org.texi 771 KB

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  1. \input texinfo @c -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org.info
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include docstyle.texi
  6. @include org-version.inc
  7. @c Version and Contact Info
  8. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{https://orgmode.org,maintainers web page}
  9. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  10. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  11. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  12. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  13. @c %**end of header
  14. @finalout
  15. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  16. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  17. @c =======================================
  18. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  19. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  20. @set cmdnames
  21. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  22. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  23. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  24. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  25. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  26. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  27. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  28. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  29. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  30. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  31. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  32. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  33. @c a key but no command
  34. @c Inserts: @item key
  35. @macro orgkey{key}
  36. @kindex \key\
  37. @item @kbd{\key\}
  38. @end macro
  39. @macro xorgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @c one key with a command
  44. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  45. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  46. @ifset cmdnames
  47. @kindex \key\
  48. @findex \command\
  49. @iftex
  50. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  51. @end iftex
  52. @ifnottex
  53. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  54. @end ifnottex
  55. @end ifset
  56. @ifclear cmdnames
  57. @kindex \key\
  58. @item @kbd{\key\}
  59. @end ifclear
  60. @end macro
  61. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  62. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  63. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  64. @ifset cmdnames
  65. @kindex \key\
  66. @findex \command\
  67. @iftex
  68. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  69. @end iftex
  70. @ifnottex
  71. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  72. @end ifnottex
  73. @end ifset
  74. @ifclear cmdnames
  75. @kindex \key\
  76. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  77. @end ifclear
  78. @end macro
  79. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  80. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  81. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  82. @ifset cmdnames
  83. @findex \command\
  84. @iftex
  85. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  86. @end iftex
  87. @ifnottex
  88. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  89. @end ifnottex
  90. @end ifset
  91. @ifclear cmdnames
  92. @item @kbd{\key\}
  93. @end ifclear
  94. @end macro
  95. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  96. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  97. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  98. @ifset cmdnames
  99. @kindex \key\
  100. @findex \command\
  101. @iftex
  102. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  103. @end iftex
  104. @ifnottex
  105. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  106. @end ifnottex
  107. @end ifset
  108. @ifclear cmdnames
  109. @kindex \key\
  110. @item @kbd{\text\}
  111. @end ifclear
  112. @end macro
  113. @c two keys with one command
  114. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  115. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  116. @ifset cmdnames
  117. @kindex \key1\
  118. @kindex \key2\
  119. @findex \command\
  120. @iftex
  121. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  122. @end iftex
  123. @ifnottex
  124. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  125. @end ifnottex
  126. @end ifset
  127. @ifclear cmdnames
  128. @kindex \key1\
  129. @kindex \key2\
  130. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  131. @end ifclear
  132. @end macro
  133. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  134. @c @itemx
  135. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  136. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  137. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  138. @ifset cmdnames
  139. @kindex \key1\
  140. @kindex \key2\
  141. @findex \command\
  142. @iftex
  143. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  144. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  145. @end iftex
  146. @ifnottex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  149. @end ifnottex
  150. @end ifset
  151. @ifclear cmdnames
  152. @kindex \key1\
  153. @kindex \key2\
  154. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  155. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  156. @end ifclear
  157. @end macro
  158. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  159. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  160. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  161. @ifset cmdnames
  162. @kindex \key1\
  163. @kindex \key2\
  164. @findex \command\
  165. @iftex
  166. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  167. @end iftex
  168. @ifnottex
  169. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  170. @end ifnottex
  171. @end ifset
  172. @ifclear cmdnames
  173. @kindex \key1\
  174. @kindex \key2\
  175. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  176. @end ifclear
  177. @end macro
  178. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  179. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  180. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  181. @ifset cmdnames
  182. @kindex \key1\
  183. @kindex \key2\
  184. @findex \command\
  185. @iftex
  186. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  187. @end iftex
  188. @ifnottex
  189. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  190. @end ifnottex
  191. @end ifset
  192. @ifclear cmdnames
  193. @kindex \key1\
  194. @kindex \key2\
  195. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  196. @end ifclear
  197. @end macro
  198. @c two keys with two commands
  199. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  200. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  201. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  202. @ifset cmdnames
  203. @kindex \key1\
  204. @kindex \key2\
  205. @findex \command1\
  206. @findex \command2\
  207. @iftex
  208. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  209. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  210. @end iftex
  211. @ifnottex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  214. @end ifnottex
  215. @end ifset
  216. @ifclear cmdnames
  217. @kindex \key1\
  218. @kindex \key2\
  219. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  220. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  221. @end ifclear
  222. @end macro
  223. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  224. @iftex
  225. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  226. @end iftex
  227. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  228. @macro tsubheading{text}
  229. @ifinfo
  230. @subsubheading \text\
  231. @end ifinfo
  232. @ifnotinfo
  233. @item @b{\text\}
  234. @end ifnotinfo
  235. @end macro
  236. @copying
  237. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  238. Copyright @copyright{} 2004--2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  239. @quotation
  240. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  241. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  242. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  243. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  244. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  245. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  246. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  247. modify this GNU manual.''
  248. @end quotation
  249. @end copying
  250. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  251. @direntry
  252. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  253. @end direntry
  254. @titlepage
  255. @title The Org Manual
  256. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  257. @author by Carsten Dominik
  258. with contributions by Bastien Guerry, Nicolas Goaziou, Eric Schulte,
  259. Jambunathan K, Dan Davison, Thomas Dye, David O'Toole, and Philip Rooke.
  260. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  261. @page
  262. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  263. @insertcopying
  264. @end titlepage
  265. @c Output the short table of contents at the beginning.
  266. @shortcontents
  267. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  268. @contents
  269. @ifnottex
  270. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  271. @top Org Mode Manual
  272. @insertcopying
  273. @end ifnottex
  274. @menu
  275. * Introduction:: Getting started
  276. * Document structure:: A tree works like your brain
  277. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  278. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  279. * TODO items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  280. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  281. * Properties and columns:: Storing information about an entry
  282. * Dates and times:: Making items useful for planning
  283. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  284. * Agenda views:: Collecting information into views
  285. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  286. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing notes
  287. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  288. * Working with source code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  289. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  290. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  291. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  292. * History and acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  293. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
  294. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  295. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  296. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  297. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  298. @detailmenu
  299. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  300. Introduction
  301. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  302. * Installation:: Installing Org
  303. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  304. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  305. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  306. Document structure
  307. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  308. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  309. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  310. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  311. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  312. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  313. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  314. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  315. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  316. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  317. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  318. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  319. Visibility cycling
  320. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  321. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  322. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  323. Tables
  324. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  325. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  326. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  327. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  328. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  329. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  330. The spreadsheet
  331. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  332. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  333. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  334. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  335. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  336. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  337. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  338. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  339. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  340. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  341. Hyperlinks
  342. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  343. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  344. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  345. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  346. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  347. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  348. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  349. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  350. Internal links
  351. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  352. TODO items
  353. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  354. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  355. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  356. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  357. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  358. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  359. Extended use of TODO keywords
  360. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  361. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  362. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  363. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  364. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  365. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  366. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  367. Progress logging
  368. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  369. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  370. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  371. Tags
  372. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  373. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  374. * Tag hierarchy:: Create a hierarchy of tags
  375. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  376. Properties and columns
  377. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  378. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  379. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  380. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  381. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  382. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  383. Column view
  384. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  385. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  386. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  387. Defining columns
  388. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  389. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  390. Dates and times
  391. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  392. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  393. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  394. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  395. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  396. * Timers:: Notes with a running timer
  397. Creating timestamps
  398. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  399. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  400. Deadlines and scheduling
  401. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  402. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  403. Clocking work time
  404. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  405. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  406. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  407. Capture - Refile - Archive
  408. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  409. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  410. * RSS feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  411. * Protocols:: External (e.g., Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  412. * Refile and copy:: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another
  413. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  414. Capture
  415. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  416. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  417. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  418. Capture templates
  419. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  420. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  421. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context
  422. Protocols for external access
  423. * @code{store-link} protocol:: Store a link, push URL to kill-ring.
  424. * @code{capture} protocol:: Fill a buffer with external information.
  425. * @code{open-source} protocol:: Edit published contents.
  426. Archiving
  427. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  428. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  429. Agenda views
  430. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  431. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  432. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  433. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  434. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  435. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  436. * Exporting agenda views:: Writing a view to a file
  437. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  438. The built-in agenda views
  439. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  440. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  441. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  442. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  443. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  444. Presentation and sorting
  445. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  446. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  447. * Sorting agenda items:: The order of things
  448. * Filtering/limiting agenda items:: Dynamically narrow the agenda
  449. Custom agenda views
  450. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  451. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  452. * Setting options:: Changing the rules
  453. Markup for rich export
  454. * Paragraphs:: The basic unit of text
  455. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  456. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  457. * Images and tables:: Images, tables and caption mechanism
  458. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  459. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  460. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  461. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  462. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  463. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  464. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  465. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  466. Exporting
  467. * The export dispatcher:: The main interface
  468. * Export settings:: Common export settings
  469. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  470. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  471. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create templates
  472. * Comment lines:: What will not be exported
  473. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  474. * Beamer export:: Exporting as a Beamer presentation
  475. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  476. * @LaTeX{} export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  477. * Markdown export:: Exporting to Markdown
  478. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  479. * Org export:: Exporting to Org
  480. * Texinfo export:: Exporting to Texinfo
  481. * iCalendar export:: Exporting to iCalendar
  482. * Other built-in back-ends:: Exporting to a man page
  483. * Advanced configuration:: Fine-tuning the export output
  484. * Export in foreign buffers:: Author tables and lists in Org syntax
  485. Beamer export
  486. * Beamer export commands:: For creating Beamer documents.
  487. * Beamer specific export settings:: For customizing Beamer export.
  488. * Sectioning Frames and Blocks in Beamer:: For composing Beamer slides.
  489. * Beamer specific syntax:: For using in Org documents.
  490. * Editing support:: For using helper functions.
  491. * A Beamer example:: A complete presentation.
  492. HTML export
  493. * HTML Export commands:: Invoking HTML export
  494. * HTML Specific export settings:: Settings for HTML export
  495. * HTML doctypes:: Exporting various (X)HTML flavors
  496. * HTML preamble and postamble:: Inserting preamble and postamble
  497. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org files
  498. * Links in HTML export:: Interpreting and formatting links
  499. * Tables in HTML export:: Formatting and modifying tables
  500. * Images in HTML export:: Inserting figures with HTML output
  501. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Handling math equations
  502. * Text areas in HTML export:: Showing an alternate approach, an example
  503. * CSS support:: Styling HTML output
  504. * JavaScript support:: Folding scripting in the web browser
  505. @LaTeX{} export
  506. * @LaTeX{} export commands:: For producing @LaTeX{} and PDF documents.
  507. * @LaTeX{} specific export settings:: Unique to this @LaTeX{} back-end.
  508. * @LaTeX{} header and sectioning:: For file structure.
  509. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Directly in the Org document.
  510. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to tables.
  511. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to images.
  512. * Plain lists in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to lists.
  513. * Source blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to source code blocks.
  514. * Example blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to example blocks.
  515. * Special blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to special blocks.
  516. * Horizontal rules in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to horizontal rules.
  517. OpenDocument Text export
  518. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: Required packages.
  519. * ODT export commands:: Invoking export.
  520. * ODT specific export settings:: Configuration options.
  521. * Extending ODT export:: Producing @file{.doc}, @file{.pdf} files.
  522. * Applying custom styles:: Styling the output.
  523. * Links in ODT export:: Handling and formatting links.
  524. * Tables in ODT export:: Org table conversions.
  525. * Images in ODT export:: Inserting images.
  526. * Math formatting in ODT export:: Formatting @LaTeX{} fragments.
  527. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: Rendering objects.
  528. * Literal examples in ODT export:: For source code and example blocks.
  529. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: For power users.
  530. Math formatting in ODT export
  531. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: Embedding in @LaTeX{} format.
  532. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: Embedding in native format.
  533. Advanced topics in ODT export
  534. * Configuring a document converter:: Registering a document converter.
  535. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Exploring internals.
  536. * Creating one-off styles:: Customizing styles, highlighting.
  537. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: Defining table templates.
  538. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: Debugging corrupted OpenDocument files.
  539. Texinfo export
  540. * Texinfo export commands:: Invoking commands.
  541. * Texinfo specific export settings:: Setting the environment.
  542. * Texinfo file header:: Generating the header.
  543. * Texinfo title and copyright page:: Creating preamble pages.
  544. * Info directory file:: Installing a manual in Info file hierarchy.
  545. * Headings and sectioning structure:: Building document structure.
  546. * Indices:: Creating indices.
  547. * Quoting Texinfo code:: Incorporating literal Texinfo code.
  548. * Plain lists in Texinfo export:: List attributes.
  549. * Tables in Texinfo export:: Table attributes.
  550. * Images in Texinfo export:: Image attributes.
  551. * Special blocks in Texinfo export:: Special block attributes.
  552. * A Texinfo example:: Processing Org to Texinfo.
  553. Publishing
  554. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  555. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  556. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  557. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  558. Configuration
  559. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  560. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  561. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  562. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  563. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  564. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  565. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  566. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  567. Sample configuration
  568. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  569. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  570. Working with source code
  571. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  572. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  573. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  574. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  575. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  576. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  577. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  578. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  579. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  580. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  581. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  582. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  583. Header arguments
  584. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  585. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  586. Using header arguments
  587. * System-wide header arguments:: Set globally, language-specific
  588. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set in the Org file's headers
  589. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set in the Org file
  590. * Language-specific mode properties::
  591. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most commonly used method
  592. * Arguments in function calls:: The most specific level, takes highest priority
  593. Specific header arguments
  594. * var:: Pass arguments to @samp{src} code blocks
  595. * results:: Specify results type; how to collect
  596. * file:: Specify a path for output file
  597. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  598. * file-ext:: Specify an extension for file output
  599. * output-dir:: Specify a directory for output file
  600. * dir:: Specify the default directory for code block execution
  601. * exports:: Specify exporting code, results, both, none
  602. * tangle:: Toggle tangling; or specify file name
  603. * mkdirp:: Toggle for parent directory creation for target files during tangling
  604. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled code files
  605. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled code files
  606. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb expansion during tangling
  607. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  608. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  609. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  610. * noweb-sep:: String to separate noweb references
  611. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  612. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  613. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  614. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  615. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  616. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  617. * tangle-mode:: Set permission of tangled files
  618. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  619. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  620. * post:: Post processing of results of code block evaluation
  621. * prologue:: Text to prepend to body of code block
  622. * epilogue:: Text to append to body of code block
  623. Miscellaneous
  624. * Completion:: M-@key{TAB} guesses completions
  625. * Easy templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  626. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  627. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  628. * Customization:: Adapting Org to changing tastes
  629. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  630. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  631. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  632. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  633. * Interaction:: With other Emacs packages
  634. * org-crypt:: Encrypting Org files
  635. Interaction with other packages
  636. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  637. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  638. Hacking
  639. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  640. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  641. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  642. * Adding export back-ends:: How to write new export back-ends
  643. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  644. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  645. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  646. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  647. * Speeding up your agendas:: Tips on how to speed up your agendas
  648. * Extracting agenda information:: Post-processing of agenda information
  649. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  650. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  651. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  652. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  653. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  654. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  655. * Radio lists:: Sending and receiving lists
  656. MobileOrg
  657. * Setting up the staging area:: For the mobile device
  658. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  659. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  660. @end detailmenu
  661. @end menu
  662. @node Introduction
  663. @chapter Introduction
  664. @cindex introduction
  665. @menu
  666. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  667. * Installation:: Installing Org
  668. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  669. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  670. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  671. @end menu
  672. @node Summary
  673. @section Summary
  674. @cindex summary
  675. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and project planning
  676. with a fast and effective plain-text system. It also is an authoring system
  677. with unique support for literate programming and reproducible research.
  678. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep
  679. the content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and structure
  680. editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created with a
  681. built-in table editor. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites,
  682. emails, Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  683. Org develops organizational tasks around notes files that contain lists or
  684. information about projects as plain text. Project planning and task
  685. management makes use of metadata which is part of an outline node. Based on
  686. this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and create dynamic
  687. @i{agenda views} that also integrate the Emacs calendar and diary. Org can
  688. be used to implement many different project planning schemes, such as David
  689. Allen's GTD system.
  690. Org files can serve as a single source authoring system with export to many
  691. different formats such as HTML, @LaTeX{}, Open Document, and Markdown. New
  692. export backends can be derived from existing ones, or defined from scratch.
  693. Org files can include source code blocks, which makes Org uniquely suited for
  694. authoring technical documents with code examples. Org source code blocks are
  695. fully functional; they can be evaluated in place and their results can be
  696. captured in the file. This makes it possible to create a single file
  697. reproducible research compendium.
  698. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should feel like a
  699. straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not imposed, but a
  700. large amount of functionality is available when needed. Org is a toolbox.
  701. Many users actually run only a (very personal) fraction of Org's capabilities, and
  702. know that there is more whenever they need it.
  703. All of this is achieved with strictly plain text files, the most portable and
  704. future-proof file format. Org runs in Emacs. Emacs is one of the most
  705. widely ported programs, so that Org mode is available on every major
  706. platform.
  707. @cindex FAQ
  708. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  709. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  710. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc. This page is located at
  711. @uref{https://orgmode.org}.
  712. @cindex print edition
  713. An earlier version (7.3) of this manual is available as a
  714. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from
  715. Network Theory Ltd.}
  716. @page
  717. @node Installation
  718. @section Installation
  719. @cindex installation
  720. Org is part of recent distributions of GNU Emacs, so you normally don't need
  721. to install it. If, for one reason or another, you want to install Org on top
  722. of this pre-packaged version, there are three ways to do it:
  723. @itemize @bullet
  724. @item By using Emacs package system.
  725. @item By downloading Org as an archive.
  726. @item By using Org's git repository.
  727. @end itemize
  728. We @b{strongly recommend} to stick to a single installation method.
  729. @subsubheading Using Emacs packaging system
  730. Recent Emacs distributions include a packaging system which lets you install
  731. Elisp libraries. You can install Org with @kbd{M-x package-install @key{RET}
  732. org}.
  733. @noindent @b{Important}: you need to do this in a session where no @code{.org} file has
  734. been visited, i.e., where no Org built-in function have been loaded.
  735. Otherwise autoload Org functions will mess up the installation.
  736. Then, to make sure your Org configuration is taken into account, initialize
  737. the package system with @code{(package-initialize)} in your Emacs init file
  738. before setting any Org option. If you want to use Org's package repository,
  739. check out the @uref{https://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}.
  740. @subsubheading Downloading Org as an archive
  741. You can download Org latest release from @uref{https://orgmode.org/, Org's
  742. website}. In this case, make sure you set the load-path correctly in your
  743. Emacs init file:
  744. @lisp
  745. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  746. @end lisp
  747. The downloaded archive contains contributed libraries that are not included
  748. in Emacs. If you want to use them, add the @file{contrib} directory to your
  749. load-path:
  750. @lisp
  751. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  752. @end lisp
  753. Optionally, you can compile the files and/or install them in your system.
  754. Run @code{make help} to list compilation and installation options.
  755. @subsubheading Using Org's git repository
  756. You can clone Org's repository and install Org like this:
  757. @example
  758. $ cd ~/src/
  759. $ git clone https://code.orgmode.org/bzg/org-mode.git
  760. $ make autoloads
  761. @end example
  762. Note that in this case, @code{make autoloads} is mandatory: it defines Org's
  763. version in @file{org-version.el} and Org's autoloads in
  764. @file{org-loaddefs.el}.
  765. Remember to add the correct load-path as described in the method above.
  766. You can also compile with @code{make}, generate the documentation with
  767. @code{make doc}, create a local configuration with @code{make config} and
  768. install Org with @code{make install}. Please run @code{make help} to get
  769. the list of compilation/installation options.
  770. For more detailed explanations on Org's build system, please check the Org
  771. Build System page on @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html,
  772. Worg}.
  773. @node Activation
  774. @section Activation
  775. @cindex activation
  776. @cindex autoload
  777. @cindex ELPA
  778. @cindex global key bindings
  779. @cindex key bindings, global
  780. @findex org-agenda
  781. @findex org-capture
  782. @findex org-store-link
  783. @findex org-switchb
  784. Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on: this is the default in
  785. Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer
  786. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  787. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  788. packages, please take the time to check the list (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  789. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  790. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-switchb} should be accessible through
  791. global keys (i.e., anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  792. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  793. liking.
  794. @lisp
  795. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  796. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  797. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  798. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-switchb)
  799. @end lisp
  800. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  801. Files with the @file{.org} extension use Org mode by default. To turn on Org
  802. mode in a file that does not have the extension @file{.org}, make the first
  803. line of a file look like this:
  804. @example
  805. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  806. @end example
  807. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  808. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  809. the file's name is. See also the variable
  810. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  811. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  812. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode} turned on, which is
  813. the default. If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create
  814. an active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  815. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  816. @node Feedback
  817. @section Feedback
  818. @cindex feedback
  819. @cindex bug reports
  820. @cindex maintainer
  821. @cindex author
  822. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  823. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  824. You can subscribe to the list
  825. @uref{https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/emacs-orgmode, on this web page}.
  826. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  827. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  828. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  829. moderators have to do.}.
  830. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  831. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  832. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  833. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  834. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  835. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in the
  836. Emacs init file. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  837. @example
  838. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report @key{RET}}
  839. @end example
  840. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  841. that you only need to add your description. If you are not sending the Email
  842. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  843. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  844. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  845. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  846. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  847. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  848. @example
  849. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  850. @end example
  851. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  852. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as
  853. @code{emacs -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  854. shown below.
  855. @lisp
  856. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest 'org-mode'
  857. ;; activate debugging
  858. (setq debug-on-error t
  859. debug-on-signal nil
  860. debug-on-quit nil)
  861. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  862. (add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/org-mode/lisp")
  863. (add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t)
  864. @end lisp
  865. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  866. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  867. about:
  868. @enumerate
  869. @item What exactly did you do?
  870. @item What did you expect to happen?
  871. @item What happened instead?
  872. @end enumerate
  873. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  874. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  875. @cindex backtrace of an error
  876. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  877. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  878. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  879. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  880. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  881. @enumerate
  882. @item
  883. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  884. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  885. To do this, use
  886. @example
  887. @kbd{C-u M-x org-reload @key{RET}}
  888. @end example
  889. @noindent
  890. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  891. menu.
  892. @item
  893. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}.
  894. @item
  895. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  896. document the steps you take.
  897. @item
  898. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  899. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  900. attach it to your bug report.
  901. @end enumerate
  902. @node Conventions
  903. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  904. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  905. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  906. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  907. @table @code
  908. @item TODO
  909. @itemx WAITING
  910. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  911. user-defined.
  912. @item boss
  913. @itemx ARCHIVE
  914. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  915. meaning are written with all capitals.
  916. @item Release
  917. @itemx PRIORITY
  918. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  919. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  920. @end table
  921. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  922. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_EXPORT html} to start
  923. a @code{HTML} environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to
  924. enhance its readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org file.
  925. @subsubheading Key bindings and commands
  926. @kindex C-c a
  927. @findex org-agenda
  928. @kindex C-c c
  929. @findex org-capture
  930. The manual suggests a few global key bindings, in particular @kbd{C-c a} for
  931. @code{org-agenda} and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only
  932. suggestions, but the rest of the manual assumes that these key bindings are in
  933. place in order to list commands by key access.
  934. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  935. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  936. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  937. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  938. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  939. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{RIGHT}} will
  940. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  941. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  942. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  943. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  944. @node Document structure
  945. @chapter Document structure
  946. @cindex document structure
  947. @cindex structure of document
  948. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  949. edit the structure of the document.
  950. @menu
  951. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  952. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  953. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  954. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  955. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  956. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  957. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  958. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  959. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  960. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  961. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  962. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  963. @end menu
  964. @node Outlines
  965. @section Outlines
  966. @cindex outlines
  967. @cindex Outline mode
  968. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  969. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  970. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  971. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  972. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  973. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  974. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  975. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  976. @node Headlines
  977. @section Headlines
  978. @cindex headlines
  979. @cindex outline tree
  980. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  981. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  982. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  983. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  984. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  985. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  986. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  987. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  988. headings indented less than 30 stars.}. For example:
  989. @example
  990. * Top level headline
  991. ** Second level
  992. *** 3rd level
  993. some text
  994. *** 3rd level
  995. more text
  996. * Another top level headline
  997. @end example
  998. @vindex org-footnote-section
  999. @noindent Note that a headline named after @code{org-footnote-section},
  1000. which defaults to @samp{Footnotes}, is considered as special. A subtree with
  1001. this headline will be silently ignored by exporting functions.
  1002. Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  1003. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  1004. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  1005. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  1006. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  1007. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  1008. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  1009. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  1010. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  1011. @node Visibility cycling
  1012. @section Visibility cycling
  1013. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1014. @cindex visibility cycling
  1015. @cindex trees, visibility
  1016. @cindex show hidden text
  1017. @cindex hide text
  1018. @menu
  1019. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  1020. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  1021. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  1022. @end menu
  1023. @node Global and local cycling
  1024. @subsection Global and local cycling
  1025. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1026. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1027. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1028. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1029. @cindex subtree cycling
  1030. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1031. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1032. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1033. @table @asis
  1034. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1035. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1036. @example
  1037. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1038. '-----------------------------------'
  1039. @end example
  1040. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1041. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1042. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}.
  1043. @cindex global visibility states
  1044. @cindex global cycling
  1045. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1046. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1047. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1048. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1049. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1050. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1051. @example
  1052. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1053. '--------------------------------------'
  1054. @end example
  1055. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1056. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1057. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1058. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1059. You can run global cycling using @key{TAB} only if point is at the very
  1060. beginning of the buffer, but not on a headline, and
  1061. @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob} is set to a non-@code{nil} value.
  1062. @cindex set startup visibility, command
  1063. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1064. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer (@pxref{Initial visibility}).
  1065. @cindex show all, command
  1066. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},outline-show-all}
  1067. Show all, including drawers.
  1068. @cindex revealing context
  1069. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1070. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1071. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1072. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1073. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1074. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1075. entire subtree of the parent.
  1076. @cindex show branches, command
  1077. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,outline-show-branches}
  1078. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENTS view for just one subtree.
  1079. @cindex show children, command
  1080. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},outline-show-children}
  1081. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1082. expose all children down to level N@.
  1083. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1084. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect buffer
  1085. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual}) will contain the entire
  1086. buffer, but will be narrowed to the current tree. Editing the indirect
  1087. buffer will also change the original buffer, but without affecting visibility
  1088. in that buffer.}. With a numeric prefix argument N, go up to level N and
  1089. then take that tree. If N is negative then go up that many levels. With
  1090. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove the previously used indirect buffer.
  1091. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1092. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1093. @end table
  1094. @node Initial visibility
  1095. @subsection Initial visibility
  1096. @cindex visibility, initialize
  1097. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1098. @vindex org-agenda-inhibit-startup
  1099. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1100. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1101. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1102. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1103. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to OVERVIEW,
  1104. i.e., only the top level headlines are visible@footnote{When
  1105. @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} is non-@code{nil}, Org will not honor the default
  1106. visibility state when first opening a file for the agenda (@pxref{Speeding up
  1107. your agendas}).}. This can be configured through the variable
  1108. @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a per-file basis by adding one of the
  1109. following lines anywhere in the buffer:
  1110. @example
  1111. #+STARTUP: overview
  1112. #+STARTUP: content
  1113. #+STARTUP: showall
  1114. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1115. @end example
  1116. @cindex property, @code{VISIBILITY}
  1117. @noindent
  1118. Furthermore, any entries with a @code{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1119. and columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1120. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1121. @code{all}.
  1122. @table @asis
  1123. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1124. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e., whatever is
  1125. requested by startup options and @code{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1126. entries.
  1127. @end table
  1128. @node Catching invisible edits
  1129. @subsection Catching invisible edits
  1130. @vindex org-catch-invisible-edits
  1131. @cindex edits, catching invisible
  1132. Sometimes you may inadvertently edit an invisible part of the buffer and be
  1133. confused on what has been edited and how to undo the mistake. Setting
  1134. @code{org-catch-invisible-edits} to non-@code{nil} will help prevent this. See the
  1135. docstring of this option on how Org should catch invisible edits and process
  1136. them.
  1137. @node Motion
  1138. @section Motion
  1139. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1140. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1141. @cindex headline navigation
  1142. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1143. @table @asis
  1144. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,org-next-visible-heading}
  1145. Next heading.
  1146. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,org-previous-visible-heading}
  1147. Previous heading.
  1148. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1149. Next heading same level.
  1150. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1151. Previous heading same level.
  1152. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1153. Backward to higher level heading.
  1154. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1155. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1156. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1157. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1158. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1159. @example
  1160. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1161. @key{DOWN} / @key{UP} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1162. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1163. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1164. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1165. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1166. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1167. u @r{One level up.}
  1168. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1169. q @r{Quit}
  1170. @end example
  1171. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1172. @noindent
  1173. See also the option @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1174. @end table
  1175. @node Structure editing
  1176. @section Structure editing
  1177. @cindex structure editing
  1178. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1179. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1180. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1181. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1182. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1183. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1184. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1185. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1186. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1187. @table @asis
  1188. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-meta-return}
  1189. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1190. Insert a new heading, item or row.
  1191. If the command is used at the @emph{beginning} of a line, and if there is
  1192. a heading or a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}) at point, the new
  1193. heading/item is created @emph{before} the current line. When used at the
  1194. beginning of a regular line of text, turn that line into a heading.
  1195. When this command is used in the middle of a line, the line is split and the
  1196. rest of the line becomes the new item or headline. If you do not want the
  1197. line to be split, customize @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.
  1198. Calling the command with a @kbd{C-u} prefix unconditionally inserts a new
  1199. heading at the end of the current subtree, thus preserving its contents.
  1200. With a double @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix, the new heading is created at the end of
  1201. the parent subtree instead.
  1202. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1203. Insert a new heading at the end of the current subtree.
  1204. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1205. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1206. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1207. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1208. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1209. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1210. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1211. subtree.
  1212. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1213. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1214. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1215. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1216. to the initial level.
  1217. @orgcmd{M-@key{LEFT},org-do-promote}
  1218. Promote current heading by one level.
  1219. @orgcmd{M-@key{RIGHT},org-do-demote}
  1220. Demote current heading by one level.
  1221. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{LEFT},org-promote-subtree}
  1222. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1223. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RIGHT},org-demote-subtree}
  1224. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1225. @orgcmd{M-@key{UP},org-move-subtree-up}
  1226. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1227. level).
  1228. @orgcmd{M-@key{DOWN},org-move-subtree-down}
  1229. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1230. @orgcmd{M-h,org-mark-element}
  1231. Mark the element at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent elements
  1232. of the one just marked. E.g., hitting @key{M-h} on a paragraph will mark it,
  1233. hitting @key{M-h} immediately again will mark the next one.
  1234. @orgcmd{C-c @@,org-mark-subtree}
  1235. Mark the subtree at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent subtrees
  1236. of the same level than the marked subtree.
  1237. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1238. Kill subtree, i.e., remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1239. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1240. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1241. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1242. sequential subtrees.
  1243. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1244. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1245. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1246. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1247. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1248. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1249. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1250. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1251. Depending on the options @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1252. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1253. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1254. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1255. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1256. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1257. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1258. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1259. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1260. folding.
  1261. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1262. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1263. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1264. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1265. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1266. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1267. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1268. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1269. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refile and copy}.
  1270. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1271. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1272. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1273. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1274. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1275. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1276. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1277. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1278. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1279. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1280. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1281. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1282. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1283. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1284. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1285. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1286. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1287. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1288. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1289. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1290. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1291. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1292. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1293. @end table
  1294. @cindex region, active
  1295. @cindex active region
  1296. @cindex transient mark mode
  1297. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1298. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1299. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1300. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1301. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1302. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1303. functionality.
  1304. @node Sparse trees
  1305. @section Sparse trees
  1306. @cindex sparse trees
  1307. @cindex trees, sparse
  1308. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1309. @cindex occur, command
  1310. @vindex org-show-context-detail
  1311. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1312. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1313. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1314. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1315. variable @code{org-show-context-detail} to decide how much context is shown
  1316. around each match.}. Just try it out and you will see immediately how it
  1317. works.
  1318. Org mode contains several commands for creating such trees, all these
  1319. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1320. @table @asis
  1321. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1322. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1323. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / r,C-c / /,org-occur}
  1324. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1325. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1326. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1327. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1328. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1329. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1330. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1331. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1332. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1333. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1334. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1335. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1336. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1337. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1338. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1339. @end table
  1340. @noindent
  1341. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1342. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1343. use the option @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1344. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1345. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1346. For example:
  1347. @lisp
  1348. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1349. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1350. @end lisp
  1351. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1352. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1353. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1354. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1355. @kindex C-c C-e C-v
  1356. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1357. @cindex visible text, printing
  1358. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1359. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts of the
  1360. document. Or you can use @kbd{C-c C-e C-v} to export only the visible part
  1361. of the document and print the resulting file.
  1362. @node Plain lists
  1363. @section Plain lists
  1364. @cindex plain lists
  1365. @cindex lists, plain
  1366. @cindex lists, ordered
  1367. @cindex ordered lists
  1368. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1369. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1370. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1371. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1372. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1373. @itemize @bullet
  1374. @item
  1375. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1376. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1377. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1378. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1379. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1380. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1381. bullets.
  1382. @item
  1383. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1384. @vindex org-list-allow-alphabetical
  1385. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1386. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1387. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1388. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1389. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-list-allow-alphabetical}. To minimize
  1390. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1391. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1392. list to start with a different value (e.g., 20), start the text of the item
  1393. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1394. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1395. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1396. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1397. @item
  1398. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1399. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1400. description.
  1401. @end itemize
  1402. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1403. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1404. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1405. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1406. than its bullet/number.
  1407. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1408. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1409. lines. In that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1410. @example
  1411. @group
  1412. ** Lord of the Rings
  1413. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1414. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1415. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1416. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1417. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1418. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1419. - on DVD only
  1420. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1421. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1422. Important actors in this film are:
  1423. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1424. - @b{Sean Astin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1425. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1426. @end group
  1427. @end example
  1428. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1429. them correctly, and by exporting them properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since
  1430. indentation is what governs the structure of these lists, many structural
  1431. constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...} blocks can be indented to signal that they
  1432. belong to a particular item.
  1433. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1434. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1435. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1436. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1437. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1438. indentation between items and their sub-items, customize
  1439. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1440. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1441. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1442. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1443. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1444. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1445. to disable them individually.
  1446. @table @asis
  1447. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1448. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1449. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1450. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1451. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1452. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1453. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1454. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1455. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1456. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1457. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1458. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1459. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1460. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1461. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1462. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1463. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1464. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1465. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1466. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1467. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1468. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1469. one.
  1470. @end table
  1471. @table @kbd
  1472. @kindex M-S-RET
  1473. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1474. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1475. @kindex S-DOWN
  1476. @item S-up
  1477. @itemx S-down
  1478. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1479. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1480. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1481. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1482. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1483. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1484. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1485. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{UP}} and @kbd{C-@key{DOWN}} to quite
  1486. similar effect.
  1487. @kindex M-UP
  1488. @kindex M-DOWN
  1489. @item M-up
  1490. @itemx M-down
  1491. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1492. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1493. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1494. is automatic.
  1495. @kindex M-LEFT
  1496. @kindex M-RIGHT
  1497. @item M-left
  1498. @itemx M-right
  1499. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1500. @kindex M-S-LEFT
  1501. @kindex M-S-RIGHT
  1502. @item M-S-@key{LEFT}
  1503. @itemx M-S-@key{RIGHT}
  1504. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1505. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1506. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1507. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1508. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1509. motion or so.
  1510. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1511. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1512. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1513. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1514. @kindex C-c C-c
  1515. @item C-c C-c
  1516. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1517. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1518. consistency in the whole list.
  1519. @kindex C-c -
  1520. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1521. @item C-c -
  1522. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1523. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1524. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1525. and its indentation. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet
  1526. from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, all selected
  1527. lines are converted to list items. With a prefix argument, selected text is
  1528. changed into a single item. If the first line already was a list item, any
  1529. item marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1530. region, a normal line will be converted into a list item.
  1531. @kindex C-c *
  1532. @item C-c *
  1533. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1534. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1535. @kindex C-c C-*
  1536. @item C-c C-*
  1537. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1538. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1539. (resp. checked).
  1540. @kindex S-LEFT
  1541. @kindex S-RIGHT
  1542. @item S-@key{LEFT}/@key{RIGHT}
  1543. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1544. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1545. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1546. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1547. @kindex C-c ^
  1548. @cindex sorting, of plain list
  1549. @item C-c ^
  1550. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1551. numerically, alphabetically, by time, by checked status for check lists,
  1552. or by a custom function.
  1553. @end table
  1554. @node Drawers
  1555. @section Drawers
  1556. @cindex drawers
  1557. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1558. @cindex @code{org-insert-drawer}
  1559. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1560. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1561. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}. They
  1562. can contain anything but a headline and another drawer. Drawers look like
  1563. this:
  1564. @example
  1565. ** This is a headline
  1566. Still outside the drawer
  1567. :DRAWERNAME:
  1568. This is inside the drawer.
  1569. :END:
  1570. After the drawer.
  1571. @end example
  1572. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1573. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1574. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1575. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add
  1576. a property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1577. keywords is also possible using @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@footnote{Many desktops
  1578. intercept @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows. Use @kbd{C-M-i} or
  1579. @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} instead for completion (@pxref{Completion}).}.
  1580. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1581. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1582. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1583. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1584. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}), and you can also arrange
  1585. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1586. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1587. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state
  1588. changes, use
  1589. @table @kbd
  1590. @kindex C-c C-z
  1591. @item C-c C-z
  1592. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1593. @end table
  1594. @vindex org-export-with-drawers
  1595. @vindex org-export-with-properties
  1596. You can select the name of the drawers which should be exported with
  1597. @code{org-export-with-drawers}. In that case, drawer contents will appear in
  1598. export output. Property drawers are not affected by this variable: configure
  1599. @code{org-export-with-properties} instead.
  1600. @node Blocks
  1601. @section Blocks
  1602. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1603. @cindex blocks, folding
  1604. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1605. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1606. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1607. unfolded by pressing @key{TAB} in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1608. folded at startup by configuring the option @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1609. or on a per-file basis by using
  1610. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1611. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1612. @example
  1613. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1614. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1615. @end example
  1616. @node Footnotes
  1617. @section Footnotes
  1618. @cindex footnotes
  1619. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes.
  1620. A footnote is started by a footnote marker in square brackets in column 0, no
  1621. indentation allowed. It ends at the next footnote definition, headline, or
  1622. after two consecutive empty lines. The footnote reference is simply the
  1623. marker in square brackets, inside text. Markers always start with
  1624. @code{fn:}. For example:
  1625. @example
  1626. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1627. ...
  1628. [fn:1] The link is: https://orgmode.org
  1629. @end example
  1630. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1631. optional inline definition. Here are the valid references:
  1632. @table @code
  1633. @item [fn:name]
  1634. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1635. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1636. @item [fn::This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1637. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1638. reference point.
  1639. @item [fn:name:a definition]
  1640. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1641. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1642. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1643. @end table
  1644. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1645. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1646. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1647. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1648. for details.
  1649. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1650. @table @kbd
  1651. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1652. @item C-c C-x f
  1653. The footnote action command.
  1654. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1655. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1656. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1657. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1658. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1659. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the option
  1660. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1661. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1662. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1663. separately into the location determined by the option
  1664. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1665. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1666. options is offered:
  1667. @example
  1668. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1669. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1670. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1671. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1672. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1673. @r{option @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1674. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1675. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the option}
  1676. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1677. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1678. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1679. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1680. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers.}
  1681. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1682. @r{to it.}
  1683. @end example
  1684. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1685. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1686. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1687. deletion.
  1688. @kindex C-c C-c
  1689. @item C-c C-c
  1690. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1691. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1692. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1693. @kindex C-c C-o
  1694. @kindex mouse-1
  1695. @kindex mouse-2
  1696. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1697. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1698. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1699. @vindex org-edit-footnote-reference
  1700. @kindex C-c '
  1701. @item C-c '
  1702. @item C-c '
  1703. Edit the footnote definition corresponding to the reference at point in
  1704. a separate window. The window can be closed by pressing @kbd{C-c '}.
  1705. @end table
  1706. @node Orgstruct mode
  1707. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1708. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1709. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1710. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1711. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1712. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1713. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode @key{RET}}, or
  1714. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1715. @lisp
  1716. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1717. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1718. @end lisp
  1719. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1720. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1721. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1722. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1723. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows.
  1724. When you use @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and
  1725. autofill settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first
  1726. line of an item.
  1727. @vindex orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp
  1728. You can also use Org structure editing to fold and unfold headlines in
  1729. @emph{any} file, provided you defined @code{orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp}:
  1730. the regular expression must match the local prefix to use before Org's
  1731. headlines. For example, if you set this variable to @code{";; "} in Emacs
  1732. Lisp files, you will be able to fold and unfold headlines in Emacs Lisp
  1733. commented lines. Some commands like @code{org-demote} are disabled when the
  1734. prefix is set, but folding/unfolding will work correctly.
  1735. @node Org syntax
  1736. @section Org syntax
  1737. @cindex Org syntax
  1738. A reference document providing a formal description of Org's syntax is
  1739. available as @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-syntax.html, a draft on
  1740. Worg}, written and maintained by Nicolas Goaziou. It defines Org's core
  1741. internal concepts such as @code{headlines}, @code{sections}, @code{affiliated
  1742. keywords}, @code{(greater) elements} and @code{objects}. Each part of an Org
  1743. file falls into one of the categories above.
  1744. To explore the abstract structure of an Org buffer, run this in a buffer:
  1745. @lisp
  1746. M-: (org-element-parse-buffer) @key{RET}
  1747. @end lisp
  1748. It will output a list containing the buffer's content represented as an
  1749. abstract structure. The export engine relies on the information stored in
  1750. this list. Most interactive commands (e.g., for structure editing) also
  1751. rely on the syntactic meaning of the surrounding context.
  1752. @cindex syntax checker
  1753. @cindex linter
  1754. You can check syntax in your documents using @code{org-lint} command.
  1755. @node Tables
  1756. @chapter Tables
  1757. @cindex tables
  1758. @cindex editing tables
  1759. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1760. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1761. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1762. @menu
  1763. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1764. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1765. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1766. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1767. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1768. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1769. @end menu
  1770. @node Built-in table editor
  1771. @section The built-in table editor
  1772. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1773. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII@. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1774. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1775. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1776. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1777. might look like this:
  1778. @example
  1779. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1780. |-------+-------+-----|
  1781. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1782. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1783. @end example
  1784. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1785. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1786. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1787. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1788. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1789. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1790. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1791. create the above table, you would only type
  1792. @example
  1793. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1794. |-
  1795. @end example
  1796. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1797. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1798. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1799. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1800. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL}, @key{Backspace}, and all
  1801. character keys in a special way, so that inserting and deleting avoids
  1802. shifting other fields. Also, when typing @emph{immediately after the cursor
  1803. was moved into a new field with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or
  1804. @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is
  1805. too unpredictable for you, configure the option
  1806. @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1807. @table @kbd
  1808. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1809. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1810. Convert the active region to a table. If every line contains at least one
  1811. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1812. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1813. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1814. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1815. C-u} forces TAB, @kbd{C-u C-u C-u} will prompt for a regular expression to
  1816. match the separator, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1817. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1818. @*
  1819. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1820. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1821. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1822. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1823. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1824. Re-align the table and don't move to another field.
  1825. @c
  1826. @orgcmd{C-c @key{SPC},org-table-blank-field}
  1827. Blank the field at point.
  1828. @c
  1829. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-next-field}
  1830. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1831. necessary.
  1832. @c
  1833. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1834. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1835. @c
  1836. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1837. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1838. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1839. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1840. @c
  1841. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1842. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1843. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1844. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1845. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1846. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{LEFT},M-@key{RIGHT},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1847. Move the current column left/right.
  1848. @c
  1849. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{LEFT},org-table-delete-column}
  1850. Kill the current column.
  1851. @c
  1852. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RIGHT},org-table-insert-column}
  1853. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1854. @c
  1855. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{UP},M-@key{DOWN},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1856. Move the current row up/down.
  1857. @c
  1858. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{UP},org-table-kill-row}
  1859. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1860. @c
  1861. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{DOWN},org-table-insert-row}
  1862. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1863. created below the current one.
  1864. @c
  1865. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1866. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1867. is created above the current line.
  1868. @c
  1869. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1870. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1871. below that line.
  1872. @c
  1873. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1874. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1875. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1876. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1877. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1878. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1879. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1880. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1881. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). You can sort in normal or
  1882. reverse order. You can also supply your own key extraction and comparison
  1883. functions. When called with a prefix argument, alphabetic sorting will be
  1884. case-sensitive.
  1885. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1886. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1887. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1888. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1889. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1890. @c
  1891. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1892. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1893. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1894. @c
  1895. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1896. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1897. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1898. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1899. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1900. lines.
  1901. @c
  1902. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1903. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1904. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1905. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1906. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1907. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1908. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1909. above.
  1910. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1911. @cindex formula, in tables
  1912. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1913. @cindex region, active
  1914. @cindex active region
  1915. @cindex transient mark mode
  1916. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1917. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1918. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1919. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1920. @c
  1921. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1922. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1923. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1924. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1925. Depending on the option @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1926. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1927. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1928. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1929. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1930. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1931. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1932. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1933. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1934. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1935. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1936. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1937. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1938. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1939. @c
  1940. @item M-x org-table-import @key{RET}
  1941. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1942. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1943. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1944. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1945. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1946. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1947. separator.
  1948. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1949. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1950. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1951. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1952. @c
  1953. @item M-x org-table-export @key{RET}
  1954. @findex org-table-export
  1955. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1956. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1957. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1958. used to export the file can be configured in the option
  1959. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1960. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1961. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1962. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1963. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1964. detailed description.
  1965. @end table
  1966. @node Column width and alignment
  1967. @section Column width and alignment
  1968. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1969. @cindex alignment in tables
  1970. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1971. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1972. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1973. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1974. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1975. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set the width of
  1976. a column, one field anywhere in the column may contain just the string
  1977. @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an integer specifying the width of the column in
  1978. characters. The next re-align will then set the width of this column to this
  1979. value.
  1980. @example
  1981. @group
  1982. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1983. | | | | | <6> |
  1984. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1985. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1986. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1987. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1988. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1989. @end group
  1990. @end example
  1991. @noindent
  1992. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1993. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1994. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1995. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1996. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the grave accent). This will
  1997. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1998. C-c}.
  1999. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  2000. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  2001. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  2002. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  2003. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  2004. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  2005. on a per-file basis with:
  2006. @example
  2007. #+STARTUP: align
  2008. #+STARTUP: noalign
  2009. @end example
  2010. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  2011. to the right and of string-rich columns to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  2012. @samp{<c>}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  2013. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  2014. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<r10>}.
  2015. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  2016. automatically when exporting the document.
  2017. @node Column groups
  2018. @section Column groups
  2019. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  2020. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical lines because
  2021. that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally however, vertical
  2022. lines can be useful to structure a table into groups of columns, much like
  2023. horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In order to specify column
  2024. groups, you can use a special row where the first field contains only
  2025. @samp{/}. The further fields can either contain @samp{<} to indicate that
  2026. this column should start a group, @samp{>} to indicate the end of a group, or
  2027. @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<} and @samp{>}) to make a column a group
  2028. of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be marked with
  2029. vertical lines. Here is an example:
  2030. @example
  2031. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | ~sqrt(n)~ | ~sqrt[4](N)~ |
  2032. |---+-----+-----+-----+-----------+--------------|
  2033. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  2034. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  2035. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  2036. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  2037. |---+-----+-----+-----+-----------+--------------|
  2038. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  2039. @end example
  2040. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  2041. every vertical line you would like to have:
  2042. @example
  2043. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2044. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2045. | / | < | | | < | |
  2046. @end example
  2047. @node Orgtbl mode
  2048. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2049. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2050. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2051. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you might also want
  2052. to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode. The minor mode Orgtbl
  2053. mode makes this possible. You can always toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x
  2054. orgtbl-mode @key{RET}}. To turn it on by default, for example in Message
  2055. mode, use
  2056. @lisp
  2057. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2058. @end lisp
  2059. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2060. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2061. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2062. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2063. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2064. @node The spreadsheet
  2065. @section The spreadsheet
  2066. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2067. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2068. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2069. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2070. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2071. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2072. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2073. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2074. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2075. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2076. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2077. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2078. @menu
  2079. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2080. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2081. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2082. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2083. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2084. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2085. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  2086. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2087. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2088. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2089. @end menu
  2090. @node References
  2091. @subsection References
  2092. @cindex references
  2093. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2094. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2095. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2096. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2097. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2098. @subsubheading Field references
  2099. @cindex field references
  2100. @cindex references, to fields
  2101. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2102. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2103. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2104. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2105. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2106. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2107. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the option
  2108. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2109. representation that looks like this:
  2110. @example
  2111. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2112. @end example
  2113. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2114. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e., the
  2115. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2116. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2117. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2118. column from the right.
  2119. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2120. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2121. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2122. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2123. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2124. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2125. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2126. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2127. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2128. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2129. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2130. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2131. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2132. after the third hline in the table.
  2133. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2134. i.e., to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2135. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2136. implied.
  2137. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2138. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2139. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2140. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2141. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2142. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2143. Here are a few examples:
  2144. @example
  2145. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2146. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2147. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2148. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2149. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2150. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2151. @end example
  2152. @subsubheading Range references
  2153. @cindex range references
  2154. @cindex references, to ranges
  2155. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2156. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2157. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2158. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2159. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2160. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2161. @example
  2162. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2163. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2164. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the last but one}
  2165. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2166. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 fields in the row above, starting from 2 columns on the left}
  2167. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2168. @end example
  2169. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2170. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally suppressed,
  2171. so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields. For other options
  2172. with the mode switches @samp{E}, @samp{N} and examples @pxref{Formula syntax
  2173. for Calc}.
  2174. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2175. @cindex field coordinates
  2176. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2177. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2178. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2179. One of the very first actions during evaluation of Calc formulas and Lisp
  2180. formulas is to substitute @code{@@#} and @code{$#} in the formula with the
  2181. row or column number of the field where the current result will go to. The
  2182. traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline} and
  2183. @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2184. @table @code
  2185. @item if(@@# % 2, $#, string(""))
  2186. Insert column number on odd rows, set field to empty on even rows.
  2187. @item $2 = '(identity remote(FOO, @@@@#$1))
  2188. Copy text or values of each row of column 1 of the table named @code{FOO}
  2189. into column 2 of the current table.
  2190. @item @@3 = 2 * remote(FOO, @@1$$#)
  2191. Insert the doubled value of each column of row 1 of the table named
  2192. @code{FOO} into row 3 of the current table.
  2193. @end table
  2194. @noindent For the second/third example, the table named @code{FOO} must have
  2195. at least as many rows/columns as the current table. Note that this is
  2196. inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as O(N^2) because the table
  2197. named @code{FOO} is parsed for each field to be read.} for large number of
  2198. rows/columns.
  2199. @subsubheading Named references
  2200. @cindex named references
  2201. @cindex references, named
  2202. @cindex name, of column or field
  2203. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2204. @cindex @code{#+CONSTANTS}
  2205. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2206. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2207. constant. Constants are defined globally through the option
  2208. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2209. line like
  2210. @example
  2211. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2212. @end example
  2213. @noindent
  2214. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2215. @pindex constants.el
  2216. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}) can be used as
  2217. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2218. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2219. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2220. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2221. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2222. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2223. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2224. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2225. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2226. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2227. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2228. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2229. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2230. numbers.
  2231. @subsubheading Remote references
  2232. @cindex remote references
  2233. @cindex references, remote
  2234. @cindex references, to a different table
  2235. @cindex name, of column or field
  2236. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2237. @cindex @code{#+NAME}, for table
  2238. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2239. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2240. @example
  2241. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2242. @end example
  2243. @noindent
  2244. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2245. @code{#+NAME: Name} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2246. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2247. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2248. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2249. referenced table.
  2250. Indirection of NAME-OR-ID: When NAME-OR-ID has the format @code{@@ROW$COLUMN}
  2251. it will be substituted with the name or ID found in this field of the current
  2252. table. For example @code{remote($1, @@>$2)} => @code{remote(year_2013,
  2253. @@>$1)}. The format @code{B3} is not supported because it can not be
  2254. distinguished from a plain table name or ID.
  2255. @node Formula syntax for Calc
  2256. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2257. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2258. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2259. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs @file{Calc}
  2260. package. Note that @file{calc} has the non-standard convention that @samp{/}
  2261. has lower precedence than @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as
  2262. @samp{a/(b*c)}. Before evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc
  2263. from Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc,
  2264. GNU Emacs Calc Manual}), variable substitution takes place according to the
  2265. rules described above.
  2266. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2267. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2268. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2269. @cindex format specifier
  2270. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2271. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2272. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2273. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2274. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2275. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2276. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2277. compact. The default settings can be configured using the option
  2278. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2279. @noindent List of modes:
  2280. @table @asis
  2281. @item @code{p20}
  2282. Set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits.
  2283. @item @code{n3}, @code{s3}, @code{e2}, @code{f4}
  2284. Normal, scientific, engineering or fixed format of the result of Calc passed
  2285. back to Org. Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as long as the Calc
  2286. calculation precision is greater.
  2287. @item @code{D}, @code{R}
  2288. Degree and radian angle modes of Calc.
  2289. @item @code{F}, @code{S}
  2290. Fraction and symbolic modes of Calc.
  2291. @item @code{T}, @code{t}, @code{U}
  2292. Duration computations in Calc or Lisp, @pxref{Durations and time values}.
  2293. @item @code{E}
  2294. If and how to consider empty fields. Without @samp{E} empty fields in range
  2295. references are suppressed so that the Calc vector or Lisp list contains only
  2296. the non-empty fields. With @samp{E} the empty fields are kept. For empty
  2297. fields in ranges or empty field references the value @samp{nan} (not a
  2298. number) is used in Calc formulas and the empty string is used for Lisp
  2299. formulas. Add @samp{N} to use 0 instead for both formula types. For the
  2300. value of a field the mode @samp{N} has higher precedence than @samp{E}.
  2301. @item @code{N}
  2302. Interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers. See the next section
  2303. to see how this is essential for computations with Lisp formulas. In Calc
  2304. formulas it is used only occasionally because there number strings are
  2305. already interpreted as numbers without @samp{N}.
  2306. @item @code{L}
  2307. Literal, for Lisp formulas only. See the next section.
  2308. @end table
  2309. @noindent
  2310. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation and
  2311. -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2312. @samp{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2313. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2314. formatting@footnote{The @samp{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2315. because the value passed to it is converted into an @samp{integer} or
  2316. @samp{double}. The @samp{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2317. signed value to 32 bits. The @samp{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2318. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}. A
  2319. few examples:
  2320. @example
  2321. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2322. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2323. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2324. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2325. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2326. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2327. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2328. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2329. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2330. @end example
  2331. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations, (@pxref{Logical
  2332. Operations, , Logical Operations, calc, GNU Emacs Calc Manual}). For example
  2333. @table @code
  2334. @item if($1 < 20, teen, string(""))
  2335. "teen" if age $1 is less than 20, else the Org table result field is set to
  2336. empty with the empty string.
  2337. @item if("$1" == "nan" || "$2" == "nan", string(""), $1 + $2); E f-1
  2338. Sum of the first two columns. When at least one of the input fields is empty
  2339. the Org table result field is set to empty. @samp{E} is required to not
  2340. convert empty fields to 0. @samp{f-1} is an optional Calc format string
  2341. similar to @samp{%.1f} but leaves empty results empty.
  2342. @item if(typeof(vmean($1..$7)) == 12, string(""), vmean($1..$7); E
  2343. Mean value of a range unless there is any empty field. Every field in the
  2344. range that is empty is replaced by @samp{nan} which lets @samp{vmean} result
  2345. in @samp{nan}. Then @samp{typeof == 12} detects the @samp{nan} from
  2346. @samp{vmean} and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use this when
  2347. the sample set is expected to never have missing values.
  2348. @item if("$1..$7" == "[]", string(""), vmean($1..$7))
  2349. Mean value of a range with empty fields skipped. Every field in the range
  2350. that is empty is skipped. When all fields in the range are empty the mean
  2351. value is not defined and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use
  2352. this when the sample set can have a variable size.
  2353. @item vmean($1..$7); EN
  2354. To complete the example before: Mean value of a range with empty fields
  2355. counting as samples with value 0. Use this only when incomplete sample sets
  2356. should be padded with 0 to the full size.
  2357. @end table
  2358. You can add your own Calc functions defined in Emacs Lisp with @code{defmath}
  2359. and use them in formula syntax for Calc.
  2360. @node Formula syntax for Lisp
  2361. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2362. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2363. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be useful
  2364. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is
  2365. not enough.
  2366. If a formula starts with an apostrophe followed by an opening parenthesis,
  2367. then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a
  2368. string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes
  2369. and a printf format after a semicolon.
  2370. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2371. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be
  2372. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If
  2373. you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers
  2374. (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without
  2375. quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated
  2376. literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted
  2377. as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in
  2378. double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated
  2379. fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax.
  2380. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2381. computations in Lisp:
  2382. @table @code
  2383. @item '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2384. Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1.
  2385. @item '(+ $1 $2);N
  2386. Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}.
  2387. @item '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2388. Compute the sum of columns 1 to 4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}.
  2389. @end table
  2390. @node Durations and time values
  2391. @subsection Durations and time values
  2392. @cindex Duration, computing
  2393. @cindex Time, computing
  2394. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2395. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T}, @code{t}, or @code{U}
  2396. flag, either in Calc formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2397. @example
  2398. @group
  2399. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2400. |---------+----------+----------|
  2401. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2402. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59 |
  2403. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2404. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;U::@@4$3=$1+$2;t
  2405. @end group
  2406. @end example
  2407. Input duration values must be of the form @code{HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2408. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2409. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{U} flag,
  2410. seconds will be omitted so that the result will be only @code{HH:MM} (see
  2411. second formula above). Zero-padding of the hours field will depend upon the
  2412. value of the variable @code{org-table-duration-hour-zero-padding}.
  2413. With the @code{t} flag, computed durations will be displayed according to the
  2414. value of the option @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults
  2415. to @code{'hours} and will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the
  2416. third formula in the example above).
  2417. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2418. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2419. @node Field and range formulas
  2420. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2421. @cindex field formula
  2422. @cindex range formula
  2423. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2424. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2425. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2426. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2427. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2428. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2429. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2430. @cindex @code{#+TBLFM}
  2431. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @code{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2432. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2433. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2434. inserting/deleting/swapping columns and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2435. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2436. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this, in
  2437. particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table borders (using
  2438. @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines using the
  2439. @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does of course
  2440. not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2441. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2442. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2443. command
  2444. @table @kbd
  2445. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2446. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2447. formula with default taken from the @code{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2448. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2449. @end table
  2450. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2451. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2452. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2453. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2454. directly.
  2455. @table @code
  2456. @item $2=
  2457. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2458. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2459. @item @@3=
  2460. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2461. the last row.
  2462. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2463. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2464. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2465. @item $name=
  2466. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2467. @end table
  2468. @node Column formulas
  2469. @subsection Column formulas
  2470. @cindex column formula
  2471. @cindex formula, for table column
  2472. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2473. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2474. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2475. hlines with rows above and below, everything before the first such hline is
  2476. considered part of the table @emph{header} and will not be modified by column
  2477. formulas. Therefore a header is mandatory when you use column formulas and
  2478. want to add hlines to group rows, like for example to separate a total row at
  2479. the bottom from the summand rows above. (ii) Fields that already get a value
  2480. from a field/range formula will be left alone by column formulas. These
  2481. conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2482. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2483. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2484. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2485. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2486. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2487. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2488. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2489. @code{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2490. left-hand side of a column formula cannot be the name of column, it must be
  2491. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2492. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2493. following command:
  2494. @table @kbd
  2495. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2496. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2497. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2498. taken from the @code{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2499. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g., @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2500. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2501. @end table
  2502. @node Lookup functions
  2503. @subsection Lookup functions
  2504. @cindex lookup functions in tables
  2505. @cindex table lookup functions
  2506. Org has three predefined Emacs Lisp functions for lookups in tables.
  2507. @table @code
  2508. @item (org-lookup-first VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2509. @findex org-lookup-first
  2510. Searches for the first element @code{S} in list @code{S-LIST} for which
  2511. @lisp
  2512. (PREDICATE VAL S)
  2513. @end lisp
  2514. is @code{t}; returns the value from the corresponding position in list
  2515. @code{R-LIST}. The default @code{PREDICATE} is @code{equal}. Note that the
  2516. parameters @code{VAL} and @code{S} are passed to @code{PREDICATE} in the same
  2517. order as the corresponding parameters are in the call to
  2518. @code{org-lookup-first}, where @code{VAL} precedes @code{S-LIST}. If
  2519. @code{R-LIST} is @code{nil}, the matching element @code{S} of @code{S-LIST}
  2520. is returned.
  2521. @item (org-lookup-last VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2522. @findex org-lookup-last
  2523. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first} above, but searches for the @i{last}
  2524. element for which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}.
  2525. @item (org-lookup-all VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2526. @findex org-lookup-all
  2527. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first}, but searches for @i{all} elements for
  2528. which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}, and returns @i{all} corresponding
  2529. values. This function can not be used by itself in a formula, because it
  2530. returns a list of values. However, powerful lookups can be built when this
  2531. function is combined with other Emacs Lisp functions.
  2532. @end table
  2533. If the ranges used in these functions contain empty fields, the @code{E} mode
  2534. for the formula should usually be specified: otherwise empty fields will not be
  2535. included in @code{S-LIST} and/or @code{R-LIST} which can, for example, result
  2536. in an incorrect mapping from an element of @code{S-LIST} to the corresponding
  2537. element of @code{R-LIST}.
  2538. These three functions can be used to implement associative arrays, count
  2539. matching cells, rank results, group data etc. For practical examples
  2540. see @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-lookups.html, this
  2541. tutorial on Worg}.
  2542. @node Editing and debugging formulas
  2543. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2544. @cindex formula editing
  2545. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2546. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2547. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the field.
  2548. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active formulas of a table.
  2549. When offering a formula for editing, Org converts references to the standard
  2550. format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&}) if possible. If you prefer to only work
  2551. with the internal format (like @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the
  2552. option @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2553. @table @kbd
  2554. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2555. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2556. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2557. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2558. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2559. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2560. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2561. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2562. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2563. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2564. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2565. @kindex C-c @}
  2566. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2567. @item C-c @}
  2568. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2569. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2570. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2571. @kindex C-c @{
  2572. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2573. @item C-c @{
  2574. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2575. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2576. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2577. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2578. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2579. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2580. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2581. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2582. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2583. @table @kbd
  2584. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2585. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2586. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2587. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2588. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2589. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2590. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2591. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2592. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2593. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2594. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2595. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2596. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2597. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2598. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.@footnote{Many desktops
  2599. intercept @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows. Use @kbd{C-M-i} or
  2600. @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} instead for completion (@pxref{Completion}).}
  2601. @kindex S-UP
  2602. @kindex S-DOWN
  2603. @kindex S-LEFT
  2604. @kindex S-RIGHT
  2605. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2606. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2607. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2608. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2609. @item S-@key{UP}/@key{DOWN}/@key{LEFT}/@key{RIGHT}
  2610. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2611. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2612. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2613. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{UP},M-S-@key{DOWN},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2614. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2615. down.
  2616. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{UP},M-@key{DOWN},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2617. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2618. @kindex C-c @}
  2619. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2620. @item C-c @}
  2621. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2622. @end table
  2623. @end table
  2624. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2625. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @code{#+TBLFM}
  2626. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2627. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2628. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @code{#+TBLFM} line.
  2629. @kindex C-c C-c
  2630. You may edit the @code{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2631. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2632. recalculation commands in the table.
  2633. @anchor{Using multiple #+TBLFM lines}
  2634. @subsubheading Using multiple @code{#+TBLFM} lines
  2635. @cindex @code{#+TBLFM} line, multiple
  2636. @cindex @code{#+TBLFM}
  2637. @cindex @code{#+TBLFM}, switching
  2638. @kindex C-c C-c
  2639. You may apply the formula temporarily. This is useful when you
  2640. switch the formula. Place multiple @code{#+TBLFM} lines right
  2641. after the table, and then press @kbd{C-c C-c} on the formula to
  2642. apply. Here is an example:
  2643. @example
  2644. | x | y |
  2645. |---+---|
  2646. | 1 | |
  2647. | 2 | |
  2648. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2649. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2650. @end example
  2651. @noindent
  2652. Pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} in the line of @samp{#+TBLFM: $2=$1*2} yields:
  2653. @example
  2654. | x | y |
  2655. |---+---|
  2656. | 1 | 2 |
  2657. | 2 | 4 |
  2658. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2659. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2660. @end example
  2661. @noindent
  2662. Note: If you recalculate this table (with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, for example), you
  2663. will get the following result of applying only the first @code{#+TBLFM} line.
  2664. @example
  2665. | x | y |
  2666. |---+---|
  2667. | 1 | 1 |
  2668. | 2 | 2 |
  2669. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2670. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2671. @end example
  2672. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2673. @cindex formula debugging
  2674. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2675. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2676. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2677. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2678. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2679. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2680. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2681. @node Updating the table
  2682. @subsection Updating the table
  2683. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2684. @cindex updating, table
  2685. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2686. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2687. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2688. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2689. following commands:
  2690. @table @kbd
  2691. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2692. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2693. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2694. @c
  2695. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2696. @item C-u C-c *
  2697. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2698. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2699. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2700. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2701. @c
  2702. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2703. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2704. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2705. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2706. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables @key{RET}
  2707. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2708. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2709. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables @key{RET}
  2710. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2711. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2712. dependencies.
  2713. @end table
  2714. @node Advanced features
  2715. @subsection Advanced features
  2716. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2717. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2718. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2719. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2720. special marking characters.
  2721. @table @kbd
  2722. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2723. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2724. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2725. change all marks in the region.
  2726. @end table
  2727. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2728. makes use of these features:
  2729. @example
  2730. @group
  2731. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2732. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2733. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2734. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2735. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2736. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2737. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2738. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2739. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2740. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2741. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2742. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2743. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2744. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2745. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2746. @end group
  2747. @end example
  2748. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2749. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2750. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2751. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2752. empty first field.
  2753. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2754. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2755. @table @samp
  2756. @item !
  2757. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2758. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2759. @item ^
  2760. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2761. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2762. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2763. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2764. @item _
  2765. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2766. @emph{below}.
  2767. @item $
  2768. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2769. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2770. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2771. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2772. a per-table basis.
  2773. @item #
  2774. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2775. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2776. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2777. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2778. @item *
  2779. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2780. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2781. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2782. @item @w{ }
  2783. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2784. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2785. or @samp{*}.
  2786. @item /
  2787. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2788. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2789. @end table
  2790. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2791. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2792. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2793. functions.
  2794. @example
  2795. @group
  2796. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2797. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2798. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2799. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2800. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2801. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2802. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2803. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2804. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2805. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2806. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2807. @end group
  2808. @end example
  2809. @node Org-Plot
  2810. @section Org-Plot
  2811. @cindex graph, in tables
  2812. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2813. @cindex @code{#+PLOT}
  2814. Org-Plot can produce graphs of information stored in org tables, either
  2815. graphically or in ASCII-art.
  2816. @subheading Graphical plots using @file{Gnuplot}
  2817. Org-Plot produces 2D and 3D graphs using @file{Gnuplot}
  2818. @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2819. @uref{http://xafs.org/BruceRavel/GnuplotMode}. To see this in action, ensure
  2820. that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed on your system, then
  2821. call @kbd{C-c " g} or @kbd{M-x org-plot/gnuplot @key{RET}} on the following
  2822. table.
  2823. @example
  2824. @group
  2825. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2826. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2827. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2828. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2829. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2830. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2831. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2832. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2833. @end group
  2834. @end example
  2835. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2836. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2837. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2838. for a complete list of Org-plot options. The @code{#+PLOT:} lines are
  2839. optional. For more information and examples see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2840. @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2841. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2842. @table @code
  2843. @item set
  2844. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2845. @item title
  2846. Specify the title of the plot.
  2847. @item ind
  2848. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2849. @item deps
  2850. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2851. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2852. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2853. column).
  2854. @item type
  2855. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2856. @item with
  2857. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2858. (e.g., @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2859. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2860. @item file
  2861. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2862. @item labels
  2863. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2864. if they exist).
  2865. @item line
  2866. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2867. @item map
  2868. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2869. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2870. @item timefmt
  2871. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2872. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2873. @item script
  2874. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2875. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2876. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2877. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2878. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2879. the data file.
  2880. @end table
  2881. @subheading ASCII bar plots
  2882. While the cursor is on a column, typing @kbd{C-c " a} or
  2883. @kbd{M-x orgtbl-ascii-plot @key{RET}} create a new column containing an
  2884. ASCII-art bars plot. The plot is implemented through a regular column
  2885. formula. When the source column changes, the bar plot may be updated by
  2886. refreshing the table, for example typing @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2887. @example
  2888. @group
  2889. | Sede | Max cites | |
  2890. |---------------+-----------+--------------|
  2891. | Chile | 257.72 | WWWWWWWWWWWW |
  2892. | Leeds | 165.77 | WWWWWWWh |
  2893. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | WWW; |
  2894. | Stockholm | 134.19 | WWWWWW: |
  2895. | Morelia | 257.56 | WWWWWWWWWWWH |
  2896. | Rochefourchat | 0.00 | |
  2897. #+TBLFM: $3='(orgtbl-ascii-draw $2 0.0 257.72 12)
  2898. @end group
  2899. @end example
  2900. The formula is an elisp call:
  2901. @lisp
  2902. (orgtbl-ascii-draw COLUMN MIN MAX WIDTH)
  2903. @end lisp
  2904. @table @code
  2905. @item COLUMN
  2906. is a reference to the source column.
  2907. @item MIN MAX
  2908. are the minimal and maximal values displayed. Sources values
  2909. outside this range are displayed as @samp{too small}
  2910. or @samp{too large}.
  2911. @item WIDTH
  2912. is the width in characters of the bar-plot. It defaults to @samp{12}.
  2913. @end table
  2914. @node Hyperlinks
  2915. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2916. @cindex hyperlinks
  2917. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2918. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2919. @menu
  2920. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2921. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2922. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2923. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2924. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2925. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2926. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2927. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2928. @end menu
  2929. @node Link format
  2930. @section Link format
  2931. @cindex link format
  2932. @cindex format, of links
  2933. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2934. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2935. @example
  2936. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2937. @end example
  2938. @noindent
  2939. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2940. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2941. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2942. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2943. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2944. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2945. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2946. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2947. cursor on the link.
  2948. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2949. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2950. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2951. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2952. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2953. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2954. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2955. @node Internal links
  2956. @section Internal links
  2957. @cindex internal links
  2958. @cindex links, internal
  2959. @cindex targets, for links
  2960. @cindex property, @code{CUSTOM_ID}
  2961. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2962. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2963. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2964. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. You are responsible yourself
  2965. to make sure these custom IDs are unique in a file.
  2966. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2967. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2968. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2969. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2970. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2971. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets, like
  2972. @samp{<<My Target>>}.
  2973. @cindex @code{#+NAME}
  2974. If no dedicated target exists, the link will then try to match the exact name
  2975. of an element within the buffer. Naming is done with the @code{#+NAME}
  2976. keyword, which has to be put in the line before the element it refers to, as
  2977. in the following example
  2978. @example
  2979. #+NAME: My Target
  2980. | a | table |
  2981. |----+------------|
  2982. | of | four cells |
  2983. @end example
  2984. If none of the above succeeds, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2985. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2986. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type
  2987. a star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2988. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2989. completions.}.
  2990. During export, internal links will be used to mark objects and assign them
  2991. a number. Marked objects will then be referenced by links pointing to them.
  2992. In particular, links without a description will appear as the number assigned
  2993. to the marked object@footnote{When targeting a @code{#+NAME} keyword,
  2994. @code{#+CAPTION} keyword is mandatory in order to get proper numbering
  2995. (@pxref{Images and tables}).}. In the following excerpt from an Org buffer
  2996. @example
  2997. - one item
  2998. - <<target>>another item
  2999. Here we refer to item [[target]].
  3000. @end example
  3001. @noindent
  3002. The last sentence will appear as @samp{Here we refer to item 2} when
  3003. exported.
  3004. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the link text. In
  3005. the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  3006. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  3007. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  3008. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  3009. earlier.
  3010. @menu
  3011. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  3012. @end menu
  3013. @node Radio targets
  3014. @subsection Radio targets
  3015. @cindex radio targets
  3016. @cindex targets, radio
  3017. @cindex links, radio targets
  3018. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  3019. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  3020. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  3021. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  3022. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  3023. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  3024. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  3025. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3026. cursor on or at a target.
  3027. @node External links
  3028. @section External links
  3029. @cindex links, external
  3030. @cindex external links
  3031. @cindex Gnus links
  3032. @cindex BBDB links
  3033. @cindex IRC links
  3034. @cindex URL links
  3035. @cindex file links
  3036. @cindex RMAIL links
  3037. @cindex MH-E links
  3038. @cindex USENET links
  3039. @cindex SHELL links
  3040. @cindex Info links
  3041. @cindex Elisp links
  3042. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB
  3043. database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs.
  3044. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short identifying
  3045. string followed by a colon. There can be no space after the colon. The
  3046. following list shows examples for each link type.
  3047. @example
  3048. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  3049. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  3050. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  3051. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  3052. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  3053. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3054. file:/ssh:myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  3055. /ssh:myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3056. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  3057. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  3058. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  3059. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  3060. the option @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  3061. is @code{nil}, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is @code{t}, then only
  3062. the exact headline will be matched, ignoring spaces and cookies. If the
  3063. value is @code{query-to-create}, then an exact headline will be searched; if
  3064. it is not found, then the user will be queried to create it.}
  3065. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}@footnote{
  3066. Headline searches always match the exact headline, ignoring
  3067. spaces and cookies. If the headline is not found and the value of the option
  3068. @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline} is @code{query-to-create},
  3069. then the user will be queried to create it.}
  3070. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  3071. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  3072. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  3073. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  3074. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  3075. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  3076. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  3077. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  3078. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  3079. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  3080. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  3081. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  3082. info:org#External links @r{Info node or index link}
  3083. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  3084. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  3085. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  3086. @end example
  3087. @cindex VM links
  3088. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  3089. On top of these built-in link types, some are available through the
  3090. @code{contrib/} directory (@pxref{Installation}). For example, these links
  3091. to VM or Wanderlust messages are available when you load the corresponding
  3092. libraries from the @code{contrib/} directory:
  3093. @example
  3094. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  3095. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  3096. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  3097. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  3098. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  3099. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  3100. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  3101. @end example
  3102. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  3103. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a descriptive
  3104. text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link format}), for example:
  3105. @example
  3106. [[https://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  3107. @end example
  3108. @noindent
  3109. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  3110. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  3111. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  3112. image,
  3113. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  3114. @cindex square brackets, around links
  3115. @cindex plain text external links
  3116. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  3117. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  3118. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  3119. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  3120. @node Handling links
  3121. @section Handling links
  3122. @cindex links, handling
  3123. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  3124. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  3125. @table @kbd
  3126. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  3127. @cindex storing links
  3128. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  3129. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  3130. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  3131. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  3132. buffer:
  3133. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  3134. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  3135. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  3136. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  3137. removed from the link and result in a wrong link---you should avoid putting
  3138. timestamp in the headline.}.
  3139. @vindex org-id-link-to-org-use-id
  3140. @cindex property, @code{CUSTOM_ID}
  3141. @cindex property, @code{ID}
  3142. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  3143. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  3144. @code{org-id-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will
  3145. be created and/or used to construct a link@footnote{The library
  3146. @file{org-id.el} must first be loaded, either through @code{org-customize} by
  3147. enabling @code{org-id} in @code{org-modules}, or by adding @code{(require
  3148. 'org-id)} in your Emacs init file.}. So using this command in Org buffers
  3149. will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom ID, and
  3150. one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from file to
  3151. file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one to use.
  3152. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  3153. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  3154. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  3155. constructed from the author and the subject.
  3156. @b{Web browsers: Eww, W3 and W3M}@*
  3157. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  3158. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  3159. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  3160. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  3161. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  3162. For IRC links, if you set the option @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to @code{t},
  3163. a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for the current
  3164. conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to the
  3165. user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  3166. @b{Other files}@*
  3167. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  3168. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  3169. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  3170. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  3171. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  3172. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  3173. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  3174. @b{Agenda view}@*
  3175. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  3176. entry referenced by the current line.
  3177. @c
  3178. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  3179. @cindex link completion
  3180. @cindex completion, of links
  3181. @cindex inserting links
  3182. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  3183. @vindex org-link-parameters
  3184. Insert a link@footnote{Note that you don't have to use this command to
  3185. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  3186. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  3187. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  3188. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  3189. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  3190. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  3191. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  3192. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  3193. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  3194. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  3195. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  3196. becomes the default description.
  3197. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  3198. All links stored during the
  3199. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  3200. them with @key{UP} and @key{DOWN} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  3201. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  3202. valid link prefixes like @samp{https:}, including the prefixes
  3203. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  3204. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  3205. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works if
  3206. a completion function is defined in the @samp{:complete} property of a link
  3207. in @code{org-link-parameters}.} For example, if you type @kbd{file
  3208. @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see
  3209. below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb @key{RET}} you can complete
  3210. contact names.
  3211. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  3212. @cindex file name completion
  3213. @cindex completion, of file names
  3214. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  3215. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  3216. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  3217. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  3218. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  3219. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  3220. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  3221. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3222. @c
  3223. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  3224. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  3225. link and description parts of the link.
  3226. @c
  3227. @cindex following links
  3228. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  3229. @vindex org-file-apps
  3230. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3231. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  3232. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  3233. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  3234. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  3235. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  3236. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  3237. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  3238. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3239. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3240. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3241. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3242. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3243. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3244. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3245. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3246. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3247. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3248. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3249. the link at point.
  3250. @c
  3251. @kindex mouse-2
  3252. @kindex mouse-1
  3253. @item mouse-2
  3254. @itemx mouse-1
  3255. On links, @kbd{mouse-1} and @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c
  3256. C-o} would.
  3257. @c
  3258. @kindex mouse-3
  3259. @item mouse-3
  3260. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3261. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3262. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3263. option @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3264. @c
  3265. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3266. @cindex inlining images
  3267. @cindex images, inlining
  3268. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3269. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3270. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3271. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3272. images that have no description part in the link, i.e., images that will also
  3273. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3274. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3275. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3276. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3277. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{noinlineimages}}.
  3278. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3279. @cindex mark ring
  3280. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3281. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3282. @c
  3283. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3284. @cindex links, returning to
  3285. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3286. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3287. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3288. previously recorded positions.
  3289. @c
  3290. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3291. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3292. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3293. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3294. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3295. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3296. @lisp
  3297. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3298. (lambda ()
  3299. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3300. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3301. @end lisp
  3302. @end table
  3303. @node Using links outside Org
  3304. @section Using links outside Org
  3305. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3306. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3307. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3308. yourself):
  3309. @lisp
  3310. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3311. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3312. @end lisp
  3313. @node Link abbreviations
  3314. @section Link abbreviations
  3315. @cindex link abbreviations
  3316. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3317. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3318. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3319. abbreviated link looks like this
  3320. @example
  3321. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3322. @end example
  3323. @noindent
  3324. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3325. where the tag is optional.
  3326. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3327. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3328. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3329. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3330. @smalllisp
  3331. @group
  3332. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3333. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3334. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3335. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3336. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3337. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3338. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3339. @end group
  3340. @end smalllisp
  3341. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3342. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3343. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3344. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3345. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3346. If the replacement text doesn't contain any specifier, the tag will simply be
  3347. appended in order to create the link.
  3348. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3349. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3350. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3351. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3352. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3353. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3354. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3355. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3356. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3357. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3358. can define them in the file with
  3359. @cindex @code{#+LINK}
  3360. @example
  3361. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3362. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3363. @end example
  3364. @noindent
  3365. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3366. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function that implements
  3367. special (e.g., completion) support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c
  3368. C-l}. Such a function should not accept any arguments, and return the full
  3369. link with prefix. You can add a completion function to a link like this:
  3370. @lisp
  3371. (org-link-set-parameters ``type'' :complete #'some-function)
  3372. @end lisp
  3373. @node Search options
  3374. @section Search options in file links
  3375. @cindex search option in file links
  3376. @cindex file links, searching
  3377. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3378. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3379. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3380. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3381. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3382. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3383. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3384. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3385. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3386. link, together with an explanation:
  3387. @example
  3388. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3389. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3390. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3391. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3392. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3393. @end example
  3394. @table @code
  3395. @item 255
  3396. Jump to line 255.
  3397. @item My Target
  3398. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3399. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3400. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3401. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3402. the linked file.
  3403. @item *My Target
  3404. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3405. @item #my-custom-id
  3406. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3407. @item /regexp/
  3408. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3409. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3410. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3411. sparse tree with the matches.
  3412. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3413. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3414. @end table
  3415. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3416. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3417. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3418. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3419. @node Custom searches
  3420. @section Custom Searches
  3421. @cindex custom search strings
  3422. @cindex search strings, custom
  3423. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3424. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3425. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3426. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3427. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3428. citation key.
  3429. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3430. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3431. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3432. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3433. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3434. to be added to the hook variables
  3435. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3436. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3437. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3438. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3439. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3440. @node TODO items
  3441. @chapter TODO items
  3442. @cindex TODO items
  3443. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3444. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3445. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3446. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3447. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3448. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3449. item emerged is always present.
  3450. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3451. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3452. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3453. @menu
  3454. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3455. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3456. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3457. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3458. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3459. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3460. @end menu
  3461. @node TODO basics
  3462. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3463. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3464. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3465. @example
  3466. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3467. @end example
  3468. @noindent
  3469. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3470. @table @kbd
  3471. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3472. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3473. @vindex org-use-fast-todo-selection
  3474. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3475. @example
  3476. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3477. '--------------------------------'
  3478. @end example
  3479. If TODO keywords have fast access keys (see @ref{Fast access to TODO
  3480. states}), you will be prompted for a TODO keyword through the fast selection
  3481. interface; this is the default behavior when
  3482. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is non-@code{nil}.
  3483. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from agenda buffers with the
  3484. @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3485. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3486. When TODO keywords have no selection keys, select a specific keyword using
  3487. completion; otherwise force cycling through TODO states with no prompt. When
  3488. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is set to @code{prefix}, use the fast
  3489. selection interface.
  3490. @kindex S-RIGHT
  3491. @kindex S-LEFT
  3492. @item S-@key{RIGHT} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{LEFT}
  3493. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3494. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3495. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3496. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3497. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3498. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3499. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-tree}
  3500. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3501. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3502. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3503. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3504. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3505. / T}), search for a specific TODO@. You will be prompted for the keyword,
  3506. and you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3507. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3508. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the option @code{org-todo-keywords}.
  3509. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states, both un-done and done.
  3510. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3511. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3512. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3513. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3514. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3515. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3516. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3517. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3518. @end table
  3519. @noindent
  3520. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3521. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3522. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3523. @node TODO extensions
  3524. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3525. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3526. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3527. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3528. DONE@. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3529. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3530. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3531. files.
  3532. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3533. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3534. @menu
  3535. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3536. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3537. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3538. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3539. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3540. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3541. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3542. @end menu
  3543. @node Workflow states
  3544. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3545. @cindex TODO workflow
  3546. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3547. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3548. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3549. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3550. buffer.}:
  3551. @lisp
  3552. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3553. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3554. @end lisp
  3555. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3556. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3557. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3558. state.
  3559. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3560. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3561. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED@. You may
  3562. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3563. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY@.
  3564. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{LEFT}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3565. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3566. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3567. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3568. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3569. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3570. @node TODO types
  3571. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3572. @cindex TODO types
  3573. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3574. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3575. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3576. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3577. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3578. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3579. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3580. be set up like this:
  3581. @lisp
  3582. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3583. @end lisp
  3584. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3585. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to
  3586. a person, and later to mark it DONE@. Org mode supports this style by
  3587. adapting the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true
  3588. for the @kbd{t} command in the agenda buffers.}. When used several times in
  3589. succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first select
  3590. the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some time
  3591. and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly to
  3592. DONE@. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific name.
  3593. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree by
  3594. using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things Lucy
  3595. has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items from all
  3596. agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix argument
  3597. as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3598. @node Multiple sets in one file
  3599. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3600. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3601. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3602. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3603. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3604. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3605. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3606. like this:
  3607. @lisp
  3608. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3609. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3610. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3611. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3612. @end lisp
  3613. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3614. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3615. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3616. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3617. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3618. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3619. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3620. @table @kbd
  3621. @kindex C-S-RIGHT
  3622. @kindex C-S-LEFT
  3623. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3624. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3625. @itemx C-S-@key{RIGHT}
  3626. @itemx C-S-@key{LEFT}
  3627. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3628. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{RIGHT}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3629. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3630. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3631. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3632. @kindex S-RIGHT
  3633. @kindex S-LEFT
  3634. @item S-@key{RIGHT}
  3635. @itemx S-@key{LEFT}
  3636. @kbd{S-@key{LEFT}} and @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3637. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}} would switch
  3638. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3639. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3640. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3641. @end table
  3642. @node Fast access to TODO states
  3643. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3644. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3645. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3646. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection character after
  3647. each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except
  3648. @code{@@^!}, which have a special meaning here.}. For example:
  3649. @lisp
  3650. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3651. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3652. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3653. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3654. @end lisp
  3655. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3656. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry will
  3657. be switched to this state. @kbd{@key{SPC}} can be used to remove any TODO
  3658. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the option
  3659. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3660. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3661. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3662. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3663. @node Per-file keywords
  3664. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3665. @cindex keyword options
  3666. @cindex per-file keywords
  3667. @cindex @code{#+TODO}
  3668. @cindex @code{#+TYP_TODO}
  3669. @cindex @code{#+SEQ_TODO}
  3670. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3671. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines to
  3672. the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file only. For
  3673. example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you need one of the
  3674. following lines anywhere in the file:
  3675. @example
  3676. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3677. @end example
  3678. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3679. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3680. @example
  3681. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3682. @end example
  3683. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3684. @example
  3685. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3686. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3687. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3688. @end example
  3689. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3690. @kindex M-TAB
  3691. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3692. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3693. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3694. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3695. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3696. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3697. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3698. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3699. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3700. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3701. for the current buffer.}.
  3702. @node Faces for TODO keywords
  3703. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3704. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3705. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3706. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3707. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3708. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3709. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3710. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3711. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3712. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the option
  3713. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3714. @lisp
  3715. @group
  3716. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3717. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3718. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3719. @end group
  3720. @end lisp
  3721. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3722. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3723. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The option
  3724. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3725. foreground or a background color.
  3726. @node TODO dependencies
  3727. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3728. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3729. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3730. @cindex TODO dependencies, NOBLOCKING
  3731. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3732. @cindex property, @code{ORDERED}
  3733. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3734. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3735. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE@. And sometimes
  3736. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3737. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3738. the option @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3739. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE@.
  3740. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3741. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE@. Here is an
  3742. example:
  3743. @example
  3744. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3745. ** DONE one
  3746. ** TODO two
  3747. * Parent
  3748. :PROPERTIES:
  3749. :ORDERED: t
  3750. :END:
  3751. ** TODO a
  3752. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3753. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3754. @end example
  3755. You can ensure an entry is never blocked by using the @code{NOBLOCKING}
  3756. property:
  3757. @example
  3758. * This entry is never blocked
  3759. :PROPERTIES:
  3760. :NOBLOCKING: t
  3761. :END:
  3762. @end example
  3763. @table @kbd
  3764. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3765. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3766. @cindex property, @code{ORDERED}
  3767. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3768. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3769. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3770. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the option
  3771. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3772. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3773. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3774. @end table
  3775. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3776. If you set the option @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3777. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3778. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda views}).
  3779. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3780. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3781. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3782. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the option
  3783. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3784. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3785. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3786. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3787. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3788. @page
  3789. @node Progress logging
  3790. @section Progress logging
  3791. @cindex progress logging
  3792. @cindex logging, of progress
  3793. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3794. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3795. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable; settings can be on a
  3796. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3797. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3798. work time}.
  3799. @menu
  3800. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3801. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3802. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3803. @end menu
  3804. @node Closing items
  3805. @subsection Closing items
  3806. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3807. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3808. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3809. @lisp
  3810. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3811. @end lisp
  3812. @vindex org-closed-keep-when-no-todo
  3813. @noindent
  3814. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any of the
  3815. DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after
  3816. the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item through further
  3817. state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you turn the entry back
  3818. to a non-TODO state (by pressing @key{C-c C-t @key{SPC}} for example), that line
  3819. will also be removed, unless you set @code{org-closed-keep-when-no-todo} to
  3820. non-@code{nil}. If you want to record a note along with the timestamp,
  3821. use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP:
  3822. lognotedone}.}
  3823. @lisp
  3824. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3825. @end lisp
  3826. @noindent
  3827. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3828. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3829. @node Tracking TODO state changes
  3830. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3831. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3832. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3833. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3834. @cindex property, @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER}
  3835. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3836. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3837. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3838. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3839. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the option
  3840. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3841. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3842. Customize @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the recommended
  3843. drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3844. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @kbd{@key{SPC}} in the agenda to
  3845. show an entry---use @kbd{C-u @key{SPC}} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3846. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3847. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3848. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3849. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3850. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3851. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3852. setting
  3853. @lisp
  3854. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3855. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3856. @end lisp
  3857. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3858. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3859. @noindent
  3860. @vindex org-log-done
  3861. You not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3862. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3863. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3864. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3865. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3866. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3867. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3868. WAIT or CANCELED@. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3869. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3870. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3871. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3872. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3873. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3874. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3875. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3876. configured.
  3877. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3878. to a buffer:
  3879. @example
  3880. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3881. @end example
  3882. @cindex property, @code{LOGGING}
  3883. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a single
  3884. item, define a @code{LOGGING} property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3885. @code{LOGGING} property resets all logging settings to @code{nil}. You may
  3886. then turn on logging for this specific tree using @code{#+STARTUP} keywords
  3887. like @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3888. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3889. @example
  3890. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3891. :PROPERTIES:
  3892. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3893. :END:
  3894. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3895. :PROPERTIES:
  3896. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3897. :END:
  3898. * TODO No logging at all
  3899. :PROPERTIES:
  3900. :LOGGING: nil
  3901. :END:
  3902. @end example
  3903. @node Tracking your habits
  3904. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3905. @cindex habits
  3906. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3907. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3908. @enumerate
  3909. @item
  3910. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing @code{org-modules}.
  3911. @item
  3912. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3913. @item
  3914. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3915. @item
  3916. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3917. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3918. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3919. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3920. @item
  3921. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3922. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3923. three days, but at most every two days.
  3924. @item
  3925. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled
  3926. (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3927. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an
  3928. error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless.
  3929. @end enumerate
  3930. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3931. actual habit with some history:
  3932. @example
  3933. ** TODO Shave
  3934. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3935. :PROPERTIES:
  3936. :STYLE: habit
  3937. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3938. :END:
  3939. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3940. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3941. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3942. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3943. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3944. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3945. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3946. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3947. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3948. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3949. @end example
  3950. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3951. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3952. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3953. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3954. after four days have elapsed.
  3955. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3956. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3957. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3958. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3959. @table @code
  3960. @item Blue
  3961. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3962. @item Green
  3963. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3964. @item Yellow
  3965. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3966. @item Red
  3967. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3968. @end table
  3969. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3970. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3971. the current day falls in the graph.
  3972. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3973. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3974. @table @code
  3975. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3976. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3977. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3978. titles brief and to the point.
  3979. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3980. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3981. @item org-habit-following-days
  3982. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3983. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3984. If non-@code{nil}, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3985. default.
  3986. @end table
  3987. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3988. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3989. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3990. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3991. @node Priorities
  3992. @section Priorities
  3993. @cindex priorities
  3994. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3995. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3996. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3997. @example
  3998. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3999. @end example
  4000. @noindent
  4001. @vindex org-priority-faces
  4002. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  4003. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  4004. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  4005. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  4006. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  4007. special faces by customizing @code{org-priority-faces}.
  4008. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  4009. items.
  4010. @table @kbd
  4011. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  4012. @kindex C-c ,
  4013. @findex org-priority
  4014. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  4015. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  4016. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  4017. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the agenda
  4018. buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  4019. @c
  4020. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{UP},S-@key{DOWN},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  4021. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  4022. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  4023. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  4024. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  4025. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  4026. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  4027. @end table
  4028. @vindex org-highest-priority
  4029. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  4030. @vindex org-default-priority
  4031. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the options
  4032. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  4033. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  4034. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  4035. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  4036. priority):
  4037. @cindex @code{#+PRIORITIES}
  4038. @example
  4039. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  4040. @end example
  4041. @node Breaking down tasks
  4042. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  4043. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  4044. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  4045. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  4046. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  4047. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  4048. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  4049. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  4050. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  4051. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  4052. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  4053. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  4054. @example
  4055. * Organize Party [33%]
  4056. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  4057. *** TODO Peter
  4058. *** DONE Sarah
  4059. ** TODO Buy food
  4060. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  4061. @end example
  4062. @cindex property, @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4063. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  4064. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  4065. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  4066. this issue.
  4067. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  4068. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  4069. subtree (not just direct children), configure
  4070. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  4071. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4072. property.
  4073. @example
  4074. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  4075. :PROPERTIES:
  4076. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  4077. :END:
  4078. @end example
  4079. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  4080. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  4081. @example
  4082. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  4083. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  4084. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  4085. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  4086. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  4087. @end example
  4088. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  4089. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  4090. @node Checkboxes
  4091. @section Checkboxes
  4092. @cindex checkboxes
  4093. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  4094. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  4095. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  4096. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  4097. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  4098. (@pxref{TODO items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  4099. in the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  4100. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  4101. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  4102. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  4103. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  4104. @example
  4105. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  4106. - [-] call people [1/3]
  4107. - [ ] Peter
  4108. - [X] Sarah
  4109. - [ ] Sam
  4110. - [X] order food
  4111. - [ ] think about what music to play
  4112. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  4113. @end example
  4114. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  4115. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  4116. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  4117. checked.
  4118. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  4119. @cindex checkbox statistics
  4120. @cindex property, @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4121. @vindex org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics
  4122. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  4123. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  4124. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  4125. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  4126. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  4127. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  4128. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the option
  4129. @code{org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  4130. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  4131. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  4132. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  4133. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  4134. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  4135. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  4136. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  4137. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4138. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  4139. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  4140. @cindex checkbox blocking
  4141. @cindex property, @code{ORDERED}
  4142. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  4143. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  4144. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  4145. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  4146. @table @kbd
  4147. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4148. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4149. a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  4150. one@footnote{@kbd{C-u C-c C-c} before the @emph{first} bullet in a list with
  4151. no checkbox will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double
  4152. prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4153. intermediate state.
  4154. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4155. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4156. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4157. intermediate state.
  4158. @itemize @minus
  4159. @item
  4160. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  4161. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  4162. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  4163. @item
  4164. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle the state of the first checkbox in the
  4165. region between this headline and the next---so @emph{not} the entire
  4166. subtree---and propagate this new state to all other checkboxes in the same
  4167. area.
  4168. @item
  4169. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  4170. @end itemize
  4171. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  4172. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  4173. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  4174. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  4175. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  4176. @cindex property, @code{ORDERED}
  4177. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  4178. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  4179. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  4180. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  4181. for better visibility, customize @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  4182. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  4183. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  4184. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  4185. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  4186. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  4187. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  4188. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  4189. @end table
  4190. @node Tags
  4191. @chapter Tags
  4192. @cindex tags
  4193. @cindex headline tagging
  4194. @cindex matching, tags
  4195. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  4196. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  4197. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  4198. support for tags.
  4199. @vindex org-tag-faces
  4200. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  4201. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  4202. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  4203. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  4204. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  4205. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the option
  4206. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  4207. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  4208. @menu
  4209. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  4210. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  4211. * Tag hierarchy:: Create a hierarchy of tags
  4212. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  4213. @end menu
  4214. @node Tag inheritance
  4215. @section Tag inheritance
  4216. @cindex tag inheritance
  4217. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  4218. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  4219. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  4220. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  4221. well. For example, in the list
  4222. @example
  4223. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  4224. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  4225. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  4226. @end example
  4227. @noindent
  4228. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  4229. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  4230. explicitly marked with all those tags. You can also set tags that all
  4231. entries in a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in
  4232. a hypothetical level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like
  4233. this@footnote{As with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}
  4234. activates any changes in the line.}:
  4235. @cindex @code{#+FILETAGS}
  4236. @example
  4237. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  4238. @end example
  4239. @noindent
  4240. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  4241. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  4242. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, use @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  4243. To turn it off entirely, use @code{org-use-tag-inheritance}.
  4244. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4245. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  4246. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  4247. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  4248. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  4249. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  4250. match in a subtree, configure @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not
  4251. recommended).
  4252. @vindex org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance
  4253. Tag inheritance is relevant when the agenda search tries to match a tag,
  4254. either in the @code{tags} or @code{tags-todo} agenda types. In other agenda
  4255. types, @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} has no effect. Still, you may want to
  4256. have your tags correctly set in the agenda, so that tag filtering works fine,
  4257. with inherited tags. Set @code{org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance} to control
  4258. this: the default value includes all agenda types, but setting this to @code{nil}
  4259. can really speed up agenda generation.
  4260. @node Setting tags
  4261. @section Setting tags
  4262. @cindex setting tags
  4263. @cindex tags, setting
  4264. @kindex M-TAB
  4265. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4266. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4267. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4268. @table @kbd
  4269. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4270. @cindex completion, of tags
  4271. @vindex org-tags-column
  4272. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4273. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4274. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4275. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4276. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4277. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4278. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4279. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4280. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4281. @end table
  4282. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4283. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4284. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4285. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4286. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4287. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4288. @cindex @code{#+TAGS}
  4289. @example
  4290. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4291. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4292. @end example
  4293. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4294. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4295. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4296. @example
  4297. #+TAGS:
  4298. @end example
  4299. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4300. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4301. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4302. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4303. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4304. by adding a @code{#+STARTUP} option line to that file:
  4305. @example
  4306. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4307. @end example
  4308. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4309. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4310. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4311. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4312. assign unique, case-sensitive, letters to most of your commonly used tags.
  4313. You can do this globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in
  4314. your Emacs init file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items
  4315. in different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4316. like:
  4317. @lisp
  4318. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4319. @end lisp
  4320. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4321. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4322. @example
  4323. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4324. @end example
  4325. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4326. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4327. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4328. @example
  4329. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4330. @end example
  4331. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4332. @example
  4333. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4334. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4335. @end example
  4336. @noindent
  4337. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4338. braces, as in:
  4339. @example
  4340. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4341. @end example
  4342. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4343. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4344. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4345. these lines to activate any changes.
  4346. @noindent
  4347. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tag-alist},
  4348. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4349. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4350. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4351. configuration:
  4352. @lisp
  4353. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4354. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4355. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4356. (:endgroup . nil)
  4357. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4358. @end lisp
  4359. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4360. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4361. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4362. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4363. have no configured keys.}.
  4364. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of tags
  4365. in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually exclusive tags
  4366. will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4367. In this interface, you can also use the following special keys:
  4368. @table @kbd
  4369. @kindex TAB
  4370. @item @key{TAB}
  4371. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4372. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4373. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4374. @kindex SPC
  4375. @item @key{SPC}
  4376. Clear all tags for this line.
  4377. @kindex RET
  4378. @item @key{RET}
  4379. Accept the modified set.
  4380. @item C-g
  4381. Abort without installing changes.
  4382. @item q
  4383. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4384. @item !
  4385. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4386. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4387. @item C-c
  4388. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4389. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4390. selection window.
  4391. @end table
  4392. @noindent
  4393. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4394. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4395. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4396. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4397. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4398. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4399. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4400. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4401. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4402. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4403. modify your list of tags, set @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}.
  4404. Then you no longer have to press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it
  4405. will immediately exit after the first change. If you then occasionally
  4406. need more keys, press @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag
  4407. selection process (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c}
  4408. instead of @kbd{C-c C-c}). If you set the variable to the value
  4409. @code{expert}, the special window is not even shown for single-key tag
  4410. selection, it comes up only when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4411. @node Tag hierarchy
  4412. @section Tag hierarchy
  4413. @cindex group tags
  4414. @cindex tags, groups
  4415. @cindex tag hierarchy
  4416. Tags can be defined in hierarchies. A tag can be defined as a @emph{group
  4417. tag} for a set of other tags. The group tag can be seen as the ``broader
  4418. term'' for its set of tags. Defining multiple @emph{group tags} and nesting
  4419. them creates a tag hierarchy.
  4420. One use-case is to create a taxonomy of terms (tags) that can be used to
  4421. classify nodes in a document or set of documents.
  4422. When you search for a group tag, it will return matches for all members in
  4423. the group and its subgroups. In an agenda view, filtering by a group tag
  4424. will display or hide headlines tagged with at least one of the members of the
  4425. group or any of its subgroups. This makes tag searches and filters even more
  4426. flexible.
  4427. You can set group tags by using brackets and inserting a colon between the
  4428. group tag and its related tags---beware that all whitespaces are mandatory so
  4429. that Org can parse this line correctly:
  4430. @example
  4431. #+TAGS: [ GTD : Control Persp ]
  4432. @end example
  4433. In this example, @samp{GTD} is the @emph{group tag} and it is related to two
  4434. other tags: @samp{Control}, @samp{Persp}. Defining @samp{Control} and
  4435. @samp{Persp} as group tags creates an hierarchy of tags:
  4436. @example
  4437. #+TAGS: [ Control : Context Task ]
  4438. #+TAGS: [ Persp : Vision Goal AOF Project ]
  4439. @end example
  4440. That can conceptually be seen as a hierarchy of tags:
  4441. @example
  4442. - GTD
  4443. - Persp
  4444. - Vision
  4445. - Goal
  4446. - AOF
  4447. - Project
  4448. - Control
  4449. - Context
  4450. - Task
  4451. @end example
  4452. You can use the @code{:startgrouptag}, @code{:grouptags} and
  4453. @code{:endgrouptag} keyword directly when setting @code{org-tag-alist}
  4454. directly:
  4455. @lisp
  4456. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgrouptag)
  4457. ("GTD")
  4458. (:grouptags)
  4459. ("Control")
  4460. ("Persp")
  4461. (:endgrouptag)
  4462. (:startgrouptag)
  4463. ("Control")
  4464. (:grouptags)
  4465. ("Context")
  4466. ("Task")
  4467. (:endgrouptag)))
  4468. @end lisp
  4469. The tags in a group can be mutually exclusive if using the same group syntax
  4470. as is used for grouping mutually exclusive tags together; using curly
  4471. brackets.
  4472. @example
  4473. #+TAGS: @{ Context : @@Home @@Work @@Call @}
  4474. @end example
  4475. When setting @code{org-tag-alist} you can use @code{:startgroup} &
  4476. @code{:endgroup} instead of @code{:startgrouptag} & @code{:endgrouptag} to
  4477. make the tags mutually exclusive.
  4478. Furthermore, the members of a @emph{group tag} can also be regular
  4479. expressions, creating the possibility of a more dynamic and rule-based
  4480. tag structure. The regular expressions in the group must be specified
  4481. within @{ @}. Here is an expanded example:
  4482. @example
  4483. #+TAGS: [ Vision : @{V@@@.+@} ]
  4484. #+TAGS: [ Goal : @{G@@@.+@} ]
  4485. #+TAGS: [ AOF : @{AOF@@@.+@} ]
  4486. #+TAGS: [ Project : @{P@@@.+@} ]
  4487. @end example
  4488. Searching for the tag @samp{Project} will now list all tags also including
  4489. regular expression matches for @samp{P@@@.+}, and similarly for tag searches on
  4490. @samp{Vision}, @samp{Goal} and @samp{AOF}. For example, this would work well
  4491. for a project tagged with a common project-identifier, e.g. @samp{P@@2014_OrgTags}.
  4492. @kindex C-c C-x q
  4493. @vindex org-group-tags
  4494. If you want to ignore group tags temporarily, toggle group tags support
  4495. with @command{org-toggle-tags-groups}, bound to @kbd{C-c C-x q}. If you
  4496. want to disable tag groups completely, set @code{org-group-tags} to @code{nil}.
  4497. @node Tag searches
  4498. @section Tag searches
  4499. @cindex tag searches
  4500. @cindex searching for tags
  4501. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4502. information into special lists.
  4503. @table @kbd
  4504. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4505. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags/property/TODO search.
  4506. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4507. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4508. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4509. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files. @xref{Matching
  4510. tags and properties}.
  4511. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4512. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4513. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4514. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see the option
  4515. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4516. @end table
  4517. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4518. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4519. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4520. tagged as @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search string
  4521. is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels and
  4522. properties. For a complete description with many examples, see @ref{Matching
  4523. tags and properties}.
  4524. @node Properties and columns
  4525. @chapter Properties and columns
  4526. @cindex properties
  4527. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4528. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4529. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4530. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4531. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4532. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4533. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4534. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4535. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4536. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4537. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4538. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4539. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4540. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4541. @menu
  4542. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4543. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4544. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4545. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4546. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4547. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4548. @end menu
  4549. @node Property syntax
  4550. @section Property syntax
  4551. @cindex property syntax
  4552. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4553. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4554. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special drawer
  4555. (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}, which has to be located
  4556. right below a headline, and its planning line (@pxref{Deadlines and
  4557. scheduling}) when applicable. Each property is specified on a single line,
  4558. with the key (surrounded by colons) first, and the value after it. Keys are
  4559. case-insensitive. Here is an example:
  4560. @example
  4561. * CD collection
  4562. ** Classic
  4563. *** Goldberg Variations
  4564. :PROPERTIES:
  4565. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4566. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4567. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4568. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4569. :NDisks: 1
  4570. :END:
  4571. @end example
  4572. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4573. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the subtree
  4574. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4575. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4576. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4577. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4578. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4579. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4580. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4581. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4582. @example
  4583. * CD collection
  4584. :PROPERTIES:
  4585. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4586. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4587. :END:
  4588. @end example
  4589. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4590. file, use a line like
  4591. @cindex property, @code{_ALL}
  4592. @cindex @code{#+PROPERTY}
  4593. @example
  4594. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4595. @end example
  4596. Contrary to properties set from a special drawer, you have to refresh the
  4597. buffer with @kbd{C-c C-c} to activate this change.
  4598. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4599. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4600. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4601. @cindex property, @code{+}
  4602. @example
  4603. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4604. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4605. @end example
  4606. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4607. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4608. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4609. @cindex property, @code{+}
  4610. @example
  4611. * CD collection
  4612. ** Classic
  4613. :PROPERTIES:
  4614. :GENRES: Classic
  4615. :END:
  4616. *** Goldberg Variations
  4617. :PROPERTIES:
  4618. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4619. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4620. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4621. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4622. :NDisks: 1
  4623. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4624. :END:
  4625. @end example
  4626. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4627. @vindex org-global-properties
  4628. Property values set with the global variable
  4629. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4630. Org files.
  4631. @noindent
  4632. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4633. @table @kbd
  4634. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4635. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4636. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4637. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4638. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4639. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4640. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer @key{RET}
  4641. @cindex @code{org-insert-drawer}
  4642. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4643. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4644. information like deadlines.
  4645. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4646. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4647. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4648. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4649. can be inserted using completion.
  4650. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{RIGHT},S-@key{LEFT},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4651. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4652. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4653. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4654. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4655. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4656. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4657. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4658. nearest column format definition.
  4659. @end table
  4660. @node Special properties
  4661. @section Special properties
  4662. @cindex properties, special
  4663. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4664. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4665. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in
  4666. a column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The
  4667. following property names are special and should not be used as keys in the
  4668. properties drawer:
  4669. @cindex property, special, @code{ALLTAGS}
  4670. @cindex property, special, @code{BLOCKED}
  4671. @cindex property, special, @code{CLOCKSUM}
  4672. @cindex property, special, @code{CLOCKSUM_T}
  4673. @cindex property, special, @code{CLOSED}
  4674. @cindex property, special, @code{DEADLINE}
  4675. @cindex property, special, @code{FILE}
  4676. @cindex property, special, @code{ITEM}
  4677. @cindex property, special, @code{PRIORITY}
  4678. @cindex property, special, @code{SCHEDULED}
  4679. @cindex property, special, @code{TAGS}
  4680. @cindex property, special, @code{TIMESTAMP}
  4681. @cindex property, special, @code{TIMESTAMP_IA}
  4682. @cindex property, special, @code{TODO}
  4683. @example
  4684. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4685. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings.}
  4686. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4687. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4688. CLOCKSUM_T @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree for today.}
  4689. @r{@code{org-clock-sum-today} must be run first to compute the}
  4690. @r{values in the current buffer.}
  4691. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4692. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4693. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4694. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4695. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4696. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4697. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4698. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4699. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4700. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4701. @end example
  4702. @node Property searches
  4703. @section Property searches
  4704. @cindex properties, searching
  4705. @cindex searching, of properties
  4706. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4707. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4708. @table @kbd
  4709. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4710. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4711. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4712. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4713. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4714. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4715. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4716. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4717. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4718. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see the option
  4719. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4720. @end table
  4721. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4722. properties}.
  4723. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4724. single property:
  4725. @table @kbd
  4726. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4727. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4728. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4729. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4730. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4731. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4732. @end table
  4733. @node Property inheritance
  4734. @section Property Inheritance
  4735. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4736. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4737. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4738. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4739. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4740. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4741. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4742. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4743. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4744. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4745. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4746. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4747. inherited properties. If a property has the value @code{nil}, this is
  4748. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4749. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4750. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4751. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4752. @cindex property, @code{COLUMNS}
  4753. @table @code
  4754. @item COLUMNS
  4755. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4756. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4757. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4758. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4759. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4760. @item CATEGORY
  4761. @cindex property, @code{CATEGORY}
  4762. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4763. applies to the entire subtree.
  4764. @item ARCHIVE
  4765. @cindex property, @code{ARCHIVE}
  4766. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4767. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4768. @item LOGGING
  4769. @cindex property, @code{LOGGING}
  4770. The @code{LOGGING} property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4771. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4772. @end table
  4773. @node Column view
  4774. @section Column view
  4775. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4776. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4777. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4778. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4779. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4780. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4781. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4782. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4783. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4784. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4785. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4786. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda views}) where
  4787. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4788. @menu
  4789. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4790. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4791. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4792. @end menu
  4793. @node Defining columns
  4794. @subsection Defining columns
  4795. @cindex column view, for properties
  4796. @cindex properties, column view
  4797. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4798. done by defining a column format line.
  4799. @menu
  4800. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4801. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4802. @end menu
  4803. @node Scope of column definitions
  4804. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4805. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4806. @cindex @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4807. @example
  4808. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4809. @end example
  4810. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4811. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4812. @example
  4813. ** Top node for columns view
  4814. :PROPERTIES:
  4815. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4816. :END:
  4817. @end example
  4818. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4819. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4820. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4821. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4822. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4823. deeper part of the tree.
  4824. @node Column attributes
  4825. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4826. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4827. definition looks like this:
  4828. @example
  4829. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4830. @end example
  4831. @noindent
  4832. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4833. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4834. @example
  4835. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4836. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4837. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4838. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4839. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4840. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4841. @r{name is used.}
  4842. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4843. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children@footnote{If
  4844. more than one summary type apply to the property, the parent
  4845. values are computed according to the first of them.}.}
  4846. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4847. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4848. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4849. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4850. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4851. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4852. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4853. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4854. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4855. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4856. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are
  4857. hours@footnote{A time can also be a duration, using effort
  4858. modifiers defined in @code{org-effort-durations}, e.g.,
  4859. @samp{3d 1h}. If any value in the column is as such, the
  4860. summary will also be an effort duration.}.}
  4861. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4862. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4863. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4864. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age@footnote{An age is defined as
  4865. a duration since a given time-stamp (@pxref{Timestamps}). It
  4866. can also be expressed as days, hours, minutes and seconds,
  4867. identified by @samp{d}, @samp{h}, @samp{m} and @samp{s}
  4868. suffixes, all mandatory, e.g., @samp{0d 13h 0m 10s}.} (in
  4869. days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4870. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4871. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4872. @{est+@} @r{Add @samp{low-high} estimates.}
  4873. @end example
  4874. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4875. combining estimates, expressed as @samp{low-high} ranges or plain numbers.
  4876. For example, instead of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you
  4877. might estimate it as 5--6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much
  4878. work is required, or 1--10 days if you don't really know what needs to be
  4879. done. Both ranges average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more
  4880. predictable delivery.
  4881. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4882. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the