org.texi 763 KB

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  1. \input texinfo @c -*- texinfo -*-
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename org.info
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @documentencoding UTF-8
  6. @documentlanguage en
  7. @set txicodequoteundirected
  8. @set txicodequotebacktick
  9. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{https://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  10. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  11. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  12. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  13. @c %**end of header
  14. @copying
  15. This manual is for Org version 9.1.
  16. Copyright @copyright{} 2004--2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  17. @quotation
  18. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  19. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  20. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  21. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  22. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  23. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  24. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  25. modify this GNU manual.''
  26. @end quotation
  27. @end copying
  28. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  29. @direntry
  30. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer.
  31. @end direntry
  32. @finalout
  33. @titlepage
  34. @title The Org Manual
  35. @subtitle Release 9.1
  36. @author by Carsten Dominik
  37. @author with contributions by Bastien Guerry, Nicolas Goaziou, Eric Schulte, Jambunathan K, Dan Davison, Thomas Dye, David O'Toole, and Philip Rooke.
  38. @page
  39. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  40. @insertcopying
  41. @end titlepage
  42. @contents
  43. @ifnottex
  44. @node Top
  45. @top The Org Manual
  46. @insertcopying
  47. @end ifnottex
  48. @menu
  49. * Introduction:: Getting started.
  50. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain.
  51. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting.
  52. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context.
  53. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item.
  54. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags.
  55. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry.
  56. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning.
  57. * Capture, Refile, Archive: Capture Refile Archive. The ins and outs for projects.
  58. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views.
  59. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export.
  60. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing notes.
  61. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files.
  62. * Working with Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks.
  63. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere.
  64. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around.
  65. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device.
  66. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being.
  67. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
  68. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features.
  69. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described.
  70. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions.
  71. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual.
  72. @detailmenu
  73. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  74. Introduction
  75. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does.
  76. * Installation:: Installing Org.
  77. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers.
  78. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches, etc.
  79. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions used in this manual.
  80. Document Structure
  81. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode.
  82. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines.
  83. * Visibility Cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified.
  84. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines.
  85. * Structure Editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines.
  86. * Sparse Trees:: Matches embedded in context.
  87. * Plain Lists:: Additional structure within an entry.
  88. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away.
  89. * Blocks:: Folding blocks.
  90. * Creating Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax.
  91. * Org Syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax.
  92. Visibility Cycling
  93. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states.
  94. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state.
  95. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts.
  96. Tables
  97. * Built-in Table Editor:: Simple tables.
  98. * Column Width and Alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings.
  99. * Column Groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines.
  100. * Orgtbl Mode:: The table editor as minor mode.
  101. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities.
  102. * Org Plot:: Plotting from Org tables.
  103. The spreadsheet
  104. * References:: How to refer to another field or range.
  105. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff.
  106. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp.
  107. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values.
  108. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields.
  109. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column.
  110. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables.
  111. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas.
  112. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields.
  113. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, automatic recalculation...
  114. Hyperlinks
  115. * Link Format:: How links in Org are formatted.
  116. * Internal Links:: Links to other places in the current file.
  117. * Radio Targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text.
  118. * External Links:: URL-like links to the world.
  119. * Handling Links:: Creating, inserting and following.
  120. * Using Links Outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  121. * Link Abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links.
  122. * Search Options:: Linking to a specific location.
  123. * Custom Searches:: When the default search is not enough.
  124. TODO Items
  125. * TODO Basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries.
  126. * TODO Extensions:: Workflow and assignments.
  127. * Progress Logging:: Dates and notes for progress.
  128. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others.
  129. * Breaking Down Tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces.
  130. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists.
  131. TODO Extensions
  132. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps.
  133. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest.
  134. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, still finding your way.
  135. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of state.
  136. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements.
  137. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states.
  138. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others.
  139. Progress Logging
  140. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  141. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  142. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  143. Tags
  144. * Tag Inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of an outline.
  145. * Setting Tags:: How to assign tags to a headline.
  146. * Tag Hierarchy:: Create a hierarchy of tags.
  147. * Tag Searches:: Searching for combinations of tags.
  148. Properties and Columns
  149. * Property Syntax:: How properties are spelled out.
  150. * Special Properties:: Access to other Org mode features.
  151. * Property Searches:: Matching property values.
  152. * Property Inheritance:: Passing values down a tree.
  153. * Column View:: Tabular viewing and editing.
  154. Column View
  155. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property.
  156. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view.
  157. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view.
  158. Defining columns
  159. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  160. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column.
  161. Dates and Times
  162. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry.
  163. * Creating Timestamps:: Commands to insert timestamps.
  164. * Deadlines and Scheduling:: Planning your work.
  165. * Clocking Work Time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task.
  166. * Effort Estimates:: Planning work effort in advance.
  167. * Timers:: Notes with a running timer.
  168. Creating Timestamps
  169. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you enter dates and times.
  170. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different.
  171. Deadlines and Scheduling
  172. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items.
  173. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again.
  174. Clocking Work Time
  175. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock.
  176. * The clock table:: Detailed reports.
  177. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle.
  178. Capture, Refile, Archive
  179. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff.
  180. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks.
  181. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds.
  182. * Protocols:: External access to Emacs and Org.
  183. * Refile and Copy:: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another.
  184. * Archiving:: What to do with finished products.
  185. Capture
  186. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored.
  187. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture.
  188. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types.
  189. Capture templates
  190. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry.
  191. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context.
  192. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context.
  193. Protocols
  194. * @code{store-link} protocol:: Store a link, push URL to kill-ring.
  195. * @code{capture} protocol:: Fill a buffer with external information.
  196. * @code{open-source} protocol:: Edit published contents.
  197. Archiving
  198. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file.
  199. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file.
  200. Agenda Views
  201. * Agenda Files:: Files being searched for agenda information.
  202. * Agenda Dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views.
  203. * Built-in Agenda Views:: What is available out of the box?
  204. * Presentation and Sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display.
  205. * Agenda Commands:: Remote editing of Org trees.
  206. * Custom Agenda Views:: Defining special searches and views.
  207. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file.
  208. * Agenda Column View:: Using column view for collected entries.
  209. Built-in Agenda Views
  210. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks.
  211. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items.
  212. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search.
  213. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text.
  214. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review.
  215. Presentation and Sorting
  216. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal.
  217. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time.
  218. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things.
  219. * Filtering/limiting agenda times:: Dynamically narrow the agenda.
  220. Custom Agenda Views
  221. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often.
  222. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer.
  223. * Setting options:: Changing the rules.
  224. Markup
  225. * Paragraphs:: The basic unit of text.
  226. * Emphasis and Monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  227. * Horizontal Rules:: Make a line.
  228. * Images and Tables:: Images, tables and caption mechanism.
  229. * Literal Examples:: Source code examples with special formatting.
  230. * Special Symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols.
  231. * Subscripts and Superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text.
  232. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents.
  233. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  234. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy.
  235. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  236. * CD@LaTeX{} mode:: Speed up entering of formulas.
  237. Exporting
  238. * The Export Dispatcher:: The main interface.
  239. * Export Settings:: Common export settings.
  240. * Table of Contents:: The if and where of the table of contents.
  241. * Include Files:: Include additional files into a document.
  242. * Macro Replacement:: Use macros to create templates.
  243. * Comment Lines:: What will not be exported.
  244. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding.
  245. * Beamer Export::
  246. * HTML Export:: Exporting to HTML.
  247. * @LaTeX{} Export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{} and processing to PDF.
  248. * Markdown Export:: Exporting to Markdown.
  249. * OpenDocument Text Export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text.
  250. * Org Export:: Exporting to Org.
  251. * Texinfo Export:: Exporting to Texinfo.
  252. * iCalendar Export:: Exporting to iCalendar.
  253. * Other Built-in Back-ends:: Exporting to a man page.
  254. * Advanced Configuration:: Fine-tuning the export output.
  255. * Export in Foreign Buffers:: Author tables and lists in Org syntax.
  256. Beamer Export
  257. * Beamer export commands:: For creating Beamer documents.
  258. * Beamer specific export settings:: For customizing Beamer export.
  259. * Frames and Blocks in Beamer:: For composing Beamer slides.
  260. * Beamer specific syntax:: For using in Org documents.
  261. * Editing support:: Editing support.
  262. * A Beamer example:: A complete presentation.
  263. HTML Export
  264. * HTML export commands:: Invoking HTML export.
  265. * HTML specific export settings:: Settings for HTML export.
  266. * HTML doctypes:: Exporting various (X)HTML flavors.
  267. * HTML preamble and postamble:: Inserting preamble and postamble.
  268. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org files.
  269. * Links in HTML export:: Inserting and formatting links.
  270. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables.
  271. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output.
  272. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web.
  273. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternate way to show an example.
  274. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output.
  275. * JavaScript support:: Info and folding in a web browser.
  276. @LaTeX{} Export
  277. * @LaTeX{}/PDF export commands:: For producing @LaTeX{} and PDF documents.
  278. * @LaTeX{} specific export settings:: Unique to this @LaTeX{} back-end.
  279. * @LaTeX{} header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure.
  280. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code.
  281. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}.
  282. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output.
  283. * Plain lists in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to lists.
  284. * Source blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to source code blocks.
  285. * Example blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to example blocks.
  286. * Special blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to special blocks.
  287. * Horizontal rules in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to horizontal rules.
  288. OpenDocument Text Export
  289. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: Required packages.
  290. * ODT export commands:: Invoking export.
  291. * ODT specific export settings:: Configuration options.
  292. * Extending ODT export:: Producing DOC, PDF files.
  293. * Applying custom styles:: Styling the output.
  294. * Links in ODT export:: Handling and formatting links.
  295. * Tables in ODT export:: Org tables conversions.
  296. * Images in ODT export:: Inserting images.
  297. * Math formatting in ODT export:: Formatting @LaTeX{} fragments.
  298. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: Rendering objects.
  299. * Literal examples in ODT export:: For source code and example blocks.
  300. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: For power users.
  301. Math formatting in ODT export
  302. * @LaTeX{} math snippets:: Embedding in @LaTeX{} format.
  303. * MathML and OpenDocument formula files:: Embedding in native format.
  304. Texinfo Export
  305. * Texinfo export commands:: Invoking commands.
  306. * Texinfo specific export settings:: Setting the environment.
  307. * Texinfo file header:: Generating the header.
  308. * Texinfo title and copyright page:: Creating preamble pages.
  309. * Info directory file:: Installing a manual in Info file hierarchy.
  310. * Headings and sectioning structure:: Building document structure.
  311. * Indices:: Creating indices.
  312. * Quoting Texinfo code:: Incorporating literal Texinfo code.
  313. * Plain lists in Texinfo export:: List attributes.
  314. * Tables in Texinfo export:: Table attributes.
  315. * Images in Texinfo export:: Image attributes.
  316. * Special blocks in Texinfo export:: Special block attributes.
  317. * A Texinfo example:: Processing Org to Texinfo.
  318. Publishing
  319. * Configuration:: Defining projects.
  320. * Uploading Files:: How to get files up on the server.
  321. * Sample Configuration:: Example projects.
  322. * Triggering Publication:: Publication commands.
  323. Configuration
  324. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable.
  325. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there.
  326. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  327. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing.
  328. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export.
  329. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  330. * Site map:: Generating a list of all pages.
  331. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages.
  332. Sample Configuration
  333. * Simple example:: One-component publishing.
  334. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example.
  335. Working with Source Code
  336. * Structure of Code Blocks:: Code block syntax described.
  337. * Using Header Arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments.
  338. * Environment of a Code Block:: Arguments, sessions, working directory...
  339. * Evaluating Code Blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org buffer.
  340. * Results of Evaluation:: Choosing a results type, post-processing...
  341. * Exporting Code Blocks:: Export contents and/or results.
  342. * Extracting Source Code:: Create pure source code files.
  343. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages.
  344. * Editing Source Code:: Language major-mode editing.
  345. * Noweb Reference Syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode.
  346. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks.
  347. * Key bindings and Useful Functions:: Work quickly with code blocks.
  348. * Batch Execution:: Call functions from the command line.
  349. Miscellaneous
  350. * Completion:: M-@key{TAB} guesses completions.
  351. * Structure Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements.
  352. * Speed Keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline.
  353. * Code Evaluation Security:: Org files evaluate in-line code.
  354. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste.
  355. * In-buffer Settings:: Overview of keywords.
  356. * The Very Busy @kbd{C-c C-c} Key:: When in doubt, press @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  357. * Clean View:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline.
  358. * TTY Keys:: Using Org on a tty.
  359. * Interaction:: With other Emacs packages.
  360. * Org Crypt:: Encrypting Org files.
  361. Interaction
  362. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with.
  363. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts.
  364. Hacking
  365. * Hooks: Hooks (2). How to reach into Org's internals.
  366. * Add-on Packages:: Available extensions.
  367. * Adding Hyperlink Types:: New custom link types.
  368. * Adding Export Back-ends:: How to write new export back-ends.
  369. * Tables in Arbitrary Syntax:: Orgtbl for LaTeX and other programs.
  370. * Dynamic Blocks:: Automatically filled blocks.
  371. * Special Agenda Views:: Customized views.
  372. * Speeding Up Your Agendas:: Tips on how to speed up your agendas.
  373. * Extracting Agenda Information:: Post-processing agenda information.
  374. * Using the Property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties.
  375. * Using the Mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries.
  376. Tables in Arbitrary Syntax
  377. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables.
  378. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial.
  379. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify.
  380. MobileOrg
  381. * Setting Up the Staging Area:: For the mobile device.
  382. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas.
  383. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items.
  384. @end detailmenu
  385. @end menu
  386. @node Introduction
  387. @chapter Introduction
  388. @cindex introduction
  389. @menu
  390. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does.
  391. * Installation:: Installing Org.
  392. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers.
  393. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches, etc.
  394. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions used in this manual.
  395. @end menu
  396. @node Summary
  397. @section Summary
  398. @cindex summary
  399. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and project
  400. planning with a fast and effective plain-text system. It also is an
  401. authoring system with unique support for literate programming and
  402. reproducible research.
  403. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to
  404. keep the content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling
  405. and structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily
  406. created with a built-in table editor. Plain text URL-like links
  407. connect to websites, emails, Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any
  408. files related to the projects.
  409. Org develops organizational tasks around notes files that contain
  410. lists or information about projects as plain text. Project planning
  411. and task management makes use of metadata which is part of an outline
  412. node. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in
  413. queries and create dynamic @emph{agenda views} that also integrate the
  414. Emacs calendar and diary. Org can be used to implement many different
  415. project planning schemes, such as David Allen's GTD system.
  416. Org files can serve as a single source authoring system with export to
  417. many different formats such as HTML, @LaTeX{}, Open Document, and
  418. Markdown. New export backends can be derived from existing ones, or
  419. defined from scratch.
  420. Org files can include source code blocks, which makes Org uniquely
  421. suited for authoring technical documents with code examples. Org
  422. source code blocks are fully functional; they can be evaluated in
  423. place and their results can be captured in the file. This makes it
  424. possible to create a single file reproducible research compendium.
  425. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should feel
  426. like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  427. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when needed.
  428. Org is a toolbox. Many users actually run only a---very
  429. personal---fraction of Org's capabilities, and know that there is more
  430. whenever they need it.
  431. All of this is achieved with strictly plain text files, the most
  432. portable and future-proof file format. Org runs in Emacs. Emacs is
  433. one of the most widely ported programs, so that Org mode is available
  434. on every major platform.
  435. @cindex FAQ
  436. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest version
  437. of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked questions
  438. (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc. This page is located at
  439. @uref{https://orgmode.org}.
  440. @cindex print edition
  441. An earlier version (7.3) of this manual is available as a @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback
  442. book from Network Theory Ltd.}.
  443. @node Installation
  444. @section Installation
  445. @cindex installation
  446. Org is part of recent distributions of GNU Emacs, so you normally do
  447. not need to install it. If, for one reason or another, you want to
  448. install Org on top of this pre-packaged version, there are three ways
  449. to do it:
  450. @itemize
  451. @item
  452. By using Emacs package system.
  453. @item
  454. By downloading Org as an archive.
  455. @item
  456. By using Org's git repository.
  457. @end itemize
  458. We @strong{strongly recommend} to stick to a single installation method.
  459. @anchor{Using Emacs packaging system}
  460. @subheading Using Emacs packaging system
  461. Recent Emacs distributions include a packaging system which lets you
  462. install Elisp libraries. You can install Org with @kbd{M-x package-install @key{RET} org}.
  463. @noindent
  464. @strong{Important}: you need to do this in a session where no @samp{.org} file has
  465. been visited, i.e., where no Org built-in function have been loaded.
  466. Otherwise autoload Org functions will mess up the installation.
  467. Then, to make sure your Org configuration is taken into account,
  468. initialize the package system with @code{(package-initialize)} in your
  469. Emacs init file before setting any Org option. If you want to use
  470. Org's package repository, check out the @uref{https://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}.
  471. @anchor{Downloading Org as an archive}
  472. @subheading Downloading Org as an archive
  473. You can download Org latest release from @uref{https://orgmode.org/, Org's website}. In this case,
  474. make sure you set the load-path correctly in your Emacs init file:
  475. @lisp
  476. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  477. @end lisp
  478. The downloaded archive contains contributed libraries that are not
  479. included in Emacs. If you want to use them, add the @samp{contrib/}
  480. directory to your load-path:
  481. @lisp
  482. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  483. @end lisp
  484. Optionally, you can compile the files and/or install them in your
  485. system. Run @samp{make help} to list compilation and installation options.
  486. @anchor{Using Org's git repository}
  487. @subheading Using Org's git repository
  488. You can clone Org's repository and install Org like this:
  489. @example
  490. $ cd ~/src/
  491. $ git clone git@@code.orgmode.org:bzg/org-mode.git
  492. $ cd org-mode/
  493. $ make autoloads
  494. @end example
  495. Note that in this case, @code{make autoloads} is mandatory: it defines
  496. Org's version in @samp{org-version.el} and Org's autoloads in
  497. @samp{org-loaddefs.el}.
  498. Remember to add the correct load-path as described in the method
  499. above.
  500. You can also compile with @samp{make}, generate the documentation with
  501. @samp{make doc}, create a local configuration with @samp{make config} and
  502. install Org with @samp{make install}. Please run @samp{make help} to get the
  503. list of compilation/installation options.
  504. For more detailed explanations on Org's build system, please check the
  505. Org Build System page on @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html, Worg}.
  506. @node Activation
  507. @section Activation
  508. @cindex activation
  509. @cindex autoload
  510. @cindex ELPA
  511. @cindex global key bindings
  512. @cindex key bindings, global
  513. Org mode buffers need Font Lock to be turned on: this is the default
  514. in Emacs@footnote{If you do not use Font Lock globally turn it on in Org buffer
  515. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}.}.
  516. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  517. packages (see @ref{Conflicts}). Please take the
  518. time to check the list.
  519. @findex org-agenda
  520. @findex org-capture
  521. @findex org-store-link
  522. For a better experience, the three Org commands @code{org-store-link},
  523. @code{org-capture} and @code{org-agenda} ought to be accessible anywhere in
  524. Emacs, not just in Org buffers. To that effect, you need to bind them
  525. to globally available keys, like the ones reserved for users (see
  526. @ref{Key Binding Conventions,,,elisp,}). Here are suggested
  527. bindings, please modify the keys to your own liking.
  528. @lisp
  529. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  530. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  531. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  532. @end lisp
  533. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  534. Files with the @samp{.org} extension use Org mode by default. To turn on
  535. Org mode in a file that does not have the extension @samp{.org}, make the
  536. first line of a file look like this:
  537. @example
  538. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  539. @end example
  540. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  541. @noindent
  542. which selects Org mode for this buffer no matter what the file's name
  543. is. See also the variable @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  544. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @emph{active}. To
  545. make use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode} turned on,
  546. which is the default. If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you
  547. can create an active region by using the mouse to select a region, or
  548. pressing @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  549. @node Feedback
  550. @section Feedback
  551. @cindex feedback
  552. @cindex bug reports
  553. @cindex reporting a bug
  554. @cindex maintainer
  555. @cindex author
  556. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or
  557. ideas about it, please mail to the Org mailing list
  558. @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}. You can subscribe to the list @uref{https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/emacs-orgmode, on this
  559. web page}. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will
  560. be passed to the list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing to the mailing list in order to
  561. minimize the work the mailing list moderators have to do.}.
  562. @findex org-version
  563. @findex org-submit-bug-report
  564. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  565. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it
  566. is quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug
  567. persists, prepare a report and provide as much information as
  568. possible, including the version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version}) and Org (@kbd{M-x org-version}), as well as
  569. the Org related setup in the Emacs init file. The easiest way to do
  570. this is to use the command
  571. @example
  572. M-x org-submit-bug-report <RET>
  573. @end example
  574. @noindent
  575. which puts all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so that you
  576. only need to add your description. If you are not sending the Email
  577. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email
  578. program.
  579. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or
  580. Org mode setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start
  581. Emacs with minimal customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so
  582. often helps you determine if the problem is with your customization or
  583. with Org mode itself. You can start a typical minimal session with
  584. a command like the example below.
  585. @example
  586. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  587. @end example
  588. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal
  589. setup is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs
  590. as @samp{emacs -Q}. The @samp{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  591. shown below.
  592. @lisp
  593. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'.
  594. ;; Activate debugging.
  595. (setq debug-on-error t
  596. debug-on-signal nil
  597. debug-on-quit nil)
  598. ;; Add latest Org mode to load path.
  599. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  600. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t))
  601. @end lisp
  602. If an error occurs, a ``backtrace'' can be very useful---see below on
  603. how to create one. Often a small example file helps, along with clear
  604. information about:
  605. @enumerate
  606. @item
  607. What exactly did you do?
  608. @item
  609. What did you expect to happen?
  610. @item
  611. What happened instead?
  612. @end enumerate
  613. @noindent
  614. Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  615. @anchor{How to create a useful backtrace}
  616. @subheading How to create a useful backtrace
  617. @cindex backtrace of an error
  618. If working with Org produces an error with a message you do not
  619. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  620. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a backtrace. This
  621. is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  622. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  623. @enumerate
  624. @item
  625. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The
  626. backtrace contains much more information if it is produced with
  627. uncompiled code. To do this, use
  628. @example
  629. C-u M-x org-reload <RET>
  630. @end example
  631. @noindent
  632. or, from the menu: Org @arrow{} Refresh/Reload @arrow{} Reload Org uncompiled.
  633. @item
  634. Then, activate the debugger:
  635. @example
  636. M-x toggle-debug-or-error <RET>
  637. @end example
  638. @noindent
  639. or, from the menu: Options @arrow{} Enter Debugger on Error.
  640. @item
  641. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Do not forget to
  642. document the steps you take.
  643. @item
  644. When you hit the error, a @samp{*Backtrace*} buffer appears on the
  645. screen. Save this buffer to a file---for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}---and attach it to your bug report.
  646. @end enumerate
  647. @node Conventions
  648. @section Typesetting Conventions Used in this Manual
  649. @anchor{TODO keywords tags properties etc}
  650. @subheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  651. Org uses various syntactical elements: TODO keywords, tags, property
  652. names, keywords, blocks, etc. In this manual we use the following
  653. conventions:
  654. @table @asis
  655. @item @samp{TODO}
  656. @itemx @samp{WAITING}
  657. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  658. user-defined.
  659. @item @samp{boss}
  660. @itemx @samp{ARCHIVE}
  661. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with
  662. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  663. @item @samp{Release}
  664. @itemx @samp{PRIORITY}
  665. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  666. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  667. @item @samp{TITLE}
  668. @itemx @samp{BEGIN} @dots{} @samp{END}
  669. Keywords and blocks are written in uppercase to enhance their
  670. readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org files.
  671. @end table
  672. @anchor{Key bindings and commands}
  673. @subheading Key bindings and commands
  674. The manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  675. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for
  676. different functions, depending on context. The command that is bound
  677. to such keys has a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual
  678. we will, wherever possible, give the function that is internally
  679. called by the generic command. For example, in the chapter on
  680. document structure, @kbd{M-@key{RIGHT}} will be listed to call
  681. @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it will be listed to
  682. call @code{org-table-move-column-right}.
  683. @node Document Structure
  684. @chapter Document Structure
  685. @cindex document structure
  686. @cindex structure of document
  687. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  688. edit the structure of the document.
  689. @menu
  690. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode.
  691. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines.
  692. * Visibility Cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified.
  693. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines.
  694. * Structure Editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines.
  695. * Sparse Trees:: Matches embedded in context.
  696. * Plain Lists:: Additional structure within an entry.
  697. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away.
  698. * Blocks:: Folding blocks.
  699. * Creating Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax.
  700. * Org Syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax.
  701. @end menu
  702. @node Outlines
  703. @section Outlines
  704. @cindex outlines
  705. @cindex Outline mode
  706. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a document
  707. to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which, least for me, is
  708. the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview of this
  709. structure is achieved by folding, i.e., hiding large parts of the
  710. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  711. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of outlines
  712. by compressing the entire show and hide functionalities into a single
  713. command, @code{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @kbd{@key{TAB}} key.
  714. @node Headlines
  715. @section Headlines
  716. @cindex headlines
  717. @cindex outline tree
  718. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  719. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  720. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  721. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in
  722. Org start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k},
  723. and @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of
  724. @kbd{C-a}, @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines. Note
  725. also that clocking only works with headings indented less than 30
  726. stars.}. For
  727. example:
  728. @example
  729. * Top level headline
  730. ** Second level
  731. *** Third level
  732. some text
  733. *** Third level
  734. more text
  735. * Another top level headline
  736. @end example
  737. @vindex org-footnote-section
  738. @noindent
  739. Note that the name defined in @code{org-footnote-section} is reserved. Do
  740. not use it as a title for your own headings.
  741. Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an outline
  742. that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline starters.
  743. See @ref{Clean View}.
  744. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  745. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  746. is hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at least
  747. two empty lines, one empty line remains visible after folding the
  748. subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the variable
  749. @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  750. @node Visibility Cycling
  751. @section Visibility Cycling
  752. @cindex cycling, visibility
  753. @cindex visibility cycling
  754. @cindex trees, visibility
  755. @cindex show hidden text
  756. @cindex hide text
  757. @menu
  758. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states.
  759. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state.
  760. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts.
  761. @end menu
  762. @node Global and local cycling
  763. @subsection Global and local cycling
  764. @cindex subtree visibility states
  765. @cindex subtree cycling
  766. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  767. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  768. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  769. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  770. Org uses just two commands, bound to @kbd{@key{TAB}} and
  771. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  772. @table @asis
  773. @item @kbd{@key{TAB}} (@code{org-cycle})
  774. @kindex TAB
  775. @findex org-cycle
  776. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  777. @example
  778. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  779. '-----------------------------------'
  780. @end example
  781. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  782. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{See, however, the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}.
  783. @item @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} (@code{org-global-cycle})
  784. @itemx @kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}
  785. @cindex global visibility states
  786. @cindex global cycling
  787. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  788. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  789. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  790. @kindex C-u TAB
  791. @kindex S-TAB
  792. @findex org-global-cycle
  793. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  794. @example
  795. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  796. '--------------------------------------'
  797. @end example
  798. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N,
  799. the CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N are shown. Note
  800. that inside tables (see @ref{Tables}), @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the
  801. previous field instead.
  802. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  803. You can run global cycling using @kbd{@key{TAB}} only if point is
  804. at the very beginning of the buffer, but not on a headline, and
  805. @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob} is set to a non-@code{nil} value.
  806. @item @kbd{C-u C-u @key{TAB}} (@code{org-set-startup-visibility})
  807. @cindex startup visibility
  808. @kindex C-u C-u TAB
  809. @findex org-set-startup-visibility
  810. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer (see @ref{Initial visibility}).
  811. @item @kbd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB}} (@code{outline-show-all})
  812. @cindex show all, command
  813. @kindex C-u C-u C-u TAB
  814. @findex outline-show-all
  815. Show all, including drawers.
  816. @item @kbd{C-c C-r} (@code{org-reveal})
  817. @cindex revealing context
  818. @kindex C-c C-r
  819. @findex org-reveal
  820. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the
  821. following heading and the hierarchy above. Useful for working
  822. near a location that has been exposed by a sparse tree command
  823. (see @ref{Sparse Trees}) or an agenda command (see @ref{Agenda Commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each level, all
  824. sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  825. entire subtree of the parent.
  826. @item @kbd{C-c C-k} (@code{outline-show-branches})
  827. @cindex show branches, command
  828. @kindex C-c C-k
  829. @findex outline-show-branches
  830. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENTS view for just
  831. one subtree.
  832. @item @kbd{C-c @key{TAB}} (@code{outline-show-children})
  833. @cindex show children, command
  834. @kindex C-c TAB
  835. @findex outline-show-children
  836. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix
  837. argument N, expose all children down to level N.
  838. @item @kbd{C-c C-x b} (@code{org-tree-to-indirect-buffer})
  839. @kindex C-c C-x b
  840. @findex org-tree-to-indirect-buffer
  841. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect buffer contains the entire buffer, but is narrowed
  842. to the current tree. Editing the indirect buffer also changes the
  843. original buffer, but without affecting visibility in that buffer. For
  844. more information about indirect buffers, see @ref{Indirect Buffers,GNU Emacs Manual,,emacs,}.}. With
  845. a numeric prefix argument, N, go up to level N and then take that
  846. tree. If N is negative then go up that many levels. With
  847. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove the previously used
  848. indirect buffer.
  849. @item @kbd{C-c C-x v} (@code{org-copy-visible})
  850. @kindex C-c C-x v
  851. @findex org-copy-visible
  852. Copy the @emph{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  853. @end table
  854. @node Initial visibility
  855. @subsection Initial visibility
  856. @vindex org-startup-folded
  857. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  858. OVERVIEW, i.e., only the top level headlines are visible@footnote{When @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} is non-@code{nil}, Org does not
  859. honor the default visibility state when first opening a file for the
  860. agenda (see @ref{Speeding Up Your Agendas}).}. This
  861. can be configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on
  862. a per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  863. buffer:
  864. @cindex STARTUP, keyword
  865. @example
  866. #+STARTUP: overview
  867. #+STARTUP: content
  868. #+STARTUP: showall
  869. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  870. @end example
  871. @cindex @samp{VISIBILITY}, property
  872. @noindent
  873. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (see @ref{Properties and Columns}) get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  874. for this property are @samp{folded}, @samp{children}, @samp{content}, and @code{all}.
  875. @table @asis
  876. @item @kbd{C-u C-u @key{TAB}} (@code{org-set-startup-visibility})
  877. @kindex C-u C-u TAB
  878. @findex org-set-startup-visibility
  879. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.,
  880. whatever is requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY}
  881. properties in individual entries.
  882. @end table
  883. @node Catching invisible edits
  884. @subsection Catching invisible edits
  885. @cindex edits, catching invisible
  886. @vindex org-catch-invisible-edits
  887. Sometimes you may inadvertently edit an invisible part of the buffer
  888. and be confused on what has been edited and how to undo the mistake.
  889. Setting @code{org-catch-invisible-edits} to non-@code{nil} helps preventing
  890. this. See the docstring of this option on how Org should catch
  891. invisible edits and process them.
  892. @node Motion
  893. @section Motion
  894. @cindex motion, between headlines
  895. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  896. @cindex headline navigation
  897. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  898. @table @asis
  899. @item @kbd{C-c C-n} (@code{outline-next-visible-heading})
  900. @kindex C-c C-n
  901. @findex outline-next-visible-heading
  902. Next heading.
  903. @item @kbd{C-c C-p} (@code{outline-previous-visible-heading})
  904. @kindex C-c C-p
  905. @findex outline-previous-visible-heading
  906. Previous heading.
  907. @item @kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{org-forward-same-level})
  908. @kindex C-c C-f
  909. @findex org-forward-same-level
  910. Next heading same level.
  911. @item @kbd{C-c C-b} (@code{org-backward-same-level})
  912. @kindex C-c C-b
  913. @findex org-backward-same-level
  914. Previous heading same level.
  915. @item @kbd{C-c C-u} (@code{outline-up-heading})
  916. @kindex C-c C-u
  917. @findex outline-up-heading
  918. Backward to higher level heading.
  919. @item @kbd{C-c C-j} (@code{org-goto})
  920. @kindex C-c C-j
  921. @findex org-goto
  922. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  923. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  924. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer,
  925. where you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  926. @multitable @columnfractions 0.3 0.7
  927. @item @kbd{@key{TAB}}
  928. @tab Cycle visibility.
  929. @item @kbd{@key{DOWN}} / @kbd{@key{UP}}
  930. @tab Next/previous visible headline.
  931. @item @kbd{@key{RET}}
  932. @tab Select this location.
  933. @item @kbd{/}
  934. @tab Do a Sparse-tree search
  935. @end multitable
  936. @noindent
  937. The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}
  938. @multitable @columnfractions 0.3 0.7
  939. @item @kbd{n} / @kbd{p}
  940. @tab Next/previous visible headline.
  941. @item @kbd{f} / @kbd{b}
  942. @tab Next/previous headline same level.
  943. @item @kbd{u}
  944. @tab One level up.
  945. @item @kbd{0} @dots{} @kbd{9}
  946. @tab Digit argument.
  947. @item @kbd{q}
  948. @tab Quit.
  949. @end multitable
  950. @vindex org-goto-interface
  951. @noindent
  952. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  953. @end table
  954. @node Structure Editing
  955. @section Structure Editing
  956. @cindex structure editing
  957. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  958. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  959. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  960. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  961. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  962. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  963. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  964. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  965. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  966. @table @asis
  967. @item @kbd{M-@key{RET}} (@code{org-meta-return})
  968. @kindex M-RET
  969. @findex org-meta-return
  970. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  971. Insert a new heading, item or row.
  972. If the command is used at the @emph{beginning} of a line, and if there
  973. is a heading or a plain list item (see @ref{Plain Lists}) at point,
  974. the new heading/item is created @emph{before} the current line. When
  975. used at the beginning of a regular line of text, turn that line
  976. into a heading.
  977. When this command is used in the middle of a line, the line is
  978. split and the rest of the line becomes the new item or headline.
  979. If you do not want the line to be split, customize
  980. @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.
  981. Calling the command with a @kbd{C-u} prefix unconditionally
  982. inserts a new heading at the end of the current subtree, thus
  983. preserving its contents. With a double @kbd{C-u C-u}
  984. prefix, the new heading is created at the end of the parent
  985. subtree instead.
  986. @item @kbd{C-@key{RET}} (@code{org-insert-heading-respect-content})
  987. @kindex C-RET
  988. @findex org-insert-heading-respect-content
  989. Insert a new heading at the end of the current subtree.
  990. @item @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}} (@code{org-insert-todo-heading})
  991. @kindex M-S-RET
  992. @findex org-insert-todo-heading
  993. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  994. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See
  995. also the variable
  996. @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  997. @item @kbd{C-S-@key{RET}} (@code{org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content})
  998. @kindex C-S-RET
  999. @findex org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content
  1000. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1001. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline is inserted after the current
  1002. subtree.
  1003. @item @kbd{@key{TAB}} (@code{org-cycle})
  1004. @kindex TAB
  1005. @findex org-cycle
  1006. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @kbd{@key{TAB}} demotes
  1007. the entry to become a child of the previous one. The next
  1008. @kbd{@key{TAB}} makes it a parent, and so on, all the way to top
  1009. level. Yet another @kbd{@key{TAB}}, and you are back to the
  1010. initial level.
  1011. @item @kbd{M-@key{LEFT}} (@code{org-do-promote})
  1012. @kindex M-LEFT
  1013. @findex org-do-promote
  1014. Promote current heading by one level.
  1015. @item @kbd{M-@key{RIGHT}} (@code{org-do-demote})
  1016. @kindex M-RIGHT
  1017. @findex org-do-demote
  1018. Demote current heading by one level.
  1019. @item @kbd{M-S-@key{LEFT}} (@code{org-promote-subtree})
  1020. @kindex M-S-LEFT
  1021. @findex org-promote-subtree
  1022. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1023. @item @kbd{M-S-@key{RIGHT}} (@code{org-demote-subtree})
  1024. @kindex M-S-RIGHT
  1025. @findex org-demote-subtree
  1026. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1027. @item @kbd{M-@key{UP}} (@code{org-move-subtree-up})
  1028. @kindex M-UP
  1029. @findex org-move-subtree-up
  1030. Move subtree up, i.e., swap with previous subtree of same level.
  1031. @item @kbd{M-@key{DOWN}} (@code{org-move-subtree-down})
  1032. @kindex M-DOWN
  1033. @findex org-move-subtree-down
  1034. Move subtree down, i.e., swap with next subtree of same level.
  1035. @item @kbd{C-c @@} (@code{org-mark-subtree})
  1036. @kindex C-c @@
  1037. @findex org-mark-subtree
  1038. Mark the subtree at point. Hitting repeatedly marks subsequent
  1039. subtrees of the same level as the marked subtree.
  1040. @item @kbd{C-c C-x C-w} (@code{org-cut-subtree})
  1041. @kindex C-c C-x C-w
  1042. @findex org-cut-subtree
  1043. Kill subtree, i.e., remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1044. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1045. @item @kbd{C-c C-x M-w} (@code{org-copy-subtree})
  1046. @kindex C-c C-x M-w
  1047. @findex org-copy-subtree
  1048. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1049. copy the N sequential subtrees.
  1050. @item @kbd{C-c C-x C-y} (@code{org-paste-subtree})
  1051. @kindex C-c C-x C-y
  1052. @findex org-paste-subtree
  1053. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the
  1054. subtree to make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank
  1055. position. The yank level can also be specified with a numeric
  1056. prefix argument, or by yanking after a headline marker like
  1057. @samp{****}.
  1058. @item @kbd{C-y} (@code{org-yank})
  1059. @kindex C-y
  1060. @findex org-yank
  1061. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1062. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1063. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1064. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command pastes
  1065. subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as
  1066. @kbd{C-c C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level
  1067. adjustment takes place, but the yanked tree is folded unless
  1068. doing so would swallow text previously visible. Any prefix
  1069. argument to this command forces a normal @code{yank} to be executed,
  1070. with the prefix passed along. A good way to force a normal yank
  1071. is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a yank, it
  1072. yanks previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1073. folding.
  1074. @item @kbd{C-c C-x c} (@code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift})
  1075. @kindex C-c C-x c
  1076. @findex org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift
  1077. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You
  1078. are prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also
  1079. specify if any timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This
  1080. can be useful, for example, to create a number of tasks related
  1081. to a series of lectures to prepare. For more details, see the
  1082. docstring of the command @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1083. @item @kbd{C-c C-w} (@code{org-refile})
  1084. @kindex C-c C-w
  1085. @findex org-refile
  1086. Refile entry or region to a different location. See @ref{Refile and Copy}.
  1087. @item @kbd{C-c ^} (@code{org-sort})
  1088. @kindex C-c ^
  1089. @findex org-sort
  1090. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all
  1091. entries in the region are sorted. Otherwise the children of the
  1092. current headline are sorted. The command prompts for the sorting
  1093. method, which can be alphabetically, numerically, by time---first
  1094. timestamp with active preferred, creation time, scheduled time,
  1095. deadline time---by priority, by TODO keyword---in the sequence
  1096. the keywords have been defined in the setup---or by the value of
  1097. a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also
  1098. supply your own function to extract the sorting key. With
  1099. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, sorting is case-sensitive.
  1100. @item @kbd{C-x n s} (@code{org-narrow-to-subtree})
  1101. @kindex C-x n s
  1102. @findex org-narrow-to-subtree
  1103. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1104. @item @kbd{C-x n b} (@code{org-narrow-to-block})
  1105. @kindex C-x n b
  1106. @findex org-narrow-to-block
  1107. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1108. @item @kbd{C-x n w} (@code{widen})
  1109. @kindex C-x n w
  1110. @findex widen
  1111. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1112. @item @kbd{C-c *} (@code{org-toggle-heading})
  1113. @kindex C-c *
  1114. @findex org-toggle-heading
  1115. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline---so that
  1116. it becomes a subheading at its location. Also turn a headline
  1117. into a normal line by removing the stars. If there is an active
  1118. region, turn all lines in the region into headlines. If the
  1119. first line in the region was an item, turn only the item lines
  1120. into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a headline, remove
  1121. the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1122. @end table
  1123. @cindex region, active
  1124. @cindex active region
  1125. @cindex transient mark mode
  1126. When there is an active region---i.e., when Transient Mark mode is
  1127. active---promotion and demotion work on all headlines in the region.
  1128. To select a region of headlines, it is best to place both point and
  1129. mark at the beginning of a line, mark at the beginning of the first
  1130. headline, and point at the line just after the last headline to
  1131. change. Note that when the cursor is inside a table (see @ref{Tables}),
  1132. the Meta-Cursor keys have different functionality.
  1133. @node Sparse Trees
  1134. @section Sparse Trees
  1135. @cindex sparse trees
  1136. @cindex trees, sparse
  1137. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1138. @cindex occur, command
  1139. @vindex org-show-context-detail
  1140. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1141. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1142. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information
  1143. is made visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the variable @code{org-show-context-detail} to decide how
  1144. much context is shown around each match.}.
  1145. Just try it out and you will see immediately how it works.
  1146. Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1147. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1148. @table @asis
  1149. @item @kbd{C-c /} (@code{org-sparse-tree})
  1150. @kindex C-c /
  1151. @findex org-sparse-tree
  1152. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating
  1153. command.
  1154. @item @kbd{C-c / r} or @kbd{C-c / /} (@code{org-occur})
  1155. @kindex C-c / r
  1156. @kindex C-c / /
  1157. @findex org-occur
  1158. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1159. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches.
  1160. If the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If
  1161. the match is in the body of an entry, headline and body are made
  1162. visible. In order to provide minimal context, also the full
  1163. hierarchy of headlines above the match is shown, as well as the
  1164. headline following the match. Each match is also highlighted;
  1165. the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an editing
  1166. command, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}@footnote{This depends on the option @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}.}. When called
  1167. with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are
  1168. kept, so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1169. @item @kbd{M-g n} or @kbd{M-g M-n} (@code{next-error})
  1170. @kindex M-g n
  1171. @kindex M-g M-n
  1172. @findex next-error
  1173. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1174. @item @kbd{M-g p} or @kbd{M-g M-p} (@code{previous-error})
  1175. @kindex M-g p
  1176. @kindex M-g M-p
  1177. @findex previous-error
  1178. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1179. @end table
  1180. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1181. @noindent
  1182. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1183. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast keyboard
  1184. access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1185. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (see @ref{Agenda Dispatcher}).
  1186. For example:
  1187. @lisp
  1188. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1189. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1190. @end lisp
  1191. @noindent
  1192. defines the key @kbd{f} as a shortcut for creating a sparse tree
  1193. matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1194. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1195. tags, or properties and are discussed later in this manual.
  1196. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1197. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1198. @cindex visible text, printing
  1199. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1200. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts of
  1201. the document. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to
  1202. export only the visible part of the document and print the resulting
  1203. file.
  1204. @node Plain Lists
  1205. @section Plain Lists
  1206. @cindex plain lists
  1207. @cindex lists, plain
  1208. @cindex lists, ordered
  1209. @cindex ordered lists
  1210. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1211. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of
  1212. checkboxes (see @ref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and
  1213. every exporter (see @ref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1214. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1215. @itemize
  1216. @item
  1217. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented so that they
  1218. are not interpreted as headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1219. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with
  1220. a star may be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even
  1221. though @samp{*} is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list
  1222. items.} as bullets.
  1223. @item
  1224. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1225. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1226. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either
  1227. a period or a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1228. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and @samp{A)} by configuring
  1229. @code{org-list-allow-alphabetical}. To minimize confusion with normal
  1230. text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond that limit,
  1231. bullets automatically become numbers.}
  1232. If you want a list to start with a different value---e.g.,
  1233. 20---start the text of the item with @samp{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie must be put
  1234. @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical lists, you
  1235. can also use counters like @samp{[@@b]}.}. Those
  1236. constructs can be used in any item of the list in order to enforce
  1237. a particular numbering.
  1238. @item
  1239. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1240. separator @samp{::} to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1241. description.
  1242. @end itemize
  1243. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the
  1244. first line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.},
  1245. then the 2-digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other
  1246. numbers in the list. An item ends before the next line that is less
  1247. or equally indented than its bullet/number.
  1248. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line
  1249. less or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before
  1250. two blank lines. In that case, all items are closed. Here is an
  1251. example:
  1252. @example
  1253. * Lord of the Rings
  1254. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1255. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1256. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1257. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1258. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1259. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1260. - on DVD only
  1261. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1262. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1263. Important actors in this film are:
  1264. - Elijah Wood :: He plays Frodo
  1265. - Sean Astin :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember him
  1266. very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in /The Goonies/.
  1267. @end example
  1268. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to
  1269. deal with them correctly, and by exporting them properly (see
  1270. @ref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the structure of these
  1271. lists, many structural constructs like @samp{#+BEGIN_} blocks can be
  1272. indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1273. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1274. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1275. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list---than that
  1276. used for the current list-level---improves readability, customize the
  1277. variable @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference
  1278. of indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1279. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1280. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1281. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first
  1282. line of an item---the line with the bullet or number. Some of them
  1283. imply the application of automatic rules to keep list structure
  1284. intact. If some of these actions get in your way, configure
  1285. @code{org-list-automatic-rules} to disable them individually.
  1286. @table @asis
  1287. @item @kbd{@key{TAB}} (@code{org-cycle})
  1288. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1289. @kindex TAB
  1290. @findex org-cycle
  1291. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1292. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this
  1293. works only if the cursor is on a plain list item. For more
  1294. details, see the variable @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If
  1295. this variable is set to @code{integrate}, plain list items are treated
  1296. like low-level headlines. The level of an item is then given by
  1297. the indentation of the bullet/number. Items are always
  1298. subordinate to real headlines, however; the hierarchies remain
  1299. completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the first
  1300. @kbd{@key{TAB}} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1301. one. Subsequent @kbd{@key{TAB}}s move the item to meaningful
  1302. levels in the list and eventually get it back to its initial
  1303. position.
  1304. @item @kbd{M-@key{RET}} (@code{org-insert-heading})
  1305. @kindex M-RET
  1306. @findex org-insert-heading
  1307. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1308. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force
  1309. a new heading (see @ref{Structure Editing}). If this command is used
  1310. in the middle of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the
  1311. second part becomes the new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1312. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is
  1313. executed @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before}
  1314. the current one.
  1315. @item @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}
  1316. @kindex M-S-RET
  1317. Insert a new item with a checkbox (see @ref{Checkboxes}).
  1318. @item @kbd{S-@key{UP}}
  1319. @itemx @kbd{S-@key{DOWN}}
  1320. @kindex S-UP
  1321. @kindex S-DOWN
  1322. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1323. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1324. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1325. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list, but only if
  1326. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off@footnote{If you want to cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1327. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}. If not, you can
  1328. still use paragraph jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{UP}}
  1329. and @kbd{C-@key{DOWN}} to quite similar effect.
  1330. @item @kbd{M-@key{UP}}
  1331. @itemx @kbd{M-@key{DOWN}}
  1332. @kindex M-UP
  1333. @kindex M-DOWN
  1334. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See @code{org-list-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.}, i.e., swap with
  1335. previous/next item of same indentation. If the list is ordered,
  1336. renumbering is automatic.
  1337. @item @kbd{M-@key{LEFT}}
  1338. @itemx @kbd{M-@key{RIGHT}}
  1339. @kindex M-LEFT
  1340. @kindex M-RIGHT
  1341. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children
  1342. alone.
  1343. @item @kbd{M-S-@key{LEFT}}
  1344. @itemx @kbd{M-S-@key{RIGHT}}
  1345. @kindex M-S-LEFT
  1346. @kindex M-S-RIGHT
  1347. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including
  1348. subitems. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current
  1349. indentation. When these commands are executed several times in
  1350. direct succession, the initially selected region is used, even if
  1351. the new indentation would imply a different hierarchy. To use
  1352. the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor motion
  1353. or so.
  1354. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of
  1355. a list moves the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by
  1356. configuring @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation
  1357. of a list has no influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1358. @item @kbd{C-c C-c}
  1359. @kindex C-c C-c
  1360. If there is a checkbox (see @ref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle
  1361. the state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and
  1362. indentation consistency in the whole list.
  1363. @item @kbd{C-c -}
  1364. @kindex C-c -
  1365. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1366. Cycle the entire list level through the different
  1367. itemize/enumerate bullets (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset
  1368. of them, depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator},
  1369. the type of list, and its indentation. With a numeric prefix
  1370. argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an
  1371. active region when calling this, selected text is changed into an
  1372. item. With a prefix argument, all lines are converted to list
  1373. items. If the first line already was a list item, any item
  1374. marker is removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1375. region, a normal line is converted into a list item.
  1376. @item @kbd{C-c *}
  1377. @kindex C-c *
  1378. Turn a plain list item into a headline---so that it becomes
  1379. a subheading at its location. See @ref{Structure Editing}, for
  1380. a detailed explanation.
  1381. @item @kbd{C-c C-*}
  1382. @kindex C-c C-*
  1383. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading.
  1384. Checkboxes (see @ref{Checkboxes}) become TODO, respectively DONE,
  1385. keywords when unchecked, respectively checked.
  1386. @item @kbd{S-@key{LEFT}}
  1387. @itemx @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}}
  1388. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1389. @kindex S-LEFT
  1390. @kindex S-RIGHT
  1391. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the
  1392. bullet or anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1393. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1394. @item @kbd{C-c ^}
  1395. @kindex C-c ^
  1396. @cindex sorting, of plain list
  1397. Sort the plain list. Prompt for the sorting method: numerically,
  1398. alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1399. @end table
  1400. @node Drawers
  1401. @section Drawers
  1402. @cindex drawers
  1403. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1404. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but
  1405. you normally do not want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1406. They can contain anything but a headline and another drawer. Drawers
  1407. look like this:
  1408. @example
  1409. ** This is a headline
  1410. Still outside the drawer
  1411. :DRAWERNAME:
  1412. This is inside the drawer.
  1413. :END:
  1414. After the drawer.
  1415. @end example
  1416. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1417. @findex org-insert-drawer
  1418. You can interactively insert a drawer at point by calling
  1419. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @kbd{C-c C-x d}. With an
  1420. active region, this command puts the region inside the drawer. With
  1421. a prefix argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer},
  1422. which creates a @samp{PROPERTIES} drawer right below the current headline.
  1423. Org mode uses this special drawer for storing properties (see
  1424. @ref{Properties and Columns}). You cannot use it for anything else.
  1425. Completion over drawer keywords is also possible using
  1426. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@footnote{Many desktops intercept @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows.
  1427. Use @kbd{C-M-i} or @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} instead.}.
  1428. Visibility cycling (see @ref{Visibility Cycling}) on the headline hides and
  1429. shows the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In
  1430. order to look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the
  1431. drawer line and press @kbd{@key{TAB}} there.
  1432. You can also arrange for state change notes (see @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times (see @ref{Clocking Work Time}) to be stored in
  1433. a @samp{LOGBOOK} drawer. If you want to store a quick note there, in
  1434. a similar way to state changes, use
  1435. @table @asis
  1436. @item @kbd{C-c C-z}
  1437. @kindex C-c C-z
  1438. Add a time-stamped note to the @samp{LOGBOOK} drawer.
  1439. @end table
  1440. @node Blocks
  1441. @section Blocks
  1442. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1443. @cindex blocks, folding
  1444. Org mode uses @samp{#+BEGIN} @dots{} @samp{#+END} blocks for various purposes from
  1445. including source code examples (see @ref{Literal Examples}) to capturing
  1446. time logging information (see @ref{Clocking Work Time}). These blocks can
  1447. be folded and unfolded by pressing @kbd{@key{TAB}} in the @samp{#+BEGIN}
  1448. line. You can also get all blocks folded at startup by configuring
  1449. the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup} or on a per-file basis by using
  1450. @cindex STARTUP, keyword
  1451. @example
  1452. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1453. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1454. @end example
  1455. @node Creating Footnotes
  1456. @section Creating Footnotes
  1457. @cindex footnotes
  1458. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes.
  1459. A footnote is started by a footnote marker in square brackets in
  1460. column 0, no indentation allowed. It ends at the next footnote
  1461. definition, headline, or after two consecutive empty lines. The
  1462. footnote reference is simply the marker in square brackets, inside
  1463. text. Markers always start with @samp{fn:}. For example:
  1464. @example
  1465. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1466. ...
  1467. [fn:1] The link is: https://orgmode.org
  1468. @end example
  1469. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1470. optional inline definition. Here are the valid references:
  1471. @table @asis
  1472. @item @samp{[fn:NAME]}
  1473. A named footnote reference, where @var{NAME} is a unique
  1474. label word, or, for simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1475. @item @samp{[fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]}
  1476. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given
  1477. directly at the reference point.
  1478. @item @samp{[fn:NAME: a definition]}
  1479. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name
  1480. for the note. Since Org allows multiple references to the same
  1481. note, you can then use @samp{[fn:NAME]} to create additional
  1482. references.
  1483. @end table
  1484. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1485. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names
  1486. yourself. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label}
  1487. and its corresponding @samp{STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that
  1488. variable for details.
  1489. @noindent
  1490. The following command handles footnotes:
  1491. @table @asis
  1492. @item @kbd{C-c C-x f}
  1493. The footnote action command.
  1494. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1495. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the
  1496. definition. When it is at a definition, jump to
  1497. the---first---reference.
  1498. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1499. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1500. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1501. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @samp{#+STARTUP: fninline}
  1502. or @samp{#+STARTUP: nofninline}.}, the definition is placed
  1503. right into the text as part of the reference, or separately into
  1504. the location determined by the variable @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1505. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of
  1506. additional options is offered:
  1507. @multitable @columnfractions 0.1 0.9
  1508. @item @kbd{s}
  1509. @tab Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence.
  1510. @item @kbd{r}
  1511. @tab Renumber the simple @samp{fn:N} footnotes.
  1512. @item @kbd{S}
  1513. @tab Short for first @kbd{r}, then @kbd{s} action.
  1514. @item @kbd{n}
  1515. @tab Rename all footnotes into a @samp{fn:1} @dots{} @samp{fn:n} sequence.
  1516. @item @kbd{d}
  1517. @tab Delete the footnote at point, including definition and references.
  1518. @end multitable
  1519. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1520. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer options are @samp{#+STARTUP: fnadjust}
  1521. and @samp{#+STARTUP: nofnadjust}.},
  1522. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each
  1523. insertion or deletion.
  1524. @item @kbd{C-c C-c}
  1525. @kindex C-c C-c
  1526. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition.
  1527. If it is at the definition, jump back to the reference. When
  1528. called at a footnote location with a prefix argument, offer the
  1529. same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1530. @item @kbd{C-c C-o} or @kbd{mouse-1/2}
  1531. @kindex C-c C-o
  1532. @kindex mouse-1
  1533. @kindex mouse-2
  1534. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition or
  1535. reference, and you can use the usual commands to follow these
  1536. links.
  1537. @end table
  1538. @node Org Syntax
  1539. @section Org Syntax
  1540. A reference document providing a formal description of Org's syntax is
  1541. available as @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-syntax.html, a draft on Worg}, written and maintained by Nicolas
  1542. Goaziou. It defines Org's core internal concepts such as @samp{headlines},
  1543. @samp{sections}, @samp{affiliated keywords}, @samp{(greater) elements} and @samp{objects}.
  1544. Each part of an Org file falls into one of the categories above.
  1545. To explore the abstract structure of an Org buffer, run this in
  1546. a buffer:
  1547. @example
  1548. M-: (org-element-parse-buffer) <RET>
  1549. @end example
  1550. @noindent
  1551. It outputs a list containing the buffer's content represented as an
  1552. abstract structure. The export engine relies on the information
  1553. stored in this list. Most interactive commands---e.g., for structure
  1554. editing---also rely on the syntactic meaning of the surrounding
  1555. context.
  1556. @cindex syntax checker
  1557. @cindex linter
  1558. @findex org-lint
  1559. You can check syntax in your documents using @code{org-lint} command.
  1560. @node Tables
  1561. @chapter Tables
  1562. @cindex tables
  1563. @cindex editing tables
  1564. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1565. calculations are supported using the Emacs Calc package (see @ref{Top,GNU Emacs
  1566. Calculator Manual,,calc,}).
  1567. @menu
  1568. * Built-in Table Editor:: Simple tables.
  1569. * Column Width and Alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings.
  1570. * Column Groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines.
  1571. * Orgtbl Mode:: The table editor as minor mode.
  1572. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities.
  1573. * Org Plot:: Plotting from Org tables.
  1574. @end menu
  1575. @node Built-in Table Editor
  1576. @section Built-in Table Editor
  1577. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1578. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|}
  1579. as the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table.
  1580. @samp{|} is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table field, use @samp{\vert} or,
  1581. inside a word @samp{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table might look like
  1582. this:
  1583. @example
  1584. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1585. |-------+-------+-----|
  1586. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1587. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1588. @end example
  1589. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press
  1590. @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{@key{RET}} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table.
  1591. @kbd{@key{TAB}} also moves to the next field---@kbd{@key{RET}} to the
  1592. next row---and creates new table rows at the end of the table or
  1593. before horizontal lines. The indentation of the table is set by the
  1594. first line. Any line starting with @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal
  1595. separator line and will be expanded on the next re-align to span the
  1596. whole table width. So, to create the above table, you would only type
  1597. @example
  1598. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1599. |-
  1600. @end example
  1601. @noindent
  1602. and then press @kbd{@key{TAB}} to align the table and start filling in
  1603. fields. Even faster would be to type @samp{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1604. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1605. When typing text into a field, Org treats @kbd{DEL},
  1606. @kbd{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1607. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1608. typing @emph{immediately} after the cursor was moved into a new field with
  1609. @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}, the field is
  1610. automatically made blank. If this behavior is too unpredictable for
  1611. you, configure the option @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1612. @anchor{Creation and conversion}
  1613. @subheading Creation and conversion
  1614. @table @asis
  1615. @item @kbd{C-c |} (@code{org-table-create-or-convert-from-region})
  1616. @kindex C-c |
  1617. @findex org-table-create-or-convert-from-region
  1618. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at
  1619. least one @kbd{@key{TAB}} character, the function assumes that the
  1620. material is tab separated. If every line contains a comma,
  1621. comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed. If not, lines are
  1622. split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix argument
  1623. to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV,
  1624. @kbd{C-u C-u} forces @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{C-u C-u C-u}
  1625. prompts for a regular expression to match the separator, and
  1626. a numeric argument N indicates that at least N consecutive
  1627. spaces, or alternatively a @kbd{@key{TAB}} will be the separator.
  1628. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1629. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like @kbd{| N a m e | P h o n e | A g e @key{RET} | - @key{TAB}}.
  1630. @end table
  1631. @anchor{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1632. @subheading Re-aligning and field motion
  1633. @table @asis
  1634. @item @kbd{C-c C-c} (@code{org-table-align})
  1635. @kindex C-c C-c
  1636. @findex org-table-align
  1637. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1638. @item @kbd{@key{TAB}} (@code{org-table-next-field})
  1639. @kindex TAB
  1640. @findex org-table-next-field
  1641. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1642. necessary.
  1643. @item @kbd{C-c @key{SPC}} (@code{org-table-blank-field})
  1644. @kindex C-c SPC
  1645. @findex org-table-blank-field
  1646. Blank the field at point.
  1647. @item @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} (@code{org-table-previous-field})
  1648. @kindex S-TAB
  1649. @findex org-table-previous-field
  1650. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1651. @item @kbd{@key{RET}} (@code{org-table-next-row})
  1652. @kindex RET
  1653. @findex org-table-next-row
  1654. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row
  1655. if necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @kbd{@key{RET}}
  1656. still inserts a new line, so it can be used to split a table.
  1657. @item @kbd{M-a} (@code{org-table-beginning-of-field})
  1658. @kindex M-a
  1659. @findex org-table-beginning-of-field
  1660. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the
  1661. previous field.
  1662. @item @kbd{M-e} (@code{org-table-end-of-field})
  1663. @kindex M-e
  1664. @findex org-table-end-of-field
  1665. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1666. @end table
  1667. @anchor{Column and row editing}
  1668. @subheading Column and row editing
  1669. @table @asis
  1670. @item @kbd{M-@key{LEFT}} (@code{org-table-move-column-left})
  1671. @kindex M-LEFT
  1672. @findex org-table-move-column-left
  1673. Move the current column left.
  1674. @item @kbd{M-@key{RIGHT}} (@code{org-table-move-column-right})
  1675. @kindex M-RIGHT
  1676. @findex org-table-move-column-right
  1677. Move the current column right.
  1678. @item @kbd{M-S-@key{LEFT}} (@code{org-table-delete-column})
  1679. @kindex M-S-LEFT
  1680. @findex org-table-delete-column
  1681. Kill the current column.
  1682. @item @kbd{M-S-@key{RIGHT}} (@code{org-table-insert-column})
  1683. @kindex M-S-RIGHT
  1684. @findex org-table-insert-column
  1685. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1686. @item @kbd{M-@key{UP}} (@code{org-table-move-row-up})
  1687. @kindex M-UP
  1688. @findex org-table-move-row-up
  1689. Move the current row up.
  1690. @item @kbd{M-@key{DOWN}} (@code{org-table-move-row-down})
  1691. @kindex M-DOWN
  1692. @findex org-table-move-row-down
  1693. Move the current row down.
  1694. @item @kbd{M-S-@key{UP}} (@code{org-table-kill-row})
  1695. @kindex M-S-UP
  1696. @findex org-table-kill-row
  1697. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1698. @item @kbd{M-S-@key{DOWN}} (@code{org-table-insert-row})
  1699. @kindex M-S-DOWN
  1700. @findex org-table-insert-row
  1701. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument,
  1702. the line is created below the current one.
  1703. @item @kbd{C-c -} (@code{org-table-insert-hline})
  1704. @kindex C-c -
  1705. @findex org-table-insert-hline
  1706. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix
  1707. argument, the line is created above the current line.
  1708. @item @kbd{C-c @key{RET}} (@code{org-table-hline-and-move})
  1709. @kindex C-c RET
  1710. @findex org-table-hline-and-move
  1711. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor
  1712. into the row below that line.
  1713. @item @kbd{C-c ^} (@code{org-table-sort-lines})
  1714. @kindex C-c ^
  1715. @findex org-table-sort-lines
  1716. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point
  1717. indicates the column to be used for sorting, and the range of
  1718. lines is the range between the nearest horizontal separator
  1719. lines, or the entire table. If point is before the first column,
  1720. you are prompted for the sorting column. If there is an active
  1721. region, the mark specifies the first line and the sorting column,
  1722. while point should be in the last line to be included into the
  1723. sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type,
  1724. alphabetically, numerically, or by time. You can sort in normal
  1725. or reverse order. You can also supply your own key extraction
  1726. and comparison functions. When called with a prefix argument,
  1727. alphabetic sorting is case-sensitive.
  1728. @end table
  1729. @anchor{Regions}
  1730. @subheading Regions
  1731. @table @asis
  1732. @item @kbd{C-c C-x M-w} (@code{org-table-copy-region})
  1733. @kindex C-c C-x M-w
  1734. @findex org-table-copy-region
  1735. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard.
  1736. Point and mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there
  1737. is no active region, copy just the current field. The process
  1738. ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1739. @item @kbd{C-c C-x C-w} (@code{org-table-cut-region})
  1740. @kindex C-c C-x C-w
  1741. @findex org-table-cut-region
  1742. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard,
  1743. and blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut''
  1744. operation.
  1745. @item @kbd{C-c C-x C-y} (@code{org-table-paste-rectangle})
  1746. @kindex C-c C-x C-y
  1747. @findex org-table-paste-rectangle
  1748. Paste a rectangular region into a table. The upper left corner
  1749. ends up in the current field. All involved fields are
  1750. overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present
  1751. table, the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores
  1752. horizontal separator lines.
  1753. @item @kbd{M-@key{RET}} (@code{org-table-wrap-region})
  1754. @kindex M-RET
  1755. @findex org-table-wrap-region
  1756. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest
  1757. to the line below. If there is an active region, and both point
  1758. and mark are in the same column, the text in the column is
  1759. wrapped to minimum width for the given number of lines.
  1760. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number of
  1761. desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix
  1762. argument, the current field is made blank, and the content is
  1763. appended to the field above.
  1764. @end table
  1765. @anchor{Calculations}
  1766. @subheading Calculations
  1767. @cindex formula, in tables
  1768. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1769. @table @asis
  1770. @item @kbd{C-c +} (@code{org-table-sum})
  1771. @kindex C-c +
  1772. @findex org-table-sum
  1773. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle
  1774. defined by the active region. The result is shown in the echo
  1775. area and can be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1776. @item @kbd{S-@key{RET}} (@code{org-table-copy-down})
  1777. @kindex S-RET
  1778. @findex org-table-copy-down
  1779. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1780. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field
  1781. above. When not empty, copy current field down to next row and
  1782. move cursor along with it. Depending on the variable
  1783. @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field values can be
  1784. incremented during copy. Integers that are too large are not
  1785. incremented, however. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily
  1786. disables the increment. This key is also used by shift-selection
  1787. and related modes (see @ref{Conflicts}).
  1788. @end table
  1789. @anchor{Miscellaneous (1)}
  1790. @subheading Miscellaneous
  1791. @table @asis
  1792. @item @kbd{C-c `} (@code{org-table-edit-field})
  1793. @kindex C-c `
  1794. @findex org-table-edit-field
  1795. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for
  1796. fields that are not fully visible (see @ref{Column Width and Alignment}). When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make
  1797. the full field visible, so that it can be edited in place. When
  1798. called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor window
  1799. follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1800. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor
  1801. leaves the table, or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1802. @item @kbd{M-x org-table-import}
  1803. @findex org-table-import
  1804. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1805. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or
  1806. data from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1807. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the
  1808. file into the buffer and then converting the region to a table.
  1809. Any prefix argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it
  1810. to determine the separator.
  1811. @item @kbd{C-c |} (@code{org-table-create-or-convert-from-region})
  1812. @kindex C-c |
  1813. @findex org-table-create-or-convert-from-region
  1814. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1815. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and
  1816. then using the @kbd{C-c |} command (see @ref{Creation and conversion}).
  1817. @item @kbd{M-x org-table-export}
  1818. @findex org-table-export
  1819. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1820. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for
  1821. data exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database
  1822. programs. The format used to export the file can be configured
  1823. in the variable @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also
  1824. use properties @samp{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @samp{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to
  1825. specify the file name and the format for table export in
  1826. a subtree. Org supports quite general formats for exported
  1827. tables. The exporter format is the same as the format used by
  1828. Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a detailed
  1829. description.
  1830. @end table
  1831. @node Column Width and Alignment
  1832. @section Column Width and Alignment
  1833. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1834. @cindex alignment in tables
  1835. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor.
  1836. The alignment of a column is determined automatically from the
  1837. fraction of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1838. @vindex org-table-automatic-realign
  1839. Editing a field may modify alignment of the table. Moving
  1840. a contiguous row or column---i.e., using @kbd{@key{TAB}} or
  1841. @kbd{@key{RET}}---automatically re-aligns it. If you want to disable
  1842. this behavior, set @code{org-table-automatic-realign} to @code{nil}. In any
  1843. case, you can always align manually a table:
  1844. @table @asis
  1845. @item @kbd{C-c C-c} (@code{org-table-align})
  1846. @kindex C-c C-c
  1847. @findex org-table-align
  1848. Align the current table.
  1849. @end table
  1850. @noindent
  1851. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1852. Setting the option @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} re-aligns all tables
  1853. in a file upon visiting it. You can also set this option on
  1854. a per-file basis with:
  1855. @example
  1856. #+STARTUP: align
  1857. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1858. @end example
  1859. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text,
  1860. leading to inconveniently wide columns. Maybe you want to hide away
  1861. several columns or display them with a fixed width, regardless of
  1862. content, as shown in the following example.
  1863. @example
  1864. |---+---------------------+--------| |---+-------…|…|
  1865. | | <6> | | | | <6> …|…|
  1866. | 1 | one | some | ----\ | 1 | one …|…|
  1867. | 2 | two | boring | ----/ | 2 | two …|…|
  1868. | 3 | This is a long text | column | | 3 | This i…|…|
  1869. |---+---------------------+--------| |---+-------…|…|
  1870. @end example
  1871. To set the width of a column, one field anywhere in the column may
  1872. contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @var{N} specifies the width
  1873. as a number of characters. You control displayed width of columns
  1874. with the following tools:
  1875. @table @asis
  1876. @item @kbd{C-c @key{TAB}} (@code{org-table-toggle-column-width})
  1877. @kindex C-c TAB
  1878. @findex org-table-toggle-column-width
  1879. Shrink or expand current column.
  1880. If a width cookie specifies a width W for the column, shrinking
  1881. it displays the first W visible characters only. Otherwise, the
  1882. column is shrunk to a single character.
  1883. When called before the first column or after the last one, ask
  1884. for a list of column ranges to operate on.
  1885. @item @kbd{C-u C-c @key{TAB}} (@code{org-table-shrink})
  1886. @kindex C-u C-c TAB
  1887. @findex org-table-shrink
  1888. Shrink all columns with a column width. Expand the others.
  1889. @item @kbd{C-u C-u C-c @key{TAB}} (@code{org-table-expand})
  1890. @kindex C-u C-u C-c TAB
  1891. @findex org-table-expand
  1892. Expand all columns.
  1893. @end table
  1894. To see the full text of a shrunk field, hold the mouse over it:
  1895. a tool-tip window then shows the full contents of the field.
  1896. Alternatively, @kbd{C-h .} (@code{display-local-help}) reveals them,
  1897. too. For convenience, any change near the shrunk part of a column
  1898. expands it.
  1899. @vindex org-startup-shrink-all-tables
  1900. Setting the option @code{org-startup-shrink-all-tables} shrinks all columns
  1901. containing a width cookie in a file the moment it is visited. You can
  1902. also set this option on a per-file basis with:
  1903. @example
  1904. #+STARTUP: shrink
  1905. @end example
  1906. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich
  1907. columns to the right and of string-rich columns to the left, you can
  1908. use @samp{<r>}, @samp{<c>} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may also combine
  1909. alignment and field width like this: @samp{<r10>}.
  1910. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies are removed
  1911. automatically upon exporting the document.
  1912. @node Column Groups
  1913. @section Column Groups
  1914. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1915. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical lines
  1916. because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1917. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1918. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1919. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1920. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either contain
  1921. @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group, @samp{>} to indicate
  1922. the end of a column, or @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<} and @samp{>}) to make
  1923. a column a group of its own. Upon export, boundaries between column
  1924. groups are marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1925. @example
  1926. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1927. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1928. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1929. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1930. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1931. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1932. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1933. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1934. @end example
  1935. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1936. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1937. @example
  1938. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1939. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1940. | / | < | | | < | |
  1941. @end example
  1942. @node Orgtbl Mode
  1943. @section The Orgtbl Minor Mode
  1944. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1945. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1946. @findex orgtbl-mode
  1947. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you might
  1948. also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode. The
  1949. minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle the
  1950. mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1951. example in Message mode, use
  1952. @lisp
  1953. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1954. @end lisp
  1955. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain
  1956. tables in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is
  1957. possible to construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power
  1958. of Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  1959. @ref{Tables in Arbitrary Syntax}.
  1960. @node The spreadsheet
  1961. @section The spreadsheet
  1962. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1963. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  1964. @cindex Calc package
  1965. The table editor makes use of the Emacs Calc package to implement
  1966. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms
  1967. to derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's
  1968. implementation is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example,
  1969. Org knows the concept of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to
  1970. all non-header fields in a column without having to copy the formula
  1971. to each relevant field. There is also a formula debugger, and
  1972. a formula editor with features for highlighting fields in the table
  1973. corresponding to the references at the point in the formula, moving
  1974. these references by arrow keys.
  1975. @menu
  1976. * References:: How to refer to another field or range.
  1977. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff.
  1978. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp.
  1979. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values.
  1980. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields.
  1981. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column.
  1982. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables.
  1983. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas.
  1984. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields.
  1985. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, automatic recalculation...
  1986. @end menu
  1987. @node References
  1988. @subsection References
  1989. @cindex references
  1990. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  1991. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced by
  1992. name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  1993. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in
  1994. that field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  1995. @anchor{Field references}
  1996. @subsubheading Field references
  1997. @cindex field references
  1998. @cindex references, to fields
  1999. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like
  2000. in any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with
  2001. a letter/number combination like @samp{B3}, meaning the second field in the
  2002. third row. However, Org prefers to use another, more general
  2003. representation that looks like this:@footnote{Org understands references typed by the user as @samp{B4}, but it
  2004. does not use this syntax when offering a formula for editing. You can
  2005. customize this behavior using the variable
  2006. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.}
  2007. @example
  2008. @@ROW$COLUMN
  2009. @end example
  2010. Column specifications can be absolute like @samp{$1}, @samp{$2}, @dots{}, @samp{$N}, or
  2011. relative to the current column, i.e., the column of the field which is
  2012. being computed, like @samp{$+1} or @samp{$-2}. @samp{$<} and @samp{$>} are immutable
  2013. references to the first and last column, respectively, and you can use
  2014. @samp{$>>>} to indicate the third column from the right.
  2015. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal
  2016. separator lines, or ``hlines''. Like with columns, you can use absolute
  2017. row numbers @samp{@@1}, @samp{@@2}, @dots{}, @samp{@@N}, and row numbers relative to the
  2018. current row like @samp{@@+3} or @samp{@@-1}. @samp{@@<} and @samp{@@>} are immutable
  2019. references the first and last row in the table, respectively. You may
  2020. also specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @samp{@@I} refers to the
  2021. first hline, @samp{@@II} to the second, etc. @samp{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2022. line above the current line, @samp{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2023. current line. You can also write @samp{@@III+2} which is the second data
  2024. line after the third hline in the table.
  2025. @samp{@@0} and @samp{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively, i.e.,
  2026. to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2027. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current
  2028. row/column is implied.
  2029. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references in the
  2030. sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2031. different fields, the same field is referenced each time. Org's
  2032. references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating references because the
  2033. same reference operator can reference different fields depending on
  2034. the field being calculated by the formula.
  2035. Here are a few examples:
  2036. @multitable @columnfractions 0.2 0.8
  2037. @item @samp{@@2$3}
  2038. @tab 2nd row, 3rd column (same as @samp{C2})
  2039. @item @samp{$5}
  2040. @tab column 5 in the current row (same as @samp{E&})
  2041. @item @samp{@@2}
  2042. @tab current column, row 2
  2043. @item @samp{@@-1$-3}
  2044. @tab field one row up, three columns to the left
  2045. @item @samp{@@-I$2}
  2046. @tab field just under hline above current row, column 2
  2047. @item @samp{@@>$5}
  2048. @tab field in the last row, in column 5
  2049. @end multitable
  2050. @anchor{Range references}
  2051. @subsubheading Range references
  2052. @cindex range references
  2053. @cindex references, to ranges
  2054. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two
  2055. field references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in
  2056. the current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one
  2057. field is in a different row, you need to use the general @samp{@@ROW$COLUMN}
  2058. format at least for the first field, i.e., the reference must start
  2059. with @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly. Examples:
  2060. @multitable @columnfractions 0.2 0.8
  2061. @item @samp{$1..$3}
  2062. @tab first three fields in the current row
  2063. @item @samp{$P..$Q}
  2064. @tab range, using column names (see @ref{Advanced features})
  2065. @item @samp{$<<<..$>>}
  2066. @tab start in third column, continue to the last but one
  2067. @item @samp{@@2$1..@@4$3}
  2068. @tab six fields between these two fields (same as @samp{A2..C4})
  2069. @item @samp{@@-1$-2..@@-1}
  2070. @tab 3 fields in the row above, starting from 2 columns on the left
  2071. @item @samp{@@I..II}
  2072. @tab between first and second hline, short for @samp{@@I..@@II}
  2073. @end multitable
  2074. @noindent
  2075. Range references return a vector of values that can be fed into Calc
  2076. vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally suppressed, so
  2077. that the vector contains only the non-empty fields. For other options
  2078. with the mode switches @samp{E}, @samp{N} and examples, see @ref{Formula syntax for Calc}.
  2079. @anchor{Field coordinates in formulas}
  2080. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2081. @cindex field coordinates
  2082. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2083. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2084. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2085. @vindex org-table-current-column
  2086. @vindex org-table-current-dline
  2087. One of the very first actions during evaluation of Calc formulas and
  2088. Lisp formulas is to substitute @samp{@@#} and @samp{$#} in the formula with the
  2089. row or column number of the field where the current result will go to.
  2090. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2091. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2092. @table @asis
  2093. @item @samp{if(@@# % 2, $#, string(""))}
  2094. Insert column number on odd rows, set field to empty on even
  2095. rows.
  2096. @item @samp{$2 = '(identity remote(FOO, @@@@#$1))}
  2097. Copy text or values of each row of column 1 of the table named
  2098. @var{FOO} into column 2 of the current table.
  2099. @item @samp{@@3 = 2 * remote(FOO, @@@@1$$#)}
  2100. Insert the doubled value of each column of row 1 of the table
  2101. named @var{FOO} into row 3 of the current table.
  2102. @end table
  2103. @noindent
  2104. For the second and third examples, table @var{FOO} must have at
  2105. least as many rows or columns as the current table. Note that this is
  2106. inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as O(N^2) because table
  2107. @var{FOO} is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large number of rows.
  2108. @anchor{Named references}
  2109. @subsubheading Named references
  2110. @cindex named references
  2111. @cindex references, named
  2112. @cindex name, of column or field
  2113. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2114. @cindex @samp{CONSTANTS}, keyword
  2115. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2116. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or constant.
  2117. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2118. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally---for the file---through
  2119. a line like this example:
  2120. @example
  2121. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2122. @end example
  2123. @noindent
  2124. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2125. @pindex constants.el
  2126. Also, properties (see @ref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2127. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{Xyz} use the name
  2128. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current outline
  2129. entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the @samp{constants.el}
  2130. package, it will also be used to resolve constants, including natural
  2131. constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and units like @samp{$km} for
  2132. kilometers@footnote{The file @samp{constants.el} can supply the values of constants in
  2133. two different unit systems, @samp{SI} and @samp{cgs}. Which one is used depends
  2134. on the value of the variable @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the
  2135. @samp{STARTUP} options @samp{constSI} and @samp{constcgs} to set this value for the
  2136. current buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in
  2137. special table lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All names must start with a letter, and further consist
  2138. of letters and numbers.
  2139. @anchor{Remote references}
  2140. @subsubheading Remote references
  2141. @cindex remote references
  2142. @cindex references, remote
  2143. @cindex references, to a different table
  2144. @cindex name, of column or field
  2145. @cindex @samp{NAME}, keyword
  2146. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different
  2147. table, either in the current file or even in a different file. The
  2148. syntax is
  2149. @example
  2150. remote(NAME,REF)
  2151. @end example
  2152. @noindent
  2153. where @var{NAME} can be the name of a table in the current file
  2154. as set by a @samp{#+NAME:} line before the table. It can also be the ID of
  2155. an entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to
  2156. the first table in that entry. @var{REF} is an absolute field or
  2157. range reference as described above for example @samp{@@3$3} or @samp{$somename},
  2158. valid in the referenced table.
  2159. @cindex table indirection
  2160. When @var{NAME} has the format @samp{@@ROW$COLUMN}, it is substituted
  2161. with the name or ID found in this field of the current table. For
  2162. example @samp{remote($1, @@@@>$2)} @result{} @samp{remote(year_2013, @@@@>$1)}. The format
  2163. @samp{B3} is not supported because it can not be distinguished from a plain
  2164. table name or ID.
  2165. @node Formula syntax for Calc
  2166. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2167. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2168. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2169. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs Calc
  2170. package. Note that Calc has the non-standard convention that @samp{/} has
  2171. lower precedence than @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as
  2172. @samp{(a/(b*c))}. Before evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (see @ref{Calling Calc from Your Programs,Calling Calc from
  2173. Your Lisp Programs,,calc,}), variable substitution takes place according to
  2174. the rules described above.
  2175. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2176. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2177. like @code{vmean} and @code{vsum}.
  2178. @cindex format specifier, in spreadsheet
  2179. @cindex mode, for Calc
  2180. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2181. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2182. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2183. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2184. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The
  2185. display format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep
  2186. tables compact. The default settings can be configured using the
  2187. variable @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2188. @table @asis
  2189. @item @samp{p20}
  2190. Set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits.
  2191. @item @samp{n3}, @samp{s3}, @samp{e2}, @samp{f4}
  2192. Normal, scientific, engineering or fixed format of the result of
  2193. Calc passed back to Org. Calc formatting is unlimited in
  2194. precision as long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.
  2195. @item @samp{D}, @samp{R}
  2196. Degree and radian angle modes of Calc.
  2197. @item @samp{F}, @samp{S}
  2198. Fraction and symbolic modes of Calc.
  2199. @item @samp{T}, @samp{t}, @samp{U}
  2200. Duration computations in Calc or Lisp, @ref{Durations and time values}.
  2201. @item @samp{E}
  2202. If and how to consider empty fields. Without @samp{E} empty fields in
  2203. range references are suppressed so that the Calc vector or Lisp
  2204. list contains only the non-empty fields. With @samp{E} the empty
  2205. fields are kept. For empty fields in ranges or empty field
  2206. references the value @samp{nan} (not a number) is used in Calc
  2207. formulas and the empty string is used for Lisp formulas. Add @samp{N}
  2208. to use 0 instead for both formula types. For the value of
  2209. a field the mode @samp{N} has higher precedence than @samp{E}.
  2210. @item @samp{N}
  2211. Interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers. See the
  2212. next section to see how this is essential for computations with
  2213. Lisp formulas. In Calc formulas it is used only occasionally
  2214. because there number strings are already interpreted as numbers
  2215. without @samp{N}.
  2216. @item @samp{L}
  2217. Literal, for Lisp formulas only. See the next section.
  2218. @end table
  2219. @noindent
  2220. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision calculation and
  2221. display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide
  2222. a @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has
  2223. been passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2224. formatting@footnote{The printf reformatting is limited in precision because the
  2225. value passed to it is converted into an ``integer'' or ``double''. The
  2226. ``integer'' is limited in size by truncating the signed value to 32
  2227. bits. The ``double'' is limited in precision to 64 bits overall which
  2228. leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}. A few examples:
  2229. @multitable {aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa} {aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa}
  2230. @item @samp{$1+$2}
  2231. @tab Sum of first and second field
  2232. @item @samp{$1+$2;%.2f}
  2233. @tab Same, format result to two decimals
  2234. @item @samp{exp($2)+exp($1)}
  2235. @tab Math functions can be used
  2236. @item @samp{$0;%.1f}
  2237. @tab Reformat current cell to 1 decimal
  2238. @item @samp{($3-32)*5/9}
  2239. @tab Degrees F @arrow{} C conversion
  2240. @item @samp{$c/$1/$cm}
  2241. @tab Hz @arrow{} cm conversion, using @samp{constants.el}
  2242. @item @samp{tan($1);Dp3s1}
  2243. @tab Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1
  2244. @item @samp{sin($1);Dp3%.1e}
  2245. @tab Same, but use @code{printf} specifier for display
  2246. @item @samp{vmean($2..$7)}
  2247. @tab Compute column range mean, using vector function
  2248. @item @samp{vmean($2..$7);EN}
  2249. @tab Same, but treat empty fields as 0
  2250. @item @samp{taylor($3,x=7,2)}
  2251. @tab Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree
  2252. @end multitable
  2253. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations (see @ref{Logical Operations,Logical
  2254. Operations,,calc,}). For example
  2255. @table @asis
  2256. @item @samp{if($1 < 20, teen, string(""))}
  2257. @samp{"teen"} if age @samp{$1} is less than 20, else the Org table result
  2258. field is set to empty with the empty string.
  2259. @item @samp{if("$1" =} ``nan'' || ``$2'' @samp{= "nan", string(""), $1 + $2); E f-1}
  2260. Sum of the first two columns. When at least one of the input
  2261. fields is empty the Org table result field is set to empty. @samp{E}
  2262. is required to not convert empty fields to 0. @samp{f-1} is an
  2263. optional Calc format string similar to @samp{%.1f} but leaves empty
  2264. results empty.
  2265. @item @samp{if(typeof(vmean($1..$7)) =} 12, string(``''), vmean($1..$7); E=
  2266. Mean value of a range unless there is any empty field. Every
  2267. field in the range that is empty is replaced by @samp{nan} which lets
  2268. @samp{vmean} result in @samp{nan}. Then @samp{typeof =} 12= detects the @samp{nan}
  2269. from @code{vmean} and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use
  2270. this when the sample set is expected to never have missing
  2271. values.
  2272. @item @samp{if("$1..$7" =} ``[]'', string(``''), vmean($1..$7))=
  2273. Mean value of a range with empty fields skipped. Every field in
  2274. the range that is empty is skipped. When all fields in the range
  2275. are empty the mean value is not defined and the Org table result
  2276. field is set to empty. Use this when the sample set can have
  2277. a variable size.
  2278. @item @samp{vmean($1..$7); EN}
  2279. To complete the example before: Mean value of a range with empty
  2280. fields counting as samples with value 0. Use this only when
  2281. incomplete sample sets should be padded with 0 to the full size.
  2282. @end table
  2283. You can add your own Calc functions defined in Emacs Lisp with
  2284. @code{defmath} and use them in formula syntax for Calc.
  2285. @node Formula syntax for Lisp
  2286. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2287. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2288. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be
  2289. useful for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's
  2290. functionality is not enough.
  2291. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening
  2292. parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation
  2293. should return either a string or a number. Just as with Calc
  2294. formulas, you can specify modes and a @code{printf} format after
  2295. a semicolon.
  2296. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2297. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference is
  2298. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field.
  2299. If you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements are
  2300. numbers---non-number fields will be zero---and interpolated as Lisp
  2301. numbers, without quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields are
  2302. interpolated literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference
  2303. to be interpreted as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference
  2304. operator itself in double-quotes, like @samp{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as
  2305. space-separated fields, so you can embed them in list or vector
  2306. syntax.
  2307. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2308. computations in Lisp:
  2309. @table @asis
  2310. @item @samp{'(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))}
  2311. Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1.
  2312. @item @samp{'(+ $1 $2);N}
  2313. Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @samp{$1+$2}.
  2314. @item @samp{'(apply '+ '($1..$4));N}
  2315. Compute the sum of columns 1 to 4, like Calc's @samp{vsum($1..$4)}.
  2316. @end table
  2317. @node Durations and time values
  2318. @subsection Durations and time values
  2319. @cindex Duration, computing
  2320. @cindex Time, computing
  2321. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2322. If you want to compute time values use the @samp{T}, @samp{t}, or @samp{U} flag,
  2323. either in Calc formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2324. @example
  2325. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2326. |---------+----------+----------|
  2327. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2328. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59 |
  2329. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2330. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;U::@@4$3=$1+$2;t
  2331. @end example
  2332. Input duration values must be of the form @samp{HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2333. are optional. With the @samp{T} flag, computed durations are displayed as
  2334. @samp{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @samp{U} flag, seconds
  2335. are omitted so that the result is only @samp{HH:MM} (see second formula
  2336. above). Zero-padding of the hours field depends upon the value of the
  2337. variable @code{org-table-duration-hour-zero-padding}.
  2338. With the @samp{t} flag, computed durations are displayed according to the
  2339. value of the option @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults
  2340. to @code{hours} and displays the result as a fraction of hours (see the
  2341. third formula in the example above).
  2342. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers are
  2343. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2344. @node Field and range formulas
  2345. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2346. @cindex field formula
  2347. @cindex range formula
  2348. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2349. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2350. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the
  2351. field, preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2352. @kbd{@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor
  2353. still in the field, the formula is stored as the formula for this
  2354. field, evaluated, and the current field is replaced with the result.
  2355. @cindex @samp{TBLFM}, keyword
  2356. Formulas are stored in a special @samp{TBLFM} keyword located directly
  2357. below the table. If you type the equation in the fourth field of the
  2358. third data line in the table, the formula looks like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}.
  2359. When inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate
  2360. commands, @emph{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored
  2361. formulas are modified in order to still reference the same field. To
  2362. avoid this from happening, in particular in range references, anchor
  2363. ranges at the table borders (using @samp{@@<}, @samp{@@>}, @samp{$<}, @samp{$>}), or at
  2364. hlines using the @samp{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field
  2365. references does of course not happen if you edit the table structure
  2366. with normal editing commands---then you must fix the equations
  2367. yourself.
  2368. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2369. following command
  2370. @table @asis
  2371. @item @kbd{C-u C-c =} (@code{org-table-eval-formula})
  2372. @kindex C-u C-c =
  2373. @findex org-table-eval-formula
  2374. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts
  2375. for a formula with default taken from the @samp{TBLFM} keyword,
  2376. applies it to the current field, and stores it.
  2377. @end table
  2378. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in
  2379. order to assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is
  2380. no keyboard shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use
  2381. the formula editor (see @ref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the
  2382. @samp{TBLFM} keyword directly.
  2383. @table @asis
  2384. @item @samp{$2=}
  2385. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common
  2386. that Org treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2387. @item @code{@@3=}
  2388. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @samp{@@>=}
  2389. means the last row.
  2390. @item @samp{@@1$2..@@4$3=}
  2391. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular
  2392. range. This can also be used to assign a formula to some but not
  2393. all fields in a row.
  2394. @item @samp{$NAME=}
  2395. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2396. @end table
  2397. @node Column formulas
  2398. @subsection Column formulas
  2399. @cindex column formula
  2400. @cindex formula, for table column
  2401. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @samp{$3=}, the
  2402. same formula is used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2403. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal
  2404. separator hlines with rows above and below, everything before the
  2405. first such hline is considered part of the table @emph{header} and is not
  2406. modified by column formulas. Therefore a header is mandatory when you
  2407. use column formulas and want to add hlines to group rows, like for
  2408. example to separate a total row at the bottom from the summand rows
  2409. above. (ii) Fields that already get a value from a field/range
  2410. formula are left alone by column formulas. These conditions make
  2411. column formulas very easy to use.
  2412. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in
  2413. the column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2414. @kbd{@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor
  2415. still in the field, the formula is stored as the formula for the
  2416. current column, evaluated and the current field replaced with the
  2417. result. If the field contains only @samp{=}, the previously stored formula
  2418. for this column is used. For each column, Org only remembers the most
  2419. recently used formula. In the @samp{TBLFM} keyword, column formulas look
  2420. like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The left-hand side of a column formula can not be
  2421. the name of column, it must be the numeric column reference or @samp{$>}.
  2422. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2423. following command:
  2424. @table @asis
  2425. @item @kbd{C-c =} (@code{org-table-eval-formula})
  2426. @kindex C-c =
  2427. @findex org-table-eval-formula
  2428. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current
  2429. field with the result of the formula. The command prompts for
  2430. a formula, with default taken from the @samp{TBLFM} keyword, applies
  2431. it to the current field and stores it. With a numeric prefix
  2432. argument, e.g., @kbd{C-5 C-c =}, the command applies it to
  2433. that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2434. @end table
  2435. @node Lookup functions
  2436. @subsection Lookup functions
  2437. @cindex lookup functions in tables
  2438. @cindex table lookup functions
  2439. Org has three predefined Emacs Lisp functions for lookups in tables.
  2440. @table @asis
  2441. @item @code{(org-lookup-first VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)}
  2442. @findex org-lookup-first
  2443. Searches for the first element @var{S} in list
  2444. @var{S-LIST} for which
  2445. @lisp
  2446. (PREDICATE VAL S)
  2447. @end lisp
  2448. is non-@code{nil}; returns the value from the corresponding position
  2449. in list @var{R-LIST}. The default @var{PREDICATE} is
  2450. @code{equal}. Note that the parameters @var{VAL} and
  2451. @var{S} are passed to @var{PREDICATE} in the same order
  2452. as the corresponding parameters are in the call to
  2453. @code{org-lookup-first}, where @var{VAL} precedes
  2454. @var{S-LIST}. If @var{R-LIST} is @code{nil}, the matching
  2455. element @var{S} of @var{S-LIST} is returned.
  2456. @item @code{(org-lookup-last VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)}
  2457. @findex org-lookup-last
  2458. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first} above, but searches for the @emph{last}
  2459. element for which @var{PREDICATE} is non-@code{nil}.
  2460. @item @code{(org-lookup-all VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)}
  2461. @findex org-lookup-all
  2462. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first}, but searches for @emph{all} elements
  2463. for which @var{PREDICATE} is non-@code{nil}, and returns @emph{all}
  2464. corresponding values. This function can not be used by itself in
  2465. a formula, because it returns a list of values. However,
  2466. powerful lookups can be built when this function is combined with
  2467. other Emacs Lisp functions.
  2468. @end table
  2469. If the ranges used in these functions contain empty fields, the @samp{E}
  2470. mode for the formula should usually be specified: otherwise empty
  2471. fields are not included in @var{S-LIST} and/or @var{R-LIST}
  2472. which can, for example, result in an incorrect mapping from an element
  2473. of @var{S-LIST} to the corresponding element of
  2474. @var{R-LIST}.
  2475. These three functions can be used to implement associative arrays,
  2476. count matching cells, rank results, group data, etc. For practical
  2477. examples see @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-lookups.html, this tutorial on Worg}.
  2478. @node Editing and debugging formulas
  2479. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2480. @cindex formula editing
  2481. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2482. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2483. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2484. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active formulas
  2485. of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org converts
  2486. references to the standard format (like @samp{B3} or @samp{D&}) if possible. If
  2487. you prefer to only work with the internal format (like @samp{@@3$2} or
  2488. @samp{$4}), configure the variable @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2489. @table @asis
  2490. @item @kbd{C-c =} or @kbd{C-u C-c =} (@code{org-table-eval-formula})
  2491. @kindex C-c =
  2492. @kindex C-u C-c =
  2493. @findex org-table-eval-formula
  2494. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2495. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2496. @item @kbd{C-u C-u C-c =} (@code{org-table-eval-formula})
  2497. @kindex C-u C-u C-c =
  2498. @findex org-table-eval-formula
  2499. Re-insert the active formula (either a field formula, or a column
  2500. formula) into the current field, so that you can edit it directly
  2501. in the field. The advantage over editing in the minibuffer is
  2502. that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2503. @item @kbd{C-c ?} (@code{org-table-field-info})
  2504. @kindex C-c ?
  2505. @findex org-table-field-info
  2506. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2507. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the
  2508. formula.
  2509. @item @kbd{C-c @}} (@code{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays})
  2510. @kindex C-c @}
  2511. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2512. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using
  2513. overlays. These are updated each time the table is aligned; you
  2514. can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2515. @item @kbd{C-c @{} (@code{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger})
  2516. @kindex C-c @{
  2517. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2518. Toggle the formula debugger on and off. See below.
  2519. @item @kbd{C-c '} (@code{org-table-edit-formulas})
  2520. @kindex C-c '
  2521. @findex org-table-edit-formulas
  2522. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer,
  2523. where the formulas are displayed one per line. If the current
  2524. field has an active formula, the cursor in the formula editor
  2525. marks it. While inside the special buffer, Org automatically
  2526. highlights any field or range reference at the cursor position.
  2527. You may edit, remove and add formulas, and use the following
  2528. commands:
  2529. @table @asis
  2530. @item @kbd{C-c C-c} or @kbd{C-x C-s} (@code{org-table-fedit-finish})
  2531. @kindex C-x C-s
  2532. @kindex C-c C-c
  2533. @findex org-table-fedit-finish
  2534. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With
  2535. @kbd{C-u} prefix, also apply the new formulas to the
  2536. entire table.
  2537. @item @kbd{C-c C-q} (@code{org-table-fedit-abort})
  2538. @kindex C-c C-q
  2539. @findex org-table-fedit-abort
  2540. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2541. @item @kbd{C-c C-r} (@code{org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type})
  2542. @kindex C-c C-r
  2543. @findex org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type
  2544. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard
  2545. (like @samp{B3}) and internal (like @samp{@@3$2}).
  2546. @item @kbd{@key{TAB}} (@code{org-table-fedit-lisp-indent})
  2547. @kindex TAB
  2548. @findex org-table-fedit-lisp-indent
  2549. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line
  2550. containing a Lisp formula, format the formula according to
  2551. Emacs Lisp rules. Another @kbd{@key{TAB}} collapses the formula
  2552. back again. In the open formula, @kbd{@key{TAB}} re-indents
  2553. just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2554. @item @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} (@code{lisp-complete-symbol})
  2555. @kindex M-TAB
  2556. @findex lisp-complete-symbol
  2557. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2558. @item @kbd{S-@key{UP}}, @kbd{S-@key{DOWN}}, @kbd{S-@key{LEFT}}, @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}}
  2559. @kindex S-UP
  2560. @kindex S-DOWN
  2561. @kindex S-LEFT
  2562. @kindex S-RIGHT
  2563. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2564. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2565. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2566. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2567. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference
  2568. is @samp{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}}, it becomes @samp{C3}.
  2569. This also works for relative references and for hline
  2570. references.
  2571. @item @kbd{M-S-@key{UP}} (@code{org-table-fedit-line-up})
  2572. @kindex M-S-UP
  2573. @findex org-table-fedit-line-up
  2574. Move the test line for column formulas up in the Org buffer.
  2575. @item @kbd{M-S-@key{DOWN}} (@code{org-table-fedit-line-down})
  2576. @kindex M-S-DOWN
  2577. @findex org-table-fedit-line-down
  2578. Move the test line for column formulas down in the Org buffer.
  2579. @item @kbd{M-@key{UP}} (@code{org-table-fedit-scroll-up})
  2580. @kindex M-UP
  2581. @findex org-table-fedit-scroll-up
  2582. Scroll up the window displaying the table.
  2583. @item @kbd{M-@key{DOWN}} (@code{org-table-fedit-scroll-down})
  2584. @kindex M-DOWN
  2585. @findex org-table-fedit-scroll-down
  2586. Scroll down the window displaying the table.
  2587. @item @kbd{C-c @}}
  2588. @kindex C-c @}
  2589. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2590. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2591. @end table
  2592. @end table
  2593. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2594. the field, because that is stored in a different line---the @samp{TBLFM}
  2595. keyword line. During the next recalculation, the field will be filled
  2596. again. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty
  2597. reply when prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{TBLFM} keyword.
  2598. @kindex C-c C-c
  2599. You may edit the @samp{TBLFM} keyword directly and re-apply the changed
  2600. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2601. recalculation commands in the table.
  2602. @anchor{Using multiple @samp{TBLFM} lines}
  2603. @subsubheading Using multiple @samp{TBLFM} lines
  2604. @cindex multiple formula lines
  2605. @cindex @samp{TBLFM} keywords, multiple
  2606. @cindex @samp{TBLFM}, switching
  2607. @kindex C-c C-c
  2608. You may apply the formula temporarily. This is useful when you switch
  2609. the formula. Place multiple @samp{TBLFM} keywords right after the table,
  2610. and then press @kbd{C-c C-c} on the formula to apply. Here is an
  2611. example:
  2612. @example
  2613. | x | y |
  2614. |---+---|
  2615. | 1 | |
  2616. | 2 | |
  2617. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2618. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2619. @end example
  2620. @noindent
  2621. Pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} in the line of @samp{#+TBLFM: $2=$1*2} yields:
  2622. @example
  2623. | x | y |
  2624. |---+---|
  2625. | 1 | 2 |
  2626. | 2 | 4 |
  2627. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2628. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2629. @end example
  2630. @noindent
  2631. Note: If you recalculate this table, with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, for
  2632. example, you get the following result of applying only the first
  2633. @samp{TBLFM} keyword.
  2634. @example
  2635. | x | y |
  2636. |---+---|
  2637. | 1 | 1 |
  2638. | 2 | 2 |
  2639. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2640. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2641. @end example
  2642. @anchor{Debugging formulas}
  2643. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2644. @cindex formula debugging
  2645. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2646. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2647. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like to see what is going
  2648. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find
  2649. a bug, turn on formula debugging in the Tbl menu and repeat the
  2650. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in
  2651. a field. Detailed information are displayed.
  2652. @node Updating the table
  2653. @subsection Updating the table
  2654. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2655. @cindex updating, table
  2656. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2657. triggered by a command. To make recalculation at least
  2658. semi-automatic, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2659. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2660. following commands:
  2661. @table @asis
  2662. @item @kbd{C-c *} (@code{org-table-recalculate})
  2663. @kindex C-c *
  2664. @findex org-table-recalculate
  2665. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column
  2666. formulas from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the
  2667. current row.
  2668. @item @kbd{C-u C-c *} or @kbd{C-u C-c C-c}
  2669. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2670. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2671. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the
  2672. first hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the
  2673. table header.
  2674. @item @kbd{C-u C-u C-c *} or @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-c} (@code{org-table-iterate})
  2675. @kindex C-u C-u C-c *
  2676. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-c
  2677. @findex org-table-iterate
  2678. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes
  2679. occur. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the
  2680. value of other fields that are computed @emph{later} in the
  2681. calculation sequence.
  2682. @item @kbd{M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables}
  2683. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2684. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2685. @item @kbd{M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables}
  2686. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2687. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge
  2688. table-to-table dependencies.
  2689. @end table
  2690. @node Advanced features
  2691. @subsection Advanced features
  2692. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if
  2693. you want to be able to assign @emph{names}@footnote{Such names must start with an alphabetic character and use
  2694. only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to fields and columns,
  2695. you need to reserve the first column of the table for special marking
  2696. characters.
  2697. @table @asis
  2698. @item @kbd{C-#} (@code{org-table-rotate-recalc-marks})
  2699. @kindex C-#
  2700. @findex org-table-rotate-recalc-marks
  2701. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states
  2702. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region, change all
  2703. marks in the region.
  2704. @end table
  2705. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students
  2706. and makes use of these features:
  2707. @example
  2708. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2709. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2710. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2711. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2712. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2713. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2714. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2715. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2716. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2717. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2718. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2719. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2720. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2721. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2722. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2723. @end example
  2724. @noindent
  2725. @strong{Important}: please note that for these special tables, recalculating
  2726. the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} only affects rows that are marked
  2727. @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned to the field
  2728. itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with empty first
  2729. field.
  2730. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2731. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2732. @table @asis
  2733. @item @samp{!}
  2734. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you
  2735. may refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2736. @item @samp{^}
  2737. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2738. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2739. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field,
  2740. it is stored as @samp{$name = ...}.
  2741. @item @samp{_}
  2742. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2743. @emph{below}.
  2744. @item @samp{$}
  2745. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2746. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then formulas
  2747. in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}. Parameters
  2748. work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2749. a per-table basis.
  2750. @item @samp{#}
  2751. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2752. @kbd{@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row.
  2753. Also, this row is selected for a global recalculation with
  2754. @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked lines are left alone by this
  2755. command.
  2756. @item @samp{*}
  2757. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but not for automatic recalculation. Use this when
  2758. automatic recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2759. @item @samp{/}
  2760. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the
  2761. narrowing @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2762. @end table
  2763. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2764. fantastic Calc package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2765. series of degree n at location x for a couple of functions.
  2766. @example
  2767. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2768. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2769. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2770. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2771. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2772. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2773. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2774. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2775. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2776. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2777. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2778. @end example
  2779. @node Org Plot
  2780. @section Org Plot
  2781. @cindex graph, in tables
  2782. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2783. Org Plot can produce graphs of information stored in Org tables,
  2784. either graphically or in ASCII art.
  2785. @anchor{Graphical plots using Gnuplot}
  2786. @subheading Graphical plots using Gnuplot
  2787. @cindex @samp{PLOT}, keyword
  2788. Org Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in Org
  2789. tables using @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/, Gnuplot} and @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html, Gnuplot mode}. To see this in action, ensure
  2790. that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed on your system,
  2791. then call @kbd{C-c " g} or @kbd{M-x org-plot/gnuplot} on the
  2792. following table.
  2793. @example
  2794. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2795. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2796. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2797. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2798. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2799. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2800. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2801. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2802. @end example
  2803. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as
  2804. labels. Further control over the labels, type, content, and
  2805. appearance of plots can be exercised through the @samp{PLOT} keyword
  2806. preceding a table. See below for a complete list of Org Plot options.
  2807. For more information and examples see the @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html, Org Plot tutorial}.
  2808. @anchor{Plot options}
  2809. @subsubheading Plot options
  2810. @table @asis
  2811. @item @samp{set}
  2812. Specify any Gnuplot option to be set when graphing.
  2813. @item @samp{title}
  2814. Specify the title of the plot.
  2815. @item @samp{ind}
  2816. Specify which column of the table to use as the @samp{x} axis.
  2817. @item @samp{deps}
  2818. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by
  2819. parentheses and separated by spaces for example @samp{dep:(3 4)} to
  2820. graph the third and fourth columns. Defaults to graphing all
  2821. other columns aside from the @samp{ind} column.
  2822. @item @samp{type}
  2823. Specify whether the plot is @samp{2d}, @samp{3d}, or @samp{grid}.
  2824. @item @samp{with}
  2825. Specify a @samp{with} option to be inserted for every column being
  2826. plotted, e.g., @samp{lines}, @samp{points}, @samp{boxes}, @samp{impulses}. Defaults
  2827. to @samp{lines}.
  2828. @item @samp{file}
  2829. If you want to plot to a file, specify
  2830. @samp{"path/to/desired/output-file"}.
  2831. @item @samp{labels}
  2832. List of labels to be used for the @samp{deps}. Defaults to the column
  2833. headers if they exist.
  2834. @item @samp{line}
  2835. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2836. @item @samp{map}
  2837. When plotting @samp{3d} or @samp{grid} types, set this to @samp{t} to graph
  2838. a flat mapping rather than a @samp{3d} slope.
  2839. @item @samp{timefmt}
  2840. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by
  2841. Gnuplot. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2842. @item @samp{script}
  2843. If you want total control, you can specify a script file---place
  2844. the file name between double-quotes---which will be used to plot.
  2845. Before plotting, every instance of @samp{$datafile} in the specified
  2846. script will be replaced with the path to the generated data file.
  2847. Note: even if you set this option, you may still want to specify
  2848. the plot type, as that can impact the content of the data file.
  2849. @end table
  2850. @anchor{ASCII bar plots}
  2851. @subheading ASCII bar plots
  2852. While the cursor is on a column, typing @kbd{C-c `` a} or
  2853. @kbd{M-x orgtbl-ascii-plot} create a new column containing an
  2854. ASCII-art bars plot. The plot is implemented through a regular column
  2855. formula. When the source column changes, the bar plot may be updated
  2856. by refreshing the table, for example typing @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2857. @example
  2858. | Sede | Max cites | |
  2859. |---------------+-----------+--------------|
  2860. | Chile | 257.72 | WWWWWWWWWWWW |
  2861. | Leeds | 165.77 | WWWWWWWh |
  2862. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | WWW; |
  2863. | Stockholm | 134.19 | WWWWWW: |
  2864. | Morelia | 257.56 | WWWWWWWWWWWH |
  2865. | Rochefourchat | 0.00 | |
  2866. #+TBLFM: $3='(orgtbl-ascii-draw $2 0.0 257.72 12)
  2867. @end example
  2868. The formula is an Elisp call.
  2869. @defun orgtbl-ascii-draw value min max &optional width
  2870. Draw an ASCII bar in a table.
  2871. @var{VALUE} is the value to plot.
  2872. @var{MIN} is the value displayed as an empty bar. @var{MAX}
  2873. is the value filling all the @var{WIDTH}. Sources values outside
  2874. this range are displayed as @samp{too small} or @samp{too large}.
  2875. @var{WIDTH} is the number of characters of the bar plot. It
  2876. defaults to @samp{12}.
  2877. @end defun
  2878. @node Hyperlinks
  2879. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2880. @cindex hyperlinks
  2881. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2882. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2883. @menu
  2884. * Link Format:: How links in Org are formatted.
  2885. * Internal Links:: Links to other places in the current file.
  2886. * Radio Targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text.
  2887. * External Links:: URL-like links to the world.
  2888. * Handling Links:: Creating, inserting and following.
  2889. * Using Links Outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2890. * Link Abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links.
  2891. * Search Options:: Linking to a specific location.
  2892. * Custom Searches:: When the default search is not enough.
  2893. @end menu
  2894. @node Link Format
  2895. @section Link Format
  2896. @cindex link format
  2897. @cindex format, of links
  2898. Org recognizes plain URL-like links and activate them as clickable
  2899. links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2900. @example
  2901. [[LINK][DESCRIPTION]]
  2902. @end example
  2903. @noindent
  2904. or alternatively
  2905. @example
  2906. [[LINK]]
  2907. @end example
  2908. @noindent
  2909. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2910. changes the display so that @samp{DESCRIPTION} is displayed instead of
  2911. @samp{[[LINK][DESCRIPTION]]} and @samp{LINK} is displayed instead of @samp{[[LINK]]}. Links are be
  2912. highlighted in the face @code{org-link}, which by default is an underlined
  2913. face. You can directly edit the visible part of a link. Note that
  2914. this can be either the LINK part, if there is no description, or the
  2915. @var{DESCRIPTION} part. To edit also the invisible
  2916. @var{LINK} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the cursor on the
  2917. link.
  2918. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2919. displayed text and press @kbd{@key{BS}}, you remove
  2920. the---invisible---bracket at that location. This makes the link
  2921. incomplete and the internals are again displayed as plain text.
  2922. Inserting the missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show
  2923. the internal structure of all links, use the menu: Org @arrow{} Hyperlinks @arrow{}
  2924. Literal links.
  2925. @node Internal Links
  2926. @section Internal Links
  2927. @cindex internal links
  2928. @cindex links, internal
  2929. @cindex targets, for links
  2930. @cindex @samp{CUSTOM_ID}, property
  2931. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal
  2932. in the current file. The most important case is a link like
  2933. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which links to the entry with the @samp{CUSTOM_ID} property
  2934. @samp{my-custom-id}. You are responsible yourself to make sure these
  2935. custom IDs are unique in a file.
  2936. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]} lead to a text search in
  2937. the current file.
  2938. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on
  2939. the link, or with a mouse click (see @ref{Handling Links}). Links to
  2940. custom IDs point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match
  2941. for a text link is a @emph{dedicated target}: the same string in double
  2942. angular brackets, like @samp{<<My Target>>}.
  2943. @cindex @samp{NAME}, keyword
  2944. If no dedicated target exists, the link tries to match the exact name
  2945. of an element within the buffer. Naming is done with the @samp{NAME}
  2946. keyword, which has to be put in the line before the element it refers
  2947. to, as in the following example
  2948. @example
  2949. #+NAME: My Target
  2950. | a | table |
  2951. |----+------------|
  2952. | of | four cells |
  2953. @end example
  2954. If none of the above succeeds, Org searches for a headline that is
  2955. exactly the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and
  2956. tags@footnote{To insert a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion
  2957. can be used. Just type a star followed by a few optional letters into
  2958. the buffer and press @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current
  2959. buffer are offered as completions.}.
  2960. During export, internal links are used to mark objects and assign them
  2961. a number. Marked objects are then referenced by links pointing to
  2962. them. In particular, links without a description appear as the number
  2963. assigned to the marked object@footnote{When targeting a @samp{NAME} keyword, @samp{CAPTION} keyword is
  2964. mandatory in order to get proper numbering (see @ref{Images and Tables}).}. In the following excerpt from
  2965. an Org buffer
  2966. @example
  2967. 1. one item
  2968. 2. <<target>>another item
  2969. Here we refer to item [[target]].
  2970. @end example
  2971. @noindent
  2972. The last sentence will appear as @samp{Here we refer to item 2} when
  2973. exported.
  2974. In non-Org files, the search looks for the words in the link text. In
  2975. the above example the search would be for @samp{target}.
  2976. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2977. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this
  2978. command several times in direct succession goes back to positions
  2979. recorded earlier.
  2980. @node Radio Targets
  2981. @section Radio Targets
  2982. @cindex radio targets
  2983. @cindex targets, radio
  2984. @cindex links, radio targets
  2985. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names in
  2986. normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2987. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2988. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2989. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2990. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically for
  2991. radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2992. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with
  2993. the cursor on or at a target.
  2994. @node External Links
  2995. @section External Links
  2996. @cindex links, external
  2997. @cindex external links
  2998. @cindex Gnus links
  2999. @cindex BBDB links
  3000. @cindex irc links
  3001. @cindex URL links
  3002. @cindex file links
  3003. @cindex Rmail links
  3004. @cindex MH-E links
  3005. @cindex Usenet links
  3006. @cindex shell links
  3007. @cindex Info links
  3008. @cindex Elisp links
  3009. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB
  3010. database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs.
  3011. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  3012. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  3013. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  3014. @multitable {aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa} {aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa}
  3015. @item @samp{http://www.astro.uva.nl/=dominik}
  3016. @tab on the web
  3017. @item @samp{doi:10.1000/182}
  3018. @tab DOI for an electronic resource
  3019. @item @samp{file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg}
  3020. @tab file, absolute path
  3021. @item @samp{/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg}
  3022. @tab same as above
  3023. @item @samp{file:papers/last.pdf}
  3024. @tab file, relative path
  3025. @item @samp{./papers/last.pdf}
  3026. @tab same as above
  3027. @item @samp{file:/ssh:me@@some.where:papers/last.pdf}
  3028. @tab file, path on remote machine
  3029. @item @samp{/ssh:me@@some.where:papers/last.pdf}
  3030. @tab same as above
  3031. @item @samp{file:sometextfile::NNN}
  3032. @tab file, jump to line number
  3033. @item @samp{file:projects.org}
  3034. @tab another Org file
  3035. @item @samp{file:projects.org::some words}
  3036. @tab text search in Org file@footnote{The actual behavior of the search depends on the value of the
  3037. variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value is
  3038. @code{nil}, then a fuzzy text search is done. If it is @code{t}, then only the
  3039. exact headline is matched, ignoring spaces and statistic cookies. If
  3040. the value is @code{query-to-create}, then an exact headline is searched; if
  3041. it is not found, then the user is queried to create it.}
  3042. @item @samp{file:projects.org::*task title}
  3043. @tab heading search in Org file
  3044. @item @samp{file+sys:/path/to/file}
  3045. @tab open via OS, like double-click
  3046. @item @samp{file+emacs:/path/to/file}
  3047. @tab force opening by Emacs
  3048. @item @samp{docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN}
  3049. @tab open in doc-view mode at page
  3050. @item @samp{id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9}
  3051. @tab Link to heading by ID
  3052. @item @samp{news:comp.emacs}
  3053. @tab Usenet link
  3054. @item @samp{mailto:adent@@galaxy.net}
  3055. @tab Mail link
  3056. @item @samp{mhe:folder}
  3057. @tab MH-E folder link
  3058. @item @samp{mhe:folder#id}
  3059. @tab MH-E message link
  3060. @item @samp{rmail:folder}
  3061. @tab Rmail folder link
  3062. @item @samp{rmail:folder#id}
  3063. @tab Rmail message link
  3064. @item @samp{gnus:group}
  3065. @tab Gnus group link
  3066. @item @samp{gnus:group#id}
  3067. @tab Gnus article link
  3068. @item @samp{bbdb:R.*Stallman}
  3069. @tab BBDB link (with regexp)
  3070. @item @samp{irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob}
  3071. @tab IRC link
  3072. @item @samp{info:org#External links}
  3073. @tab Info node link
  3074. @item @samp{shell:ls *.org}
  3075. @tab A shell command
  3076. @item @samp{elisp:org-agenda}
  3077. @tab Interactive Elisp command
  3078. @item @samp{elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org")}
  3079. @tab Elisp form to evaluate
  3080. @end multitable
  3081. @cindex VM links
  3082. @cindex Wanderlust links
  3083. On top of these built-in link types, some are available through the
  3084. @samp{contrib/} directory (see @ref{Installation}). For example, these links to
  3085. VM or Wanderlust messages are available when you load the
  3086. corresponding libraries from the @samp{contrib/} directory:
  3087. @multitable {aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa} {aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa}
  3088. @item @samp{vm:folder}
  3089. @tab VM folder link
  3090. @item @samp{vm:folder#id}
  3091. @tab VM message link
  3092. @item @samp{vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id}
  3093. @tab VM on remote machine
  3094. @item @samp{vm-imap:account:folder}
  3095. @tab VM IMAP folder link
  3096. @item @samp{vm-imap:account:folder#id}
  3097. @tab VM IMAP message link
  3098. @item @samp{wl:folder}
  3099. @tab Wanderlust folder link
  3100. @item @samp{wl:folder#id}
  3101. @tab Wanderlust message link
  3102. @end multitable
  3103. For customizing Org to add new link types, see @ref{Adding Hyperlink Types}.
  3104. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain
  3105. a descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (see @ref{Link Format}), for example:
  3106. @example
  3107. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  3108. @end example
  3109. @noindent
  3110. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  3111. export (see @ref{HTML Export}) inlines the image as a clickable button. If
  3112. there is no description at all and the link points to an image, that
  3113. image is inlined into the exported HTML file.
  3114. @cindex square brackets, around links
  3115. @cindex angular brackets, around links
  3116. @cindex plain text external links
  3117. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them as
  3118. links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  3119. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities about
  3120. the end of the link, enclose them in square or angular brackets.
  3121. @node Handling Links
  3122. @section Handling Links
  3123. @cindex links, handling
  3124. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to insert
  3125. it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  3126. @findex org-store-link
  3127. @cindex storing links
  3128. The main function is @code{org-store-link}, called with @kbd{M-x org-store-link}. Because of its importance, we suggest to bind it
  3129. to a widely available key (see @ref{Activation}). It stores a link to the
  3130. current location. The link is stored for later insertion into an Org
  3131. buffer---see below. What kind of link is created depends on the
  3132. current buffer:
  3133. @table @asis
  3134. @item @emph{Org mode buffers}
  3135. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link
  3136. points to the target. Otherwise it points to the current
  3137. headline, which is also the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it is removed from the
  3138. link, which results in a wrong link---you should avoid putting
  3139. a timestamp in the headline.}.
  3140. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  3141. @cindex @samp{CUSTOM_ID}, property
  3142. @cindex @samp{ID}, property
  3143. If the headline has a @samp{CUSTOM_ID} property, store a link to this
  3144. custom ID. In addition or alternatively, depending on the value
  3145. of @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}, create and/or use a globally unique
  3146. ID property for the link@footnote{The Org Id library must first be loaded, either through
  3147. @code{org-customize}, by enabling @code{id} in @code{org-modules}, or by adding
  3148. @code{(require 'org-id)} in your Emacs init file.}. So using this command in Org
  3149. buffers potentially creates two links: a human-readable link from
  3150. the custom ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if
  3151. the entry is moved from file to file. Later, when inserting the
  3152. link, you need to decide which one to use.
  3153. @item @emph{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}
  3154. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link
  3155. points to the current article, or, in some Gnus buffers, to the
  3156. group. The description is constructed from the author and the
  3157. subject.
  3158. @item @emph{Web browsers: W3, W3M and EWW}
  3159. Here the link is the current URL, with the page title as
  3160. description.
  3161. @item @emph{Contacts: BBDB}
  3162. Links created in a BBDB buffer point to the current entry.
  3163. @item @emph{Chat: IRC}
  3164. @vindex org-irc-links-to-logs
  3165. For IRC links, if the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} is
  3166. non-@code{nil}, create a @samp{file} style link to the relevant point in
  3167. the logs for the current conversation. Otherwise store an @samp{irc}
  3168. style link to the user/channel/server under the point.
  3169. @item @emph{Other files}
  3170. For any other file, the link points to the file, with a search
  3171. string (see @ref{Search Options}) pointing to the
  3172. contents of the current line. If there is an active region, the
  3173. selected words form the basis of the search string. If the
  3174. automatically created link is not working correctly or accurately
  3175. enough, you can write custom functions to select the search
  3176. string and to do the search for particular file types (see
  3177. @ref{Custom Searches}).
  3178. You can also define dedicated links to other files. See @ref{Adding Hyperlink Types}.
  3179. @item @emph{Agenda view}
  3180. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to
  3181. the entry referenced by the current line.
  3182. @end table
  3183. From an Org buffer, the following commands create, navigate or, more
  3184. generally, act on links.
  3185. @table @asis
  3186. @item @kbd{C-c C-l} (@code{org-insert-link})
  3187. @kindex C-c C-l
  3188. @findex org-insert-link
  3189. @cindex link completion
  3190. @cindex completion, of links
  3191. @cindex inserting links
  3192. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  3193. Insert a link@footnote{Note that you do not have to use this command to insert
  3194. a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  3195. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are
  3196. automatically enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for
  3197. the optional descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted
  3198. into the buffer. You can just type a link, using text for an
  3199. internal link, or one of the link type prefixes mentioned in the
  3200. examples above. The link is inserted into the buffer, along with
  3201. a descriptive text@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be removed
  3202. from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  3203. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or
  3204. configure the option @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}. If some text was selected at this
  3205. time, it becomes the default description.
  3206. @table @asis
  3207. @item @emph{Inserting stored links}
  3208. All links stored during the current session are part of the
  3209. history for this prompt, so you can access them with
  3210. @kbd{@key{UP}} and @kbd{@key{DOWN}} (or @kbd{M-p},
  3211. @kbd{M-n}).
  3212. @item @emph{Completion support}
  3213. Completion with @kbd{@key{TAB}} helps you to insert valid link
  3214. prefixes like @samp{http} or @samp{ftp}, including the prefixes defined
  3215. through link abbreviations (see @ref{Link Abbreviations}). If you
  3216. press @kbd{@key{RET}} after inserting only the prefix, Org
  3217. offers specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works if a function has been defined in the @code{:complete}
  3218. property of a link in @code{org-link-parameters}.}.
  3219. For example, if you type @kbd{f i l e @key{RET}}---alternative
  3220. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below---Org offers file
  3221. name completion, and after @kbd{b b d b @key{RET}} you can
  3222. complete contact names.
  3223. @end table
  3224. @item @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}
  3225. @cindex file name completion
  3226. @cindex completion, of file names
  3227. @kindex C-u C-c C-l
  3228. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix
  3229. argument, insert a link to a file. You may use file name
  3230. completion to select the name of the file. The path to the file
  3231. is inserted relative to the directory of the current Org file, if
  3232. the linked file is in the current directory or in a sub-directory
  3233. of it, or if the path is written relative to the current
  3234. directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path is used, if
  3235. possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can force an
  3236. absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3237. @item @kbd{C-c C-l} (with cursor on existing link)
  3238. @cindex following links
  3239. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows
  3240. you to edit the link and description parts of the link.
  3241. @item @kbd{C-c C-o} (@code{org-open-at-point})
  3242. @kindex C-c C-o
  3243. @findex org-open-at-point
  3244. @vindex org-file-apps
  3245. Open link at point. This launches a web browser for URL (using
  3246. @code{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB
  3247. for the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell
  3248. link. When the cursor is on an internal link, this command runs
  3249. the corresponding search. When the cursor is on a TAG list in
  3250. a headline, it creates the corresponding TAGS view. If the
  3251. cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that date.
  3252. Furthermore, it visits text and remote files in @samp{file} links with
  3253. Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3254. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See
  3255. option @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default
  3256. application and visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u}
  3257. prefix. If you want to avoid opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.
  3258. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3259. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all
  3260. links in the headline and entry text. If you want to setup the
  3261. frame configuration for following links, customize
  3262. @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3263. @item @kbd{@key{RET}}
  3264. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3265. @kindex RET
  3266. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} also
  3267. follows the link at point.
  3268. @item @kbd{mouse-2} or @kbd{mouse-1}
  3269. @kindex mouse-2
  3270. @kindex mouse-1
  3271. On links, @kbd{mouse-1} and @kbd{mouse-2} opens the
  3272. link just as @kbd{C-c C-o} does.
  3273. @item @kbd{mouse-3}
  3274. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3275. @kindex mouse-3
  3276. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with
  3277. Emacs, and internal links to be displayed in another
  3278. window@footnote{See the variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}.}.
  3279. @item @kbd{C-c C-x C-v} (@code{org-toggle-inline-images})
  3280. @cindex inlining images
  3281. @cindex images, inlining
  3282. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3283. @kindex C-c C-x C-v
  3284. @findex org-toggle-inline-images
  3285. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this only
  3286. inlines images that have no description part in the link, i.e.,
  3287. images that are inlined during export. When called with a prefix
  3288. argument, also display images that do have a link description.
  3289. You can ask for inline images to be displayed at startup by
  3290. configuring the variable @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{The variable @code{org-startup-with-inline-images} can be set
  3291. within a buffer with the @samp{STARTUP} options @samp{inlineimages} and
  3292. @samp{noinlineimages}.}.
  3293. @item @kbd{C-c %} (@code{org-mark-ring-push})
  3294. @kindex C-c %
  3295. @findex org-mark-ring-push
  3296. @cindex mark ring
  3297. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to
  3298. return easily. Commands following an internal link do this
  3299. automatically.
  3300. @item @kbd{C-c &} (@code{org-mark-ring-goto})
  3301. @kindex C-c &
  3302. @findex org-mark-ring-goto
  3303. @cindex links, returning to
  3304. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3305. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}.
  3306. Using this command several times in direct succession moves
  3307. through a ring of previously recorded positions.
  3308. @item @kbd{C-c C-x C-n} (@code{org-next-link})
  3309. @itemx @kbd{C-c C-x C-p} (@code{org-previous-link})
  3310. @kindex C-c C-x C-p
  3311. @findex org-previous-link
  3312. @kindex C-c C-x C-n
  3313. @findex org-next-link
  3314. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3315. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the
  3316. limit of the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps
  3317. around. The key bindings for this are really too long; you might
  3318. want to bind this also to @kbd{M-n} and @kbd{M-p}.
  3319. @lisp
  3320. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3321. (lambda ()
  3322. (define-key org-mode-map "\M-n" 'org-next-link)
  3323. (define-key org-mode-map "\M-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3324. @end lisp
  3325. @end table
  3326. @node Using Links Outside Org
  3327. @section Using Links Outside Org
  3328. @findex org-insert-link-global
  3329. @findex org-open-at-point-global
  3330. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in Org,
  3331. but in any Emacs buffer. For this, Org provides two functions:
  3332. @code{org-insert-link-global} and @code{org-open-at-point-global}.
  3333. You might want to bind them to globally available keys. See
  3334. @ref{Activation} for some advice.
  3335. @node Link Abbreviations
  3336. @section Link Abbreviations
  3337. @cindex link abbreviations
  3338. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3339. Long URL can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3340. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3341. abbreviated link looks like this
  3342. @example
  3343. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3344. @end example
  3345. @noindent
  3346. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3347. where the tag is optional. The @emph{linkword} must be a word, starting
  3348. with a letter, followed by letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}.
  3349. Abbreviations are resolved according to the information in the
  3350. variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist} that relates the linkwords to
  3351. replacement text. Here is an example:
  3352. @lisp
  3353. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3354. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3355. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3356. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3357. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3358. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3359. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3360. @end lisp
  3361. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it is replaced with
  3362. the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} percent-encodes the tag (see the
  3363. example above, where we need to encode the URL parameter). Using
  3364. @samp{%(my-function)} passes the tag to a custom function, and replace it
  3365. by the resulting string.
  3366. If the replacement text do not contain any specifier, it is simply
  3367. appended to the string in order to create the link.
  3368. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3369. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3370. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3371. @samp{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with @samp{[[google:OrgMode]]},
  3372. show the map location of the Free Software Foundation @samp{[[gmap:51
  3373. Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office @samp{[[omap:Science Park 904,
  3374. Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out what the Org author is doing
  3375. besides Emacs hacking with @samp{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3376. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3377. can define them in the file with
  3378. @cindex @samp{LINK}, keyword
  3379. @example
  3380. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3381. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3382. @end example
  3383. @noindent
  3384. In-buffer completion (see @ref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3385. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function that
  3386. implements special (e.g., completion) support for inserting such
  3387. a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should not accept any
  3388. arguments, and return the full link with prefix. You can set the link
  3389. completion function like this:
  3390. @lisp
  3391. (org-link-set-parameter "type" :complete #'some-completion-function)
  3392. @end lisp
  3393. @node Search Options
  3394. @section Search Options in File Links
  3395. @cindex search option in file links
  3396. @cindex file links, searching
  3397. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to
  3398. a particular location in the file when following a link. This can be
  3399. a line number or a search option after a double colon@footnote{For backward compatibility, line numbers can also follow a
  3400. single colon.}. For
  3401. example, when the command @code{org-store-link} creates a link (see
  3402. @ref{Handling Links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line
  3403. as a search string that can be used to find this line back later when
  3404. following the link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3405. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3406. link, together with an explanation:
  3407. @example
  3408. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3409. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3410. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3411. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3412. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3413. @end example
  3414. @table @asis
  3415. @item @samp{255}
  3416. Jump to line 255.
  3417. @item @samp{My Target}
  3418. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3419. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3420. @ref{Internal Links}. In HTML export (see @ref{HTML Export}), such a file
  3421. link becomes a HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor
  3422. in the linked file.
  3423. @item @samp{*My Target}
  3424. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3425. @item @samp{#my-custom-id}
  3426. Link to a heading with a @samp{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3427. @item @samp{/REGEXP/}
  3428. Do a regular expression search for @var{REGEXP}. This uses
  3429. the Emacs command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate
  3430. window. If the target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used
  3431. to create a sparse tree with the matches.
  3432. @end table
  3433. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3434. to search the current file. For example, @samp{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3435. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3436. @node Custom Searches
  3437. @section Custom Searches
  3438. @cindex custom search strings
  3439. @cindex search strings, custom
  3440. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3441. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3442. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3443. @code{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings, because
  3444. the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the citation key.
  3445. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3446. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3447. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to
  3448. set the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the
  3449. search for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions
  3450. need to be added to the hook variables
  3451. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3452. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3453. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism for
  3454. Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as an
  3455. implementation example. See the file @samp{org-bibtex.el}.
  3456. @node TODO Items
  3457. @chapter TODO Items
  3458. @cindex TODO items
  3459. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of course, you can make a document that contains only long
  3460. lists of TODO items, but this is not required.}.
  3461. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the notes file, because
  3462. TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org mode, simply
  3463. mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3464. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the
  3465. TODO item emerged is always present.
  3466. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3467. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by
  3468. providing methods to give you an overview of all the things that you
  3469. have to do.
  3470. @menu
  3471. * TODO Basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries.
  3472. * TODO Extensions:: Workflow and assignments.
  3473. * Progress Logging:: Dates and notes for progress.
  3474. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others.
  3475. * Breaking Down Tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces.
  3476. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists.
  3477. @end menu
  3478. @node TODO Basics
  3479. @section Basic TODO Functionality
  3480. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word @samp{TODO},
  3481. for example:
  3482. @example
  3483. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3484. @end example
  3485. @noindent
  3486. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3487. @table @asis
  3488. @item @kbd{C-c C-t} (@code{org-todo})
  3489. @kindex C-c C-t
  3490. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3491. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3492. @example
  3493. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3494. '--------------------------------'
  3495. @end example
  3496. If TODO keywords have fast access keys (see @ref{Fast access to TODO states}), prompt for a TODO keyword through the fast
  3497. selection interface; this is the default behavior when
  3498. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is non-@code{nil}.
  3499. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3500. and agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (see
  3501. @ref{Agenda Commands}).
  3502. @item @kbd{C-u C-c C-t}
  3503. @kindex C-u C-c C-t
  3504. When TODO keywords have no selection keys, select a specific
  3505. keyword using completion; otherwise force cycling through TODO
  3506. states with no prompt. When @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is set
  3507. to @code{prefix}, use the fast selection interface.
  3508. @item @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}} @kbd{S-@key{LEFT}}
  3509. @kindex S-RIGHT
  3510. @kindex S-LEFT
  3511. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3512. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling.
  3513. Useful mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (see
  3514. @ref{TODO Extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3515. @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3516. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3517. @item @kbd{C-c / t} (@code{org-show-todo-tree})
  3518. @kindex C-c / t
  3519. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3520. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3521. @findex org-show-todo-tree
  3522. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (see @ref{Sparse Trees}). Folds
  3523. the entire buffer, but shows all TODO items---with not-DONE
  3524. state---and the headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix
  3525. argument, or by using @kbd{C-c / T}, search for a specific
  3526. TODO. You are prompted for the keyword, and you can also give
  3527. a list of keywords like @samp{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list entries that
  3528. match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3529. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3530. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO
  3531. states, both un-done and done.
  3532. @item @kbd{C-c a t} (@code{org-todo-list})
  3533. @kindex C-c a t
  3534. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with
  3535. not-DONE states) from all agenda files (see @ref{Agenda Views}) into
  3536. a single buffer. The new buffer is in Org Agenda mode, which
  3537. provides commands to examine and manipulate the TODO entries from
  3538. the new buffer (see @ref{Agenda Commands}). See @ref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3539. @item @kbd{S-M-@key{RET}} (@code{org-insert-todo-heading})
  3540. @kindex S-M-RET
  3541. @findex org-insert-todo-heading
  3542. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3543. @end table
  3544. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3545. @noindent
  3546. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring
  3547. of the option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3548. @node TODO Extensions
  3549. @section Extended Use of TODO Keywords
  3550. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3551. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3552. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3553. DONE. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3554. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With special
  3555. setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3556. files.
  3557. Note that @emph{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3558. TODO items in particular (see @ref{Tags}).
  3559. @menu
  3560. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps.
  3561. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest.
  3562. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, still finding your way.
  3563. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of state.
  3564. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements.
  3565. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states.
  3566. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others.
  3567. @end menu
  3568. @node Workflow states
  3569. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3570. @cindex TODO workflow
  3571. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3572. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states in
  3573. the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing the variable @code{org-todo-keywords} only becomes
  3574. effective after restarting Org mode in a buffer.}:
  3575. @lisp
  3576. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3577. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3578. @end lisp
  3579. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3580. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3581. you do not provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the
  3582. DONE state.
  3583. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3584. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} cycles an entry from
  3585. @samp{TODO} to @samp{FEEDBACK}, then to @samp{VERIFY}, and finally to @samp{DONE} and
  3586. @samp{DELEGATED}. You may also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly
  3587. select a specific state. For example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} changes
  3588. the state immediately to @samp{VERIFY}. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{LEFT}}
  3589. to go backward through the sequence. If you define many keywords, you
  3590. can use in-buffer completion (see @ref{Completion}) or even a special
  3591. one-key selection scheme (see @ref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert
  3592. these words into the buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with
  3593. a timestamp, see @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3594. @node TODO types
  3595. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3596. @cindex TODO types
  3597. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3598. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3599. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3600. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate that
  3601. items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several people
  3602. on a single project, you might want to assign action items directly to
  3603. persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would be set up
  3604. like this:
  3605. @lisp
  3606. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3607. @end lisp
  3608. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but
  3609. rather different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign
  3610. a task to a person, and later to mark it DONE. Org mode supports this
  3611. style by adapting the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the @kbd{t} command in the timeline
  3612. and agenda buffers.}. When used several times in succession, it still
  3613. cycles through all names, in order to first select the right type for
  3614. a task. But when you return to the item after some time and execute
  3615. @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly to
  3616. @samp{DONE}. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select
  3617. a specific name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO
  3618. type in a sparse tree by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}.
  3619. For example, to see all things Lucy has to do, you would use
  3620. @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items from all agenda files
  3621. into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix argument as
  3622. well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3623. @node Multiple sets in one file
  3624. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3625. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3626. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3627. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic TODO/DONE, but
  3628. also a workflow for bug fixing, and a separate state indicating that
  3629. an item has been canceled---so it is not DONE, but also does not
  3630. require action. Your setup would then look like this:
  3631. @lisp
  3632. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3633. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3634. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3635. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3636. @end lisp
  3637. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep
  3638. track of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this
  3639. setup, @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it
  3640. switches from @samp{DONE} to (nothing) to @samp{TODO}, and from @samp{FIXED} to
  3641. (nothing) to @samp{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3642. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing
  3643. a keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following
  3644. commands:
  3645. @table @asis
  3646. @item @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3647. @itemx @kbd{C-S-@key{RIGHT}}
  3648. @itemx @kbd{C-S-@key{LEFT}}
  3649. @kindex C-S-RIGHT
  3650. @kindex C-S-LEFT
  3651. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3652. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above
  3653. example, @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{RIGHT}} would
  3654. jump from @samp{TODO} or @samp{DONE} to @samp{REPORT}, and any of the words in
  3655. the second row to @samp{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key
  3656. binding conflict with @code{shift-selection-mode} (see @ref{Conflicts}).
  3657. @item @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}}
  3658. @itemx @kbd{S-@key{LEFT}}
  3659. @kindex S-RIGHT
  3660. @kindex S-LEFT
  3661. @kbd{S-@key{LEFT}} and @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}} walk through @emph{all}
  3662. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{RIGHT}} would
  3663. switch from @samp{DONE} to @samp{REPORT} in the example above. For
  3664. a discussion of the interaction with @code{shift-selection-mode}, see
  3665. @ref{Conflicts}.
  3666. @end table
  3667. @node Fast access to TODO states
  3668. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3669. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO
  3670. state instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3671. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the
  3672. selection character after each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except @samp{@@}, @samp{^} and @samp{!}, which have
  3673. a special meaning here.}. For
  3674. example:
  3675. @lisp
  3676. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3677. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3678. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3679. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3680. @end lisp
  3681. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3682. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key,
  3683. the entry is switched to this state. @kbd{@key{SPC}} can be used to
  3684. remove any TODO keyword from an entry@footnote{Check also the variable @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo},
  3685. it allows you to change the TODO state through the tags interface
  3686. (@ref{Setting Tags}), in case you like to mingle the two concepts. Note
  3687. that this means you need to come up with unique keys across both sets
  3688. of keywords.}.
  3689. @node Per-file keywords
  3690. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3691. @cindex keyword options
  3692. @cindex per-file keywords
  3693. @cindex @samp{TODO}, keyword
  3694. @cindex @samp{TYP_TODO}, keyword
  3695. @cindex @samp{SEQ_TODO}, keyword
  3696. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism
  3697. in different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special
  3698. lines to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that
  3699. file only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed
  3700. above, you need one of the following lines, starting in column zero
  3701. anywhere in the file:
  3702. @example
  3703. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3704. @end example
  3705. @noindent
  3706. you may also write @samp{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3707. interpretation, but it means the same as @samp{#+TODO}, or
  3708. @example
  3709. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3710. @end example
  3711. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3712. @example
  3713. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3714. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3715. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3716. @end example
  3717. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3718. @kindex M-TAB
  3719. @noindent
  3720. To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type @samp{#+} into the
  3721. buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3722. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3723. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar---or the last
  3724. keyword if no bar is there---must always mean that the item is DONE,
  3725. although you may use a different word. After changing one of these
  3726. lines, use @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to
  3727. make the changes known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when Org mode is activated
  3728. after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in a line
  3729. starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode for the current
  3730. buffer.}.
  3731. @node Faces for TODO keywords
  3732. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3733. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3734. @vindex org-todo, face
  3735. @vindex org-done, face
  3736. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3737. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo} for
  3738. keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3739. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If you
  3740. are using more than two different states, you might want to use
  3741. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3742. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3743. @lisp
  3744. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3745. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3746. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3747. @end lisp
  3748. @vindex org-faces-easy-properties
  3749. While using a list with face properties as shown for @samp{CANCELED}
  3750. @emph{should} work, this does not always seem to be the case. If
  3751. necessary, define a special face and use that. A string is
  3752. interpreted as a color. The variable @code{org-faces-easy-properties}
  3753. determines if that color is interpreted as a foreground or
  3754. a background color.
  3755. @node TODO dependencies
  3756. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3757. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3758. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3759. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3760. @cindex @samp{ORDERED}, property
  3761. The structure of Org files---hierarchy and lists---makes it easy to
  3762. define TODO dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be
  3763. marked DONE until all subtasks, defined as children tasks, are marked
  3764. as DONE. And sometimes there is a logical sequence to a number of
  3765. (sub)tasks, so that one task cannot be acted upon before all siblings
  3766. above it are done. If you customize the variable
  3767. @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org blocks entries from changing
  3768. state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3769. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @samp{ORDERED}, each of its
  3770. children is blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here
  3771. is an example:
  3772. @example
  3773. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3774. ** DONE one
  3775. ** TODO two
  3776. * Parent
  3777. :PROPERTIES:
  3778. :ORDERED: t
  3779. :END:
  3780. ** TODO a
  3781. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3782. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3783. @end example
  3784. @cindex TODO dependencies, NOBLOCKING
  3785. @cindex NOBLOCKING, property
  3786. You can ensure an entry is never blocked by using the @samp{NOBLOCKING}
  3787. property:
  3788. @example
  3789. * This entry is never blocked
  3790. :PROPERTIES:
  3791. :NOBLOCKING: t
  3792. :END:
  3793. @end example
  3794. @table @asis
  3795. @item @kbd{C-c C-x o} (@code{org-toggle-ordered-property})
  3796. @kindex C-c C-x o
  3797. @findex org-toggle-ordered-property
  3798. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3799. Toggle the @samp{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property
  3800. is used for this behavior because this should be local to the
  3801. current entry, not inherited like a tag. However, if you would
  3802. like to @emph{track} the value of this property with a tag for better
  3803. visibility, customize the variable
  3804. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3805. @item @kbd{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3806. @kindex C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3807. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3808. @end table
  3809. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3810. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3811. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies are shown in
  3812. a dimmed font or even made invisible in agenda views (see @ref{Agenda Views}).
  3813. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3814. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3815. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3816. (see @ref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3817. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3818. checkboxes is blocked from switching to DONE.
  3819. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example
  3820. dependencies between entries in different trees or files, check out
  3821. the contributed module @samp{org-depend.el}.
  3822. @node Progress Logging
  3823. @section Progress Logging
  3824. @cindex progress logging
  3825. @cindex logging, of progress
  3826. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3827. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state
  3828. of a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be
  3829. on a per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even
  3830. a subtree. For information on how to clock working time for a task,
  3831. see @ref{Clocking Work Time}.
  3832. @menu
  3833. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3834. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3835. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3836. @end menu
  3837. @node Closing items
  3838. @subsection Closing items
  3839. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO item
  3840. was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @samp{#+STARTUP: logdone}.}
  3841. @lisp
  3842. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3843. @end lisp
  3844. @vindex org-closed-keep-when-no-todo
  3845. @noindent
  3846. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3847. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} is inserted just
  3848. after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3849. through further state cycling, that line is removed again. If you
  3850. turn the entry back to a non-TODO state (by pressing @kbd{C-c C-t @key{SPC}} for example), that line is also removed, unless you set
  3851. @code{org-closed-keep-when-no-todo} to non-@code{nil}. If you want to record
  3852. a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @samp{#+STARTUP:
  3853. lognotedone}.}
  3854. @lisp
  3855. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3856. @end lisp
  3857. @noindent
  3858. You are then be prompted for a note, and that note is stored below the
  3859. entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3860. @node Tracking TODO state changes
  3861. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3862. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3863. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3864. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3865. @cindex @samp{LOG_INTO_DRAWER}, property
  3866. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (see @ref{Workflow states, , *Workflow states}),
  3867. you might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe
  3868. take a note about this change. You can either record just
  3869. a timestamp, or a time-stamped note for a change. These records are
  3870. inserted after the headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}.}.
  3871. When taking a lot of notes, you might want to get the notes out of the
  3872. way into a drawer (see @ref{Drawers}). Customize the variable
  3873. @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the recommended drawer
  3874. for this is called @samp{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the @samp{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing
  3875. @kbd{@key{SPC}} in the agenda to show an entry---use @kbd{C-u @key{SPC}} to keep it folded here.}. You can also overrule the
  3876. setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a @samp{LOG_INTO_DRAWER}
  3877. property.
  3878. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org
  3879. mode expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is
  3880. achieved by adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for
  3881. a note with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For
  3882. example, with the setting
  3883. @lisp
  3884. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3885. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3886. @end lisp
  3887. @noindent
  3888. to record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3889. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3890. @vindex org-log-done
  3891. @noindent
  3892. You not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but
  3893. also request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to @samp{DONE},
  3894. and that a note is recorded when switching to @samp{WAIT} or
  3895. @samp{CANCELED}@footnote{It is possible that Org mode records two timestamps when you
  3896. are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging. However, it
  3897. never prompts for two notes: if you have configured both, the state
  3898. change recording note takes precedence and cancel the closing note.}. The setting for @samp{WAIT} is even more special: the
  3899. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3900. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @emph{leaving} the
  3901. @samp{WAIT} state, if and only if the @emph{target} state does not configure
  3902. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from
  3903. @samp{WAIT} to @samp{DONE}, because @samp{DONE} is configured to record a timestamp
  3904. only. But when switching from @samp{WAIT} back to @samp{TODO}, the @samp{/!} in the
  3905. @samp{WAIT} setting now triggers a timestamp even though @samp{TODO} has no
  3906. logging configured.
  3907. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3908. to a buffer:
  3909. @example
  3910. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3911. @end example
  3912. @cindex @samp{LOGGING}, property
  3913. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or
  3914. a single item, define a @samp{LOGGING} property in this entry. Any
  3915. non-empty @samp{LOGGING} property resets all logging settings to @code{nil}.
  3916. You may then turn on logging for this specific tree using @samp{STARTUP}
  3917. keywords like @samp{lognotedone} or @samp{logrepeat}, as well as adding state
  3918. specific settings like @samp{TODO(!)}. For example:
  3919. @example
  3920. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3921. :PROPERTIES:
  3922. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3923. :END:
  3924. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3925. :PROPERTIES:
  3926. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3927. :END:
  3928. * TODO No logging at all
  3929. :PROPERTIES:
  3930. :LOGGING: nil
  3931. :END:
  3932. @end example
  3933. @node Tracking your habits
  3934. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3935. @cindex habits
  3936. @cindex STYLE, property
  3937. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of
  3938. TODO, called ``habits.'' A habit has the following properties:
  3939. @enumerate
  3940. @item
  3941. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3942. @code{org-modules}.
  3943. @item
  3944. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open
  3945. state.
  3946. @item
  3947. The property @samp{STYLE} is set to the value @samp{habit}.
  3948. @item
  3949. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @samp{.+} style repeat
  3950. interval. A @samp{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3951. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @samp{+} style for an
  3952. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3953. @item
  3954. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by
  3955. using the syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task
  3956. at least every three days, but at most every two days.
  3957. @item
  3958. You must also have state logging for the DONE state enabled (see
  3959. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3960. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is
  3961. not an error, but the consistency graphs are largely meaningless.
  3962. @end enumerate
  3963. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3964. actual habit with some history:
  3965. @example
  3966. ** TODO Shave
  3967. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3968. :PROPERTIES:
  3969. :STYLE: habit
  3970. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3971. :END:
  3972. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3973. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3974. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3975. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3976. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3977. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3978. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3979. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3980. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3981. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3982. @end example
  3983. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days---given
  3984. by the @samp{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval---and at least every
  3985. 4 days. If today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the
  3986. agenda on Oct 17, after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will
  3987. appear overdue on Oct 19, after four days have elapsed.
  3988. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along
  3989. with a consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at
  3990. getting that task done in the past. This graph shows every day that
  3991. the task was done over the past three weeks, with colors for each day.
  3992. The colors used are:
  3993. @table @asis
  3994. @item Blue
  3995. If the task was not to be done yet on that day.
  3996. @item Green
  3997. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3998. @item Yellow
  3999. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  4000. @item Red
  4001. If the task was overdue on that day.
  4002. @end table
  4003. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an
  4004. asterisk if the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation
  4005. mark to show where the current day falls in the graph.
  4006. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change
  4007. the way habits are displayed in the agenda.
  4008. @table @asis
  4009. @item @code{org-habit-graph-column}
  4010. @vindex org-habit-graph-column
  4011. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn.
  4012. This overwrites any text in that column, so it is a good idea to
  4013. keep your habits' titles brief and to the point.
  4014. @item @code{org-habit-preceding-days}
  4015. @vindex org-habit-preceding-days
  4016. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in
  4017. consistency graphs.
  4018. @item @code{org-habit-following-days}
  4019. @vindex org-habit-following-days
  4020. The number of days after today that appear in consistency graphs.
  4021. @item @code{org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today}
  4022. @vindex org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  4023. If non-@code{nil}, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is
  4024. set to true by default.
  4025. @end table
  4026. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer causes habits to
  4027. temporarily be disabled and do not appear at all. Press @kbd{K}
  4028. again to bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if
  4029. you have habits which should only be done in certain contexts, for
  4030. example.
  4031. @node Priorities
  4032. @section Priorities
  4033. @cindex priorities
  4034. @cindex priority cookie
  4035. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items
  4036. that it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be
  4037. done by placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item,
  4038. like this
  4039. @example
  4040. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  4041. @end example
  4042. @vindex org-priority-faces
  4043. @noindent
  4044. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and @samp{C}.
  4045. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is treated
  4046. just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for sorting
  4047. in the agenda (see @ref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  4048. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted
  4049. with special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  4050. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be
  4051. TODO items.
  4052. @table @asis
  4053. @item @kbd{C-c ,} (@code{org-priority})
  4054. @kindex C-c ,
  4055. @findex org-priority
  4056. Set the priority of the current headline. The command prompts
  4057. for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}. When you press
  4058. @kbd{@key{SPC}} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  4059. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the
  4060. timeline and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (see
  4061. @ref{Agenda Commands}).
  4062. @item @kbd{S-@key{UP}} (@code{org-priority-up})
  4063. @itemx @kbd{S-@key{DOWN}} (@code{org-priority-down})
  4064. @kindex S-UP
  4065. @kindex S-DOWN
  4066. @findex org-priority-up
  4067. @findex org-priority-down
  4068. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  4069. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that
  4070. these keys are also used to modify timestamps (see @ref{Creating Timestamps}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for
  4071. a discussion of the interaction with @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  4072. @end table
  4073. @vindex org-highest-priority
  4074. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  4075. @vindex org-default-priority
  4076. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the
  4077. variables @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  4078. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set these
  4079. values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that the
  4080. highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest priority):
  4081. @cindex @samp{PRIORITIES}, keyword
  4082. @example
  4083. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  4084. @end example
  4085. @node Breaking Down Tasks
  4086. @section Breaking Down Tasks into Subtasks
  4087. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  4088. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  4089. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  4090. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller,
  4091. manageable subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree
  4092. below a TODO item, with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the global TODO list, see the
  4093. @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  4094. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed,
  4095. insert either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies
  4096. are updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when
  4097. pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  4098. @example
  4099. * Organize Party [33%]
  4100. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  4101. *** TODO Peter
  4102. *** DONE Sarah
  4103. ** TODO Buy food
  4104. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  4105. @end example
  4106. @cindex @samp{COOKIE_DATA}, property
  4107. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the
  4108. meaning of the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  4109. @samp{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  4110. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  4111. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries
  4112. in the subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  4113. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  4114. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @samp{COOKIE_DATA}
  4115. property.
  4116. @example
  4117. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  4118. :PROPERTIES:
  4119. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  4120. :END:
  4121. @end example
  4122. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE when
  4123. all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  4124. @lisp
  4125. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  4126. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  4127. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  4128. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  4129. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  4130. @end lisp
  4131. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy
  4132. of) a large number of subtasks (see @ref{Checkboxes}).
  4133. @node Checkboxes
  4134. @section Checkboxes
  4135. @cindex checkboxes
  4136. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  4137. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description lists. But you can allow it
  4138. by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules} accordingly.} (see @ref{Plain Lists}) can be made into
  4139. a checkbox by starting it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is
  4140. similar to TODO items (see @ref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight.
  4141. Checkboxes are not included into the global TODO list, so they are
  4142. often great to split a task into a number of simple steps. Or you can
  4143. use them in a shopping list. To toggle a checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  4144. @samp{org-mouse.el}).
  4145. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  4146. @example
  4147. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  4148. - [-] call people [1/3]
  4149. - [ ] Peter
  4150. - [X] Sarah