end table
  5248. @noindent
  5249. Org mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  5250. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  5251. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  5252. following consequences:
  5253. @itemize @bullet
  5254. @item
  5255. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  5256. after.
  5257. @item
  5258. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  5259. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  5260. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  5261. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  5262. time will be changed by one minute.
  5263. @item
  5264. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  5265. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  5266. @item
  5267. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  5268. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  5269. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  5270. @item
  5271. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  5272. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  5273. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  5274. @end itemize
  5275. @node Deadlines and scheduling
  5276. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  5277. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  5278. @table @var
  5279. @item DEADLINE
  5280. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  5281. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  5282. to be finished on that date.
  5283. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5284. @vindex org-agenda-skip-deadline-prewarning-if-scheduled
  5285. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  5286. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  5287. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  5288. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  5289. until the entry is marked DONE@. An example:
  5290. @example
  5291. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  5292. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  5293. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  5294. @end example
  5295. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  5296. deadline using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  5297. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}. This warning is
  5298. deactivated if the task gets scheduled and you set
  5299. @code{org-agenda-skip-deadline-prewarning-if-scheduled} to @code{t}.
  5300. @item SCHEDULED
  5301. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  5302. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  5303. date.
  5304. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  5305. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  5306. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE@. If you don't like
  5307. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  5308. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  5309. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.,
  5310. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  5311. @example
  5312. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  5313. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  5314. @end example
  5315. @vindex org-scheduled-delay-days
  5316. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-delay-if-deadline
  5317. If you want to @emph{delay} the display of this task in the agenda, use
  5318. @code{SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat -2d>}: the task is still scheduled on the
  5319. 25th but will appear two days later. In case the task contains a repeater,
  5320. the delay is considered to affect all occurrences; if you want the delay to
  5321. only affect the first scheduled occurrence of the task, use @code{--2d}
  5322. instead. See @code{org-scheduled-delay-days} and
  5323. @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-delay-if-deadline} for details on how to
  5324. control this globally or per agenda.
  5325. @noindent
  5326. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org mode should @i{not} be
  5327. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  5328. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  5329. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  5330. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  5331. Org users. In Org mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  5332. want to start working on an action item.
  5333. @end table
  5334. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  5335. entries. Org mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  5336. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  5337. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  5338. @c
  5339. @code{<%%(diary-float t 42)>}
  5340. @c
  5341. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org mode does not
  5342. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  5343. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  5344. sexp entry matches.
  5345. @menu
  5346. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  5347. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  5348. @end menu
  5349. @node Inserting deadline/schedule
  5350. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  5351. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  5352. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  5353. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  5354. an item:
  5355. @table @kbd
  5356. @c
  5357. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  5358. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  5359. in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be
  5360. removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed
  5361. from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  5362. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  5363. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5364. deadline.
  5365. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  5366. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  5367. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  5368. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  5369. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  5370. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  5371. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  5372. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5373. scheduling time.
  5374. @c
  5375. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  5376. @kindex k a
  5377. @kindex k s
  5378. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  5379. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  5380. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  5381. schedule the marked item.
  5382. @c
  5383. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  5384. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  5385. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5386. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  5387. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  5388. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  5389. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  5390. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  5391. @c
  5392. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}