org.texi 627 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @set VERSION 7.5
  6. @set DATE March 2011
  7. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  8. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  9. @set txicodequoteundirected
  10. @set txicodequotebacktick
  11. @c Version and Contact Info
  12. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  13. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  15. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  16. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  20. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  21. @c =======================================
  22. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  23. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  24. @set cmdnames
  25. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  26. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  27. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  28. @c xorgcmd{key,cmmand} Key with command name as @itemx
  29. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  30. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  31. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  32. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  33. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  34. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  35. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  36. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  37. @c a key but no command
  38. @c Inserts: @item key
  39. @macro orgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @item @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @macro xorgkey{key}
  44. @kindex \key\
  45. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  46. @end macro
  47. @c one key with a command
  48. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  49. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  50. @ifset cmdnames
  51. @kindex \key\
  52. @findex \command\
  53. @iftex
  54. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  55. @end iftex
  56. @ifnottex
  57. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  58. @end ifnottex
  59. @end ifset
  60. @ifclear cmdnames
  61. @kindex \key\
  62. @item @kbd{\key\}
  63. @end ifclear
  64. @end macro
  65. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  66. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  67. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  68. @ifset cmdnames
  69. @kindex \key\
  70. @findex \command\
  71. @iftex
  72. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  73. @end iftex
  74. @ifnottex
  75. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  76. @end ifnottex
  77. @end ifset
  78. @ifclear cmdnames
  79. @kindex \key\
  80. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  81. @end ifclear
  82. @end macro
  83. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  84. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  85. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  86. @ifset cmdnames
  87. @findex \command\
  88. @iftex
  89. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  90. @end iftex
  91. @ifnottex
  92. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  93. @end ifnottex
  94. @end ifset
  95. @ifclear cmdnames
  96. @item @kbd{\key\}
  97. @end ifclear
  98. @end macro
  99. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  100. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  101. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  102. @ifset cmdnames
  103. @kindex \key\
  104. @findex \command\
  105. @iftex
  106. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  107. @end iftex
  108. @ifnottex
  109. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  110. @end ifnottex
  111. @end ifset
  112. @ifclear cmdnames
  113. @kindex \key\
  114. @item @kbd{\text\}
  115. @end ifclear
  116. @end macro
  117. @c two keys with one command
  118. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  119. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  120. @ifset cmdnames
  121. @kindex \key1\
  122. @kindex \key2\
  123. @findex \command\
  124. @iftex
  125. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  126. @end iftex
  127. @ifnottex
  128. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  129. @end ifnottex
  130. @end ifset
  131. @ifclear cmdnames
  132. @kindex \key1\
  133. @kindex \key2\
  134. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  135. @end ifclear
  136. @end macro
  137. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  138. @c @itemx
  139. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  140. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  141. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  142. @ifset cmdnames
  143. @kindex \key1\
  144. @kindex \key2\
  145. @findex \command\
  146. @iftex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  149. @end iftex
  150. @ifnottex
  151. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  152. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  153. @end ifnottex
  154. @end ifset
  155. @ifclear cmdnames
  156. @kindex \key1\
  157. @kindex \key2\
  158. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  159. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  160. @end ifclear
  161. @end macro
  162. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  163. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  164. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  165. @ifset cmdnames
  166. @kindex \key1\
  167. @kindex \key2\
  168. @findex \command\
  169. @iftex
  170. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  171. @end iftex
  172. @ifnottex
  173. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  174. @end ifnottex
  175. @end ifset
  176. @ifclear cmdnames
  177. @kindex \key1\
  178. @kindex \key2\
  179. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  180. @end ifclear
  181. @end macro
  182. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  183. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  184. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  185. @ifset cmdnames
  186. @kindex \key1\
  187. @kindex \key2\
  188. @findex \command\
  189. @iftex
  190. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  191. @end iftex
  192. @ifnottex
  193. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  194. @end ifnottex
  195. @end ifset
  196. @ifclear cmdnames
  197. @kindex \key1\
  198. @kindex \key2\
  199. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  200. @end ifclear
  201. @end macro
  202. @c two keys with two commands
  203. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  204. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  205. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  206. @ifset cmdnames
  207. @kindex \key1\
  208. @kindex \key2\
  209. @findex \command1\
  210. @findex \command2\
  211. @iftex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  214. @end iftex
  215. @ifnottex
  216. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  217. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  218. @end ifnottex
  219. @end ifset
  220. @ifclear cmdnames
  221. @kindex \key1\
  222. @kindex \key2\
  223. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  224. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  225. @end ifclear
  226. @end macro
  227. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  228. @iftex
  229. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  230. @end iftex
  231. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  232. @macro tsubheading{text}
  233. @ifinfo
  234. @subsubheading \text\
  235. @end ifinfo
  236. @ifnotinfo
  237. @item @b{\text\}
  238. @end ifnotinfo
  239. @end macro
  240. @copying
  241. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  242. Copyright @copyright{} 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  243. Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  244. @quotation
  245. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  246. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  247. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  248. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  249. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  250. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  251. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  252. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  253. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  254. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  255. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  256. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  257. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  258. @end quotation
  259. @end copying
  260. @dircategory Emacs
  261. @direntry
  262. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  263. @end direntry
  264. @titlepage
  265. @title The Org Manual
  266. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  267. @author by Carsten Dominik
  268. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, and Thomas Dye
  269. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  270. @page
  271. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  272. @insertcopying
  273. @end titlepage
  274. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  275. @contents
  276. @ifnottex
  277. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  278. @top Org Mode Manual
  279. @insertcopying
  280. @end ifnottex
  281. @menu
  282. * Introduction:: Getting started
  283. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  284. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  285. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  286. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  287. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  288. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  289. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  290. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  291. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  292. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  293. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  294. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  295. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  296. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  297. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  298. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  299. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  300. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  301. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  302. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  303. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  304. @detailmenu
  305. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  306. Introduction
  307. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  308. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  309. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  310. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  311. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  312. Document structure
  313. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  314. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  315. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  316. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  317. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  318. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  319. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  320. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  321. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  322. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  323. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  324. Tables
  325. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  326. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  327. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  328. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  329. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  330. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  331. The spreadsheet
  332. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  333. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  334. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  335. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  336. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  337. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  338. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  339. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  340. Hyperlinks
  341. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  342. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  343. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  344. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  345. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  346. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  347. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  348. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  349. Internal links
  350. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  351. TODO items
  352. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  353. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  354. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  355. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  356. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  357. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  358. Extended use of TODO keywords
  359. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  360. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  361. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  362. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  363. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  364. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  365. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  366. Progress logging
  367. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  368. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  369. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  370. Tags
  371. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  372. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  373. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  374. Properties and columns
  375. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  376. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  377. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  378. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  379. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  380. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  381. Column view
  382. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  383. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  384. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  385. Defining columns
  386. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  387. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  388. Dates and times
  389. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  390. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  391. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  392. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  393. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  394. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  395. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  396. Creating timestamps
  397. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  398. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  399. Deadlines and scheduling
  400. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  401. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  402. Clocking work time
  403. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  404. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  405. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  406. Capture - Refile - Archive
  407. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  408. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  409. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  410. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  411. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  412. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  413. Capture
  414. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  415. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  416. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  417. Capture templates
  418. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  419. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  420. Archiving
  421. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  422. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  423. Agenda views
  424. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  425. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  426. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  427. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  428. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  429. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  430. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  431. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  432. The built-in agenda views
  433. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  434. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  435. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  436. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  437. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  438. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  439. Presentation and sorting
  440. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  441. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  442. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  443. Custom agenda views
  444. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  445. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  446. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  447. Markup for rich export
  448. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  449. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  450. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  451. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  452. * Index entries:: Making an index
  453. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  454. * Embedded LaTeX:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  455. Structural markup elements
  456. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  457. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  458. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  459. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  460. * Lists:: Lists
  461. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  462. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  463. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  464. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  465. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  466. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  467. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  468. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  469. * LaTeX fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  470. * Previewing LaTeX fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  471. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  472. Exporting
  473. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  474. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  475. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  476. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  477. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  478. * LaTeX and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  479. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  480. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  481. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  482. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  483. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  484. HTML export
  485. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  486. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  487. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org-mode
  488. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  489. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  490. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  491. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  492. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  493. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  494. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  495. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  496. * LaTeX/PDF export commands:: Which key invokes which commands
  497. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  498. * Quoting LaTeX code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  499. * Tables in LaTeX export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  500. * Images in LaTeX export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  501. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  502. DocBook export
  503. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  504. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  505. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  506. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  507. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  508. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  509. Publishing
  510. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  511. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  512. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  513. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  514. Configuration
  515. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  516. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  517. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  518. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  519. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  520. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  521. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  522. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  523. Sample configuration
  524. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  525. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  526. Working with source code
  527. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  528. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  529. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  530. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  531. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org-mode buffer
  532. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  533. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  534. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  535. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  536. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org-mode
  537. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  538. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  539. Header arguments
  540. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  541. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  542. Using header arguments
  543. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  544. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  545. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  546. * Header arguments in Org-mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  547. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  548. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  549. Specific header arguments
  550. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  551. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  552. be collected and handled
  553. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  554. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  555. directory for code block execution
  556. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  557. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  558. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  559. files during tangling
  560. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  561. code files
  562. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  563. code files
  564. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  565. expansion during tangling
  566. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  567. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  568. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  569. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  570. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  571. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  572. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  573. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  574. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  575. Miscellaneous
  576. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  577. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  578. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  579. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  580. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  581. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  582. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  583. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  584. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  585. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  586. Interaction with other packages
  587. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  588. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  589. Hacking
  590. * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals
  591. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  592. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  593. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  594. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  595. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  596. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  597. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  598. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  599. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  600. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  601. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  602. * A LaTeX example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  603. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  604. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  605. MobileOrg
  606. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  607. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  608. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  609. @end detailmenu
  610. @end menu
  611. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  612. @chapter Introduction
  613. @cindex introduction
  614. @menu
  615. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  616. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  617. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  618. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  619. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  620. @end menu
  621. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  622. @section Summary
  623. @cindex summary
  624. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  625. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  626. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  627. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  628. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  629. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  630. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  631. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  632. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  633. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  634. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  635. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  636. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  637. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  638. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  639. linked web pages.
  640. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  641. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  642. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  643. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  644. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  645. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  646. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  647. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  648. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  649. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  650. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  651. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  652. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  653. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  654. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  655. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  656. ends, for example:
  657. @example
  658. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  659. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  660. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  661. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  662. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  663. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  664. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  665. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  666. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  667. @end example
  668. @cindex FAQ
  669. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  670. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  671. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  672. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  673. @cindex print edition
  674. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  675. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  676. Theory Ltd.}
  677. @page
  678. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  679. @section Installation
  680. @cindex installation
  681. @cindex XEmacs
  682. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  683. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  684. to @ref{Activation}. To see what version of Org (if any) is part of your
  685. Emacs distribution, type @kbd{M-x load-library RET org} and then @kbd{M-x
  686. org-version}.}
  687. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  688. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
  689. to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
  690. top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs
  691. binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
  692. directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have
  693. access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
  694. the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
  695. Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  696. @example
  697. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  698. @end example
  699. @noindent
  700. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  701. step for this directory:
  702. @example
  703. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  704. @end example
  705. @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
  706. @example
  707. make
  708. @end example
  709. @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
  710. all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
  711. administrator)
  712. @example
  713. make install
  714. @end example
  715. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  716. @file{install-info} program. In Debian it copies the info files into the
  717. correct directory and modifies the info directory file. In many other
  718. systems, the files need to be copied to the correct directory separately, and
  719. @file{install-info} then only modifies the directory file. Check your system
  720. documentation to find out which of the following commands you need:
  721. @example
  722. make install-info
  723. make install-info-debian
  724. @end example
  725. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  726. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  727. when Org-mode starts.
  728. @lisp
  729. (require 'org-install)
  730. @end lisp
  731. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  732. @page
  733. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  734. @section Activation
  735. @cindex activation
  736. @cindex autoload
  737. @cindex global key bindings
  738. @cindex key bindings, global
  739. To make sure files with extension @file{.org} use Org mode, add the following
  740. line to your @file{.emacs} file.
  741. @lisp
  742. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  743. @end lisp
  744. @noindent Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on - this is the
  745. default in Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in
  746. Org buffer with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  747. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  748. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  749. global keys (i.e.@: anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  750. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  751. liking.
  752. @lisp
  753. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  754. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  755. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  756. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  757. @end lisp
  758. @cindex Org-mode, turning on
  759. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  760. into Org-mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  761. like this:
  762. @example
  763. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  764. @end example
  765. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  766. @noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what
  767. the file's name is. See also the variable
  768. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  769. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  770. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  771. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  772. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  773. @lisp
  774. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  775. @end lisp
  776. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  777. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  778. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  779. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  780. @section Feedback
  781. @cindex feedback
  782. @cindex bug reports
  783. @cindex maintainer
  784. @cindex author
  785. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  786. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  787. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  788. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  789. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  790. moderators have to do.}.
  791. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  792. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  793. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  794. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  795. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  796. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  797. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  798. @example
  799. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  800. @end example
  801. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  802. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  803. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  804. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  805. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  806. about:
  807. @enumerate
  808. @item What exactly did you do?
  809. @item What did you expect to happen?
  810. @item What happened instead?
  811. @end enumerate
  812. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  813. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  814. @cindex backtrace of an error
  815. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  816. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  817. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  818. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  819. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  820. @enumerate
  821. @item
  822. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org-mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  823. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  824. To do this, use
  825. @example
  826. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  827. @end example
  828. @noindent
  829. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  830. menu.
  831. @item
  832. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  833. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  834. @item
  835. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  836. document the steps you take.
  837. @item
  838. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  839. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  840. attach it to your bug report.
  841. @end enumerate
  842. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  843. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  844. Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
  845. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  846. @table @code
  847. @item TODO
  848. @itemx WAITING
  849. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  850. user-defined.
  851. @item boss
  852. @itemx ARCHIVE
  853. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  854. meaning are written with all capitals.
  855. @item Release
  856. @itemx PRIORITY
  857. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  858. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  859. @end table
  860. The manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for accessing
  861. functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different functions,
  862. depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has a generic
  863. name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever possible,
  864. give the function that is internally called by the generic command. For
  865. example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will be
  866. listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it will
  867. be listed to call org-table-move-column-right.
  868. If you prefer, you can compile the manual without the command names by
  869. unsetting the flag @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  870. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  871. @chapter Document structure
  872. @cindex document structure
  873. @cindex structure of document
  874. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  875. edit the structure of the document.
  876. @menu
  877. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  878. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  879. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  880. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  881. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  882. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  883. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  884. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  885. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  886. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  887. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  888. @end menu
  889. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  890. @section Outlines
  891. @cindex outlines
  892. @cindex Outline mode
  893. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  894. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  895. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  896. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  897. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  898. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  899. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  900. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  901. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  902. @section Headlines
  903. @cindex headlines
  904. @cindex outline tree
  905. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  906. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  907. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  908. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  909. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  910. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  911. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  912. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.}. For example:
  913. @example
  914. * Top level headline
  915. ** Second level
  916. *** 3rd level
  917. some text
  918. *** 3rd level
  919. more text
  920. * Another top level headline
  921. @end example
  922. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  923. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  924. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  925. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  926. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  927. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  928. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  929. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  930. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  931. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  932. @section Visibility cycling
  933. @cindex cycling, visibility
  934. @cindex visibility cycling
  935. @cindex trees, visibility
  936. @cindex show hidden text
  937. @cindex hide text
  938. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  939. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  940. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  941. @cindex subtree visibility states
  942. @cindex subtree cycling
  943. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  944. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  945. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  946. @table @asis
  947. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  948. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  949. @example
  950. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  951. '-----------------------------------'
  952. @end example
  953. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  954. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  955. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  956. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  957. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  958. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  959. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  960. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  961. @cindex global visibility states
  962. @cindex global cycling
  963. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  964. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  965. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  966. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  967. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  968. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  969. @example
  970. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  971. '--------------------------------------'
  972. @end example
  973. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  974. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  975. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  976. @cindex show all, command
  977. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  978. Show all, including drawers.
  979. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  980. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  981. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  982. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  983. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  984. level, all sibling headings. With double prefix arg, also show the entire
  985. subtree of the parent.
  986. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  987. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  988. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  989. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  990. buffer
  991. @ifinfo
  992. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  993. @end ifinfo
  994. @ifnotinfo
  995. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  996. @end ifnotinfo
  997. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  998. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  999. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1000. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1001. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1002. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1003. @end table
  1004. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1005. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1006. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1007. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1008. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1009. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1010. OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1011. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1012. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1013. buffer:
  1014. @example
  1015. #+STARTUP: overview
  1016. #+STARTUP: content
  1017. #+STARTUP: showall
  1018. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1019. @end example
  1020. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1021. @noindent
  1022. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1023. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1024. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1025. @code{all}.
  1026. @table @asis
  1027. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1028. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.@: whatever is
  1029. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1030. entries.
  1031. @end table
  1032. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1033. @section Motion
  1034. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1035. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1036. @cindex headline navigation
  1037. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1038. @table @asis
  1039. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1040. Next heading.
  1041. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1042. Previous heading.
  1043. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1044. Next heading same level.
  1045. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1046. Previous heading same level.
  1047. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1048. Backward to higher level heading.
  1049. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1050. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1051. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1052. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1053. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1054. @example
  1055. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1056. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1057. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1058. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1059. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1060. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1061. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1062. u @r{One level up.}
  1063. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1064. q @r{Quit}
  1065. @end example
  1066. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1067. @noindent
  1068. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1069. @end table
  1070. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1071. @section Structure editing
  1072. @cindex structure editing
  1073. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1074. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1075. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1076. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1077. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1078. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1079. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1080. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1081. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1082. @table @asis
  1083. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1084. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1085. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1086. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1087. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1088. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1089. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1090. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1091. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1092. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1093. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.@:
  1094. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1095. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1096. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1097. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1098. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1099. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1100. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1101. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1102. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1103. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1104. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1105. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1106. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1107. subtree.
  1108. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1109. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1110. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1111. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1112. to the initial level.
  1113. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1114. Promote current heading by one level.
  1115. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1116. Demote current heading by one level.
  1117. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1118. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1119. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1120. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1121. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1122. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1123. level).
  1124. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1125. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1126. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1127. Kill subtree, i.e.@: remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1128. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1129. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1130. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1131. sequential subtrees.
  1132. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1133. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1134. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1135. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1136. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1137. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1138. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1139. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1140. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1141. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1142. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1143. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1144. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1145. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1146. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1147. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1148. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1149. folding.
  1150. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1151. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1152. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1153. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1154. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1155. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1156. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1157. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1158. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  1159. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort-entries-or-items}
  1160. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1161. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1162. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1163. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1164. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1165. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1166. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1167. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1168. sorting will be case-sensitive. With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, duplicate
  1169. entries will also be removed.
  1170. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1171. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1172. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1173. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1174. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1175. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1176. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1177. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1178. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1179. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1180. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1181. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1182. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1183. @end table
  1184. @cindex region, active
  1185. @cindex active region
  1186. @cindex transient mark mode
  1187. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1188. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1189. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1190. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1191. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1192. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1193. functionality.
  1194. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1195. @section Sparse trees
  1196. @cindex sparse trees
  1197. @cindex trees, sparse
  1198. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1199. @cindex occur, command
  1200. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1201. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1202. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1203. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1204. An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1205. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1206. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1207. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1208. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1209. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1210. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1211. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1212. Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1213. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1214. @table @asis
  1215. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1216. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1217. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1218. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1219. Occur. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1220. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1221. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1222. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1223. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1224. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1225. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1226. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1227. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1228. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1229. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1230. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1231. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1232. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1233. @end table
  1234. @noindent
  1235. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1236. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1237. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1238. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1239. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1240. For example:
  1241. @lisp
  1242. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1243. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1244. @end lisp
  1245. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1246. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1247. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1248. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1249. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1250. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1251. @cindex visible text, printing
  1252. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1253. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1254. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1255. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1256. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1257. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1258. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1259. @section Plain lists
  1260. @cindex plain lists
  1261. @cindex lists, plain
  1262. @cindex lists, ordered
  1263. @cindex ordered lists
  1264. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1265. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1266. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1267. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1268. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1269. @itemize @bullet
  1270. @item
  1271. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1272. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1273. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1274. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1275. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1276. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1277. bullets.
  1278. @item
  1279. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1280. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1281. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1282. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1283. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1284. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1285. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1286. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1287. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1288. list to start with a different value (e.g.@: 20), start the text of the item
  1289. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1290. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1291. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1292. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1293. @item
  1294. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1295. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1296. description.
  1297. @end itemize
  1298. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1299. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1300. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1301. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1302. than its bullet/number.
  1303. @vindex org-list-ending-method
  1304. @vindex org-list-end-regexp
  1305. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1306. Two methods@footnote{To disable either of them, configure
  1307. @code{org-list-ending-method}.} are provided to terminate lists. A list ends
  1308. whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less or equally
  1309. indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1310. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1311. that case, all items are closed. For finer control, you can end lists with
  1312. any pattern set in @code{org-list-end-regexp}. Here is an example:
  1313. @example
  1314. @group
  1315. ** Lord of the Rings
  1316. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1317. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1318. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1319. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1320. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1321. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1322. - on DVD only
  1323. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1324. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1325. Important actors in this film are:
  1326. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1327. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1328. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1329. @end group
  1330. @end example
  1331. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1332. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1333. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1334. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1335. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1336. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1337. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1338. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1339. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1340. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1341. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}.
  1342. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1343. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1344. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1345. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1346. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1347. to disable them individually.
  1348. @table @asis
  1349. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1350. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1351. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1352. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1353. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1354. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1355. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the
  1356. indentation of the bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real
  1357. headlines, however; the hierarchies remain completely separated.
  1358. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1359. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1360. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1361. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1362. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1363. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1364. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1365. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1366. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1367. one.
  1368. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1369. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1370. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1371. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1372. In a new item with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the item to
  1373. become a child of the previous one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to
  1374. meaningful levels in the list and eventually get it back to its initial
  1375. position.
  1376. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1377. @item S-@key{up}
  1378. @itemx S-@key{down}
  1379. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1380. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1381. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list, but only if
  1382. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1383. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1384. similar effect.
  1385. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  1386. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  1387. @item M-S-@key{up}
  1388. @itemx M-S-@key{down}
  1389. Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item
  1390. of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering is
  1391. automatic.
  1392. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1393. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1394. @item M-@key{left}
  1395. @itemx M-@key{right}
  1396. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1397. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1398. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1399. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1400. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1401. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1402. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1403. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1404. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1405. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1406. motion or so.
  1407. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1408. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1409. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1410. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1411. @kindex C-c C-c
  1412. @item C-c C-c
  1413. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1414. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1415. consistency in the whole list.
  1416. @kindex C-c -
  1417. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1418. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1419. @item C-c -
  1420. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1421. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1422. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1423. and its position@footnote{See @code{bullet} rule in
  1424. @code{org-list-automatic-rules} for more information.}. With a numeric
  1425. prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an
  1426. active region when calling this, selected text will be changed into an item.
  1427. With a prefix argument, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1428. first line already was a list item, any item marker will be removed from the
  1429. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1430. converted into a list item.
  1431. @kindex C-c *
  1432. @item C-c *
  1433. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1434. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1435. @kindex C-c C-*
  1436. @item C-c C-*
  1437. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1438. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1439. (resp. checked).
  1440. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1441. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1442. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  1443. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1444. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1445. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1446. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1447. @kindex C-c ^
  1448. @item C-c ^
  1449. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1450. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1451. @end table
  1452. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1453. @section Drawers
  1454. @cindex drawers
  1455. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1456. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1457. @vindex org-drawers
  1458. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1459. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org-mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1460. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1461. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
  1462. with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}. Drawers
  1463. look like this:
  1464. @example
  1465. ** This is a headline
  1466. Still outside the drawer
  1467. :DRAWERNAME:
  1468. This is inside the drawer.
  1469. :END:
  1470. After the drawer.
  1471. @end example
  1472. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1473. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1474. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1475. press @key{TAB} there. Org-mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1476. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1477. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1478. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1479. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1480. @table @kbd
  1481. @kindex C-c C-z
  1482. @item C-c C-z
  1483. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1484. @end table
  1485. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1486. @section Blocks
  1487. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1488. @cindex blocks, folding
  1489. Org-mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1490. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1491. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1492. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1493. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1494. or on a per-file basis by using
  1495. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1496. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1497. @example
  1498. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1499. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1500. @end example
  1501. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1502. @section Footnotes
  1503. @cindex footnotes
  1504. Org-mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1505. @file{footnote.el} package, Org-mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1506. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1507. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e.@: a footnote is
  1508. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1509. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1510. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1511. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1512. @example
  1513. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1514. ...
  1515. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1516. @end example
  1517. Org-mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1518. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1519. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1520. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1521. LaTeX}). Here are the valid references:
  1522. @table @code
  1523. @item [1]
  1524. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1525. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1526. snippet.
  1527. @item [fn:name]
  1528. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1529. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1530. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1531. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1532. reference point.
  1533. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1534. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1535. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1536. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1537. @end table
  1538. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1539. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1540. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1541. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1542. for details.
  1543. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1544. @table @kbd
  1545. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1546. @item C-c C-x f
  1547. The footnote action command.
  1548. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1549. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1550. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1551. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1552. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1553. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1554. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1555. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1556. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1557. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1558. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1559. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1560. options is offered:
  1561. @example
  1562. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1563. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1564. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1565. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1566. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1567. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1568. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1569. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1570. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1571. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1572. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1573. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1574. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1575. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g.@: sending}
  1576. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1577. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1578. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1579. @r{to it.}
  1580. @end example
  1581. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1582. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1583. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1584. deletion.
  1585. @kindex C-c C-c
  1586. @item C-c C-c
  1587. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1588. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1589. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1590. @kindex C-c C-o
  1591. @kindex mouse-1
  1592. @kindex mouse-2
  1593. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1594. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1595. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1596. @end table
  1597. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1598. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1599. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1600. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1601. If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode structure editing and list
  1602. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1603. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1604. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1605. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1606. @lisp
  1607. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1608. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1609. @end lisp
  1610. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1611. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1612. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1613. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1614. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1615. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1616. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1617. item.
  1618. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1619. @chapter Tables
  1620. @cindex tables
  1621. @cindex editing tables
  1622. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1623. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1624. @ifinfo
  1625. (@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1626. @end ifinfo
  1627. @ifnotinfo
  1628. (see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
  1629. calculator).
  1630. @end ifnotinfo
  1631. @menu
  1632. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1633. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1634. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1635. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1636. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1637. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1638. @end menu
  1639. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1640. @section The built-in table editor
  1641. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1642. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1643. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1644. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1645. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1646. might look like this:
  1647. @example
  1648. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1649. |-------+-------+-----|
  1650. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1651. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1652. @end example
  1653. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1654. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1655. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1656. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1657. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1658. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1659. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1660. create the above table, you would only type
  1661. @example
  1662. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1663. |-
  1664. @end example
  1665. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1666. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1667. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1668. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1669. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1670. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1671. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1672. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1673. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1674. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1675. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1676. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1677. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1678. @table @kbd
  1679. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1680. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1681. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1682. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1683. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1684. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1685. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1686. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1687. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1688. @*
  1689. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1690. table. But it's easier just to start typing, like
  1691. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1692. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1693. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1694. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1695. @c
  1696. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1697. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1698. necessary.
  1699. @c
  1700. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1701. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1702. @c
  1703. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1704. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1705. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1706. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1707. @c
  1708. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1709. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1710. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1711. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1712. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1713. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1714. Move the current column left/right.
  1715. @c
  1716. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1717. Kill the current column.
  1718. @c
  1719. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1720. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1721. @c
  1722. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1723. Move the current row up/down.
  1724. @c
  1725. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1726. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1727. @c
  1728. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1729. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1730. created below the current one.
  1731. @c
  1732. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1733. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1734. is created above the current line.
  1735. @c
  1736. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1737. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1738. below that line.
  1739. @c
  1740. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1741. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1742. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1743. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1744. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1745. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1746. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1747. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1748. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1749. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1750. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1751. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1752. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1753. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1754. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1755. @c
  1756. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1757. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1758. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1759. @c
  1760. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1761. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1762. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1763. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1764. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1765. lines.
  1766. @c
  1767. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1768. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1769. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1770. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1771. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1772. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1773. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1774. above.
  1775. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1776. @cindex formula, in tables
  1777. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1778. @cindex region, active
  1779. @cindex active region
  1780. @cindex transient mark mode
  1781. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1782. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1783. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1784. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1785. @c
  1786. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1787. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1788. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1789. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1790. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1791. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1792. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1793. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1794. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1795. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1796. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1797. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1798. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1799. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1800. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1801. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1802. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1803. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1804. @c
  1805. @item M-x org-table-import
  1806. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1807. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1808. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1809. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1810. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1811. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1812. separator.
  1813. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1814. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1815. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1816. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1817. @c
  1818. @item M-x org-table-export
  1819. @findex org-table-export
  1820. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1821. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1822. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1823. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1824. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1825. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1826. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1827. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1828. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1829. detailed description.
  1830. @end table
  1831. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1832. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1833. it off with
  1834. @lisp
  1835. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1836. @end lisp
  1837. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1838. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1839. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1840. @section Column width and alignment
  1841. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1842. @cindex alignment in tables
  1843. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1844. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1845. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1846. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1847. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1848. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1849. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1850. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1851. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1852. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1853. @example
  1854. @group
  1855. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1856. | | | | | <6> |
  1857. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1858. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1859. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1860. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1861. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1862. @end group
  1863. @end example
  1864. @noindent
  1865. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1866. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1867. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1868. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1869. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1870. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1871. C-c}.
  1872. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1873. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1874. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1875. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1876. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1877. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1878. on a per-file basis with:
  1879. @example
  1880. #+STARTUP: align
  1881. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1882. @end example
  1883. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1884. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  1885. @samp{c}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1886. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  1887. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1888. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1889. automatically when exporting the document.
  1890. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1891. @section Column groups
  1892. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1893. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1894. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1895. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1896. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1897. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1898. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1899. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1900. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} to make a column
  1901. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1902. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1903. @example
  1904. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1905. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1906. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1907. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1908. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1909. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1910. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1911. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1912. @end example
  1913. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1914. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1915. @example
  1916. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1917. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1918. | / | < | | | < | |
  1919. @end example
  1920. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  1921. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  1922. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1923. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1924. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  1925. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  1926. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  1927. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1928. example in Message mode, use
  1929. @lisp
  1930. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1931. @end lisp
  1932. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  1933. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  1934. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  1935. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  1936. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  1937. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  1938. @section The spreadsheet
  1939. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1940. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  1941. @cindex @file{calc} package
  1942. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  1943. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  1944. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  1945. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  1946. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  1947. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  1948. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  1949. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  1950. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  1951. @menu
  1952. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  1953. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  1954. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  1955. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  1956. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  1957. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  1958. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  1959. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  1960. @end menu
  1961. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  1962. @subsection References
  1963. @cindex references
  1964. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  1965. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  1966. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  1967. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  1968. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  1969. @subsubheading Field references
  1970. @cindex field references
  1971. @cindex references, to fields
  1972. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  1973. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  1974. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  1975. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  1976. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  1977. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  1978. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  1979. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  1980. representation that looks like this:
  1981. @example
  1982. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  1983. @end example
  1984. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  1985. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e.@: the
  1986. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  1987. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  1988. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  1989. column from the right.
  1990. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  1991. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  1992. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  1993. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  1994. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  1995. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  1996. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  1997. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  1998. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  1999. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2000. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc@. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2001. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2002. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2003. after the third hline in the table.
  2004. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2005. i.e. to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2006. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2007. implied.
  2008. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2009. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2010. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2011. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2012. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2013. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2014. Here are a few examples:
  2015. @example
  2016. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2017. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2018. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2019. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2020. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2021. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2022. @end example
  2023. @subsubheading Range references
  2024. @cindex range references
  2025. @cindex references, to ranges
  2026. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2027. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2028. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2029. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2030. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2031. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2032. @example
  2033. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2034. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2035. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2036. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2037. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2038. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2039. @end example
  2040. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2041. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2042. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2043. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2044. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2045. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2046. @cindex field coordinates
  2047. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2048. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2049. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2050. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2051. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2052. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2053. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2054. @example
  2055. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2056. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2057. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2058. @end example
  2059. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2060. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2061. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2062. number of rows.
  2063. @subsubheading Named references
  2064. @cindex named references
  2065. @cindex references, named
  2066. @cindex name, of column or field
  2067. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2068. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2069. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2070. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2071. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2072. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2073. line like
  2074. @example
  2075. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2076. @end example
  2077. @noindent
  2078. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2079. @pindex constants.el
  2080. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2081. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2082. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2083. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2084. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2085. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2086. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2087. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2088. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2089. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2090. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2091. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2092. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2093. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2094. numbers.
  2095. @subsubheading Remote references
  2096. @cindex remote references
  2097. @cindex references, remote
  2098. @cindex references, to a different table
  2099. @cindex name, of column or field
  2100. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2101. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2102. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2103. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2104. @example
  2105. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2106. @end example
  2107. @noindent
  2108. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2109. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2110. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2111. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2112. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2113. referenced table.
  2114. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2115. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2116. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2117. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2118. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2119. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2120. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2121. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2122. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2123. Your Programs,calc-eval,Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs,Calc,GNU
  2124. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2125. @c FIXME: The link to the Calc manual in HTML does not work.
  2126. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2127. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2128. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2129. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2130. @cindex format specifier
  2131. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2132. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2133. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2134. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2135. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2136. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2137. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2138. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2139. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2140. @example
  2141. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2142. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2143. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2144. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2145. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2146. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2147. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2148. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  2149. T @r{force text interpretation}
  2150. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  2151. L @r{literal}
  2152. @end example
  2153. @noindent
  2154. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2155. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2156. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2157. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2158. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2159. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2160. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2161. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2162. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2163. A few examples:
  2164. @example
  2165. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2166. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2167. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2168. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2169. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2170. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2171. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2172. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2173. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  2174. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2175. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2176. @end example
  2177. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2178. @example
  2179. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{"teen" if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  2180. @end example
  2181. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2182. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2183. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2184. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful for
  2185. string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is not
  2186. enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening
  2187. parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should
  2188. return either a string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you
  2189. can specify modes and a printf format after a semicolon. With Emacs Lisp
  2190. forms, you need to be conscious about the way field references are
  2191. interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be interpolated as
  2192. a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If you provide the
  2193. @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers (non-number
  2194. fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If
  2195. you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally,
  2196. without quotes. i.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string
  2197. by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes,
  2198. like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  2199. embed them in list or vector syntax. Here are a few examples---note how the
  2200. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp:
  2201. @example
  2202. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2203. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2204. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2205. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2206. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2207. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2208. @end example
  2209. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2210. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2211. @cindex field formula
  2212. @cindex range formula
  2213. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2214. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2215. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2216. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2217. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2218. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2219. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2220. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2221. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2222. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2223. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2224. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2225. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2226. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2227. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2228. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2229. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2230. of cause not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2231. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2232. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2233. command
  2234. @table @kbd
  2235. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2236. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2237. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2238. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2239. @end table
  2240. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2241. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2242. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2243. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2244. directly.
  2245. @table @code
  2246. @item $2=
  2247. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2248. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2249. @item @@3=
  2250. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2251. the last row.
  2252. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2253. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2254. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2255. @item $name=
  2256. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2257. @end table
  2258. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2259. @subsection Column formulas
  2260. @cindex column formula
  2261. @cindex formula, for table column
  2262. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2263. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2264. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2265. hlines, everything before the first such line is considered part of the table
  2266. @emph{header} and will not be modified by column formulas. (ii) Fields that
  2267. already get a value from a field/range formula will be left alone by column
  2268. formulas. These conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2269. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2270. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2271. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2272. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2273. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2274. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2275. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2276. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2277. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2278. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2279. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2280. following command:
  2281. @table @kbd
  2282. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2283. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2284. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2285. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2286. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g.@: @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2287. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2288. @end table
  2289. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2290. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2291. @cindex formula editing
  2292. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2293. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2294. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2295. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2296. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2297. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2298. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2299. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2300. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2301. @table @kbd
  2302. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2303. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2304. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2305. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2306. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2307. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2308. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2309. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2310. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2311. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2312. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2313. @kindex C-c @}
  2314. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2315. @item C-c @}
  2316. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2317. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2318. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2319. @kindex C-c @{
  2320. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2321. @item C-c @{
  2322. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2323. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2324. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2325. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2326. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2327. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2328. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2329. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2330. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2331. @table @kbd
  2332. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2333. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2334. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2335. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2336. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2337. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2338. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2339. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2340. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2341. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2342. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2343. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2344. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2345. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2346. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2347. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2348. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2349. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2350. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2351. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2352. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2353. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2354. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2355. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2356. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2357. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2358. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2359. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2360. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2361. down.
  2362. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2363. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2364. @kindex C-c @}
  2365. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2366. @item C-c @}
  2367. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2368. @end table
  2369. @end table
  2370. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2371. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2372. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2373. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2374. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2375. @kindex C-c C-c
  2376. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2377. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2378. recalculation commands in the table.
  2379. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2380. @cindex formula debugging
  2381. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2382. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2383. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2384. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2385. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2386. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2387. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2388. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2389. @subsection Updating the table
  2390. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2391. @cindex updating, table
  2392. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2393. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2394. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2395. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2396. following commands:
  2397. @table @kbd
  2398. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2399. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2400. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2401. @c
  2402. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2403. @item C-u C-c *
  2404. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2405. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2406. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2407. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2408. @c
  2409. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2410. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2411. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2412. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2413. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2414. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2415. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2416. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2417. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2418. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2419. dependencies.
  2420. @end table
  2421. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2422. @subsection Advanced features
  2423. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if
  2424. you want to be able to assign @i{names} to fields and columns, you need
  2425. to reserve the first column of the table for special marking characters.
  2426. @table @kbd
  2427. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2428. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2429. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2430. change all marks in the region.
  2431. @end table
  2432. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2433. makes use of these features:
  2434. @example
  2435. @group
  2436. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2437. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2438. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2439. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2440. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2441. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2442. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2443. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2444. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2445. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2446. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2447. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2448. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2449. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2450. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2451. @end group
  2452. @end example
  2453. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2454. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2455. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2456. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2457. empty first field.
  2458. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2459. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2460. @table @samp
  2461. @item !
  2462. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2463. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2464. @item ^
  2465. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2466. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2467. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2468. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2469. @item _
  2470. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2471. @emph{below}.
  2472. @item $
  2473. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2474. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2475. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2476. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2477. a per-table basis.
  2478. @item #
  2479. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2480. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2481. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2482. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2483. @item *
  2484. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2485. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2486. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2487. @item
  2488. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2489. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2490. or @samp{*}.
  2491. @item /
  2492. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2493. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2494. @end table
  2495. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2496. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2497. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2498. functions.
  2499. @example
  2500. @group
  2501. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2502. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2503. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2504. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2505. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2506. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2507. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2508. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2509. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2510. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2511. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2512. @end group
  2513. @end example
  2514. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2515. @section Org-Plot
  2516. @cindex graph, in tables
  2517. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2518. @cindex #+PLOT
  2519. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2520. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2521. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2522. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2523. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2524. @example
  2525. @group
  2526. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2527. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2528. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2529. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2530. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2531. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2532. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2533. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2534. @end group
  2535. @end example
  2536. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2537. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2538. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2539. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2540. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2541. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2542. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2543. @table @code
  2544. @item set
  2545. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2546. @item title
  2547. Specify the title of the plot.
  2548. @item ind
  2549. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2550. @item deps
  2551. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2552. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2553. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2554. column).
  2555. @item type
  2556. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2557. @item with
  2558. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2559. (e.g.@: @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2560. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2561. @item file
  2562. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2563. @item labels
  2564. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2565. if they exist).
  2566. @item line
  2567. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2568. @item map
  2569. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2570. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2571. @item timefmt
  2572. Specify format of Org-mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2573. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2574. @item script
  2575. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2576. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2577. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2578. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2579. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2580. the data file.
  2581. @end table
  2582. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2583. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2584. @cindex hyperlinks
  2585. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2586. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2587. @menu
  2588. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2589. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2590. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2591. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2592. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2593. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2594. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2595. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2596. @end menu
  2597. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2598. @section Link format
  2599. @cindex link format
  2600. @cindex format, of links
  2601. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2602. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2603. @example
  2604. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2605. @end example
  2606. @noindent
  2607. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2608. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2609. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2610. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2611. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2612. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2613. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2614. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2615. cursor on the link.
  2616. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2617. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2618. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2619. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2620. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2621. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2622. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2623. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2624. @section Internal links
  2625. @cindex internal links
  2626. @cindex links, internal
  2627. @cindex targets, for links
  2628. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2629. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2630. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2631. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2632. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2633. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2634. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2635. in a file.
  2636. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2637. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2638. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2639. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2640. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2641. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2642. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2643. comment line. For example
  2644. @example
  2645. # <<My Target>>
  2646. @end example
  2647. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2648. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2649. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2650. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2651. first headline.}.
  2652. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2653. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2654. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2655. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2656. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2657. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2658. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2659. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2660. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2661. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2662. earlier.
  2663. @menu
  2664. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2665. @end menu
  2666. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2667. @subsection Radio targets
  2668. @cindex radio targets
  2669. @cindex targets, radio
  2670. @cindex links, radio targets
  2671. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2672. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2673. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2674. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2675. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2676. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2677. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2678. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2679. cursor on or at a target.
  2680. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2681. @section External links
  2682. @cindex links, external
  2683. @cindex external links
  2684. @cindex links, external
  2685. @cindex Gnus links
  2686. @cindex BBDB links
  2687. @cindex IRC links
  2688. @cindex URL links
  2689. @cindex file links
  2690. @cindex VM links
  2691. @cindex RMAIL links
  2692. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2693. @cindex MH-E links
  2694. @cindex USENET links
  2695. @cindex SHELL links
  2696. @cindex Info links
  2697. @cindex Elisp links
  2698. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2699. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2700. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2701. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2702. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2703. @example
  2704. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2705. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2706. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2707. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2708. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2709. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2710. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2711. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2712. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file with line number to jump to}
  2713. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2714. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}
  2715. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2716. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open file in doc-view mode at page NNN}
  2717. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2718. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2719. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2720. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2721. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2722. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2723. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2724. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2725. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2726. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2727. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2728. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2729. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2730. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2731. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2732. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2733. info:org#External%20links @r{Info node link (with encoded space)}
  2734. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2735. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2736. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2737. @end example
  2738. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2739. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2740. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2741. format}), for example:
  2742. @example
  2743. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2744. @end example
  2745. @noindent
  2746. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2747. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2748. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2749. image,
  2750. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2751. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2752. @cindex plain text external links
  2753. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2754. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2755. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2756. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2757. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2758. @section Handling links
  2759. @cindex links, handling
  2760. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2761. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2762. @table @kbd
  2763. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2764. @cindex storing links
  2765. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2766. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2767. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2768. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2769. buffer:
  2770. @b{Org-mode buffers}@*
  2771. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2772. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2773. be the description.
  2774. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2775. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2776. @cindex property, ID
  2777. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2778. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2779. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2780. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2781. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2782. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2783. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2784. to use.
  2785. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2786. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2787. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2788. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2789. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2790. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2791. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2792. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2793. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2794. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2795. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2796. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2797. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2798. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2799. @b{Other files}@*
  2800. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2801. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2802. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2803. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2804. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2805. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2806. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2807. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2808. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2809. entry referenced by the current line.
  2810. @c
  2811. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  2812. @cindex link completion
  2813. @cindex completion, of links
  2814. @cindex inserting links
  2815. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2816. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2817. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2818. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2819. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2820. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2821. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2822. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2823. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2824. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2825. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2826. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2827. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2828. becomes the default description.
  2829. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2830. All links stored during the
  2831. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2832. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2833. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2834. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2835. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2836. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2837. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2838. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2839. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2840. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2841. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2842. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  2843. @cindex file name completion
  2844. @cindex completion, of file names
  2845. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2846. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2847. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2848. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2849. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2850. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2851. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2852. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2853. @c
  2854. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2855. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2856. link and description parts of the link.
  2857. @c
  2858. @cindex following links
  2859. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  2860. @vindex org-file-apps
  2861. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2862. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2863. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2864. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2865. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2866. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2867. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2868. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2869. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  2870. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  2871. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  2872. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  2873. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  2874. headline and entry text.
  2875. @orgkey @key{RET}
  2876. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  2877. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  2878. the link at point.
  2879. @c
  2880. @kindex mouse-2
  2881. @kindex mouse-1
  2882. @item mouse-2
  2883. @itemx mouse-1
  2884. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  2885. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  2886. @c
  2887. @kindex mouse-3
  2888. @item mouse-3
  2889. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  2890. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  2891. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  2892. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  2893. @c
  2894. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  2895. @cindex inlining images
  2896. @cindex images, inlining
  2897. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  2898. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2899. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2900. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  2901. images that have no description part in the link, i.e.@: images that will also
  2902. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  2903. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  2904. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  2905. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  2906. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  2907. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  2908. @cindex mark ring
  2909. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  2910. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  2911. @c
  2912. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  2913. @cindex links, returning to
  2914. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  2915. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  2916. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  2917. previously recorded positions.
  2918. @c
  2919. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  2920. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  2921. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  2922. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  2923. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  2924. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  2925. @lisp
  2926. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  2927. (lambda ()
  2928. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  2929. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  2930. @end lisp
  2931. @end table
  2932. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  2933. @section Using links outside Org
  2934. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  2935. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  2936. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  2937. yourself):
  2938. @lisp
  2939. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  2940. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  2941. @end lisp
  2942. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  2943. @section Link abbreviations
  2944. @cindex link abbreviations
  2945. @cindex abbreviation, links
  2946. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  2947. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  2948. abbreviated link looks like this
  2949. @example
  2950. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  2951. @end example
  2952. @noindent
  2953. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  2954. where the tag is optional.
  2955. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  2956. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  2957. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  2958. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  2959. @smalllisp
  2960. @group
  2961. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  2962. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  2963. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  2964. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  2965. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  2966. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  2967. @end group
  2968. @end smalllisp
  2969. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  2970. replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
  2971. in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will
  2972. be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  2973. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  2974. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  2975. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  2976. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  2977. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  2978. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  2979. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  2980. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  2981. can define them in the file with
  2982. @cindex #+LINK
  2983. @example
  2984. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  2985. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  2986. @end example
  2987. @noindent
  2988. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  2989. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  2990. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g.@: completion)
  2991. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  2992. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  2993. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  2994. @section Search options in file links
  2995. @cindex search option in file links
  2996. @cindex file links, searching
  2997. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  2998. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  2999. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3000. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3001. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3002. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3003. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3004. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3005. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3006. link, together with an explanation:
  3007. @example
  3008. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3009. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3010. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3011. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3012. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3013. @end example
  3014. @table @code
  3015. @item 255
  3016. Jump to line 255.
  3017. @item My Target
  3018. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3019. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3020. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3021. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3022. the linked file.
  3023. @item *My Target
  3024. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3025. @item #my-custom-id
  3026. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3027. @item /regexp/
  3028. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3029. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3030. target file is in Org-mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3031. sparse tree with the matches.
  3032. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3033. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3034. @end table
  3035. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3036. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3037. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3038. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3039. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3040. @section Custom Searches
  3041. @cindex custom search strings
  3042. @cindex search strings, custom
  3043. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3044. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3045. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3046. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3047. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3048. citation key.
  3049. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3050. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3051. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3052. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3053. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3054. to be added to the hook variables
  3055. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3056. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3057. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3058. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3059. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3060. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3061. @chapter TODO items
  3062. @cindex TODO items
  3063. Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3064. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3065. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3066. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3067. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3068. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3069. item emerged is always present.
  3070. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3071. throughout your notes file. Org-mode compensates for this by providing
  3072. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3073. @menu
  3074. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3075. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3076. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3077. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3078. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3079. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3080. @end menu
  3081. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3082. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3083. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3084. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3085. @example
  3086. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3087. @end example
  3088. @noindent
  3089. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3090. @table @kbd
  3091. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3092. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3093. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3094. @example
  3095. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3096. '--------------------------------'
  3097. @end example
  3098. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3099. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3100. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3101. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  3102. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  3103. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  3104. more information.
  3105. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3106. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3107. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3108. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3109. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3110. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3111. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3112. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3113. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3114. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-key}
  3115. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3116. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3117. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3118. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3119. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3120. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3121. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3122. entries that match any one of these keywords. With numeric prefix argument
  3123. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3124. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3125. both un-done and done.
  3126. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3127. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3128. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3129. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3130. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3131. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3132. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3133. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3134. @end table
  3135. @noindent
  3136. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3137. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3138. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3139. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3140. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3141. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3142. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3143. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3144. DONE. Org-mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3145. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3146. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3147. files.
  3148. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3149. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3150. @menu
  3151. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3152. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3153. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3154. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3155. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3156. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3157. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3158. @end menu
  3159. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3160. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3161. @cindex TODO workflow
  3162. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3163. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3164. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3165. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org-mode in a
  3166. buffer.}:
  3167. @lisp
  3168. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3169. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3170. @end lisp
  3171. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3172. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3173. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3174. state.
  3175. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3176. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3177. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  3178. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3179. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  3180. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3181. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3182. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3183. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3184. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3185. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3186. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3187. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3188. @cindex TODO types
  3189. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3190. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3191. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3192. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3193. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3194. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3195. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3196. be set up like this:
  3197. @lisp
  3198. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3199. @end lisp
  3200. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3201. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3202. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org-mode supports this style by adapting
  3203. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3204. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3205. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3206. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3207. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3208. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3209. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3210. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3211. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3212. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3213. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3214. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3215. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3216. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3217. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3218. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3219. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3220. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3221. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3222. like this:
  3223. @lisp
  3224. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3225. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3226. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3227. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3228. @end lisp
  3229. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org-mode to keep track
  3230. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3231. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3232. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3233. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3234. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3235. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3236. @table @kbd
  3237. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3238. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3239. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3240. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3241. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3242. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3243. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3244. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3245. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3246. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3247. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3248. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3249. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3250. @item S-@key{right}
  3251. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3252. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3253. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3254. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3255. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3256. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3257. @end table
  3258. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3259. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3260. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3261. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3262. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section
  3263. key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3264. @lisp
  3265. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3266. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3267. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3268. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3269. @end lisp
  3270. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3271. If you then press @code{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3272. will be switched to this state. @key{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3273. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3274. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3275. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3276. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3277. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3278. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3279. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3280. @cindex keyword options
  3281. @cindex per-file keywords
  3282. @cindex #+TODO
  3283. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3284. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3285. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3286. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3287. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3288. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3289. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3290. file:
  3291. @example
  3292. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3293. @end example
  3294. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3295. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3296. @example
  3297. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3298. @end example
  3299. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3300. @example
  3301. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3302. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3303. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3304. @end example
  3305. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3306. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3307. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3308. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3309. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3310. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3311. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3312. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3313. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3314. known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode parses these lines only when
  3315. Org-mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3316. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org-mode
  3317. for the current buffer.}.
  3318. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3319. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3320. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3321. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3322. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3323. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3324. Org-mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3325. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3326. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3327. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3328. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3329. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3330. @lisp
  3331. @group
  3332. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3333. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3334. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3335. @end group
  3336. @end lisp
  3337. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3338. work, this does not aways seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3339. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3340. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3341. foreground or a background color.
  3342. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3343. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3344. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3345. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3346. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3347. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3348. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3349. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3350. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3351. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3352. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3353. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3354. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3355. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3356. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3357. example:
  3358. @example
  3359. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3360. ** DONE one
  3361. ** TODO two
  3362. * Parent
  3363. :PROPERTIES:
  3364. :ORDERED: t
  3365. :END:
  3366. ** TODO a
  3367. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3368. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3369. @end example
  3370. @table @kbd
  3371. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3372. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3373. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3374. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3375. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3376. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3377. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3378. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3379. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3380. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3381. @end table
  3382. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3383. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3384. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3385. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3386. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3387. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3388. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3389. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3390. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3391. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3392. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3393. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3394. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3395. @page
  3396. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3397. @section Progress logging
  3398. @cindex progress logging
  3399. @cindex logging, of progress
  3400. Org-mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3401. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3402. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3403. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3404. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3405. work time}.
  3406. @menu
  3407. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3408. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3409. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3410. @end menu
  3411. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3412. @subsection Closing items
  3413. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3414. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3415. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3416. @lisp
  3417. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3418. @end lisp
  3419. @noindent
  3420. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3421. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3422. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3423. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3424. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3425. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3426. @lisp
  3427. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3428. @end lisp
  3429. @noindent
  3430. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3431. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3432. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3433. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3434. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3435. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3436. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3437. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3438. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3439. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3440. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3441. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3442. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3443. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3444. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3445. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3446. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3447. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3448. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3449. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this
  3450. behavior---the recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}. You can
  3451. also overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3452. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3453. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org-mode
  3454. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3455. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) and @samp{@@} (for a note)
  3456. in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the setting
  3457. @lisp
  3458. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3459. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3460. @end lisp
  3461. @noindent
  3462. @vindex org-log-done
  3463. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3464. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3465. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org-mode will record two timestamps
  3466. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3467. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3468. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3469. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3470. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3471. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3472. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3473. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3474. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3475. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3476. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3477. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3478. configured.
  3479. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3480. to a buffer:
  3481. @example
  3482. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3483. @end example
  3484. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3485. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3486. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3487. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3488. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3489. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3490. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3491. @example
  3492. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3493. :PROPERTIES:
  3494. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3495. :END:
  3496. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3497. :PROPERTIES:
  3498. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3499. :END:
  3500. * TODO No logging at all
  3501. :PROPERTIES:
  3502. :LOGGING: nil
  3503. :END:
  3504. @end example
  3505. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3506. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3507. @cindex habits
  3508. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3509. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3510. @enumerate
  3511. @item
  3512. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3513. @code{org-modules}.
  3514. @item
  3515. The habit is a TODO, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3516. @item
  3517. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3518. @item
  3519. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3520. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3521. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3522. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3523. @item
  3524. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3525. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3526. three days, but at most every two days.
  3527. @item
  3528. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3529. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it's not
  3530. enabled it's not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3531. meaningless.
  3532. @end enumerate
  3533. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3534. actual habit with some history:
  3535. @example
  3536. ** TODO Shave
  3537. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3538. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3539. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3540. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3541. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3542. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3543. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3544. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3545. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3546. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3547. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3548. :PROPERTIES:
  3549. :STYLE: habit
  3550. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3551. :END:
  3552. @end example
  3553. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3554. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3555. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3556. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3557. after four days have elapsed.
  3558. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3559. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3560. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3561. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3562. @table @code
  3563. @item Blue
  3564. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3565. @item Green
  3566. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3567. @item Yellow
  3568. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3569. @item Red
  3570. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3571. @end table
  3572. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3573. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3574. the current day falls in the graph.
  3575. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3576. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3577. @table @code
  3578. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3579. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3580. overwrite any text in that column, so it's a good idea to keep your habits'
  3581. titles brief and to the point.
  3582. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3583. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3584. @item org-habit-following-days
  3585. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3586. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3587. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3588. default.
  3589. @end table
  3590. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3591. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3592. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3593. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3594. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3595. @section Priorities
  3596. @cindex priorities
  3597. If you use Org-mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3598. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3599. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3600. @example
  3601. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3602. @end example
  3603. @noindent
  3604. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3605. By default, Org-mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3606. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3607. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3608. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3609. have no inherent meaning to Org-mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3610. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3611. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3612. items.
  3613. @table @kbd
  3614. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3615. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3616. @findex org-priority
  3617. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3618. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3619. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3620. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3621. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3622. @c
  3623. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3624. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3625. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3626. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3627. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3628. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3629. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3630. @end table
  3631. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3632. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3633. @vindex org-default-priority
  3634. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3635. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3636. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3637. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3638. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3639. priority):
  3640. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3641. @example
  3642. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3643. @end example
  3644. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3645. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3646. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3647. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3648. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3649. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3650. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3651. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3652. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3653. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3654. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3655. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3656. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3657. @example
  3658. * Organize Party [33%]
  3659. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3660. *** TODO Peter
  3661. *** DONE Sarah
  3662. ** TODO Buy food
  3663. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3664. @end example
  3665. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3666. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3667. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3668. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3669. this issue.
  3670. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3671. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3672. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3673. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3674. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3675. property.
  3676. @example
  3677. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3678. :PROPERTIES:
  3679. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3680. :END:
  3681. @end example
  3682. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3683. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3684. @example
  3685. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3686. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3687. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3688. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3689. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3690. @end example
  3691. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3692. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3693. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3694. @section Checkboxes
  3695. @cindex checkboxes
  3696. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3697. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3698. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3699. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3700. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3701. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3702. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3703. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3704. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3705. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3706. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3707. @example
  3708. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3709. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3710. - [ ] Peter
  3711. - [X] Sarah
  3712. - [ ] Sam
  3713. - [X] order food
  3714. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3715. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3716. @end example
  3717. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3718. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3719. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3720. checked.
  3721. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3722. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3723. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3724. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3725. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3726. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3727. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3728. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3729. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3730. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3731. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3732. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3733. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3734. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3735. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3736. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3737. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3738. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3739. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3740. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3741. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3742. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3743. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3744. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3745. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3746. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3747. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3748. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3749. @table @kbd
  3750. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3751. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3752. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3753. intermediate state.
  3754. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3755. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3756. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3757. intermediate state.
  3758. @itemize @minus
  3759. @item
  3760. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3761. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3762. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3763. @item
  3764. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3765. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3766. @item
  3767. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3768. @end itemize
  3769. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3770. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  3771. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3772. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3773. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3774. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3775. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3776. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3777. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3778. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3779. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3780. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3781. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  3782. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3783. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3784. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3785. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3786. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3787. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  3788. @end table
  3789. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3790. @chapter Tags
  3791. @cindex tags
  3792. @cindex headline tagging
  3793. @cindex matching, tags
  3794. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3795. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3796. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org-mode has extensive
  3797. support for tags.
  3798. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3799. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3800. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3801. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3802. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3803. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3804. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3805. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3806. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3807. @menu
  3808. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3809. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3810. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3811. @end menu
  3812. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3813. @section Tag inheritance
  3814. @cindex tag inheritance
  3815. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3816. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3817. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3818. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3819. well. For example, in the list
  3820. @example
  3821. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3822. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3823. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3824. @end example
  3825. @noindent
  3826. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3827. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3828. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3829. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3830. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3831. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3832. changes in the line.}:
  3833. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3834. @example
  3835. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3836. @end example
  3837. @noindent
  3838. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3839. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3840. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  3841. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  3842. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3843. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3844. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3845. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3846. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3847. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3848. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3849. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3850. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  3851. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  3852. @section Setting tags
  3853. @cindex setting tags
  3854. @cindex tags, setting
  3855. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3856. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  3857. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  3858. also a special command for inserting tags:
  3859. @table @kbd
  3860. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  3861. @cindex completion, of tags
  3862. @vindex org-tags-column
  3863. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org-mode will either offer
  3864. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  3865. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  3866. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  3867. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  3868. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  3869. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  3870. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  3871. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  3872. @end table
  3873. @vindex org-tag-alist
  3874. Org will support tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  3875. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  3876. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  3877. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  3878. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  3879. @cindex #+TAGS
  3880. @example
  3881. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  3882. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  3883. @end example
  3884. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  3885. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  3886. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  3887. @example
  3888. #+TAGS:
  3889. @end example
  3890. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  3891. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  3892. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  3893. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  3894. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  3895. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  3896. @example
  3897. #+STARTUP: noptag
  3898. @end example
  3899. By default Org-mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  3900. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  3901. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  3902. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  3903. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  3904. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  3905. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  3906. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  3907. like:
  3908. @lisp
  3909. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  3910. @end lisp
  3911. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  3912. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  3913. @example
  3914. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  3915. @end example
  3916. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  3917. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  3918. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  3919. @example
  3920. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  3921. @end example
  3922. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  3923. @example
  3924. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  3925. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  3926. @end example
  3927. @noindent
  3928. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  3929. braces, as in:
  3930. @example
  3931. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  3932. @end example
  3933. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  3934. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  3935. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  3936. these lines to activate any changes.
  3937. @noindent
  3938. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  3939. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  3940. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  3941. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  3942. configuration:
  3943. @lisp
  3944. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  3945. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  3946. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  3947. (:endgroup . nil)
  3948. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  3949. @end lisp
  3950. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  3951. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  3952. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  3953. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  3954. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  3955. keys:
  3956. @table @kbd
  3957. @item a-z...
  3958. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  3959. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  3960. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  3961. @kindex @key{TAB}
  3962. @item @key{TAB}
  3963. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  3964. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  3965. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  3966. @kindex @key{SPC}
  3967. @item @key{SPC}
  3968. Clear all tags for this line.
  3969. @kindex @key{RET}
  3970. @item @key{RET}
  3971. Accept the modified set.
  3972. @item C-g
  3973. Abort without installing changes.
  3974. @item q
  3975. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  3976. @item !
  3977. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  3978. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  3979. @item C-c
  3980. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  3981. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  3982. selection window.
  3983. @end table
  3984. @noindent
  3985. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  3986. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  3987. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  3988. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  3989. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  3990. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  3991. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  3992. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  3993. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  3994. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  3995. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  3996. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  3997. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  3998. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  3999. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  4000. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  4001. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  4002. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  4003. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4004. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4005. @section Tag searches
  4006. @cindex tag searches
  4007. @cindex searching for tags
  4008. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4009. information into special lists.
  4010. @table @kbd
  4011. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4012. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4013. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4014. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4015. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4016. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4017. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4018. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4019. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4020. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4021. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4022. @end table
  4023. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4024. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4025. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4026. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4027. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4028. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4029. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4030. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4031. @chapter Properties and columns
  4032. @cindex properties
  4033. Properties are a set of key-value pairs associated with an entry. There
  4034. are two main applications for properties in Org-mode. First, properties
  4035. are like tags, but with a value. Second, you can use properties to
  4036. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. For
  4037. an example of the first application, imagine maintaining a file where
  4038. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4039. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, one can use a
  4040. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4041. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. For an example of the second
  4042. application of properties, imagine keeping track of your music CDs,
  4043. where properties could be things such as the album, artist, date of
  4044. release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4045. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4046. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4047. @menu
  4048. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4049. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  4050. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4051. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4052. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4053. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4054. @end menu
  4055. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4056. @section Property syntax
  4057. @cindex property syntax
  4058. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4059. Properties are key-value pairs. They need to be inserted into a special
  4060. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4061. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4062. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4063. @example
  4064. * CD collection
  4065. ** Classic
  4066. *** Goldberg Variations
  4067. :PROPERTIES:
  4068. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4069. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4070. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4071. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4072. :NDisks: 1
  4073. :END:
  4074. @end example
  4075. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4076. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4077. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4078. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4079. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4080. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4081. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4082. @example
  4083. * CD collection
  4084. :PROPERTIES:
  4085. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4086. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4087. :END:
  4088. @end example
  4089. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4090. file, use a line like
  4091. @cindex property, _ALL
  4092. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4093. @example
  4094. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4095. @end example
  4096. @vindex org-global-properties
  4097. Property values set with the global variable
  4098. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4099. Org files.
  4100. @noindent
  4101. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4102. @table @kbd
  4103. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4104. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4105. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4106. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4107. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4108. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4109. @item M-x org-insert-property-drawer
  4110. @findex org-insert-property-drawer
  4111. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4112. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4113. information like deadlines.
  4114. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4115. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4116. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4117. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4118. can be inserted using completion.
  4119. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4120. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4121. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4122. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4123. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4124. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4125. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4126. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4127. nearest column format definition.
  4128. @end table
  4129. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4130. @section Special properties
  4131. @cindex properties, special
  4132. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org-mode features,
  4133. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4134. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4135. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4136. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4137. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4138. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4139. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4140. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4141. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4142. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4143. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4144. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4145. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4146. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4147. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4148. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4149. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4150. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4151. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4152. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4153. @example
  4154. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4155. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4156. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4157. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4158. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4159. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4160. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4161. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4162. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4163. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4164. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4165. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4166. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4167. ITEM @r{The content of the entry.}
  4168. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4169. @end example
  4170. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4171. @section Property searches
  4172. @cindex properties, searching
  4173. @cindex searching, of properties
  4174. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4175. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4176. @table @kbd
  4177. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4178. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4179. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4180. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4181. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4182. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4183. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4184. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4185. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4186. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4187. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4188. @end table
  4189. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4190. properties}.
  4191. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4192. single property:
  4193. @table @kbd
  4194. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4195. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4196. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4197. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4198. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4199. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4200. @end table
  4201. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4202. @section Property Inheritance
  4203. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4204. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4205. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4206. The outline structure of Org-mode documents lends itself to an
  4207. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4208. property, the children can inherit this property. Org-mode does not
  4209. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4210. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4211. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4212. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4213. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4214. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4215. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4216. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4217. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4218. Org-mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4219. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4220. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4221. @table @code
  4222. @item COLUMNS
  4223. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4224. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4225. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4226. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4227. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4228. @item CATEGORY
  4229. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4230. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4231. applies to the entire subtree.
  4232. @item ARCHIVE
  4233. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4234. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4235. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4236. @item LOGGING
  4237. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4238. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4239. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4240. @end table
  4241. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4242. @section Column view
  4243. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4244. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4245. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4246. entries. Org-mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4247. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4248. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4249. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4250. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4251. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4252. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4253. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4254. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4255. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4256. @menu
  4257. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4258. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4259. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4260. @end menu
  4261. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4262. @subsection Defining columns
  4263. @cindex column view, for properties
  4264. @cindex properties, column view
  4265. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4266. done by defining a column format line.
  4267. @menu
  4268. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4269. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4270. @end menu
  4271. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4272. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4273. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4274. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4275. @example
  4276. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4277. @end example
  4278. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4279. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4280. @example
  4281. ** Top node for columns view
  4282. :PROPERTIES:
  4283. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4284. :END:
  4285. @end example
  4286. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4287. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4288. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4289. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4290. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4291. deeper part of the tree.
  4292. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4293. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4294. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4295. definition looks like this:
  4296. @example
  4297. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4298. @end example
  4299. @noindent
  4300. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4301. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4302. @example
  4303. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4304. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4305. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4306. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4307. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4308. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4309. @r{name is used.}
  4310. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4311. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4312. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4313. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4314. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4315. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4316. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4317. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4318. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4319. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4320. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4321. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4322. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4323. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4324. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4325. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4326. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4327. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4328. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4329. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4330. @end example
  4331. @noindent
  4332. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4333. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4334. same summary information.
  4335. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4336. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4337. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4338. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4339. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4340. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4341. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4342. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4343. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4344. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4345. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4346. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4347. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4348. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4349. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4350. values.
  4351. @example
  4352. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4353. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4354. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4355. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4356. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4357. @end example
  4358. @noindent
  4359. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4360. item itself, i.e.@: of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4361. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4362. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4363. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4364. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4365. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4366. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4367. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4368. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4369. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4370. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4371. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4372. in the subtree.
  4373. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4374. @subsection Using column view
  4375. @table @kbd
  4376. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4377. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4378. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4379. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4380. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4381. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4382. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4383. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4384. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4385. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4386. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4387. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4388. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4389. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4390. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4391. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4392. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4393. Exit column view.
  4394. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4395. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4396. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4397. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4398. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4399. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4400. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4401. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4402. @item 1..9,0
  4403. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4404. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4405. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4406. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4407. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4408. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4409. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4410. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4411. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4412. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4413. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4414. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4415. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4416. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4417. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4418. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4419. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4420. current column view.
  4421. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4422. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4423. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4424. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4425. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4426. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4427. Delete the current column.
  4428. @end table
  4429. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4430. @subsection Capturing column view
  4431. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4432. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4433. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4434. of this block looks like this:
  4435. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4436. @example
  4437. * The column view
  4438. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4439. #+END:
  4440. @end example
  4441. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4442. @table @code
  4443. @item :id
  4444. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4445. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4446. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4447. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4448. @cindex property, ID
  4449. @example
  4450. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4451. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4452. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4453. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4454. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4455. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4456. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4457. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4458. @end example
  4459. @item :hlines
  4460. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4461. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4462. @item :vlines
  4463. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4464. @item :maxlevel
  4465. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4466. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4467. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4468. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4469. @end table
  4470. @noindent
  4471. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4472. @table @kbd
  4473. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4474. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4475. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4476. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4477. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4478. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4479. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4480. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4481. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4482. blocks in a buffer.
  4483. @end table
  4484. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4485. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4486. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4487. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4488. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4489. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4490. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4491. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4492. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4493. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4494. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4495. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4496. @section The Property API
  4497. @cindex properties, API
  4498. @cindex API, for properties
  4499. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4500. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4501. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4502. property API}.
  4503. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4504. @chapter Dates and times
  4505. @cindex dates
  4506. @cindex times
  4507. @cindex timestamp
  4508. @cindex date stamp
  4509. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4510. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4511. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org-mode. This may be a
  4512. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4513. something was created or last changed. However, in Org-mode this term
  4514. is used in a much wider sense.
  4515. @menu
  4516. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4517. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4518. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4519. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4520. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4521. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4522. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4523. @end menu
  4524. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4525. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4526. @cindex timestamps
  4527. @cindex ranges, time
  4528. @cindex date stamps
  4529. @cindex deadlines
  4530. @cindex scheduling
  4531. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4532. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or
  4533. @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue
  4534. 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601 date/time
  4535. format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time format}.}. A
  4536. timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree entry.
  4537. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda
  4538. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4539. @table @var
  4540. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4541. @cindex timestamp
  4542. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4543. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4544. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4545. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4546. @example
  4547. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4548. * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4549. @end example
  4550. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4551. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4552. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4553. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4554. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4555. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4556. @example
  4557. * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4558. @end example
  4559. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4560. For more complex date specifications, Org-mode supports using the
  4561. special sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4562. package. For example
  4563. @example
  4564. * The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4565. <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  4566. @end example
  4567. @item Time/Date range
  4568. @cindex timerange
  4569. @cindex date range
  4570. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4571. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4572. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4573. @example
  4574. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4575. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4576. @end example
  4577. @item Inactive timestamp
  4578. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4579. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4580. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4581. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4582. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4583. @example
  4584. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4585. @end example
  4586. @end table
  4587. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4588. @section Creating timestamps
  4589. @cindex creating timestamps
  4590. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4591. For Org-mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4592. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4593. format.
  4594. @table @kbd
  4595. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4596. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4597. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4598. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4599. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4600. @c
  4601. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4602. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4603. an agenda entry.
  4604. @c
  4605. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4606. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4607. @item C-u C-c .
  4608. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4609. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4610. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4611. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4612. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4613. @c
  4614. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4615. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4616. @c
  4617. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4618. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4619. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4620. instead.
  4621. @c
  4622. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4623. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4624. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4625. @c
  4626. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4627. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4628. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4629. @c
  4630. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4631. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4632. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4633. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4634. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4635. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4636. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4637. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4638. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4639. @c
  4640. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4641. @cindex evaluate time range
  4642. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4643. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4644. the following column).
  4645. @end table
  4646. @menu
  4647. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  4648. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4649. @end menu
  4650. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4651. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4652. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4653. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4654. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4655. When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4656. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4657. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4658. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4659. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4660. copied from an email message. Org-mode will find whatever information is in
  4661. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4662. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4663. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4664. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4665. information, Org-mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4666. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4667. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4668. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4669. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4670. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4671. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4672. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4673. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org-mode are
  4674. in @b{bold}.
  4675. @example
  4676. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4677. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4678. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4679. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4680. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4681. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4682. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4683. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4684. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4685. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4686. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4687. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4688. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4689. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4690. @end example
  4691. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4692. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4693. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4694. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4695. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4696. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4697. the Nth such day. e.g.@:
  4698. @example
  4699. +0 @result{} today
  4700. . @result{} today
  4701. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4702. +4 @result{} same as above
  4703. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4704. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4705. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4706. @end example
  4707. @vindex parse-time-months
  4708. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4709. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4710. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4711. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4712. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  4713. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  4714. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  4715. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  4716. read the docstring of the variable
  4717. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  4718. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4719. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use `-' or `-@{@}-' as the
  4720. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  4721. case. E.g.@:
  4722. @example
  4723. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  4724. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  4725. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  4726. @end example
  4727. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4728. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4729. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4730. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4731. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4732. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4733. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4734. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4735. from the minibuffer:
  4736. @kindex <
  4737. @kindex >
  4738. @kindex M-v
  4739. @kindex C-v
  4740. @kindex mouse-1
  4741. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4742. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4743. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4744. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4745. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4746. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4747. @kindex @key{RET}
  4748. @example
  4749. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4750. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4751. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4752. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4753. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4754. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4755. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4756. @end example
  4757. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4758. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4759. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4760. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4761. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4762. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4763. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4764. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4765. @subsection Custom time format
  4766. @cindex custom date/time format
  4767. @cindex time format, custom
  4768. @cindex date format, custom
  4769. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4770. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4771. Org-mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4772. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4773. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4774. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4775. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4776. @table @kbd
  4777. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  4778. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4779. @end table
  4780. @noindent
  4781. Org-mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  4782. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  4783. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  4784. following consequences:
  4785. @itemize @bullet
  4786. @item
  4787. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  4788. after.
  4789. @item
  4790. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  4791. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  4792. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  4793. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  4794. time will be changed by one minute.
  4795. @item
  4796. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  4797. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  4798. @item
  4799. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  4800. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  4801. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  4802. @item
  4803. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  4804. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  4805. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  4806. @end itemize
  4807. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  4808. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  4809. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  4810. @table @var
  4811. @item DEADLINE
  4812. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  4813. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  4814. to be finished on that date.
  4815. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4816. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  4817. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  4818. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  4819. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  4820. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  4821. @example
  4822. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  4823. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  4824. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  4825. @end example
  4826. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  4827. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  4828. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  4829. @item SCHEDULED
  4830. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  4831. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  4832. date.
  4833. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  4834. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  4835. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  4836. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  4837. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  4838. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.@:
  4839. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  4840. @example
  4841. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  4842. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  4843. @end example
  4844. @noindent
  4845. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org-mode should @i{not} be
  4846. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  4847. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  4848. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  4849. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  4850. Org users. In Org-mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  4851. want to start working on an action item.
  4852. @end table
  4853. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  4854. entries. Org-mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  4855. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  4856. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  4857. @c
  4858. @code{<%%(diary-float t 42)>}
  4859. @c
  4860. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org-mode does not
  4861. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  4862. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  4863. sexp entry matches.
  4864. @menu
  4865. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  4866. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  4867. @end menu
  4868. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  4869. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  4870. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  4871. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  4872. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  4873. an item:
  4874. @table @kbd
  4875. @c
  4876. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  4877. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  4878. in the line directly following the headline. When called with a prefix arg,
  4879. an existing deadline will be removed from the entry. Depending on the
  4880. variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  4881. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  4882. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4883. deadline.
  4884. @c FIXME Any CLOSED timestamp will be removed.????????
  4885. @c
  4886. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  4887. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  4888. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  4889. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  4890. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  4891. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  4892. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  4893. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4894. scheduling time.
  4895. @c
  4896. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  4897. @kindex k a
  4898. @kindex k s
  4899. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  4900. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  4901. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  4902. schedule the marked item.
  4903. @c
  4904. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  4905. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  4906. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4907. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  4908. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  4909. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  4910. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  4911. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  4912. @c
  4913. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  4914. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  4915. @c
  4916. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  4917. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  4918. @end table
  4919. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  4920. @subsection Repeated tasks
  4921. @cindex tasks, repeated
  4922. @cindex repeated tasks
  4923. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org-mode helps to
  4924. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  4925. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  4926. @example
  4927. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4928. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  4929. @end example
  4930. @noindent
  4931. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  4932. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  4933. from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in
  4934. a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last:
  4935. @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  4936. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  4937. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  4938. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  4939. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  4940. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  4941. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  4942. repeated entry will not be active. Org-mode deals with this in the following
  4943. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  4944. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  4945. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  4946. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  4947. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  4948. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  4949. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  4950. switch the date like this:
  4951. @example
  4952. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4953. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  4954. @end example
  4955. @vindex org-log-repeat
  4956. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  4957. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  4958. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  4959. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  4960. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  4961. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  4962. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  4963. will be visible.
  4964. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  4965. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  4966. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  4967. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  4968. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  4969. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  4970. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  4971. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org-mode has
  4972. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  4973. @example
  4974. ** TODO Call Father
  4975. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  4976. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  4977. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  4978. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  4979. and marked it done on Saturday.
  4980. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  4981. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  4982. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  4983. today.
  4984. @end example
  4985. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  4986. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  4987. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  4988. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  4989. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  4990. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  4991. @section Clocking work time
  4992. @cindex clocking time
  4993. @cindex time clocking
  4994. Org-mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  4995. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock.
  4996. When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the
  4997. clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It
  4998. also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project. And it
  4999. remembers a history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly
  5000. between a number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5001. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5002. @lisp
  5003. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5004. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5005. @end lisp
  5006. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5007. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5008. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5009. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5010. what to do with it.
  5011. @menu
  5012. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5013. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5014. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5015. @end menu
  5016. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5017. @subsection Clocking commands
  5018. @table @kbd
  5019. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5020. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5021. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5022. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5023. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5024. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5025. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5026. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5027. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task.
  5028. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task,
  5029. with letter @kbd{d}.@*
  5030. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5031. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5032. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5033. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5034. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5035. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5036. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5037. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5038. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5039. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5040. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5041. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5042. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5043. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5044. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5045. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5046. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5047. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5048. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5049. @c
  5050. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5051. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5052. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5053. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5054. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5055. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5056. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5057. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5058. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5059. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5060. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5061. @kindex C-c C-y
  5062. @kindex C-c C-c
  5063. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5064. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5065. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5066. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5067. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5068. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5069. if it is running in this same item.
  5070. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-cancel}
  5071. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5072. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5073. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5074. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5075. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5076. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5077. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5078. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This
  5079. puts overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time
  5080. recorded under that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You
  5081. can use visibility cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear
  5082. when you change the buffer (see variable
  5083. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5084. @end table
  5085. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5086. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5087. worked on or closed during a day.
  5088. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5089. @subsection The clock table
  5090. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5091. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5092. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5093. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5094. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5095. @table @kbd
  5096. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5097. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5098. report as an Org-mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5099. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5100. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5101. update it.
  5102. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5103. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5104. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5105. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5106. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5107. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5108. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5109. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5110. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5111. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5112. @end table
  5113. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5114. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5115. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5116. @example
  5117. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5118. #+END: clocktable
  5119. @end example
  5120. @noindent
  5121. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5122. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5123. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5124. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5125. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5126. be selected:
  5127. @example
  5128. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5129. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5130. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5131. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5132. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5133. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5134. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5135. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5136. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5137. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5138. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5139. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5140. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5141. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5142. @r{these formats:}
  5143. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5144. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5145. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5146. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5147. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5148. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5149. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5150. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5151. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5152. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5153. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5154. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5155. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5156. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5157. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5158. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5159. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5160. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5161. @end example
  5162. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5163. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5164. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5165. @example
  5166. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5167. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5168. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5169. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5170. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5171. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5172. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5173. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5174. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5175. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5176. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5177. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5178. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5179. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5180. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5181. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5182. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5183. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5184. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5185. @end example
  5186. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5187. day, you could write
  5188. @example
  5189. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5190. #+END: clocktable
  5191. @end example
  5192. @noindent
  5193. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5194. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5195. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5196. @example
  5197. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5198. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5199. #+END: clocktable
  5200. @end example
  5201. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5202. @example
  5203. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5204. #+END: clocktable
  5205. @end example
  5206. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5207. would be
  5208. @example
  5209. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5210. #+END: clocktable
  5211. @end example
  5212. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5213. @subsection Resolving idle time
  5214. @cindex resolve idle time
  5215. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5216. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5217. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5218. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5219. applying it to another one.
  5220. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5221. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5222. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5223. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5224. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5225. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5226. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5227. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5228. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5229. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5230. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5231. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5232. @table @kbd
  5233. @item k
  5234. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5235. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5236. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5237. @item K
  5238. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5239. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5240. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5241. @item s
  5242. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5243. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5244. @item S
  5245. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5246. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5247. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5248. @item C
  5249. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5250. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5251. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5252. log with an empty entry.
  5253. @end table
  5254. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5255. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5256. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5257. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5258. the next task you clock in on.
  5259. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5260. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5261. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5262. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5263. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5264. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5265. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5266. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5267. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5268. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it's just happening due
  5269. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5270. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5271. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5272. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5273. @section Effort estimates
  5274. @cindex effort estimates
  5275. @cindex property, Effort
  5276. @vindex org-effort-property
  5277. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5278. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5279. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5280. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5281. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5282. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5283. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5284. for an entry with the following commands:
  5285. @table @kbd
  5286. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5287. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5288. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5289. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5290. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5291. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5292. @end table
  5293. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5294. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5295. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5296. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5297. buffer you can use
  5298. @example
  5299. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00
  5300. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5301. @end example
  5302. @noindent
  5303. @vindex org-global-properties
  5304. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5305. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5306. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5307. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5308. setup may be advised.
  5309. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5310. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5311. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5312. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5313. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5314. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5315. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5316. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5317. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5318. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5319. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5320. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5321. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5322. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5323. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5324. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5325. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5326. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5327. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5328. @cindex relative timer
  5329. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5330. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5331. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5332. @table @kbd
  5333. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5334. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5335. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5336. restarted.
  5337. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5338. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5339. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5340. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5341. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5342. new timer items.
  5343. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5344. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5345. @item C-c C-x ,
  5346. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5347. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5348. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5349. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5350. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5351. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5352. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5353. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5354. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5355. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5356. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5357. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5358. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5359. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5360. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5361. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5362. @end table
  5363. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5364. @section Countdown timer
  5365. @cindex Countdown timer
  5366. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5367. @kindex ;
  5368. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org-mode buffer runs a countdown
  5369. timer. Use @key{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everwhere else.
  5370. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5371. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5372. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5373. default value.
  5374. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5375. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5376. @cindex capture
  5377. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5378. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5379. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5380. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5381. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5382. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5383. @menu
  5384. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5385. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5386. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5387. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5388. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5389. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5390. @end menu
  5391. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5392. @section Capture
  5393. @cindex capture
  5394. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5395. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5396. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org-mode for
  5397. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5398. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5399. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5400. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5401. @example
  5402. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5403. @end example
  5404. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5405. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5406. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5407. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5408. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5409. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5410. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5411. @menu
  5412. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5413. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5414. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5415. @end menu
  5416. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5417. @subsection Setting up capture
  5418. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5419. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5420. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5421. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5422. @example
  5423. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5424. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5425. @end example
  5426. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5427. @subsection Using capture
  5428. @table @kbd
  5429. @orgcmd{C-c c,org-capture}
  5430. Call the command @code{org-capture}. Note that this keybinding is global and
  5431. not active by default - you need to install it. If you have templates
  5432. @cindex date tree
  5433. defined @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for
  5434. selection or use a new Org outline node as the default template. It will
  5435. insert the template into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer
  5436. narrowed to this new node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5437. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-capture-finalize}
  5438. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer, @kbd{C-c
  5439. C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture process,
  5440. so that you can resume your work without further distraction. When called
  5441. with a prefix arg, finalize and then jump to the captured item.
  5442. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-capture-refile}
  5443. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5444. a different place. Please realize that this is a normal refiling command
  5445. that will be executed---so the cursor position at the moment you run this
  5446. command is important. If you have inserted a tree with a parent and
  5447. children, first move the cursor back to the parent. Any prefix argument
  5448. given to this command will be passed on to the @code{org-refile} command.
  5449. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,org-capture-kill}
  5450. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5451. @end table
  5452. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5453. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5454. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5455. rather than to the current date.
  5456. To find the locations of the last stored capture, use @code{org-capture} with
  5457. prefix commands:
  5458. @table @kbd
  5459. @orgkey{C-u C-c c}
  5460. Visit the target location of a cpature template. You get to select the
  5461. template in the usual way.
  5462. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-c c}
  5463. Visit the last stored capture item in its buffer.
  5464. @end table
  5465. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5466. @subsection Capture templates
  5467. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5468. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5469. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5470. through the customize interface.
  5471. @table @kbd
  5472. @orgkey{C-c c C}
  5473. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5474. @end table
  5475. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5476. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5477. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5478. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5479. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5480. would look like:
  5481. @example
  5482. (setq org-capture-templates
  5483. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5484. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5485. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5486. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5487. @end example
  5488. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5489. for you like this:
  5490. @example
  5491. * TODO
  5492. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5493. @end example
  5494. @noindent
  5495. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5496. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5497. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5498. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same
  5499. place where you started the capture process.
  5500. To define special keys to capture to a particular template without going
  5501. through the interactive template selection, you can create your key binding
  5502. like this:
  5503. @lisp
  5504. (define-key global-map "\C-cx"
  5505. (lambda () (interactive) (org-capture nil "x")))
  5506. @end lisp
  5507. @menu
  5508. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  5509. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  5510. @end menu
  5511. @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates
  5512. @subsubsection Template elements
  5513. Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in
  5514. @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items:
  5515. @table @var
  5516. @item keys
  5517. The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters
  5518. only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a
  5519. single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using
  5520. several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential
  5521. in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the
  5522. prefix key, for example
  5523. @example
  5524. ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy")
  5525. @end example
  5526. @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will
  5527. be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable.
  5528. @item description
  5529. A short string describing the template, which will be shown during
  5530. selection.
  5531. @item type
  5532. The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are:
  5533. @table @code
  5534. @item entry
  5535. An Org-mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the
  5536. target entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org-mode
  5537. file.
  5538. @item item
  5539. A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target
  5540. location. Again the target file should be an Org file.
  5541. @item checkitem
  5542. A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the
  5543. default template.
  5544. @item table-line
  5545. a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the
  5546. line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and
  5547. @code{:table-line-pos} (see below).
  5548. @item plain
  5549. Text to be inserted as it is.
  5550. @end table
  5551. @item target
  5552. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5553. Specification of where the captured item should be placed. In Org-mode
  5554. files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become children of this
  5555. node. Other types will be added to the table or list in the body of this
  5556. node. Most target specifications contain a file name. If that file name is
  5557. the empty string, it defaults to @code{org-default-notes-file}. A file can
  5558. also be given as a variable, function, or Emacs Lisp form.
  5559. Valid values are:
  5560. @table @code
  5561. @item (file "path/to/file")
  5562. Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file.
  5563. @item (id "id of existing org entry")
  5564. Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry.
  5565. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline")
  5566. Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file.
  5567. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...)
  5568. For non-unique headings, the full path is safer.
  5569. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location")
  5570. Use a regular expression to position the cursor.
  5571. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file")
  5572. Will create a heading in a date tree for today's date.
  5573. @item (file+datetree+prompt "path/to/file")
  5574. Will create a heading in a date tree, but will prompt for the date.
  5575. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location)
  5576. A function to find the right location in the file.
  5577. @item (clock)
  5578. File to the entry that is currently being clocked.
  5579. @item (function function-finding-location)
  5580. Most general way, write your own function to find both
  5581. file and location.
  5582. @end table
  5583. @item template
  5584. The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an
  5585. appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with
  5586. escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the
  5587. capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file,
  5588. using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for
  5589. more details.
  5590. @item properties
  5591. The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options.
  5592. Recognized properties are:
  5593. @table @code
  5594. @item :prepend
  5595. Normally new captured information will be appended at
  5596. the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...).
  5597. Setting this property will change that.
  5598. @item :immediate-finish
  5599. When set, do not offer to edit the information, just
  5600. file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs
  5601. information that can be added automatically.
  5602. @item :empty-lines
  5603. Set this to the number of lines to insert
  5604. before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1.
  5605. @item :clock-in
  5606. Start the clock in this item.
  5607. @item :clock-keep
  5608. Keep the clock running when filing the captured entry.
  5609. @item :clock-resume
  5610. If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished
  5611. with the capture. Note that @code{:clock-keep} has precedence over
  5612. @code{:clock-resume}. When setting both to @code{t}, the current clock will
  5613. run and the previous one will not be resumed.
  5614. @item :unnarrowed
  5615. Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to
  5616. narrow it so that you only see the new material.
  5617. @item :table-line-pos
  5618. Specification of the location in the table where the new line should be
  5619. inserted. It should be a string like @code{"II-3"} meaning that the new
  5620. line should become the third line before the second horizontal separator
  5621. line.
  5622. @item :kill-buffer
  5623. If the target file was not yet visited when capture was invoked, kill the
  5624. buffer again after capture is completed.
  5625. @end table
  5626. @end table
  5627. @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates
  5628. @subsubsection Template expansion
  5629. In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of
  5630. these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow
  5631. dynamic insertion of content:
  5632. @comment SJE: should these sentences terminate in period?
  5633. @smallexample
  5634. %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
  5635. @r{You may specify a default value and a completion table with}
  5636. @r{%^@{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...@}}
  5637. @r{The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history.}
  5638. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}}
  5639. %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part}
  5640. %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the}
  5641. @r{region is active.}
  5642. @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
  5643. %t @r{timestamp, date only}
  5644. %T @r{timestamp with date and time}
  5645. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps}
  5646. %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}}
  5647. @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}}
  5648. %<...> @r{the result of format-time-string on the ... format specification}
  5649. %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name})}
  5650. %c @r{Current kill ring head.}
  5651. %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.}
  5652. %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.}
  5653. %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.}
  5654. %k @r{title of the currently clocked task}
  5655. %K @r{link to the currently clocked task}
  5656. %f @r{file visited by current buffer when org-capture was called}
  5657. %F @r{like @code{%f}, but include full path}
  5658. %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.}
  5659. %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.}
  5660. %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}}
  5661. %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below}
  5662. %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}}
  5663. %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result}
  5664. @end smallexample
  5665. @noindent
  5666. For specific link types, the following keywords will be
  5667. defined@footnote{If you define your own link types (@pxref{Adding
  5668. hyperlink types}), any property you store with
  5669. @code{org-store-link-props} can be accessed in capture templates in a
  5670. similar way.}:
  5671. @vindex org-from-is-user-regexp
  5672. @smallexample
  5673. Link type | Available keywords
  5674. -------------------+----------------------------------------------
  5675. bbdb | %:name %:company
  5676. irc | %:server %:port %:nick
  5677. vm, wl, mh, mew, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id
  5678. | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress
  5679. | %:to %:toname %:toaddress
  5680. | %:date @r{(message date header field)}
  5681. | %:date-timestamp @r{(date as active timestamp)}
  5682. | %:date-timestamp-inactive @r{(date as inactive timestamp)}
  5683. | %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}}
  5684. gnus | %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields}
  5685. w3, w3m | %:url
  5686. info | %:file %:node
  5687. calendar | %:date
  5688. @end smallexample
  5689. @noindent
  5690. To place the cursor after template expansion use:
  5691. @smallexample
  5692. %? @r{After completing the template, position cursor here.}
  5693. @end smallexample
  5694. @node Attachments, RSS Feeds, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5695. @section Attachments
  5696. @cindex attachments
  5697. @vindex org-attach-directory
  5698. It is often useful to associate reference material with an outline node/task.
  5699. Small chunks of plain text can simply be stored in the subtree of a project.
  5700. Hyperlinks (@pxref{Hyperlinks}) can establish associations with
  5701. files that live elsewhere on your computer or in the cloud, like emails or
  5702. source code files belonging to a project. Another method is @i{attachments},
  5703. which are files located in a directory belonging to an outline node. Org
  5704. uses directories named by the unique ID of each entry. These directories are
  5705. located in the @file{data} directory which lives in the same directory where
  5706. your Org file lives@footnote{If you move entries or Org files from one
  5707. directory to another, you may want to configure @code{org-attach-directory}
  5708. to contain an absolute path.}. If you initialize this directory with
  5709. @code{git init}, Org will automatically commit changes when it sees them.
  5710. The attachment system has been contributed to Org by John Wiegley.
  5711. In cases where it seems better to do so, you can also attach a directory of your
  5712. choice to an entry. You can also make children inherit the attachment
  5713. directory from a parent, so that an entire subtree uses the same attached
  5714. directory.
  5715. @noindent The following commands deal with attachments:
  5716. @table @kbd
  5717. @orgcmd{C-c C-a,org-attach}
  5718. The dispatcher for commands related to the attachment system. After these
  5719. keys, a list of commands is displayed and you must press an additional key
  5720. to select a command:
  5721. @table @kbd
  5722. @orgcmdtkc{a,C-c C-a a,org-attach-attach}
  5723. @vindex org-attach-method
  5724. Select a file and move it into the task's attachment directory. The file
  5725. will be copied, moved, or linked, depending on @code{org-attach-method}.
  5726. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5727. @kindex C-c C-a c
  5728. @kindex C-c C-a m
  5729. @kindex C-c C-a l
  5730. @item c/m/l
  5731. Attach a file using the copy/move/link method.
  5732. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5733. @orgcmdtkc{n,C-c C-a n,org-attach-new}
  5734. Create a new attachment as an Emacs buffer.
  5735. @orgcmdtkc{z,C-c C-a z,org-attach-sync}
  5736. Synchronize the current task with its attachment directory, in case you added
  5737. attachments yourself.
  5738. @orgcmdtkc{o,C-c C-a o,org-attach-open}
  5739. @vindex org-file-apps
  5740. Open current task's attachment. If there is more than one, prompt for a
  5741. file name first. Opening will follow the rules set by @code{org-file-apps}.
  5742. For more details, see the information on following hyperlinks
  5743. (@pxref{Handling links}).
  5744. @orgcmdtkc{O,C-c C-a O,org-attach-open-in-emacs}
  5745. Also open the attachment, but force opening the file in Emacs.
  5746. @orgcmdtkc{f,C-c C-a f,org-attach-reveal}
  5747. Open the current task's attachment directory.
  5748. @orgcmdtkc{F,C-c C-a F,org-attach-reveal-in-emacs}
  5749. Also open the directory, but force using @command{dired} in Emacs.
  5750. @orgcmdtkc{d,C-c C-a d,org-attach-delete-one}
  5751. Select and delete a single attachment.
  5752. @orgcmdtkc{D,C-c C-a D,org-attach-delete-all}
  5753. Delete all of a task's attachments. A safer way is to open the directory in
  5754. @command{dired} and delete from there.
  5755. @orgcmdtkc{s,C-c C-a s,org-attach-set-directory}
  5756. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR
  5757. Set a specific directory as the entry's attachment directory. This works by
  5758. putting the directory path into the @code{ATTACH_DIR} property.
  5759. @orgcmdtkc{i,C-c C-a i,org-attach-set-inherit}
  5760. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT
  5761. Set the @code{ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT} property, so that children will use the
  5762. same directory for attachments as the parent does.
  5763. @end table
  5764. @end table
  5765. @node RSS Feeds, Protocols, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5766. @section RSS feeds
  5767. @cindex RSS feeds
  5768. @cindex Atom feeds
  5769. Org can add and change entries based on information found in RSS feeds and
  5770. Atom feeds. You could use this to make a task out of each new podcast in a
  5771. podcast feed. Or you could use a phone-based note-creating service on the
  5772. web to import tasks into Org. To access feeds, configure the variable
  5773. @code{org-feed-alist}. The docstring of this variable has detailed
  5774. information. Here is just an example:
  5775. @example
  5776. (setq org-feed-alist
  5777. '(("Slashdot"
  5778. "http://rss.slashdot.org/Slashdot/slashdot"
  5779. "~/txt/org/feeds.org" "Slashdot Entries")))
  5780. @end example
  5781. @noindent
  5782. will configure that new items from the feed provided by
  5783. @code{rss.slashdot.org} will result in new entries in the file
  5784. @file{~/org/feeds.org} under the heading @samp{Slashdot Entries}, whenever
  5785. the following command is used:
  5786. @table @kbd
  5787. @orgcmd{C-c C-x g,org-feed-update-all}
  5788. @item C-c C-x g
  5789. Collect items from the feeds configured in @code{org-feed-alist} and act upon
  5790. them.
  5791. @orgcmd{C-c C-x G,org-feed-goto-inbox}
  5792. Prompt for a feed name and go to the inbox configured for this feed.
  5793. @end table
  5794. Under the same headline, Org will create a drawer @samp{FEEDSTATUS} in which
  5795. it will store information about the status of items in the feed, to avoid
  5796. adding the same item several times. You should add @samp{FEEDSTATUS} to the
  5797. list of drawers in that file:
  5798. @example
  5799. #+DRAWERS: LOGBOOK PROPERTIES FEEDSTATUS
  5800. @end example
  5801. For more information, including how to read atom feeds, see
  5802. @file{org-feed.el} and the docstring of @code{org-feed-alist}.
  5803. @node Protocols, Refiling notes, RSS Feeds, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5804. @section Protocols for external access
  5805. @cindex protocols, for external access
  5806. @cindex emacsserver
  5807. You can set up Org for handling protocol calls from outside applications that
  5808. are passed to Emacs through the @file{emacsserver}. For example, you can
  5809. configure bookmarks in your web browser to send a link to the current page to
  5810. Org and create a note from it using capture (@pxref{Capture}). Or you
  5811. could create a bookmark that will tell Emacs to open the local source file of
  5812. a remote website you are looking at with the browser. See
  5813. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/org-protocol.php} for detailed
  5814. documentation and setup instructions.
  5815. @node Refiling notes, Archiving, Protocols, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5816. @section Refiling notes
  5817. @cindex refiling notes
  5818. When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile some of the entries
  5819. into a different list, for example into a project. Cutting, finding the
  5820. right location, and then pasting the note is cumbersome. To simplify this
  5821. process, you can use the following special command:
  5822. @table @kbd
  5823. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  5824. @vindex org-reverse-note-order
  5825. @vindex org-refile-targets
  5826. @vindex org-refile-use-outline-path
  5827. @vindex org-outline-path-complete-in-steps
  5828. @vindex org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes
  5829. @vindex org-log-refile
  5830. @vindex org-refile-use-cache
  5831. Refile the entry or region at point. This command offers possible locations
  5832. for refiling the entry and lets you select one with completion. The item (or
  5833. all items in the region) is filed below the target heading as a subitem.
  5834. Depending on @code{org-reverse-note-order}, it will be either the first or
  5835. last subitem.@*
  5836. By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are considered to be
  5837. targets, but you can have more complex definitions across a number of files.
  5838. See the variable @code{org-refile-targets} for details. If you would like to
  5839. select a location via a file-path-like completion along the outline path, see
  5840. the variables @code{org-refile-use-outline-path} and
  5841. @code{org-outline-path-complete-in-steps}. If you would like to be able to
  5842. create new nodes as new parents for refiling on the fly, check the
  5843. variable @code{org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes}.
  5844. When the variable @code{org-log-refile}@footnote{with corresponding
  5845. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logrefile}, @code{lognoterefile},
  5846. and @code{nologrefile}} is set, a timestamp or a note will be
  5847. recorded when an entry has been refiled.
  5848. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-w}
  5849. Use the refile interface to jump to a heading.
  5850. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c C-w,org-refile-goto-last-stored}
  5851. Jump to the location where @code{org-refile} last moved a tree to.
  5852. @item C-2 C-c C-w
  5853. Refile as the child of the item currently being clocked.
  5854. @item C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5855. @orgcmdtkc{C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w,C-0 C-c C-w,org-refile-cache-clear}
  5856. Clear the target cache. Caching of refile targets can be turned on by
  5857. setting @code{org-refile-use-cache}. To make the command see new possible
  5858. targets, you have to clear the cache with this command.
  5859. @end table
  5860. @node Archiving, , Refiling notes, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5861. @section Archiving
  5862. @cindex archiving
  5863. When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
  5864. to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
  5865. agenda. Archiving is important to keep your working files compact and global
  5866. searches like the construction of agenda views fast.
  5867. @table @kbd
  5868. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-a,org-archive-subtree-default}
  5869. @vindex org-archive-default-command
  5870. Archive the current entry using the command specified in the variable
  5871. @code{org-archive-default-command}.
  5872. @end table
  5873. @menu
  5874. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  5875. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  5876. @end menu
  5877. @node Moving subtrees, Internal archiving, Archiving, Archiving
  5878. @subsection Moving a tree to the archive file
  5879. @cindex external archiving
  5880. The most common archiving action is to move a project tree to another file,
  5881. the archive file.
  5882. @table @kbd
  5883. @orgcmdkskc{C-c C-x C-s,C-c $,org-archive-subtree}
  5884. @vindex org-archive-location
  5885. Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
  5886. given by @code{org-archive-location}.
  5887. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-s}
  5888. Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to
  5889. the archive. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.
  5890. If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive
  5891. location. If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command
  5892. is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.
  5893. @end table
  5894. @cindex archive locations
  5895. The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
  5896. current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
  5897. current file name. For information and examples on how to change this,
  5898. see the documentation string of the variable
  5899. @code{org-archive-location}. There is also an in-buffer option for
  5900. setting this variable, for example@footnote{For backward compatibility,
  5901. the following also works: If there are several such lines in a file,
  5902. each specifies the archive location for the text below it. The first
  5903. such line also applies to any text before its definition. However,
  5904. using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is incompatible
  5905. with the outline structure of the document. The correct method for
  5906. setting multiple archive locations in a buffer is using properties.}:
  5907. @cindex #+ARCHIVE
  5908. @example
  5909. #+ARCHIVE: %s_done::
  5910. @end example
  5911. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  5912. @noindent
  5913. If you would like to have a special ARCHIVE location for a single entry
  5914. or a (sub)tree, give the entry an @code{:ARCHIVE:} property with the
  5915. location as the value (@pxref{Properties and Columns}).
  5916. @vindex org-archive-save-context-info
  5917. When a subtree is moved, it receives a number of special properties that
  5918. record context information like the file from where the entry came, its
  5919. outline path the archiving time etc. Configure the variable
  5920. @code{org-archive-save-context-info} to adjust the amount of information
  5921. added.
  5922. @node Internal archiving, , Moving subtrees, Archiving
  5923. @subsection Internal archiving
  5924. If you want to just switch off (for agenda views) certain subtrees without
  5925. moving them to a different file, you can use the @code{ARCHIVE tag}.
  5926. A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at
  5927. its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way:
  5928. @itemize @minus
  5929. @item
  5930. @vindex org-cycle-open-archived-trees
  5931. It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling
  5932. command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}). You can force cycling archived
  5933. subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option
  5934. @code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}. Also normal outline commands like
  5935. @code{show-all} will open archived subtrees.
  5936. @item
  5937. @vindex org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees
  5938. During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in
  5939. archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option
  5940. @code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}.
  5941. @item
  5942. @vindex org-agenda-skip-archived-trees
  5943. During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda Views}), the content of
  5944. archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option
  5945. @code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}, in which case these trees will always
  5946. be included. In the agenda you can press @kbd{v a} to get archives
  5947. temporarily included.
  5948. @item
  5949. @vindex org-export-with-archived-trees
  5950. Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline
  5951. is. Configure the details using the variable
  5952. @code{org-export-with-archived-trees}.
  5953. @item
  5954. @vindex org-columns-skip-archived-trees
  5955. Archived trees are excluded from column view unless the variable
  5956. @code{org-columns-skip-archived-trees} is configured to @code{nil}.
  5957. @end itemize
  5958. The following commands help manage the ARCHIVE tag:
  5959. @table @kbd
  5960. @orgcmd{C-c C-x a,org-toggle-archive-tag}
  5961. Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline. When the tag is set,
  5962. the headline changes to a shadowed face, and the subtree below it is
  5963. hidden.
  5964. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x a}
  5965. Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived.
  5966. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries. If none are
  5967. found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child. If the
  5968. cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the
  5969. level 1 trees will be checked.
  5970. @orgcmd{C-@kbd{TAB},org-force-cycle-archived}
  5971. Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE.
  5972. @orgcmd{C-c C-x A,org-archive-to-archive-sibling}
  5973. Move the current entry to the @emph{Archive Sibling}. This is a sibling of
  5974. the entry with the heading @samp{Archive} and the tag @samp{ARCHIVE}. The
  5975. entry becomes a child of that sibling and in this way retains a lot of its
  5976. original context, including inherited tags and approximate position in the
  5977. outline.
  5978. @end table
  5979. @node Agenda Views, Markup, Capture - Refile - Archive, Top
  5980. @chapter Agenda views
  5981. @cindex agenda views
  5982. Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and
  5983. tagged headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of
  5984. files. To get an overview of open action items, or of events that are
  5985. important for a particular date, this information must be collected,
  5986. sorted and displayed in an organized way.
  5987. Org can select items based on various criteria and display them
  5988. in a separate buffer. Seven different view types are provided:
  5989. @itemize @bullet
  5990. @item
  5991. an @emph{agenda} that is like a calendar and shows information
  5992. for specific dates,
  5993. @item
  5994. a @emph{TODO list} that covers all unfinished
  5995. action items,
  5996. @item
  5997. a @emph{match view}, showings headlines based on the tags, properties, and
  5998. TODO state associated with them,
  5999. @item
  6000. a @emph{timeline view} that shows all events in a single Org file,
  6001. in time-sorted view,
  6002. @item
  6003. a @emph{text search view} that shows all entries from multiple files
  6004. that contain specified keywords,
  6005. @item
  6006. a @emph{stuck projects view} showing projects that currently don't move
  6007. along, and
  6008. @item
  6009. @emph{custom views} that are special searches and combinations of different
  6010. views.
  6011. @end itemize
  6012. @noindent
  6013. The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda
  6014. buffer}. This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the
  6015. corresponding locations in the original Org files, and even to
  6016. edit these files remotely.
  6017. @vindex org-agenda-window-setup
  6018. @vindex org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit
  6019. Two variables control how the agenda buffer is displayed and whether the
  6020. window configuration is restored when the agenda exits:
  6021. @code{org-agenda-window-setup} and
  6022. @code{org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit}.
  6023. @menu
  6024. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  6025. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  6026. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  6027. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  6028. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  6029. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  6030. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  6031. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  6032. @end menu
  6033. @node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views, Agenda Views
  6034. @section Agenda files
  6035. @cindex agenda files
  6036. @cindex files for agenda
  6037. @vindex org-agenda-files
  6038. The information to be shown is normally collected from all @emph{agenda
  6039. files}, the files listed in the variable
  6040. @code{org-agenda-files}@footnote{If the value of that variable is not a
  6041. list, but a single file name, then the list of agenda files will be
  6042. maintained in that external file.}. If a directory is part of this list,
  6043. all files with the extension @file{.org} in this directory will be part
  6044. of the list.
  6045. Thus, even if you only work with a single Org file, that file should
  6046. be put into the list@footnote{When using the dispatcher, pressing
  6047. @kbd{<} before selecting a command will actually limit the command to
  6048. the current file, and ignore @code{org-agenda-files} until the next
  6049. dispatcher command.}. You can customize @code{org-agenda-files}, but
  6050. the easiest way to maintain it is through the following commands
  6051. @cindex files, adding to agenda list
  6052. @table @kbd
  6053. @orgcmd{C-c [,org-agenda-file-to-front}
  6054. Add current file to the list of agenda files. The file is added to
  6055. the front of the list. If it was already in the list, it is moved to
  6056. the front. With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the end.
  6057. @orgcmd{C-c ],org-remove-file}
  6058. Remove current file from the list of agenda files.
  6059. @kindex C-,
  6060. @orgcmd{C-',org-cycle-agenda-files}
  6061. @itemx C-,
  6062. Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.
  6063. @kindex M-x org-iswitchb
  6064. @item M-x org-iswitchb
  6065. Command to use an @code{iswitchb}-like interface to switch to and between Org
  6066. buffers.
  6067. @end table
  6068. @noindent
  6069. The Org menu contains the current list of files and can be used
  6070. to visit any of them.
  6071. If you would like to focus the agenda temporarily on a file not in
  6072. this list, or on just one file in the list, or even on only a subtree in a
  6073. file, then this can be done in different ways. For a single agenda command,
  6074. you may press @kbd{<} once or several times in the dispatcher
  6075. (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}). To restrict the agenda scope for an
  6076. extended period, use the following commands:
  6077. @table @kbd
  6078. @orgcmd{C-c C-x <,org-agenda-set-restriction-lock}
  6079. Permanently restrict the agenda to the current subtree. When with a
  6080. prefix argument, or with the cursor before the first headline in a file,
  6081. the agenda scope is set to the entire file. This restriction remains in
  6082. effect until removed with @kbd{C-c C-x >}, or by typing either @kbd{<}
  6083. or @kbd{>} in the agenda dispatcher. If there is a window displaying an
  6084. agenda view, the new restriction takes effect immediately.
  6085. @orgcmd{C-c C-x >,org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock}
  6086. Remove the permanent restriction created by @kbd{C-c C-x <}.
  6087. @end table
  6088. @noindent
  6089. When working with @file{speedbar.el}, you can use the following commands in
  6090. the Speedbar frame:
  6091. @table @kbd
  6092. @orgcmdtkc{< @r{in the speedbar frame},<,org-speedbar-set-agenda-restriction}
  6093. Permanently restrict the agenda to the item---either an Org file or a subtree
  6094. in such a file---at the cursor in the Speedbar frame.
  6095. If there is a window displaying an agenda view, the new restriction takes
  6096. effect immediately.
  6097. @orgcmdtkc{> @r{in the speedbar frame},>,org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock}
  6098. Lift the restriction.
  6099. @end table
  6100. @node Agenda dispatcher, Built-in agenda views, Agenda files, Agenda Views
  6101. @section The agenda dispatcher
  6102. @cindex agenda dispatcher
  6103. @cindex dispatching agenda commands
  6104. The views are created through a dispatcher, which should be bound to a
  6105. global key---for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Installation}). In the
  6106. following we will assume that @kbd{C-c a} is indeed how the dispatcher
  6107. is accessed and list keyboard access to commands accordingly. After
  6108. pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a
  6109. command. The dispatcher offers the following default commands:
  6110. @table @kbd
  6111. @item a
  6112. Create the calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  6113. @item t @r{/} T
  6114. Create a list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}).
  6115. @item m @r{/} M
  6116. Create a list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching
  6117. tags and properties}).
  6118. @item L
  6119. Create the timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}).
  6120. @item s
  6121. Create a list of entries selected by a boolean expression of keywords
  6122. and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in the entry.
  6123. @item /
  6124. @vindex org-agenda-text-search-extra-files
  6125. Search for a regular expression in all agenda files and additionally in
  6126. the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}. This
  6127. uses the Emacs command @code{multi-occur}. A prefix argument can be
  6128. used to specify the number of context lines for each match, default is
  6129. 1.
  6130. @item # @r{/} !
  6131. Create a list of stuck projects (@pxref{Stuck projects}).
  6132. @item <
  6133. Restrict an agenda command to the current buffer@footnote{For backward
  6134. compatibility, you can also press @kbd{1} to restrict to the current
  6135. buffer.}. After pressing @kbd{<}, you still need to press the character
  6136. selecting the command.
  6137. @item < <
  6138. If there is an active region, restrict the following agenda command to
  6139. the region. Otherwise, restrict it to the current subtree@footnote{For
  6140. backward compatibility, you can also press @kbd{0} to restrict to the
  6141. current region/subtree.}. After pressing @kbd{< <}, you still need to press the
  6142. character selecting the command.
  6143. @end table
  6144. You can also define custom commands that will be accessible through the
  6145. dispatcher, just like the default commands. This includes the
  6146. possibility to create extended agenda buffers that contain several
  6147. blocks together, for example the weekly agenda, the global TODO list and
  6148. a number of special tags matches. @xref{Custom agenda views}.
  6149. @node Built-in agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views
  6150. @section The built-in agenda views
  6151. In this section we describe the built-in views.
  6152. @menu
  6153. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  6154. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  6155. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  6156. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  6157. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  6158. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  6159. @end menu
  6160. @node Weekly/daily agenda, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views, Built-in agenda views
  6161. @subsection The weekly/daily agenda
  6162. @cindex agenda
  6163. @cindex weekly agenda
  6164. @cindex daily agenda
  6165. The purpose of the weekly/daily @emph{agenda} is to act like a page of a
  6166. paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day.
  6167. @table @kbd
  6168. @cindex org-agenda, command
  6169. @orgcmd{C-c a a,org-agenda-list}
  6170. Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of Org files. The agenda
  6171. shows the entries for each day. With a numeric prefix@footnote{For backward
  6172. compatibility, the universal prefix @kbd{C-u} causes all TODO entries to be
  6173. listed before the agenda. This feature is deprecated, use the dedicated TODO
  6174. list, or a block agenda instead (@pxref{Block agenda}).} (like @kbd{C-u 2 1
  6175. C-c a a}) you may set the number of days to be displayed.
  6176. @end table
  6177. @vindex org-agenda-span
  6178. @vindex org-agenda-ndays
  6179. The default number of days displayed in the agenda is set by the variable
  6180. @code{org-agenda-span} (or the obsolete @code{org-agenda-ndays}). This
  6181. variable can be set to any number of days you want to see by default in the
  6182. agenda, or to a span name, such a @code{day}, @code{week}, @code{month} or
  6183. @code{year}.
  6184. Remote editing from the agenda buffer means, for example, that you can
  6185. change the dates of deadlines and appointments from the agenda buffer.
  6186. The commands available in the Agenda buffer are listed in @ref{Agenda
  6187. commands}.
  6188. @subsubheading Calendar/Diary integration
  6189. @cindex calendar integration
  6190. @cindex diary integration
  6191. Emacs contains the calendar and diary by Edward M. Reingold. The
  6192. calendar displays a three-month calendar with holidays from different
  6193. countries and cultures. The diary allows you to keep track of
  6194. anniversaries, lunar phases, sunrise/set, recurrent appointments
  6195. (weekly, monthly) and more. In this way, it is quite complementary to
  6196. Org. It can be very useful to combine output from Org with
  6197. the diary.
  6198. In order to include entries from the Emacs diary into Org-mode's
  6199. agenda, you only need to customize the variable
  6200. @lisp
  6201. (setq org-agenda-include-diary t)
  6202. @end lisp
  6203. @noindent After that, everything will happen automatically. All diary
  6204. entries including holidays, anniversaries, etc., will be included in the
  6205. agenda buffer created by Org-mode. @key{SPC}, @key{TAB}, and
  6206. @key{RET} can be used from the agenda buffer to jump to the diary
  6207. file in order to edit existing diary entries. The @kbd{i} command to
  6208. insert new entries for the current date works in the agenda buffer, as
  6209. well as the commands @kbd{S}, @kbd{M}, and @kbd{C} to display
  6210. Sunrise/Sunset times, show lunar phases and to convert to other
  6211. calendars, respectively. @kbd{c} can be used to switch back and forth
  6212. between calendar and agenda.
  6213. If you are using the diary only for sexp entries and holidays, it is
  6214. faster to not use the above setting, but instead to copy or even move
  6215. the entries into an Org file. Org-mode evaluates diary-style sexp
  6216. entries, and does it faster because there is no overhead for first
  6217. creating the diary display. Note that the sexp entries must start at
  6218. the left margin, no whitespace is allowed before them. For example,
  6219. the following segment of an Org file will be processed and entries
  6220. will be made in the agenda:
  6221. @example
  6222. * Birthdays and similar stuff
  6223. #+CATEGORY: Holiday
  6224. %%(org-calendar-holiday) ; special function for holiday names
  6225. #+CATEGORY: Ann
  6226. %%(diary-anniversary 5 14 1956)@footnote{Note that the order of the arguments (month, day, year) depends on the setting of @code{calendar-date-style}.} Arthur Dent is %d years old
  6227. %%(diary-anniversary 10 2 1869) Mahatma Gandhi would be %d years old
  6228. @end example
  6229. @subsubheading Anniversaries from BBDB
  6230. @cindex BBDB, anniversaries
  6231. @cindex anniversaries, from BBDB
  6232. If you are using the Big Brothers Database to store your contacts, you will
  6233. very likely prefer to store anniversaries in BBDB rather than in a
  6234. separate Org or diary file. Org supports this and will show BBDB
  6235. anniversaries as part of the agenda. All you need to do is to add the
  6236. following to one your your agenda files:
  6237. @example
  6238. * Anniversaries
  6239. :PROPERTIES:
  6240. :CATEGORY: Anniv
  6241. :END:
  6242. %%(org-bbdb-anniversaries)
  6243. @end example
  6244. You can then go ahead and define anniversaries for a BBDB record. Basically,
  6245. you need to press @kbd{C-o anniversary @key{RET}} with the cursor in a BBDB
  6246. record and then add the date in the format @code{YYYY-MM-DD} or @code{MM-DD},
  6247. followed by a space and the class of the anniversary (@samp{birthday} or
  6248. @samp{wedding}, or a format string). If you omit the class, it will default to
  6249. @samp{birthday}. Here are a few examples, the header for the file
  6250. @file{org-bbdb.el} contains more detailed information.
  6251. @example
  6252. 1973-06-22
  6253. 06-22
  6254. 1955-08-02 wedding
  6255. 2008-04-14 %s released version 6.01 of org-mode, %d years ago
  6256. @end example
  6257. After a change to BBDB, or for the first agenda display during an Emacs
  6258. session, the agenda display will suffer a short delay as Org updates its
  6259. hash with anniversaries. However, from then on things will be very fast---much
  6260. faster in fact than a long list of @samp{%%(diary-anniversary)} entries
  6261. in an Org or Diary file.
  6262. @subsubheading Appointment reminders
  6263. @cindex @file{appt.el}
  6264. @cindex appointment reminders
  6265. Org can interact with Emacs appointments notification facility. To add all
  6266. the appointments of your agenda files, use the command
  6267. @code{org-agenda-to-appt}. This command also lets you filter through the
  6268. list of your appointments and add only those belonging to a specific category
  6269. or matching a regular expression. See the docstring for details.
  6270. @node Global TODO list, Matching tags and properties, Weekly/daily agenda, Built-in agenda views
  6271. @subsection The global TODO list
  6272. @cindex global TODO list
  6273. @cindex TODO list, global
  6274. The global TODO list contains all unfinished TODO items formatted and
  6275. collected into a single place.
  6276. @table @kbd
  6277. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  6278. Show the global TODO list. This collects the TODO items from all agenda
  6279. files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. By default, this lists
  6280. items with a state the is not a DONE state. The buffer is in
  6281. @code{agenda-mode}, so there are commands to examine and manipulate the TODO
  6282. entries directly from that buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  6283. @orgcmd{C-c a T,org-todo-list}
  6284. @cindex TODO keyword matching
  6285. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  6286. Like the above, but allows selection of a specific TODO keyword. You can
  6287. also do this by specifying a prefix argument to @kbd{C-c a t}. You are
  6288. prompted for a keyword, and you may also specify several keywords by
  6289. separating them with @samp{|} as the boolean OR operator. With a numeric
  6290. prefix, the Nth keyword in @code{org-todo-keywords} is selected.
  6291. @kindex r
  6292. The @kbd{r} key in the agenda buffer regenerates it, and you can give
  6293. a prefix argument to this command to change the selected TODO keyword,
  6294. for example @kbd{3 r}. If you often need a search for a specific
  6295. keyword, define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).@*
  6296. Matching specific TODO keywords can also be done as part of a tags
  6297. search (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  6298. @end table
  6299. Remote editing of TODO items means that you can change the state of a
  6300. TODO entry with a single key press. The commands available in the
  6301. TODO list are described in @ref{Agenda commands}.
  6302. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into TODO list
  6303. Normally the global TODO list simply shows all headlines with TODO
  6304. keywords. This list can become very long. There are two ways to keep
  6305. it more compact:
  6306. @itemize @minus
  6307. @item
  6308. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled
  6309. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines
  6310. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-timestamp
  6311. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date
  6312. Some people view a TODO item that has been @emph{scheduled} for execution or
  6313. have a @emph{deadline} (@pxref{Timestamps}) as no longer @emph{open}.
  6314. Configure the variables @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled},
  6315. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines},
  6316. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-timestamp} and/or
  6317. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date} to exclude such items from the global
  6318. TODO list.
  6319. @item
  6320. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  6321. TODO items may have sublevels to break up the task into subtasks. In
  6322. such cases it may be enough to list only the highest level TODO headline
  6323. and omit the sublevels from the global list. Configure the variable
  6324. @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels} to get this behavior.
  6325. @end itemize
  6326. @node Matching tags and properties, Timeline, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views
  6327. @subsection Matching tags and properties
  6328. @cindex matching, of tags
  6329. @cindex matching, of properties
  6330. @cindex tags view
  6331. @cindex match view
  6332. If headlines in the agenda files are marked with @emph{tags} (@pxref{Tags}),
  6333. or have properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), you can select headlines
  6334. based on this metadata and collect them into an agenda buffer. The match
  6335. syntax described