org.texi 701 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include org-version.inc
  6. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  7. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  8. @set txicodequoteundirected
  9. @set txicodequotebacktick
  10. @c Version and Contact Info
  11. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  12. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  13. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  15. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  16. @c %**end of header
  17. @finalout
  18. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  19. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  20. @c =======================================
  21. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  22. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  23. @set cmdnames
  24. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  25. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  26. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  27. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  28. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  29. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  30. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  31. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  32. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  33. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  34. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  35. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  36. @c a key but no command
  37. @c Inserts: @item key
  38. @macro orgkey{key}
  39. @kindex \key\
  40. @item @kbd{\key\}
  41. @end macro
  42. @macro xorgkey{key}
  43. @kindex \key\
  44. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  45. @end macro
  46. @c one key with a command
  47. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  48. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  49. @ifset cmdnames
  50. @kindex \key\
  51. @findex \command\
  52. @iftex
  53. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  54. @end iftex
  55. @ifnottex
  56. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  57. @end ifnottex
  58. @end ifset
  59. @ifclear cmdnames
  60. @kindex \key\
  61. @item @kbd{\key\}
  62. @end ifclear
  63. @end macro
  64. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  65. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  66. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  67. @ifset cmdnames
  68. @kindex \key\
  69. @findex \command\
  70. @iftex
  71. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  72. @end iftex
  73. @ifnottex
  74. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  75. @end ifnottex
  76. @end ifset
  77. @ifclear cmdnames
  78. @kindex \key\
  79. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  80. @end ifclear
  81. @end macro
  82. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  83. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  84. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  85. @ifset cmdnames
  86. @findex \command\
  87. @iftex
  88. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  89. @end iftex
  90. @ifnottex
  91. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  92. @end ifnottex
  93. @end ifset
  94. @ifclear cmdnames
  95. @item @kbd{\key\}
  96. @end ifclear
  97. @end macro
  98. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  99. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  100. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  101. @ifset cmdnames
  102. @kindex \key\
  103. @findex \command\
  104. @iftex
  105. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  106. @end iftex
  107. @ifnottex
  108. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  109. @end ifnottex
  110. @end ifset
  111. @ifclear cmdnames
  112. @kindex \key\
  113. @item @kbd{\text\}
  114. @end ifclear
  115. @end macro
  116. @c two keys with one command
  117. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  118. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  119. @ifset cmdnames
  120. @kindex \key1\
  121. @kindex \key2\
  122. @findex \command\
  123. @iftex
  124. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  125. @end iftex
  126. @ifnottex
  127. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  128. @end ifnottex
  129. @end ifset
  130. @ifclear cmdnames
  131. @kindex \key1\
  132. @kindex \key2\
  133. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  134. @end ifclear
  135. @end macro
  136. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  137. @c @itemx
  138. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  139. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  140. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  141. @ifset cmdnames
  142. @kindex \key1\
  143. @kindex \key2\
  144. @findex \command\
  145. @iftex
  146. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  147. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  148. @end iftex
  149. @ifnottex
  150. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  151. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  152. @end ifnottex
  153. @end ifset
  154. @ifclear cmdnames
  155. @kindex \key1\
  156. @kindex \key2\
  157. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  158. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  159. @end ifclear
  160. @end macro
  161. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  162. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  163. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  164. @ifset cmdnames
  165. @kindex \key1\
  166. @kindex \key2\
  167. @findex \command\
  168. @iftex
  169. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  170. @end iftex
  171. @ifnottex
  172. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  173. @end ifnottex
  174. @end ifset
  175. @ifclear cmdnames
  176. @kindex \key1\
  177. @kindex \key2\
  178. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  179. @end ifclear
  180. @end macro
  181. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  182. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  183. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  184. @ifset cmdnames
  185. @kindex \key1\
  186. @kindex \key2\
  187. @findex \command\
  188. @iftex
  189. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  190. @end iftex
  191. @ifnottex
  192. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  193. @end ifnottex
  194. @end ifset
  195. @ifclear cmdnames
  196. @kindex \key1\
  197. @kindex \key2\
  198. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  199. @end ifclear
  200. @end macro
  201. @c two keys with two commands
  202. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  203. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  204. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  205. @ifset cmdnames
  206. @kindex \key1\
  207. @kindex \key2\
  208. @findex \command1\
  209. @findex \command2\
  210. @iftex
  211. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  212. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  213. @end iftex
  214. @ifnottex
  215. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  216. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  217. @end ifnottex
  218. @end ifset
  219. @ifclear cmdnames
  220. @kindex \key1\
  221. @kindex \key2\
  222. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  223. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  224. @end ifclear
  225. @end macro
  226. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  227. @iftex
  228. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  229. @end iftex
  230. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  231. @macro tsubheading{text}
  232. @ifinfo
  233. @subsubheading \text\
  234. @end ifinfo
  235. @ifnotinfo
  236. @item @b{\text\}
  237. @end ifnotinfo
  238. @end macro
  239. @copying
  240. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  241. Copyright @copyright{} 2004--2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  242. @quotation
  243. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  244. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  245. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  246. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  247. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  248. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  249. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  250. modify this GNU manual.''
  251. @end quotation
  252. @end copying
  253. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  254. @direntry
  255. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  256. @end direntry
  257. @titlepage
  258. @title The Org Manual
  259. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  260. @author by Carsten Dominik
  261. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, Thomas Dye and Jambunathan K.
  262. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  263. @page
  264. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  265. @insertcopying
  266. @end titlepage
  267. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  268. @contents
  269. @ifnottex
  270. @c FIXME These hand-written next,prev,up node pointers make editing a lot
  271. @c harder. There should be no need for them, makeinfo can do it
  272. @c automatically for any document with a normal structure.
  273. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  274. @top Org Mode Manual
  275. @insertcopying
  276. @end ifnottex
  277. @menu
  278. * Introduction:: Getting started
  279. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  280. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  281. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  282. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  283. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  284. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  285. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  286. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  287. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  288. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  289. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  290. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  291. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  292. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  293. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  294. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  295. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  296. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
  297. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  298. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  299. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  300. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  301. @detailmenu
  302. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  303. Introduction
  304. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  305. * Installation:: Installing Org
  306. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  307. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  308. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  309. Document structure
  310. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  311. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  312. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  313. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  314. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  315. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  316. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  317. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  318. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  319. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  320. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  321. Tables
  322. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  323. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  324. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  325. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  326. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  327. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  328. The spreadsheet
  329. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  330. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  331. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  332. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  333. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  334. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  335. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  336. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  337. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  338. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  339. Hyperlinks
  340. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  341. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  342. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  343. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  344. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  345. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  346. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  347. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  348. Internal links
  349. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  350. TODO items
  351. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  352. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  353. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  354. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  355. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  356. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  357. Extended use of TODO keywords
  358. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  359. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  360. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  361. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  362. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  363. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  364. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  365. Progress logging
  366. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  367. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  368. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  369. Tags
  370. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  371. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  372. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  373. Properties and columns
  374. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  375. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  376. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  377. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  378. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  379. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  380. Column view
  381. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  382. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  383. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  384. Defining columns
  385. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  386. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  387. Dates and times
  388. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  389. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  390. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  391. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  392. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  393. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  394. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  395. Creating timestamps
  396. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  397. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  398. Deadlines and scheduling
  399. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  400. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  401. Clocking work time
  402. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  403. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  404. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  405. Capture - Refile - Archive
  406. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  407. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  408. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  409. * Protocols:: External (e.g., Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  410. * Refile and copy:: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another
  411. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  412. Capture
  413. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  414. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  415. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  416. Capture templates
  417. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  418. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  419. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context
  420. Archiving
  421. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  422. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  423. Agenda views
  424. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  425. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  426. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  427. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  428. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  429. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  430. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  431. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  432. The built-in agenda views
  433. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  434. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  435. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  436. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  437. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  438. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  439. Presentation and sorting
  440. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  441. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  442. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  443. Custom agenda views
  444. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  445. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  446. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  447. Markup for rich export
  448. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  449. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  450. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  451. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  452. * Index entries:: Making an index
  453. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  454. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  455. Structural markup elements
  456. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  457. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  458. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  459. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  460. * Lists:: Lists
  461. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  462. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  463. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  464. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  465. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  466. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  467. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  468. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  469. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  470. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  471. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  472. Exporting
  473. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  474. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  475. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  476. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  477. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  478. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  479. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  480. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  481. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  482. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  483. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  484. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  485. HTML export
  486. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  487. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  488. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org mode
  489. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  490. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  491. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  492. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  493. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  494. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  495. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  496. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  497. * @LaTeX{}/PDF export commands::
  498. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  499. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  500. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  501. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  502. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  503. DocBook export
  504. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  505. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  506. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  507. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  508. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  509. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  510. OpenDocument Text export
  511. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: What packages ODT exporter relies on
  512. * ODT export commands:: How to invoke ODT export
  513. * Extending ODT export:: How to produce @samp{doc}, @samp{pdf} files
  514. * Applying custom styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  515. * Links in ODT export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  516. * Tables in ODT export:: How Tables are exported
  517. * Images in ODT export:: How to insert images
  518. * Math formatting in ODT export:: How @LaTeX{} fragments are formatted
  519. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: How captions are rendered
  520. * Literal examples in ODT export:: How source and example blocks are formatted
  521. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: Read this if you are a power user
  522. Math formatting in ODT export
  523. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: How to embed @LaTeX{} math fragments
  524. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: How to embed equations in native format
  525. Advanced topics in ODT export
  526. * Configuring a document converter:: How to register a document converter
  527. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Explore the internals
  528. * Creating one-off styles:: How to produce custom highlighting etc
  529. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: How to define and use Table templates
  530. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: How to debug corrupt OpenDocument files
  531. Publishing
  532. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  533. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  534. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  535. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  536. Configuration
  537. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  538. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  539. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  540. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  541. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  542. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  543. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  544. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  545. Sample configuration
  546. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  547. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  548. Working with source code
  549. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  550. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  551. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  552. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  553. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  554. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  555. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  556. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  557. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  558. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  559. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  560. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  561. Header arguments
  562. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  563. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  564. Using header arguments
  565. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  566. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  567. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  568. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  569. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  570. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  571. Specific header arguments
  572. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  573. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  574. be collected and handled
  575. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  576. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  577. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  578. directory for code block execution
  579. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  580. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  581. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  582. files during tangling
  583. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  584. code files
  585. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  586. code files
  587. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  588. expansion during tangling
  589. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  590. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  591. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  592. * noweb-sep:: String used to separate noweb references
  593. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  594. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  595. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  596. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  597. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  598. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  599. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  600. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  601. Miscellaneous
  602. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  603. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  604. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  605. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  606. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  607. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  608. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  609. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  610. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  611. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  612. * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files
  613. Interaction with other packages
  614. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  615. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  616. Hacking
  617. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  618. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  619. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  620. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  621. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  622. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  623. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  624. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  625. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  626. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  627. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  628. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  629. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  630. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  631. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  632. MobileOrg
  633. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  634. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  635. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  636. @end detailmenu
  637. @end menu
  638. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  639. @chapter Introduction
  640. @cindex introduction
  641. @menu
  642. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  643. * Installation:: Installing Org
  644. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  645. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  646. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  647. @end menu
  648. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  649. @section Summary
  650. @cindex summary
  651. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  652. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  653. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  654. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  655. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  656. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  657. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  658. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  659. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  660. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  661. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  662. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  663. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  664. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  665. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  666. linked web pages.
  667. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  668. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  669. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  670. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  671. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  672. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  673. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  674. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  675. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  676. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  677. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  678. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  679. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  680. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  681. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  682. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  683. ends, for example:
  684. @example
  685. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  686. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  687. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  688. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  689. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  690. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  691. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  692. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  693. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  694. @end example
  695. @cindex FAQ
  696. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  697. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  698. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc. This page is located at
  699. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  700. @cindex print edition
  701. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  702. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  703. Theory Ltd.}
  704. @page
  705. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  706. @section Installation
  707. @cindex installation
  708. @cindex XEmacs
  709. Org is part of recent distributions of GNU Emacs, so you normally don't need
  710. to install it. If, for one reason or another, you want to install Org on top
  711. of this pre-packaged version, there are three ways to do it:
  712. @itemize @bullet
  713. @item By using Emacs package system.
  714. @item By downloading Org as an archive.
  715. @item By using Org's git repository.
  716. @end itemize
  717. We @b{strongly recommend} to stick to a single installation method.
  718. @subsubheading Using Emacs packaging system
  719. Recent Emacs distributions include a packaging system which lets you install
  720. Elisp libraries. You can install Org with @kbd{M-x package-install RET org}.
  721. To make sure your Org configuration is well taken into account, initialize
  722. the package system with @code{(package-initialize)} before setting any Org
  723. option. If you want to use Org's package repository, check out the
  724. @uref{http://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}.
  725. @subsubheading Downloading Org as an archive
  726. You can download Org latest release from @uref{http://orgmode.org/, Org's
  727. website}. In this case, make sure you set the load-path correctly in your
  728. @file{.emacs}:
  729. @example
  730. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  731. @end example
  732. The downloaded archive contains contributed libraries that are not included
  733. in Emacs. If you want to use them, add the @file{contrib} directory to your
  734. load-path:
  735. @example
  736. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  737. @end example
  738. Optionally, you can compile the files and/or install them in your system.
  739. Run @code{make help} to list compilation and installation options.
  740. @subsubheading Using Org's git repository
  741. You can clone Org's repository and install Org like this:
  742. @example
  743. $ cd ~/src/
  744. $ git clone git://orgmode.org/org-mode.git
  745. $ make autoloads
  746. @end example
  747. Note that in this case, @code{make autoloads} is mandatory: it defines Org's
  748. version in @file{org-version.el} and Org's autoloads in
  749. @file{org-loaddefs.el}.
  750. Remember to add the correct load-path as described in the method above.
  751. You can also compile with @code{make}, generate the documentation with
  752. @code{make doc}, create a local configuration with @code{make config} and
  753. install Org with @code{make install}. Please run @code{make help} to get
  754. the list of compilation/installation options.
  755. For more detailed explanations on Org's build system, please check the Org
  756. Build System page on @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html,
  757. Worg}.
  758. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  759. @section Activation
  760. @cindex activation
  761. @cindex autoload
  762. @cindex ELPA
  763. @cindex global key bindings
  764. @cindex key bindings, global
  765. @findex org-agenda
  766. @findex org-capture
  767. @findex org-store-link
  768. @findex org-iswitchb
  769. Since Emacs 22.2, files with the @file{.org} extension use Org mode by
  770. default. If you are using an earlier version of Emacs, add this line to your
  771. @file{.emacs} file:
  772. @lisp
  773. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  774. @end lisp
  775. Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on: this is the default in
  776. Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer
  777. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  778. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  779. packages, please take the time to check the list (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  780. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  781. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  782. global keys (i.e., anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  783. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  784. liking.
  785. @lisp
  786. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  787. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  788. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  789. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  790. @end lisp
  791. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  792. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  793. into Org mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  794. like this:
  795. @example
  796. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  797. @end example
  798. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  799. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  800. the file's name is. See also the variable
  801. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  802. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  803. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  804. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  805. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  806. @lisp
  807. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  808. @end lisp
  809. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  810. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  811. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  812. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  813. @section Feedback
  814. @cindex feedback
  815. @cindex bug reports
  816. @cindex maintainer
  817. @cindex author
  818. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  819. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  820. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  821. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  822. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  823. moderators have to do.}.
  824. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  825. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  826. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  827. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  828. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  829. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  830. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  831. @example
  832. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  833. @end example
  834. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  835. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  836. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  837. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  838. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  839. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  840. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  841. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  842. @example
  843. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  844. @end example
  845. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  846. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as
  847. @code{emacs -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  848. shown below.
  849. @example
  850. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'
  851. ;; activate debugging
  852. (setq debug-on-error t
  853. debug-on-signal nil
  854. debug-on-quit nil)
  855. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  856. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  857. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t))
  858. @end example
  859. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  860. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  861. about:
  862. @enumerate
  863. @item What exactly did you do?
  864. @item What did you expect to happen?
  865. @item What happened instead?
  866. @end enumerate
  867. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  868. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  869. @cindex backtrace of an error
  870. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  871. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  872. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  873. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  874. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  875. @enumerate
  876. @item
  877. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  878. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  879. To do this, use
  880. @example
  881. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  882. @end example
  883. @noindent
  884. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  885. menu.
  886. @item
  887. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  888. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  889. @item
  890. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  891. document the steps you take.
  892. @item
  893. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  894. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  895. attach it to your bug report.
  896. @end enumerate
  897. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  898. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  899. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  900. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  901. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  902. @table @code
  903. @item TODO
  904. @itemx WAITING
  905. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  906. user-defined.
  907. @item boss
  908. @itemx ARCHIVE
  909. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  910. meaning are written with all capitals.
  911. @item Release
  912. @itemx PRIORITY
  913. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  914. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  915. @end table
  916. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  917. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_HTML} to start a @code{HTML}
  918. environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to enhance its
  919. readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org files@footnote{Easy
  920. templates insert lowercase keywords and Babel dynamically inserts
  921. @code{#+results}.}
  922. @subsubheading Keybindings and commands
  923. @kindex C-c a
  924. @findex org-agenda
  925. @kindex C-c c
  926. @findex org-capture
  927. The manual suggests two global keybindings: @kbd{C-c a} for @code{org-agenda}
  928. and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only suggestions, but the
  929. rest of the manual assumes that you are using these keybindings.
  930. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  931. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  932. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  933. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  934. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  935. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will
  936. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  937. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  938. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  939. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  940. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  941. @chapter Document structure
  942. @cindex document structure
  943. @cindex structure of document
  944. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  945. edit the structure of the document.
  946. @menu
  947. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  948. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  949. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  950. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  951. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  952. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  953. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  954. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  955. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  956. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  957. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  958. @end menu
  959. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  960. @section Outlines
  961. @cindex outlines
  962. @cindex Outline mode
  963. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  964. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  965. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  966. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  967. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  968. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  969. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  970. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  971. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  972. @section Headlines
  973. @cindex headlines
  974. @cindex outline tree
  975. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  976. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  977. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  978. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  979. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  980. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  981. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  982. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  983. headings indented less then 30 stars.}. For example:
  984. @example
  985. * Top level headline
  986. ** Second level
  987. *** 3rd level
  988. some text
  989. *** 3rd level
  990. more text
  991. * Another top level headline
  992. @end example
  993. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  994. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  995. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  996. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  997. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  998. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  999. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  1000. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  1001. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  1002. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  1003. @section Visibility cycling
  1004. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1005. @cindex visibility cycling
  1006. @cindex trees, visibility
  1007. @cindex show hidden text
  1008. @cindex hide text
  1009. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1010. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1011. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1012. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1013. @cindex subtree cycling
  1014. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1015. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1016. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1017. @table @asis
  1018. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1019. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1020. @example
  1021. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1022. '-----------------------------------'
  1023. @end example
  1024. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1025. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1026. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1027. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1028. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1029. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1030. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1031. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1032. @cindex global visibility states
  1033. @cindex global cycling
  1034. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1035. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1036. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1037. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1038. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1039. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1040. @example
  1041. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1042. '--------------------------------------'
  1043. @end example
  1044. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1045. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1046. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1047. @cindex show all, command
  1048. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  1049. Show all, including drawers.
  1050. @cindex revealing context
  1051. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1052. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1053. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1054. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1055. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1056. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1057. entire subtree of the parent.
  1058. @cindex show branches, command
  1059. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1060. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1061. @cindex show children, command
  1062. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},show-children}
  1063. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1064. expose all children down to level N@.
  1065. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1066. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1067. buffer
  1068. @ifinfo
  1069. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1070. @end ifinfo
  1071. @ifnotinfo
  1072. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1073. @end ifnotinfo
  1074. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1075. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1076. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1077. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1078. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1079. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1080. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1081. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1082. @end table
  1083. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1084. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1085. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1086. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1087. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1088. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1089. OVERVIEW, i.e., only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1090. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1091. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1092. buffer:
  1093. @example
  1094. #+STARTUP: overview
  1095. #+STARTUP: content
  1096. #+STARTUP: showall
  1097. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1098. @end example
  1099. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1100. @noindent
  1101. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1102. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1103. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1104. @code{all}.
  1105. @table @asis
  1106. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1107. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e., whatever is
  1108. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1109. entries.
  1110. @end table
  1111. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1112. @section Motion
  1113. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1114. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1115. @cindex headline navigation
  1116. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1117. @table @asis
  1118. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1119. Next heading.
  1120. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1121. Previous heading.
  1122. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1123. Next heading same level.
  1124. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1125. Previous heading same level.
  1126. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1127. Backward to higher level heading.
  1128. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1129. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1130. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1131. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1132. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1133. @example
  1134. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1135. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1136. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1137. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1138. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1139. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1140. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1141. u @r{One level up.}
  1142. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1143. q @r{Quit}
  1144. @end example
  1145. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1146. @noindent
  1147. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1148. @end table
  1149. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1150. @section Structure editing
  1151. @cindex structure editing
  1152. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1153. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1154. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1155. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1156. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1157. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1158. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1159. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1160. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1161. @table @asis
  1162. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1163. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1164. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1165. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1166. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1167. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1168. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1169. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1170. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1171. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1172. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.,
  1173. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1174. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1175. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1176. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1177. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1178. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1179. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1180. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1181. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1182. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1183. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1184. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1185. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1186. subtree.
  1187. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1188. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1189. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1190. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1191. to the initial level.
  1192. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1193. Promote current heading by one level.
  1194. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1195. Demote current heading by one level.
  1196. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1197. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1198. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1199. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1200. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1201. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1202. level).
  1203. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1204. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1205. @orgcmd{M-h,org-mark-element}
  1206. Mark the element at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent elements
  1207. of the one just marked. E.g. hitting @key{M-h} on a paragraph will mark it,
  1208. hitting @key{M-h} immediately again will mark the next one.
  1209. @orgcmd{C-c @@,org-mark-subtree}
  1210. Mark the subtree at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent subtrees
  1211. of the same level than the marked subtree.
  1212. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1213. Kill subtree, i.e., remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1214. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1215. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1216. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1217. sequential subtrees.
  1218. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1219. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1220. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1221. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1222. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1223. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1224. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1225. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1226. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1227. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1228. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1229. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1230. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1231. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1232. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1233. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1234. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1235. folding.
  1236. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1237. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1238. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1239. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1240. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1241. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1242. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1243. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1244. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refile and copy}.
  1245. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1246. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1247. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1248. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1249. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1250. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1251. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1252. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1253. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1254. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1255. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1256. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1257. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1258. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1259. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1260. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1261. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1262. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1263. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1264. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1265. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1266. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1267. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1268. @end table
  1269. @cindex region, active
  1270. @cindex active region
  1271. @cindex transient mark mode
  1272. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1273. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1274. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1275. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1276. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1277. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1278. functionality.
  1279. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1280. @section Sparse trees
  1281. @cindex sparse trees
  1282. @cindex trees, sparse
  1283. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1284. @cindex occur, command
  1285. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1286. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1287. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1288. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1289. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1290. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1291. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1292. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1293. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1294. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1295. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1296. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1297. Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1298. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1299. @table @asis
  1300. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1301. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1302. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1303. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1304. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1305. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1306. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1307. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1308. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1309. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1310. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1311. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1312. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1313. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1314. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1315. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1316. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1317. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1318. @end table
  1319. @noindent
  1320. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1321. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1322. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1323. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1324. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1325. For example:
  1326. @lisp
  1327. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1328. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1329. @end lisp
  1330. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1331. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1332. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1333. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1334. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1335. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1336. @cindex visible text, printing
  1337. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1338. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1339. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1340. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1341. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1342. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1343. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1344. @section Plain lists
  1345. @cindex plain lists
  1346. @cindex lists, plain
  1347. @cindex lists, ordered
  1348. @cindex ordered lists
  1349. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1350. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1351. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1352. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1353. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1354. @itemize @bullet
  1355. @item
  1356. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1357. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1358. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1359. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1360. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1361. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1362. bullets.
  1363. @item
  1364. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1365. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1366. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1367. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1368. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1369. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1370. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1371. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1372. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1373. list to start with a different value (e.g., 20), start the text of the item
  1374. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1375. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1376. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1377. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1378. @item
  1379. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1380. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1381. description.
  1382. @end itemize
  1383. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1384. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1385. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1386. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1387. than its bullet/number.
  1388. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1389. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1390. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1391. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1392. that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1393. @example
  1394. @group
  1395. ** Lord of the Rings
  1396. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1397. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1398. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1399. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1400. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1401. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1402. - on DVD only
  1403. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1404. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1405. Important actors in this film are:
  1406. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1407. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1408. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1409. @end group
  1410. @end example
  1411. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1412. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1413. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1414. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1415. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1416. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1417. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1418. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1419. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1420. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1421. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1422. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1423. indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1424. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1425. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1426. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1427. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1428. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1429. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1430. to disable them individually.
  1431. @table @asis
  1432. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1433. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1434. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1435. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1436. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1437. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1438. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1439. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1440. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1441. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1442. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1443. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1444. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1445. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1446. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1447. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1448. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1449. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1450. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1451. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1452. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1453. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1454. one.
  1455. @end table
  1456. @table @kbd
  1457. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1458. @item M-S-RET
  1459. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1460. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1461. @item S-up
  1462. @itemx S-down
  1463. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1464. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1465. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1466. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1467. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1468. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1469. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1470. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1471. similar effect.
  1472. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1473. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1474. @item M-up
  1475. @itemx M-down
  1476. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1477. @code{org-liste-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1478. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1479. is automatic.
  1480. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1481. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1482. @item M-left
  1483. @itemx M-right
  1484. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1485. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1486. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1487. @item M-S-left
  1488. @itemx M-S-right
  1489. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1490. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1491. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1492. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1493. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1494. motion or so.
  1495. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1496. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1497. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1498. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1499. @kindex C-c C-c
  1500. @item C-c C-c
  1501. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1502. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1503. consistency in the whole list.
  1504. @kindex C-c -
  1505. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1506. @item C-c -
  1507. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1508. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1509. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1510. and its indentation. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet
  1511. from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, selected
  1512. text will be changed into an item. With a prefix argument, all lines will be
  1513. converted to list items. If the first line already was a list item, any item
  1514. marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1515. region, a normal line will be converted into a list item.
  1516. @kindex C-c *
  1517. @item C-c *
  1518. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1519. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1520. @kindex C-c C-*
  1521. @item C-c C-*
  1522. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1523. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1524. (resp. checked).
  1525. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1526. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1527. @item S-left/right
  1528. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1529. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1530. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1531. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1532. @kindex C-c ^
  1533. @item C-c ^
  1534. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1535. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1536. @end table
  1537. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1538. @section Drawers
  1539. @cindex drawers
  1540. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1541. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1542. @vindex org-drawers
  1543. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  1544. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1545. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1546. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1547. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1548. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define additional drawers on a
  1549. per-file basis with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN STATE}}. Drawers
  1550. look like this:
  1551. @example
  1552. ** This is a headline
  1553. Still outside the drawer
  1554. :DRAWERNAME:
  1555. This is inside the drawer.
  1556. :END:
  1557. After the drawer.
  1558. @end example
  1559. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1560. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1561. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1562. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add a
  1563. property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1564. keywords is also possible using @key{M-TAB}.
  1565. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1566. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1567. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1568. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1569. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1570. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1571. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1572. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1573. @table @kbd
  1574. @kindex C-c C-z
  1575. @item C-c C-z
  1576. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1577. @end table
  1578. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1579. @section Blocks
  1580. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1581. @cindex blocks, folding
  1582. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1583. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1584. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1585. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1586. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1587. or on a per-file basis by using
  1588. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1589. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1590. @example
  1591. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1592. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1593. @end example
  1594. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1595. @section Footnotes
  1596. @cindex footnotes
  1597. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1598. @file{footnote.el} package, Org mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1599. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1600. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e., a footnote is
  1601. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1602. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1603. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1604. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1605. @example
  1606. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1607. ...
  1608. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1609. @end example
  1610. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1611. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1612. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1613. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1614. @LaTeX{}}). Here are the valid references:
  1615. @table @code
  1616. @item [1]
  1617. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1618. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1619. snippet.
  1620. @item [fn:name]
  1621. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1622. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1623. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1624. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1625. reference point.
  1626. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1627. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1628. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1629. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1630. @end table
  1631. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1632. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1633. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1634. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1635. for details.
  1636. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1637. @table @kbd
  1638. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1639. @item C-c C-x f
  1640. The footnote action command.
  1641. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1642. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1643. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1644. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1645. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1646. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1647. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1648. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1649. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1650. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1651. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1652. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1653. options is offered:
  1654. @example
  1655. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1656. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1657. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1658. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1659. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1660. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1661. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1662. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1663. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1664. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1665. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1666. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1667. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1668. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g., sending}
  1669. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1670. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1671. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1672. @r{to it.}
  1673. @end example
  1674. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1675. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1676. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1677. deletion.
  1678. @kindex C-c C-c
  1679. @item C-c C-c
  1680. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1681. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1682. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1683. @kindex C-c C-o
  1684. @kindex mouse-1
  1685. @kindex mouse-2
  1686. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1687. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1688. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1689. @end table
  1690. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1691. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1692. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1693. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1694. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1695. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1696. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1697. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1698. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1699. @lisp
  1700. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1701. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1702. @end lisp
  1703. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1704. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1705. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1706. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1707. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1708. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1709. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1710. item.
  1711. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1712. @chapter Tables
  1713. @cindex tables
  1714. @cindex editing tables
  1715. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1716. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1717. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1718. @menu
  1719. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1720. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1721. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1722. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1723. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1724. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1725. @end menu
  1726. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1727. @section The built-in table editor
  1728. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1729. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII@. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1730. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1731. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1732. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1733. might look like this:
  1734. @example
  1735. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1736. |-------+-------+-----|
  1737. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1738. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1739. @end example
  1740. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1741. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1742. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1743. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1744. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1745. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1746. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1747. create the above table, you would only type
  1748. @example
  1749. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1750. |-
  1751. @end example
  1752. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1753. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1754. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1755. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1756. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1757. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1758. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1759. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1760. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1761. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1762. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1763. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1764. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1765. @table @kbd
  1766. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1767. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1768. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1769. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1770. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1771. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1772. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1773. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1774. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1775. @*
  1776. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1777. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1778. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1779. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1780. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1781. Re-align the table and don't move to another field.
  1782. @c
  1783. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1784. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1785. necessary.
  1786. @c
  1787. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1788. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1789. @c
  1790. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1791. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1792. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1793. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1794. @c
  1795. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1796. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1797. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1798. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1799. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1800. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1801. Move the current column left/right.
  1802. @c
  1803. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1804. Kill the current column.
  1805. @c
  1806. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1807. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1808. @c
  1809. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1810. Move the current row up/down.
  1811. @c
  1812. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1813. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1814. @c
  1815. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1816. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1817. created below the current one.
  1818. @c
  1819. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1820. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1821. is created above the current line.
  1822. @c
  1823. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1824. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1825. below that line.
  1826. @c
  1827. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1828. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1829. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1830. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1831. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1832. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1833. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1834. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1835. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1836. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1837. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1838. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1839. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1840. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1841. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1842. @c
  1843. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1844. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1845. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1846. @c
  1847. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1848. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1849. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1850. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1851. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1852. lines.
  1853. @c
  1854. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1855. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1856. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1857. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1858. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1859. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1860. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1861. above.
  1862. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1863. @cindex formula, in tables
  1864. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1865. @cindex region, active
  1866. @cindex active region
  1867. @cindex transient mark mode
  1868. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1869. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1870. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1871. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1872. @c
  1873. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1874. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1875. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1876. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1877. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1878. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1879. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1880. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1881. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1882. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1883. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1884. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1885. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1886. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1887. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1888. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1889. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1890. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1891. @c
  1892. @item M-x org-table-import
  1893. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1894. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1895. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1896. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1897. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1898. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1899. separator.
  1900. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1901. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1902. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1903. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1904. @c
  1905. @item M-x org-table-export
  1906. @findex org-table-export
  1907. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1908. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1909. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1910. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1911. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1912. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1913. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1914. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1915. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1916. detailed description.
  1917. @end table
  1918. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1919. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1920. it off with
  1921. @lisp
  1922. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1923. @end lisp
  1924. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1925. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1926. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1927. @section Column width and alignment
  1928. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1929. @cindex alignment in tables
  1930. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1931. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1932. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1933. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1934. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1935. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1936. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1937. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1938. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1939. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1940. @example
  1941. @group
  1942. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1943. | | | | | <6> |
  1944. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1945. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1946. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1947. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1948. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1949. @end group
  1950. @end example
  1951. @noindent
  1952. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1953. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1954. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1955. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1956. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1957. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1958. C-c}.
  1959. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1960. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1961. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1962. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1963. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1964. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1965. on a per-file basis with:
  1966. @example
  1967. #+STARTUP: align
  1968. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1969. @end example
  1970. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1971. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  1972. @samp{<c>}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1973. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  1974. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1975. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1976. automatically when exporting the document.
  1977. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1978. @section Column groups
  1979. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1980. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1981. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1982. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1983. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1984. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1985. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1986. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1987. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<}
  1988. and @samp{>}) to make a column
  1989. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1990. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1991. @example
  1992. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1993. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1994. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1995. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1996. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1997. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1998. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1999. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  2000. @end example
  2001. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  2002. every vertical line you would like to have:
  2003. @example
  2004. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2005. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2006. | / | < | | | < | |
  2007. @end example
  2008. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  2009. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2010. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2011. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2012. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  2013. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  2014. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  2015. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  2016. example in Message mode, use
  2017. @lisp
  2018. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2019. @end lisp
  2020. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2021. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2022. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2023. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2024. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2025. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  2026. @section The spreadsheet
  2027. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2028. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2029. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2030. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2031. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2032. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2033. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2034. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2035. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2036. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2037. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2038. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2039. @menu
  2040. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2041. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2042. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2043. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2044. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2045. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2046. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  2047. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2048. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2049. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2050. @end menu
  2051. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  2052. @subsection References
  2053. @cindex references
  2054. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2055. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2056. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2057. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2058. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2059. @subsubheading Field references
  2060. @cindex field references
  2061. @cindex references, to fields
  2062. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2063. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2064. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2065. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2066. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2067. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2068. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  2069. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2070. representation that looks like this:
  2071. @example
  2072. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2073. @end example
  2074. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2075. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e., the
  2076. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2077. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2078. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2079. column from the right.
  2080. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2081. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2082. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2083. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2084. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2085. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2086. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2087. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2088. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2089. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2090. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2091. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2092. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2093. after the third hline in the table.
  2094. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2095. i.e., to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2096. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2097. implied.
  2098. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2099. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2100. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2101. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2102. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2103. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2104. Here are a few examples:
  2105. @example
  2106. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2107. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2108. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2109. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2110. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2111. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2112. @end example
  2113. @subsubheading Range references
  2114. @cindex range references
  2115. @cindex references, to ranges
  2116. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2117. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2118. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2119. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2120. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2121. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2122. @example
  2123. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2124. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2125. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2126. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2127. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2128. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2129. @end example
  2130. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2131. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2132. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2133. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2134. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2135. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2136. @cindex field coordinates
  2137. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2138. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2139. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2140. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2141. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2142. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2143. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2144. @example
  2145. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2146. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2147. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2148. @end example
  2149. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2150. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2151. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2152. number of rows.
  2153. @subsubheading Named references
  2154. @cindex named references
  2155. @cindex references, named
  2156. @cindex name, of column or field
  2157. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2158. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2159. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2160. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2161. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2162. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2163. line like
  2164. @example
  2165. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2166. @end example
  2167. @noindent
  2168. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2169. @pindex constants.el
  2170. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2171. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2172. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2173. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2174. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2175. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2176. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2177. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2178. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2179. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2180. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2181. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2182. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2183. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2184. numbers.
  2185. @subsubheading Remote references
  2186. @cindex remote references
  2187. @cindex references, remote
  2188. @cindex references, to a different table
  2189. @cindex name, of column or field
  2190. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2191. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2192. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2193. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2194. @example
  2195. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2196. @end example
  2197. @noindent
  2198. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2199. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2200. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2201. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2202. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2203. referenced table.
  2204. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2205. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2206. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2207. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2208. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2209. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2210. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2211. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2212. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2213. Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc, GNU
  2214. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2215. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2216. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2217. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2218. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2219. @cindex format specifier
  2220. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2221. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2222. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2223. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2224. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2225. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2226. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2227. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2228. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2229. @example
  2230. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2231. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2232. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2233. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2234. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2235. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2236. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2237. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges and use nan (not a number)}
  2238. @r{in Calc formulas for empty fields in range references and}
  2239. @r{for empty field references; else suppress empty fields in}
  2240. @r{range references and use 0 for empty field references, see}
  2241. @r{also the notes for `Range references' in @pxref{References}}
  2242. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers;}
  2243. @r{N has higher precedence than E (for the value of the field)}
  2244. L @r{literal, for Lisp formulas only}
  2245. @end example
  2246. @noindent
  2247. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2248. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2249. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2250. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2251. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2252. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2253. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2254. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2255. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2256. A few examples:
  2257. @example
  2258. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2259. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2260. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2261. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2262. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2263. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2264. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2265. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2266. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, suppress empty fields}
  2267. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2268. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2269. @end example
  2270. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2271. @example
  2272. if($1 < 20, teen, string(""))
  2273. @r{"teen" if age $1 is less than 20, else empty}
  2274. if("$1" = "nan" || "$2" = "nan", string(""), $1 + $2); E
  2275. @r{sum of first two columns unless one or both empty}
  2276. @end example
  2277. Note that you can also use two org-specific flags @code{T} and @code{t} for
  2278. durations computations @ref{Durations and time values}.
  2279. You can add your own Calc functions defined in Emacs Lisp with @code{defmath}
  2280. and use them in formula syntax for Calc.
  2281. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2282. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2283. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2284. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be useful
  2285. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is
  2286. not enough.
  2287. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening parenthesis,
  2288. then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a
  2289. string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes
  2290. and a printf format after a semicolon.
  2291. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2292. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be
  2293. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If
  2294. you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers
  2295. (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without
  2296. quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated
  2297. literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted
  2298. as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in
  2299. double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated
  2300. fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax.
  2301. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2302. computations in Lisp:
  2303. @example
  2304. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2305. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2306. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2307. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2308. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1--4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2309. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2310. @end example
  2311. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2312. @subsection Durations and time values
  2313. @cindex Duration, computing
  2314. @cindex Time, computing
  2315. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2316. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2317. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2318. @example
  2319. @group
  2320. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2321. |---------+----------+----------|
  2322. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2323. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2324. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2325. @end group
  2326. @end example
  2327. Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2328. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2329. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2330. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the variable
  2331. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2332. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2333. example above).
  2334. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2335. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2336. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2337. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2338. @cindex field formula
  2339. @cindex range formula
  2340. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2341. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2342. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2343. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2344. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2345. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2346. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2347. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2348. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2349. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2350. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2351. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2352. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2353. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2354. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2355. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2356. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2357. of course not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2358. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2359. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2360. command
  2361. @table @kbd
  2362. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2363. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2364. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2365. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2366. @end table
  2367. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2368. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2369. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2370. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2371. directly.
  2372. @table @code
  2373. @item $2=
  2374. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2375. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2376. @item @@3=
  2377. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2378. the last row.
  2379. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2380. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2381. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2382. @item $name=
  2383. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2384. @end table
  2385. @node Column formulas, Lookup functions, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2386. @subsection Column formulas
  2387. @cindex column formula
  2388. @cindex formula, for table column
  2389. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2390. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2391. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2392. hlines with rows above and below, everything before the first such hline is
  2393. considered part of the table @emph{header} and will not be modified by column
  2394. formulas. Therefore a header is mandatory when you use column formulas and
  2395. want to add hlines to group rows, like for example to separate a total row at
  2396. the bottom from the summand rows above. (ii) Fields that already get a value
  2397. from a field/range formula will be left alone by column formulas. These
  2398. conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2399. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2400. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2401. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2402. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2403. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2404. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2405. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2406. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2407. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2408. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2409. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2410. following command:
  2411. @table @kbd
  2412. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2413. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2414. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2415. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2416. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g., @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2417. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2418. @end table
  2419. @node Lookup functions, Editing and debugging formulas, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2420. @subsection Lookup functions
  2421. @cindex lookup functions in tables
  2422. @cindex table lookup functions
  2423. Org has three predefined Emacs Lisp functions for lookups in tables.
  2424. @table @code
  2425. @item (org-lookup-first VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2426. @findex org-lookup-first
  2427. Searches for the first element @code{S} in list @code{S-LIST} for which
  2428. @lisp
  2429. (PREDICATE VAL S)
  2430. @end lisp
  2431. is @code{t}; returns the value from the corresponding position in list
  2432. @code{R-LIST}. The default @code{PREDICATE} is @code{equal}. Note that the
  2433. parameters @code{VAL} and @code{S} are passed to @code{PREDICATE} in the same
  2434. order as the correspoding parameters are in the call to
  2435. @code{org-lookup-first}, where @code{VAL} precedes @code{S-LIST}. If
  2436. @code{R-LIST} is @code{nil}, the matching element @code{S} of @code{S-LIST}
  2437. is returned.
  2438. @item (org-lookup-last VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2439. @findex org-lookup-last
  2440. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first} above, but searches for the @i{last}
  2441. element for which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}.
  2442. @item (org-lookup-all VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2443. @findex org-lookup-all
  2444. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first}, but searches for @i{all} elements for
  2445. which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}, and returns @i{all} corresponding
  2446. values. This function can not be used by itself in a formula, because it
  2447. returns a list of values. However, powerful lookups can be built when this
  2448. function is combined with other Emacs Lisp functions.
  2449. @end table
  2450. If the ranges used in these functions contain empty fields, the @code{E} mode
  2451. for the formula should usually be specified: otherwise empty fields will not be
  2452. included in @code{S-LIST} and/or @code{R-LIST} which can, for example, result
  2453. in an incorrect mapping from an element of @code{S-LIST} to the corresponding
  2454. element of @code{R-LIST}.
  2455. These three functions can be used to implement associative arrays, count
  2456. matching cells, rank results, group data etc. For practical examples
  2457. see @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-lookups.html, this
  2458. tutorial on Worg}.
  2459. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Lookup functions, The spreadsheet
  2460. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2461. @cindex formula editing
  2462. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2463. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2464. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2465. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2466. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2467. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2468. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2469. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2470. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2471. @table @kbd
  2472. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2473. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2474. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2475. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2476. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2477. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2478. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2479. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2480. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2481. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2482. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2483. @kindex C-c @}
  2484. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2485. @item C-c @}
  2486. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2487. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2488. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2489. @kindex C-c @{
  2490. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2491. @item C-c @{
  2492. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2493. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2494. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2495. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2496. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2497. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2498. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2499. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2500. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2501. @table @kbd
  2502. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2503. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2504. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2505. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2506. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2507. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2508. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2509. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2510. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2511. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2512. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2513. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2514. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2515. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2516. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2517. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2518. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2519. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2520. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2521. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2522. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2523. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2524. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2525. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2526. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2527. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2528. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2529. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2530. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2531. down.
  2532. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2533. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2534. @kindex C-c @}
  2535. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2536. @item C-c @}
  2537. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2538. @end table
  2539. @end table
  2540. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2541. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2542. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2543. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2544. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2545. @kindex C-c C-c
  2546. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2547. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2548. recalculation commands in the table.
  2549. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2550. @cindex formula debugging
  2551. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2552. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2553. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2554. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2555. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2556. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2557. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2558. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2559. @subsection Updating the table
  2560. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2561. @cindex updating, table
  2562. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2563. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2564. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2565. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2566. following commands:
  2567. @table @kbd
  2568. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2569. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2570. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2571. @c
  2572. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2573. @item C-u C-c *
  2574. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2575. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2576. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2577. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2578. @c
  2579. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2580. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2581. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2582. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2583. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2584. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2585. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2586. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2587. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2588. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2589. dependencies.
  2590. @end table
  2591. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2592. @subsection Advanced features
  2593. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2594. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2595. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2596. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2597. special marking characters.
  2598. @table @kbd
  2599. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2600. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2601. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2602. change all marks in the region.
  2603. @end table
  2604. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2605. makes use of these features:
  2606. @example
  2607. @group
  2608. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2609. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2610. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2611. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2612. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2613. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2614. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2615. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2616. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2617. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2618. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2619. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2620. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2621. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2622. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2623. @end group
  2624. @end example
  2625. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2626. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2627. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2628. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2629. empty first field.
  2630. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2631. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2632. @table @samp
  2633. @item !
  2634. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2635. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2636. @item ^
  2637. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2638. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2639. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2640. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2641. @item _
  2642. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2643. @emph{below}.
  2644. @item $
  2645. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2646. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2647. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2648. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2649. a per-table basis.
  2650. @item #
  2651. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2652. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2653. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2654. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2655. @item *
  2656. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2657. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2658. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2659. @item @w{ }
  2660. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2661. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2662. or @samp{*}.
  2663. @item /
  2664. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2665. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2666. @end table
  2667. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2668. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2669. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2670. functions.
  2671. @example
  2672. @group
  2673. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2674. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2675. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2676. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2677. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2678. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2679. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2680. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2681. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2682. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2683. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2684. @end group
  2685. @end example
  2686. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2687. @section Org-Plot
  2688. @cindex graph, in tables
  2689. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2690. @cindex #+PLOT
  2691. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2692. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2693. @uref{http://xafs.org/BruceRavel/GnuplotMode}. To see this in action, ensure
  2694. that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed on your system, then
  2695. call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2696. @example
  2697. @group
  2698. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2699. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2700. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2701. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2702. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2703. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2704. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2705. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2706. @end group
  2707. @end example
  2708. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2709. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2710. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2711. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2712. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2713. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2714. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2715. @table @code
  2716. @item set
  2717. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2718. @item title
  2719. Specify the title of the plot.
  2720. @item ind
  2721. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2722. @item deps
  2723. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2724. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2725. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2726. column).
  2727. @item type
  2728. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2729. @item with
  2730. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2731. (e.g., @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2732. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2733. @item file
  2734. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2735. @item labels
  2736. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2737. if they exist).
  2738. @item line
  2739. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2740. @item map
  2741. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2742. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2743. @item timefmt
  2744. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2745. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2746. @item script
  2747. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2748. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2749. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2750. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2751. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2752. the data file.
  2753. @end table
  2754. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2755. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2756. @cindex hyperlinks
  2757. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2758. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2759. @menu
  2760. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2761. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2762. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2763. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2764. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2765. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2766. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2767. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2768. @end menu
  2769. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2770. @section Link format
  2771. @cindex link format
  2772. @cindex format, of links
  2773. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2774. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2775. @example
  2776. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2777. @end example
  2778. @noindent
  2779. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2780. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2781. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2782. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2783. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2784. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2785. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2786. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2787. cursor on the link.
  2788. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2789. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2790. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2791. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2792. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2793. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2794. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2795. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2796. @section Internal links
  2797. @cindex internal links
  2798. @cindex links, internal
  2799. @cindex targets, for links
  2800. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2801. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2802. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2803. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2804. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2805. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2806. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2807. in a file.
  2808. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2809. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2810. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2811. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2812. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2813. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2814. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2815. comment line. For example
  2816. @example
  2817. # <<My Target>>
  2818. @end example
  2819. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2820. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2821. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2822. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2823. first headline.}.
  2824. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2825. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2826. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2827. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2828. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2829. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2830. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2831. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2832. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2833. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2834. earlier.
  2835. @menu
  2836. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2837. @end menu
  2838. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2839. @subsection Radio targets
  2840. @cindex radio targets
  2841. @cindex targets, radio
  2842. @cindex links, radio targets
  2843. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2844. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2845. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2846. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2847. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2848. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2849. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2850. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2851. cursor on or at a target.
  2852. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2853. @section External links
  2854. @cindex links, external
  2855. @cindex external links
  2856. @cindex links, external
  2857. @cindex Gnus links
  2858. @cindex BBDB links
  2859. @cindex IRC links
  2860. @cindex URL links
  2861. @cindex file links
  2862. @cindex VM links
  2863. @cindex RMAIL links
  2864. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2865. @cindex MH-E links
  2866. @cindex USENET links
  2867. @cindex SHELL links
  2868. @cindex Info links
  2869. @cindex Elisp links
  2870. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2871. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2872. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2873. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2874. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2875. @example
  2876. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2877. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2878. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2879. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2880. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2881. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2882. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2883. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2884. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  2885. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2886. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  2887. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  2888. the variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  2889. is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  2890. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  2891. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  2892. will be queried to create it.}
  2893. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2894. file+sys:/path/to/file @r{open via OS, like double-click}
  2895. file+emacs:/path/to/file @r{force opening by Emacs}
  2896. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  2897. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2898. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2899. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2900. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2901. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2902. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2903. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  2904. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  2905. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2906. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2907. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2908. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2909. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2910. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2911. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2912. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2913. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2914. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2915. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  2916. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2917. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2918. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2919. @end example
  2920. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2921. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2922. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2923. format}), for example:
  2924. @example
  2925. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2926. @end example
  2927. @noindent
  2928. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2929. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2930. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2931. image,
  2932. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2933. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2934. @cindex plain text external links
  2935. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2936. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2937. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2938. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2939. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2940. @section Handling links
  2941. @cindex links, handling
  2942. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2943. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2944. @table @kbd
  2945. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2946. @cindex storing links
  2947. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2948. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2949. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2950. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2951. buffer:
  2952. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  2953. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2954. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2955. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  2956. removed from the link and result in a wrong link---you should avoid putting
  2957. timestamp in the headline.}.
  2958. @vindex org-id-link-to-org-use-id
  2959. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2960. @cindex property, ID
  2961. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2962. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2963. @code{org-id-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will
  2964. be created and/or used to construct a link@footnote{The library @code{org-id}
  2965. must first be loaded, either through @code{org-customize} by enabling
  2966. @code{id} in @code{org-modules} , or by adding @code{(require 'org-id)} in
  2967. your @file{.emacs}.}. So using this command in Org
  2968. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2969. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2970. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2971. to use.
  2972. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2973. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2974. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2975. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2976. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2977. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2978. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2979. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2980. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2981. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2982. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2983. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2984. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2985. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2986. @b{Other files}@*
  2987. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2988. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2989. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2990. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2991. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2992. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2993. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2994. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2995. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2996. entry referenced by the current line.
  2997. @c
  2998. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  2999. @cindex link completion
  3000. @cindex completion, of links
  3001. @cindex inserting links
  3002. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  3003. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  3004. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  3005. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  3006. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  3007. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  3008. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  3009. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  3010. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  3011. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  3012. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  3013. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  3014. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  3015. becomes the default description.
  3016. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  3017. All links stored during the
  3018. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  3019. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  3020. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  3021. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  3022. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  3023. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  3024. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  3025. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  3026. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  3027. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  3028. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  3029. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  3030. @cindex file name completion
  3031. @cindex completion, of file names
  3032. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  3033. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  3034. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  3035. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  3036. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  3037. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  3038. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  3039. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3040. @c
  3041. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  3042. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  3043. link and description parts of the link.
  3044. @c
  3045. @cindex following links
  3046. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  3047. @vindex org-file-apps
  3048. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3049. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  3050. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  3051. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  3052. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  3053. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  3054. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  3055. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  3056. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3057. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3058. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3059. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3060. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3061. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3062. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3063. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3064. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3065. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3066. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3067. the link at point.
  3068. @c
  3069. @kindex mouse-2
  3070. @kindex mouse-1
  3071. @item mouse-2
  3072. @itemx mouse-1
  3073. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  3074. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  3075. @c
  3076. @kindex mouse-3
  3077. @item mouse-3
  3078. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3079. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3080. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3081. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3082. @c
  3083. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3084. @cindex inlining images
  3085. @cindex images, inlining
  3086. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3087. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3088. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3089. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3090. images that have no description part in the link, i.e., images that will also
  3091. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3092. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3093. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3094. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3095. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  3096. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3097. @cindex mark ring
  3098. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3099. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3100. @c
  3101. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3102. @cindex links, returning to
  3103. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3104. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3105. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3106. previously recorded positions.
  3107. @c
  3108. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3109. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3110. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3111. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3112. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3113. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3114. @lisp
  3115. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3116. (lambda ()
  3117. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3118. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3119. @end lisp
  3120. @end table
  3121. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  3122. @section Using links outside Org
  3123. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3124. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3125. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3126. yourself):
  3127. @lisp
  3128. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3129. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3130. @end lisp
  3131. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  3132. @section Link abbreviations
  3133. @cindex link abbreviations
  3134. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3135. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3136. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3137. abbreviated link looks like this
  3138. @example
  3139. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3140. @end example
  3141. @noindent
  3142. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3143. where the tag is optional.
  3144. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3145. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3146. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3147. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3148. @smalllisp
  3149. @group
  3150. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3151. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3152. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3153. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3154. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3155. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3156. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3157. @end group
  3158. @end smalllisp
  3159. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3160. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3161. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3162. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3163. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3164. If the replacement text don't contain any specifier, it will simply
  3165. be appended to the string in order to create the link.
  3166. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3167. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3168. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3169. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3170. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3171. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3172. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3173. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3174. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3175. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3176. can define them in the file with
  3177. @cindex #+LINK
  3178. @example
  3179. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3180. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3181. @end example
  3182. @noindent
  3183. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3184. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3185. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g., completion)
  3186. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3187. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3188. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3189. @section Search options in file links
  3190. @cindex search option in file links
  3191. @cindex file links, searching
  3192. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3193. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3194. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3195. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3196. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3197. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3198. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3199. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3200. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3201. link, together with an explanation:
  3202. @example
  3203. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3204. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3205. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3206. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3207. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3208. @end example
  3209. @table @code
  3210. @item 255
  3211. Jump to line 255.
  3212. @item My Target
  3213. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3214. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3215. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3216. link will become a HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3217. the linked file.
  3218. @item *My Target
  3219. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3220. @item #my-custom-id
  3221. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3222. @item /regexp/
  3223. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3224. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3225. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3226. sparse tree with the matches.
  3227. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3228. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3229. @end table
  3230. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3231. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3232. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3233. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3234. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3235. @section Custom Searches
  3236. @cindex custom search strings
  3237. @cindex search strings, custom
  3238. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3239. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3240. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3241. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3242. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3243. citation key.
  3244. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3245. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3246. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3247. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3248. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3249. to be added to the hook variables
  3250. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3251. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3252. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3253. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3254. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3255. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3256. @chapter TODO items
  3257. @cindex TODO items
  3258. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3259. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3260. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3261. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3262. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3263. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3264. item emerged is always present.
  3265. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3266. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3267. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3268. @menu
  3269. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3270. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3271. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3272. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3273. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3274. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3275. @end menu
  3276. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3277. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3278. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3279. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3280. @example
  3281. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3282. @end example
  3283. @noindent
  3284. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3285. @table @kbd
  3286. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3287. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3288. @vindex org-use-fast-todo-selection
  3289. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3290. @example
  3291. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3292. '--------------------------------'
  3293. @end example
  3294. If TODO keywords have fast access keys (see @ref{Fast access to TODO
  3295. states}), you will be prompted for a TODO keyword through the fast selection
  3296. interface; this is the default behavior when
  3297. @var{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is @code{non-nil}.
  3298. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and agenda
  3299. buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3300. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3301. When TODO keywords have no selection keys, select a specific keyword using
  3302. completion; otherwise force cycling through TODO states with no prompt. When
  3303. @var{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is set to @code{prefix}, use the fast
  3304. selection interface.
  3305. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3306. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3307. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3308. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3309. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3310. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3311. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3312. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3313. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3314. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-tree}
  3315. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3316. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3317. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3318. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3319. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3320. / T}), search for a specific TODO@. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3321. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3322. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3323. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3324. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3325. both un-done and done.
  3326. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3327. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3328. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3329. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3330. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3331. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3332. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3333. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3334. @end table
  3335. @noindent
  3336. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3337. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3338. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3339. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3340. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3341. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3342. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3343. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3344. DONE@. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3345. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3346. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3347. files.
  3348. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3349. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3350. @menu
  3351. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3352. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3353. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3354. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3355. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3356. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3357. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3358. @end menu
  3359. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3360. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3361. @cindex TODO workflow
  3362. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3363. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3364. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3365. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3366. buffer.}:
  3367. @lisp
  3368. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3369. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3370. @end lisp
  3371. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3372. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3373. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3374. state.
  3375. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3376. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3377. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED@. You may
  3378. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3379. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY@.
  3380. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3381. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3382. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3383. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3384. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3385. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3386. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3387. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3388. @cindex TODO types
  3389. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3390. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3391. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3392. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3393. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3394. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3395. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3396. be set up like this:
  3397. @lisp
  3398. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3399. @end lisp
  3400. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3401. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3402. person, and later to mark it DONE@. Org mode supports this style by adapting
  3403. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3404. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3405. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3406. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3407. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3408. to DONE@. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3409. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3410. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3411. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3412. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3413. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3414. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3415. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3416. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3417. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3418. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3419. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3420. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3421. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3422. like this:
  3423. @lisp
  3424. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3425. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3426. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3427. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3428. @end lisp
  3429. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3430. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3431. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3432. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3433. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3434. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3435. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3436. @table @kbd
  3437. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3438. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3439. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3440. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3441. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3442. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3443. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3444. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3445. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3446. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3447. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3448. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3449. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3450. @item S-@key{right}
  3451. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3452. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3453. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3454. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3455. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3456. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3457. @end table
  3458. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3459. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3460. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3461. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3462. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection character after
  3463. each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except
  3464. @code{@@^!}, which have a special meaning here.}. For example:
  3465. @lisp
  3466. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3467. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3468. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3469. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3470. @end lisp
  3471. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3472. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3473. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3474. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3475. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3476. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3477. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3478. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3479. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3480. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3481. @cindex keyword options
  3482. @cindex per-file keywords
  3483. @cindex #+TODO
  3484. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3485. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3486. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3487. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3488. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3489. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3490. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3491. file:
  3492. @example
  3493. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3494. @end example
  3495. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3496. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3497. @example
  3498. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3499. @end example
  3500. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3501. @example
  3502. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3503. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3504. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3505. @end example
  3506. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3507. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3508. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3509. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3510. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3511. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3512. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3513. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3514. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3515. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3516. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3517. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3518. for the current buffer.}.
  3519. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3520. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3521. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3522. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3523. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3524. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3525. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3526. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3527. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3528. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3529. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3530. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3531. @lisp
  3532. @group
  3533. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3534. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3535. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3536. @end group
  3537. @end lisp
  3538. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3539. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3540. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3541. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3542. foreground or a background color.
  3543. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3544. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3545. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3546. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3547. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3548. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3549. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3550. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3551. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE@. And sometimes
  3552. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3553. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3554. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3555. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE@.
  3556. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3557. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE@. Here is an
  3558. example:
  3559. @example
  3560. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3561. ** DONE one
  3562. ** TODO two
  3563. * Parent
  3564. :PROPERTIES:
  3565. :ORDERED: t
  3566. :END:
  3567. ** TODO a
  3568. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3569. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3570. @end example
  3571. @table @kbd
  3572. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3573. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3574. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3575. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3576. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3577. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3578. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3579. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3580. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3581. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3582. @end table
  3583. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3584. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3585. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3586. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3587. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3588. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3589. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3590. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3591. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3592. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3593. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3594. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3595. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3596. @page
  3597. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3598. @section Progress logging
  3599. @cindex progress logging
  3600. @cindex logging, of progress
  3601. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3602. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3603. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3604. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3605. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3606. work time}.
  3607. @menu
  3608. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3609. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3610. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3611. @end menu
  3612. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3613. @subsection Closing items
  3614. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3615. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3616. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3617. @lisp
  3618. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3619. @end lisp
  3620. @noindent
  3621. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3622. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3623. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3624. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3625. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3626. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3627. @lisp
  3628. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3629. @end lisp
  3630. @noindent
  3631. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3632. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3633. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3634. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3635. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3636. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3637. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3638. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3639. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3640. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3641. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3642. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3643. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3644. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3645. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3646. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3647. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3648. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3649. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3650. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the
  3651. recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3652. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3653. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3654. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3655. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3656. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3657. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3658. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3659. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3660. setting
  3661. @lisp
  3662. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3663. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3664. @end lisp
  3665. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3666. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3667. @noindent
  3668. @vindex org-log-done
  3669. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3670. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3671. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3672. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3673. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3674. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3675. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3676. WAIT or CANCELED@. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3677. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3678. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3679. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3680. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3681. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3682. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3683. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3684. configured.
  3685. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3686. to a buffer:
  3687. @example
  3688. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3689. @end example
  3690. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3691. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3692. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3693. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3694. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3695. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3696. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3697. @example
  3698. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3699. :PROPERTIES:
  3700. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3701. :END:
  3702. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3703. :PROPERTIES:
  3704. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3705. :END:
  3706. * TODO No logging at all
  3707. :PROPERTIES:
  3708. :LOGGING: nil
  3709. :END:
  3710. @end example
  3711. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3712. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3713. @cindex habits
  3714. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3715. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3716. @enumerate
  3717. @item
  3718. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3719. @code{org-modules}.
  3720. @item
  3721. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3722. @item
  3723. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3724. @item
  3725. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3726. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3727. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3728. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3729. @item
  3730. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3731. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3732. three days, but at most every two days.
  3733. @item
  3734. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled
  3735. (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3736. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an
  3737. error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless.
  3738. @end enumerate
  3739. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3740. actual habit with some history:
  3741. @example
  3742. ** TODO Shave
  3743. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3744. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3745. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3746. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3747. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3748. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3749. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3750. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3751. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3752. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3753. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3754. :PROPERTIES:
  3755. :STYLE: habit
  3756. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3757. :END:
  3758. @end example
  3759. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3760. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3761. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3762. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3763. after four days have elapsed.
  3764. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3765. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3766. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3767. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3768. @table @code
  3769. @item Blue
  3770. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3771. @item Green
  3772. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3773. @item Yellow
  3774. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3775. @item Red
  3776. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3777. @end table
  3778. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3779. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3780. the current day falls in the graph.
  3781. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3782. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3783. @table @code
  3784. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3785. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3786. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3787. titles brief and to the point.
  3788. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3789. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3790. @item org-habit-following-days
  3791. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3792. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3793. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3794. default.
  3795. @end table
  3796. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3797. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3798. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3799. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3800. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3801. @section Priorities
  3802. @cindex priorities
  3803. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3804. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3805. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3806. @example
  3807. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3808. @end example
  3809. @noindent
  3810. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3811. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3812. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3813. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3814. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3815. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3816. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3817. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3818. items.
  3819. @table @kbd
  3820. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3821. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3822. @findex org-priority
  3823. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3824. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3825. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3826. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3827. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3828. @c
  3829. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3830. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3831. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3832. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3833. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3834. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3835. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3836. @end table
  3837. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3838. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3839. @vindex org-default-priority
  3840. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3841. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3842. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3843. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3844. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3845. priority):
  3846. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3847. @example
  3848. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3849. @end example
  3850. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3851. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3852. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3853. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3854. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3855. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3856. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3857. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3858. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3859. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3860. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3861. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3862. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3863. @example
  3864. * Organize Party [33%]
  3865. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3866. *** TODO Peter
  3867. *** DONE Sarah
  3868. ** TODO Buy food
  3869. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3870. @end example
  3871. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3872. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3873. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3874. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3875. this issue.
  3876. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3877. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3878. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3879. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3880. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3881. property.
  3882. @example
  3883. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3884. :PROPERTIES:
  3885. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3886. :END:
  3887. @end example
  3888. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3889. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3890. @example
  3891. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3892. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3893. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3894. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3895. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3896. @end example
  3897. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3898. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3899. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3900. @section Checkboxes
  3901. @cindex checkboxes
  3902. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3903. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3904. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3905. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3906. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3907. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3908. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3909. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3910. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3911. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3912. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3913. @example
  3914. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3915. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3916. - [ ] Peter
  3917. - [X] Sarah
  3918. - [ ] Sam
  3919. - [X] order food
  3920. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3921. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3922. @end example
  3923. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3924. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3925. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3926. checked.
  3927. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3928. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3929. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3930. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3931. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3932. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3933. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3934. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3935. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3936. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3937. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3938. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3939. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3940. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3941. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3942. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3943. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3944. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3945. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3946. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3947. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3948. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3949. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3950. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3951. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3952. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3953. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3954. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3955. @table @kbd
  3956. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3957. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
  3958. With a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  3959. one@footnote{@kbd{C-u C-c C-c} on the @emph{first} item of a list with no checkbox
  3960. will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is
  3961. considered to be an intermediate state.
  3962. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3963. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3964. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3965. intermediate state.
  3966. @itemize @minus
  3967. @item
  3968. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3969. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3970. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3971. @item
  3972. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3973. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3974. @item
  3975. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3976. @end itemize
  3977. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3978. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  3979. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3980. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3981. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3982. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3983. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3984. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3985. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3986. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3987. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3988. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3989. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  3990. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3991. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3992. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3993. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3994. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3995. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  3996. @end table
  3997. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3998. @chapter Tags
  3999. @cindex tags
  4000. @cindex headline tagging
  4001. @cindex matching, tags
  4002. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  4003. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  4004. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  4005. support for tags.
  4006. @vindex org-tag-faces
  4007. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  4008. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  4009. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  4010. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  4011. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  4012. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  4013. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  4014. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  4015. @menu
  4016. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  4017. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  4018. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  4019. @end menu
  4020. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  4021. @section Tag inheritance
  4022. @cindex tag inheritance
  4023. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  4024. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  4025. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  4026. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  4027. well. For example, in the list
  4028. @example
  4029. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  4030. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  4031. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  4032. @end example
  4033. @noindent
  4034. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  4035. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  4036. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  4037. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  4038. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  4039. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  4040. changes in the line.}:
  4041. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  4042. @example
  4043. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  4044. @end example
  4045. @noindent
  4046. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  4047. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  4048. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, use @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  4049. To turn it off entirely, use @code{org-use-tag-inheritance}.
  4050. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4051. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  4052. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  4053. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  4054. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  4055. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  4056. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  4057. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  4058. @vindex org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance
  4059. Tag inheritance is relevant when the agenda search tries to match a tag,
  4060. either in the @code{tags} or @code{tags-todo} agenda types. In other agenda
  4061. types, @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} has no effect. Still, you may want to
  4062. have your tags correctly set in the agenda, so that tag filtering works fine,
  4063. with inherited tags. Set @code{org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance} to control
  4064. this: the default value includes all agenda types, but setting this to nil
  4065. can really speed up agenda generation.
  4066. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  4067. @section Setting tags
  4068. @cindex setting tags
  4069. @cindex tags, setting
  4070. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  4071. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4072. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4073. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4074. @table @kbd
  4075. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4076. @cindex completion, of tags
  4077. @vindex org-tags-column
  4078. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4079. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4080. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4081. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4082. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4083. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4084. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4085. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4086. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4087. @end table
  4088. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4089. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4090. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4091. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4092. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4093. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4094. @cindex #+TAGS
  4095. @example
  4096. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4097. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4098. @end example
  4099. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4100. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4101. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4102. @example
  4103. #+TAGS:
  4104. @end example
  4105. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4106. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4107. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4108. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4109. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4110. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4111. @example
  4112. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4113. @end example
  4114. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4115. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4116. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4117. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4118. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  4119. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  4120. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  4121. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4122. like:
  4123. @lisp
  4124. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4125. @end lisp
  4126. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4127. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4128. @example
  4129. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4130. @end example
  4131. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4132. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4133. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4134. @example
  4135. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4136. @end example
  4137. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4138. @example
  4139. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4140. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4141. @end example
  4142. @noindent
  4143. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4144. braces, as in:
  4145. @example
  4146. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4147. @end example
  4148. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4149. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4150. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4151. these lines to activate any changes.
  4152. @noindent
  4153. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  4154. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4155. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4156. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4157. configuration:
  4158. @lisp
  4159. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4160. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4161. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4162. (:endgroup . nil)
  4163. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4164. @end lisp
  4165. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4166. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4167. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4168. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4169. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4170. keys:
  4171. @table @kbd
  4172. @item a-z...
  4173. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4174. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4175. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4176. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4177. @item @key{TAB}
  4178. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4179. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4180. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4181. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4182. @item @key{SPC}
  4183. Clear all tags for this line.
  4184. @kindex @key{RET}
  4185. @item @key{RET}
  4186. Accept the modified set.
  4187. @item C-g
  4188. Abort without installing changes.
  4189. @item q
  4190. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4191. @item !
  4192. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4193. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4194. @item C-c
  4195. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4196. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4197. selection window.
  4198. @end table
  4199. @noindent
  4200. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4201. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4202. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4203. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4204. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4205. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4206. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4207. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4208. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4209. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4210. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  4211. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  4212. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  4213. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  4214. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  4215. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  4216. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  4217. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  4218. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4219. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4220. @section Tag searches
  4221. @cindex tag searches
  4222. @cindex searching for tags
  4223. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4224. information into special lists.
  4225. @table @kbd
  4226. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4227. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4228. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4229. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4230. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4231. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4232. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4233. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4234. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4235. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4236. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4237. @end table
  4238. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4239. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4240. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4241. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4242. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4243. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4244. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4245. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4246. @chapter Properties and columns
  4247. @cindex properties
  4248. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4249. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4250. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4251. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4252. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4253. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4254. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4255. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4256. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4257. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4258. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4259. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4260. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4261. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4262. @menu
  4263. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4264. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4265. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4266. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4267. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4268. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4269. @end menu
  4270. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4271. @section Property syntax
  4272. @cindex property syntax
  4273. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4274. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4275. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special
  4276. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4277. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4278. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4279. @example
  4280. * CD collection
  4281. ** Classic
  4282. *** Goldberg Variations
  4283. :PROPERTIES:
  4284. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4285. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4286. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4287. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4288. :NDisks: 1
  4289. :END:
  4290. @end example
  4291. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4292. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the sub-tree
  4293. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4294. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4295. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4296. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4297. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4298. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4299. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4300. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4301. @example
  4302. * CD collection
  4303. :PROPERTIES:
  4304. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4305. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4306. :END:
  4307. @end example
  4308. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4309. file, use a line like
  4310. @cindex property, _ALL
  4311. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4312. @example
  4313. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4314. @end example
  4315. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4316. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4317. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4318. @cindex property, +
  4319. @example
  4320. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4321. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4322. @end example
  4323. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4324. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4325. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4326. @cindex property, +
  4327. @example
  4328. * CD collection
  4329. ** Classic
  4330. :PROPERTIES:
  4331. :GENRES: Classic
  4332. :END:
  4333. *** Goldberg Variations
  4334. :PROPERTIES:
  4335. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4336. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4337. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4338. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4339. :NDisks: 1
  4340. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4341. :END:
  4342. @end example
  4343. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4344. @vindex org-global-properties
  4345. Property values set with the global variable
  4346. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4347. Org files.
  4348. @noindent
  4349. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4350. @table @kbd
  4351. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4352. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4353. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4354. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4355. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4356. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4357. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer
  4358. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  4359. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4360. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4361. information like deadlines.
  4362. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4363. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4364. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4365. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4366. can be inserted using completion.
  4367. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4368. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4369. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4370. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4371. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4372. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4373. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4374. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4375. nearest column format definition.
  4376. @end table
  4377. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4378. @section Special properties
  4379. @cindex properties, special
  4380. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4381. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4382. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4383. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4384. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4385. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4386. @cindex property, special, ID
  4387. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4388. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4389. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4390. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4391. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4392. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4393. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4394. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4395. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4396. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4397. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4398. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM_T
  4399. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4400. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4401. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4402. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4403. @example
  4404. ID @r{A globally unique ID used for synchronization during}
  4405. @r{iCalendar or MobileOrg export.}
  4406. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4407. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4408. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4409. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4410. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4411. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4412. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4413. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4414. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4415. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4416. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4417. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4418. CLOCKSUM_T @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree for today.}
  4419. @r{@code{org-clock-sum-today} must be run first to compute the}
  4420. @r{values in the current buffer.}
  4421. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4422. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4423. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4424. @end example
  4425. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4426. @section Property searches
  4427. @cindex properties, searching
  4428. @cindex searching, of properties
  4429. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4430. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4431. @table @kbd
  4432. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4433. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4434. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4435. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4436. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4437. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4438. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4439. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4440. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4441. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4442. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4443. @end table
  4444. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4445. properties}.
  4446. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4447. single property:
  4448. @table @kbd
  4449. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4450. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4451. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4452. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4453. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4454. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4455. @end table
  4456. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4457. @section Property Inheritance
  4458. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4459. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4460. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4461. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4462. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4463. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4464. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4465. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4466. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4467. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4468. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4469. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4470. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4471. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4472. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4473. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4474. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4475. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4476. @table @code
  4477. @item COLUMNS
  4478. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4479. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4480. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4481. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4482. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4483. @item CATEGORY
  4484. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4485. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4486. applies to the entire subtree.
  4487. @item ARCHIVE
  4488. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4489. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4490. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4491. @item LOGGING
  4492. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4493. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4494. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4495. @end table
  4496. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4497. @section Column view
  4498. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4499. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4500. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4501. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4502. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4503. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4504. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4505. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4506. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4507. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4508. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4509. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4510. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4511. @menu
  4512. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4513. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4514. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4515. @end menu
  4516. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4517. @subsection Defining columns
  4518. @cindex column view, for properties
  4519. @cindex properties, column view
  4520. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4521. done by defining a column format line.
  4522. @menu
  4523. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4524. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4525. @end menu
  4526. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4527. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4528. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4529. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4530. @example
  4531. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4532. @end example
  4533. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4534. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4535. @example
  4536. ** Top node for columns view
  4537. :PROPERTIES:
  4538. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4539. :END:
  4540. @end example
  4541. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4542. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4543. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4544. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4545. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4546. deeper part of the tree.
  4547. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4548. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4549. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4550. definition looks like this:
  4551. @example
  4552. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4553. @end example
  4554. @noindent
  4555. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4556. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4557. @example
  4558. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4559. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4560. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4561. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4562. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4563. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4564. @r{name is used.}
  4565. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4566. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4567. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4568. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4569. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4570. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4571. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4572. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4573. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4574. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4575. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4576. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4577. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4578. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4579. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4580. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4581. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4582. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4583. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4584. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4585. @end example
  4586. @noindent
  4587. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4588. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4589. same summary information.
  4590. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4591. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4592. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4593. 5--6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4594. 1--10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4595. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4596. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4597. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4598. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4599. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4600. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4601. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4602. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4603. full job more realistically, at 10--15 days.
  4604. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4605. values.
  4606. @example
  4607. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4608. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM %CLOCKSUM_T
  4609. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4610. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4611. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4612. @end example
  4613. @noindent
  4614. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4615. item itself, i.e., of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4616. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4617. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4618. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4619. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4620. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4621. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4622. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4623. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4624. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4625. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4626. @samp{CLOCKSUM} and @samp{CLOCKSUM_T} columns are special, they lists the
  4627. sums of CLOCK intervals in the subtree, either for all clocks or just for
  4628. today.
  4629. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4630. @subsection Using column view
  4631. @table @kbd
  4632. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4633. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4634. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4635. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4636. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4637. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4638. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4639. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4640. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4641. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4642. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4643. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4644. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4645. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4646. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4647. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4648. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4649. Exit column view.
  4650. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4651. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4652. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4653. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4654. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4655. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4656. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4657. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4658. @item 1..9,0
  4659. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4660. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4661. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4662. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4663. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4664. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4665. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4666. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4667. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4668. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4669. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4670. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4671. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4672. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4673. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4674. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4675. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4676. current column view.
  4677. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4678. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4679. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4680. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4681. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4682. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4683. Delete the current column.
  4684. @end table
  4685. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4686. @subsection Capturing column view
  4687. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4688. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4689. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4690. of this block looks like this:
  4691. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4692. @example
  4693. * The column view
  4694. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4695. #+END:
  4696. @end example
  4697. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4698. @table @code
  4699. @item :id
  4700. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4701. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4702. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4703. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4704. @cindex property, ID
  4705. @example
  4706. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4707. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4708. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4709. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4710. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4711. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4712. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4713. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4714. @end example
  4715. @item :hlines
  4716. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4717. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4718. @item :vlines
  4719. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4720. @item :maxlevel
  4721. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4722. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4723. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4724. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4725. @end table
  4726. @noindent
  4727. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4728. @table @kbd
  4729. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4730. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4731. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4732. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4733. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4734. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4735. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4736. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4737. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4738. blocks in a buffer.
  4739. @end table
  4740. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4741. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4742. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4743. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4744. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4745. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4746. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4747. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4748. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4749. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4750. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4751. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4752. @section The Property API
  4753. @cindex properties, API
  4754. @cindex API, for properties
  4755. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4756. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4757. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4758. property API}.
  4759. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4760. @chapter Dates and times
  4761. @cindex dates
  4762. @cindex times
  4763. @cindex timestamp
  4764. @cindex date stamp
  4765. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4766. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4767. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode. This may be a
  4768. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4769. something was created or last changed. However, in Org mode this term
  4770. is used in a much wider sense.
  4771. @menu
  4772. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4773. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4774. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4775. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4776. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4777. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4778. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4779. @end menu
  4780. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4781. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4782. @cindex timestamps
  4783. @cindex ranges, time
  4784. @cindex date stamps
  4785. @cindex deadlines
  4786. @cindex scheduling
  4787. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4788. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>}@footnote{In this
  4789. simplest form, the day name is optional when you type the date yourself.
  4790. However, any dates inserted or modified by Org will add that day name, for
  4791. reading convenience.} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
  4792. Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601
  4793. date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time
  4794. format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org
  4795. tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the
  4796. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4797. @table @var
  4798. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4799. @cindex timestamp
  4800. @cindex appointment
  4801. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4802. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4803. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4804. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4805. @example
  4806. * Meet Peter at the movies
  4807. <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4808. * Discussion on climate change
  4809. <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4810. @end example
  4811. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4812. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4813. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4814. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4815. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4816. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4817. @example
  4818. * Pick up Sam at school
  4819. <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4820. @end example
  4821. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4822. For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the special
  4823. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4824. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  4825. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  4826. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  4827. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  4828. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  4829. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  4830. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org mode users
  4831. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  4832. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  4833. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  4834. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For
  4835. example with optional time
  4836. @example
  4837. * 22:00-23:00 The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4838. <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  4839. @end example
  4840. @item Time/Date range
  4841. @cindex timerange
  4842. @cindex date range
  4843. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4844. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4845. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4846. @example
  4847. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4848. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4849. @end example
  4850. @item Inactive timestamp
  4851. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4852. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4853. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4854. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4855. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4856. @example
  4857. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time
  4858. [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4859. @end example
  4860. @end table
  4861. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4862. @section Creating timestamps
  4863. @cindex creating timestamps
  4864. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4865. For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4866. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4867. format.
  4868. @table @kbd
  4869. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4870. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4871. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4872. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4873. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4874. @c
  4875. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4876. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4877. an agenda entry.
  4878. @c
  4879. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4880. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4881. @item C-u C-c .
  4882. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4883. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4884. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4885. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4886. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4887. @c
  4888. @orgkey{C-c C-c}
  4889. Normalize timestamp, insert/fix day name if missing or wrong.
  4890. @c
  4891. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4892. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4893. @c
  4894. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4895. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4896. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4897. instead.
  4898. @c
  4899. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4900. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4901. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4902. @c
  4903. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4904. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4905. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4906. @c
  4907. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4908. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4909. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4910. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4911. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4912. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4913. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4914. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4915. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4916. @c
  4917. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4918. @cindex evaluate time range
  4919. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4920. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4921. the following column).
  4922. @end table
  4923. @menu
  4924. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  4925. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4926. @end menu
  4927. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4928. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4929. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4930. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4931. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4932. When Org mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4933. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4934. format. But it will in fact accept date/time information in a variety of
  4935. formats. Generally, the information should start at the beginning of the
  4936. string. Org mode will find whatever information is in
  4937. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4938. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4939. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4940. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4941. information, Org mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4942. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4943. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4944. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4945. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4946. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4947. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4948. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4949. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org mode are
  4950. in @b{bold}.
  4951. @example
  4952. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4953. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4954. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4955. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4956. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4957. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4958. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4959. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4960. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4961. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4962. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4963. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4964. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4965. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4966. @end example
  4967. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4968. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4969. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4970. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4971. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4972. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4973. the Nth such day, e.g.:
  4974. @example
  4975. +0 @result{} today
  4976. . @result{} today
  4977. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4978. +4 @result{} same as above
  4979. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4980. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4981. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4982. @end example
  4983. @vindex parse-time-months
  4984. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4985. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4986. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4987. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4988. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  4989. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  4990. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  4991. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  4992. read the docstring of the variable
  4993. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  4994. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4995. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  4996. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  4997. case, e.g.:
  4998. @example
  4999. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  5000. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  5001. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  5002. @end example
  5003. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  5004. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  5005. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  5006. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  5007. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  5008. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  5009. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  5010. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  5011. from the minibuffer:
  5012. @kindex <
  5013. @kindex >
  5014. @kindex M-v
  5015. @kindex C-v
  5016. @kindex mouse-1
  5017. @kindex S-@key{right}
  5018. @kindex S-@key{left}
  5019. @kindex S-@key{down}
  5020. @kindex S-@key{up}
  5021. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  5022. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  5023. @kindex @key{RET}
  5024. @example
  5025. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  5026. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  5027. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  5028. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  5029. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  5030. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  5031. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  5032. @end example
  5033. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  5034. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  5035. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  5036. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  5037. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  5038. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  5039. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  5040. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  5041. @subsection Custom time format
  5042. @cindex custom date/time format
  5043. @cindex time format, custom
  5044. @cindex date format, custom
  5045. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  5046. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  5047. Org mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  5048. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  5049. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  5050. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  5051. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  5052. @table @kbd
  5053. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  5054. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  5055. @end table
  5056. @noindent
  5057. Org mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  5058. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  5059. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  5060. following consequences:
  5061. @itemize @bullet
  5062. @item
  5063. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  5064. after.
  5065. @item
  5066. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  5067. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  5068. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  5069. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  5070. time will be changed by one minute.
  5071. @item
  5072. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  5073. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  5074. @item
  5075. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  5076. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  5077. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  5078. @item
  5079. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  5080. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  5081. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  5082. @end itemize
  5083. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  5084. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  5085. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  5086. @table @var
  5087. @item DEADLINE
  5088. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  5089. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  5090. to be finished on that date.
  5091. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5092. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  5093. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  5094. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  5095. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  5096. until the entry is marked DONE@. An example:
  5097. @example
  5098. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  5099. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  5100. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  5101. @end example
  5102. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  5103. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  5104. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  5105. @item SCHEDULED
  5106. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  5107. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  5108. date.
  5109. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  5110. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  5111. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE@. If you don't like
  5112. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  5113. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  5114. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.,
  5115. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  5116. @example
  5117. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  5118. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  5119. @end example
  5120. @noindent
  5121. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org mode should @i{not} be
  5122. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  5123. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  5124. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  5125. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  5126. Org users. In Org mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  5127. want to start working on an action item.
  5128. @end table
  5129. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  5130. entries. Org mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  5131. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  5132. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  5133. @c
  5134. @code{<%%(diary-float t 42)>}
  5135. @c
  5136. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org mode does not
  5137. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  5138. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  5139. sexp entry matches.
  5140. @menu
  5141. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  5142. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  5143. @end menu
  5144. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  5145. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  5146. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  5147. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  5148. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  5149. an item:
  5150. @table @kbd
  5151. @c
  5152. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  5153. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  5154. in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be
  5155. removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed
  5156. from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  5157. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  5158. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5159. deadline.
  5160. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  5161. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  5162. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  5163. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  5164. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  5165. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  5166. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  5167. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5168. scheduling time.
  5169. @c
  5170. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  5171. @kindex k a
  5172. @kindex k s
  5173. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  5174. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  5175. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  5176. schedule the marked item.
  5177. @c
  5178. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  5179. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  5180. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5181. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  5182. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  5183. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  5184. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  5185. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  5186. @c
  5187. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  5188. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  5189. @c
  5190. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  5191. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  5192. @end table
  5193. Note that @code{org-schedule} and @code{org-deadline} supports
  5194. setting the date by indicating a relative time: e.g., +1d will set
  5195. the date to the next day after today, and --1w will set the date
  5196. to the previous week before any current timestamp.
  5197. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  5198. @subsection Repeated tasks
  5199. @cindex tasks, repeated
  5200. @cindex repeated tasks
  5201. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org mode helps to
  5202. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  5203. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  5204. @example
  5205. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5206. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  5207. @end example
  5208. @noindent
  5209. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  5210. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  5211. from that time. You can use yearly, monthly, weekly, daily and hourly repeat
  5212. cookies by using the @code{y/w/m/d/h} letters. If you need both a repeater
  5213. and a special warning period in a deadline entry, the repeater should come
  5214. first and the warning period last: @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  5215. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  5216. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  5217. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  5218. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  5219. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  5220. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  5221. repeated entry will not be active. Org mode deals with this in the following
  5222. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  5223. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  5224. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  5225. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  5226. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  5227. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  5228. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  5229. switch the date like this:
  5230. @example
  5231. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5232. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  5233. @end example
  5234. @vindex org-log-repeat
  5235. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  5236. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  5237. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  5238. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  5239. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  5240. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  5241. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  5242. will be visible.
  5243. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  5244. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  5245. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  5246. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  5247. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  5248. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  5249. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  5250. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org mode has
  5251. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  5252. @example
  5253. ** TODO Call Father
  5254. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  5255. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  5256. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  5257. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  5258. and marked it done on Saturday.
  5259. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  5260. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  5261. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  5262. today.
  5263. @end example
  5264. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  5265. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  5266. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  5267. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  5268. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  5269. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  5270. @section Clocking work time
  5271. @cindex clocking time
  5272. @cindex time clocking
  5273. Org mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  5274. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock. When
  5275. you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the clock is
  5276. stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It also computes
  5277. the total time spent on each subtree@footnote{Clocking only works if all
  5278. headings are indented with less than 30 stars. This is a hardcoded
  5279. limitation of `lmax' in `org-clock-sum'.} of a project. And it remembers a
  5280. history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly between a
  5281. number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5282. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5283. @lisp
  5284. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5285. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5286. @end lisp
  5287. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5288. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5289. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5290. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5291. what to do with it.
  5292. @menu
  5293. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5294. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5295. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5296. @end menu
  5297. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5298. @subsection Clocking commands
  5299. @table @kbd
  5300. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5301. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5302. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5303. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  5304. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5305. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5306. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5307. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5308. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule
  5309. the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  5310. @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  5311. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5312. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5313. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task;
  5314. the default task will then always be available with letter @kbd{d} when
  5315. selecting a clocking task. With three @kbd{C-u C-u C-u} prefixes, force
  5316. continuous clocking by starting the clock when the last clock stopped.@*
  5317. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5318. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5319. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5320. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5321. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5322. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5323. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5324. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5325. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5326. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5327. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5328. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5329. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5330. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5331. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5332. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5333. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5334. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5335. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5336. @c
  5337. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5338. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5339. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5340. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5341. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5342. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5343. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5344. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5345. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5346. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-in-last}
  5347. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5348. Reclock the last clocked task. With one @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5349. select the task from the clock history. With two @kbd{C-u} prefixes,
  5350. force continuous clocking by starting the clock when the last clock
  5351. stopped.
  5352. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5353. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5354. @kindex C-c C-y
  5355. @kindex C-c C-c
  5356. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5357. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5358. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5359. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5360. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{up/down},org-clock-timestamps-up/down}
  5361. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease both timestamps so that the
  5362. clock duration keeps the same.
  5363. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{up/down},org-timestamp-up/down}
  5364. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease the timestamp at point and
  5365. the one of the previous (or the next clock) timestamp by the same duration.
  5366. For example, if you hit @kbd{S-M-@key{up}} to increase a clocked-out timestamp
  5367. by five minutes, then the clocked-in timestamp of the next clock will be
  5368. increased by five minutes.
  5369. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5370. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5371. if it is running in this same item.
  5372. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-q,org-clock-cancel}
  5373. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5374. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5375. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5376. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5377. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5378. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5379. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5380. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts
  5381. overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under
  5382. that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility
  5383. cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the
  5384. buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press
  5385. @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5386. @end table
  5387. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5388. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5389. worked on or closed during a day.
  5390. @strong{Important:} note that both @code{org-clock-out} and
  5391. @code{org-clock-in-last} can have a global keybinding and will not
  5392. modify the window disposition.
  5393. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5394. @subsection The clock table
  5395. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5396. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5397. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5398. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5399. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5400. @table @kbd
  5401. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5402. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5403. report as an Org mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5404. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5405. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5406. update it. The clock table always includes also trees with
  5407. @code{:ARCHIVE:} tag.
  5408. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5409. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5410. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5411. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5412. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5413. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5414. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5415. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5416. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5417. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5418. @end table
  5419. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5420. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5421. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5422. @example
  5423. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5424. #+END: clocktable
  5425. @end example
  5426. @noindent
  5427. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5428. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5429. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5430. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5431. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5432. be selected:
  5433. @example
  5434. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5435. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5436. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5437. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5438. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5439. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5440. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5441. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5442. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5443. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5444. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5445. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5446. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5447. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5448. @r{these formats:}
  5449. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5450. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5451. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5452. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5453. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5454. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5455. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5456. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5457. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5458. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5459. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5460. @r{Relative times like @code{"<-2w>"} can also be used. See}
  5461. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for relative time syntax.}
  5462. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5463. @r{Relative times like @code{"<now>"} can also be used. See}
  5464. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for relative time syntax.}
  5465. :wstart @r{The starting day of the week. The default is 1 for monday.}
  5466. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5467. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5468. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5469. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5470. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5471. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5472. @end example
  5473. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5474. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5475. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5476. @example
  5477. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5478. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5479. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5480. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5481. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5482. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5483. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5484. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5485. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5486. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5487. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5488. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5489. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5490. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5491. :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each}
  5492. @r{property will get its own column.}
  5493. :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.}
  5494. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5495. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5496. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5497. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5498. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5499. @end example
  5500. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5501. day, you could write
  5502. @example
  5503. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5504. #+END: clocktable
  5505. @end example
  5506. @noindent
  5507. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5508. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5509. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5510. @example
  5511. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5512. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5513. #+END: clocktable
  5514. @end example
  5515. A range starting a week ago and ending right now could be written as
  5516. @example
  5517. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<-1w>" :tend "<now>"
  5518. #+END: clocktable
  5519. @end example
  5520. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5521. @example
  5522. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5523. #+END: clocktable
  5524. @end example
  5525. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5526. would be
  5527. @example
  5528. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5529. #+END: clocktable
  5530. @end example
  5531. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5532. @subsection Resolving idle time and continuous clocking
  5533. @subsubheading Resolving idle time
  5534. @cindex resolve idle time
  5535. @vindex org-clock-x11idle-program-name
  5536. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5537. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5538. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5539. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5540. applying it to another one.
  5541. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5542. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5543. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5544. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5545. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5546. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5547. @code{contrib/scripts} directory of the Org git distribution, or install the
  5548. @file{xprintidle} package and set it to the variable
  5549. @code{org-clock-x11idle-program-name} if you are running Debian, to get the
  5550. same general treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to
  5551. Emacs idle time only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time.
  5552. There will be a question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how
  5553. much idle time has passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as
  5554. well as a set of choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5555. @table @kbd
  5556. @item k
  5557. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5558. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5559. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5560. @item K
  5561. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5562. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5563. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5564. @item s
  5565. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5566. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5567. @item S
  5568. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5569. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5570. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5571. @item C
  5572. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5573. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5574. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5575. log with an empty entry.
  5576. @end table
  5577. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5578. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5579. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5580. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5581. the next task you clock in on.
  5582. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5583. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5584. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5585. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5586. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5587. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5588. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5589. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5590. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5591. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due
  5592. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5593. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5594. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks RET} (or @kbd{C-c C-x C-z}).
  5595. @subsubheading Continuous clocking
  5596. @cindex continuous clocking
  5597. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5598. You may want to start clocking from the time when you clocked out the
  5599. previous task. To enable this systematically, set @code{org-clock-continuously}
  5600. to @code{t}. Each time you clock in, Org retrieves the clock-out time of the
  5601. last clocked entry for this session, and start the new clock from there.
  5602. If you only want this from time to time, use three universal prefix arguments
  5603. with @code{org-clock-in} and two @kbd{C-u C-u} with @code{org-clock-in-last}.
  5604. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5605. @section Effort estimates
  5606. @cindex effort estimates
  5607. @cindex property, Effort
  5608. @vindex org-effort-property
  5609. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5610. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5611. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5612. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5613. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5614. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5615. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5616. for an entry with the following commands:
  5617. @table @kbd
  5618. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5619. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5620. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5621. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5622. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5623. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5624. @end table
  5625. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5626. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5627. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5628. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5629. buffer you can use
  5630. @example
  5631. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
  5632. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5633. @end example
  5634. @noindent
  5635. @vindex org-global-properties
  5636. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5637. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5638. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5639. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5640. setup may be advised.
  5641. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5642. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5643. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5644. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5645. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5646. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5647. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5648. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5649. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5650. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5651. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5652. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5653. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5654. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5655. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5656. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5657. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5658. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5659. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5660. @cindex relative timer
  5661. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5662. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5663. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5664. @table @kbd
  5665. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5666. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5667. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5668. restarted.
  5669. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5670. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5671. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5672. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5673. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5674. new timer items.
  5675. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5676. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5677. @item C-c C-x ,
  5678. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5679. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5680. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5681. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5682. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5683. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5684. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5685. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5686. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5687. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5688. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5689. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5690. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5691. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5692. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5693. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5694. @end table
  5695. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5696. @section Countdown timer
  5697. @cindex Countdown timer
  5698. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5699. @kindex ;
  5700. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org mode buffer runs a countdown
  5701. timer. Use @kbd{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everywhere else.
  5702. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5703. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5704. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5705. default value.
  5706. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5707. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5708. @cindex capture
  5709. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5710. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5711. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5712. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5713. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5714. tre