orgguide.texi 97 KB

  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/orgguide
  4. @settitle The compact Org-mode Guide
  5. @include
  6. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  7. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  8. @set txicodequoteundirected
  9. @set txicodequotebacktick
  10. @c Version and Contact Info
  11. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{,maintainers webpage}
  12. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  13. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  15. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  16. @c %**end of header
  17. @finalout
  18. @c Macro definitions
  19. @iftex
  20. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  21. @end iftex
  22. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  23. @macro tsubheading{text}
  24. @ifinfo
  25. @subsubheading \text\
  26. @end ifinfo
  27. @ifnotinfo
  28. @item @b{\text\}
  29. @end ifnotinfo
  30. @end macro
  31. @macro seealso{text}
  32. @noindent @b{Further reading}@*@noindent \text\
  33. @end macro
  34. @copying
  35. Copyright @copyright{} 2010--2013 Free Software Foundation
  36. @quotation
  37. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  38. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  39. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  40. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  41. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  42. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  43. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  44. modify this GNU manual.''
  45. @end quotation
  46. @end copying
  47. @dircategory Emacs
  48. @direntry
  49. * Org Mode Guide: (orgguide). Abbreviated Org-mode Manual
  50. @end direntry
  51. @titlepage
  52. @title The compact Org-mode Guide
  53. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  54. @author by Carsten Dominik
  55. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  56. @page
  57. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  58. @insertcopying
  59. @end titlepage
  60. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  61. @shortcontents
  62. @ifnottex
  63. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  64. @top Org Mode Guide
  65. @insertcopying
  66. @end ifnottex
  67. @menu
  68. * Introduction:: Getting started
  69. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  70. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  71. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  72. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  73. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  74. * Properties:: Properties
  75. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  76. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  77. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  78. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  79. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  80. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  81. * Working With Source Code:: Source code snippets embedded in Org
  82. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  83. @detailmenu
  84. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  85. Introduction
  86. * Preface:: Welcome
  87. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  88. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  89. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  90. Document Structure
  91. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  92. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  93. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  94. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  95. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  96. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  97. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  98. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  99. Hyperlinks
  100. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  101. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  102. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  103. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  104. * Targeted links:: Point at a location in a file
  105. TODO Items
  106. * Using TODO states:: Setting and switching states
  107. * Multi-state workflows:: More than just on/off
  108. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  109. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  110. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  111. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  112. Progress logging
  113. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  114. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  115. Tags
  116. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  117. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  118. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  119. Dates and Times
  120. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  121. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  122. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  123. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  124. Capture - Refile - Archive
  125. * Capture::
  126. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  127. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  128. Capture
  129. * Setting up a capture location:: Where notes will be stored
  130. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  131. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  132. Agenda Views
  133. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  134. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  135. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  136. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  137. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  138. The built-in agenda views
  139. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  140. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  141. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  142. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  143. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  144. Markup for rich export
  145. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  146. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  147. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  148. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  149. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: @LaTeX{} can be freely used inside Org documents
  150. Structural markup elements
  151. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  152. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  153. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  154. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  155. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  156. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  157. Exporting
  158. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  159. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  160. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  161. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  162. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  163. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  164. * iCalendar export::
  165. Miscellaneous
  166. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  167. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  168. * MobileOrg:: Org-mode on the iPhone
  169. @end detailmenu
  170. @end menu
  171. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  172. @chapter Introduction
  173. @menu
  174. * Preface:: Welcome
  175. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  176. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  177. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  178. @end menu
  179. @node Preface, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  180. @section Preface
  181. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing project
  182. planning with a fast and effective plain-text system. It is also an
  183. authoring and publishing system.
  184. @i{This document is a much compressed derivative of the
  185. @uref{, comprehensive Org-mode manual}.
  186. It contains all basic features and commands, along with important hints for
  187. customization. It is intended for beginners who would shy back from a 200
  188. page manual because of sheer size.}
  189. @node Installation, Activation, Preface, Introduction
  190. @section Installation
  191. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  192. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  193. to @ref{Activation}.}
  194. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  195. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, it is best to run it directly from
  196. the distribution directory. You need to add the @file{lisp} subdirectories
  197. to the Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  198. @smallexample
  199. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  200. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  201. @end smallexample
  202. @noindent For speed you should byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell
  203. command:
  204. @smallexample
  205. make
  206. @end smallexample
  207. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  208. @section Activation
  209. Add the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file. The last three lines
  210. define @emph{global} keys for some commands --- please choose suitable keys
  211. yourself.
  212. @smalllisp
  213. ;; The following lines are always needed. Choose your own keys.
  214. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode)) ; not needed since Emacs 22.2
  215. (add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock) ; not needed when global-font-lock-mode is on
  216. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  217. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  218. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  219. @end smalllisp
  220. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  221. into Org mode.
  222. @node Feedback, , Activation, Introduction
  223. @section Feedback
  224. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  225. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{}.
  226. For information on how to submit bug reports, see the main manual.
  227. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  228. @chapter Document Structure
  229. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  230. edit the structure of the document.
  231. @menu
  232. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  233. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  234. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  235. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  236. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  237. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  238. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  239. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  240. @end menu
  241. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  242. @section Outlines
  243. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  244. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  245. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  246. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  247. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  248. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  249. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  250. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  251. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  252. @section Headlines
  253. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in
  254. Org start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See
  255. the variable @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e} to configure special behavior
  256. of @kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e} in headlines.}. For example:
  257. @smallexample
  258. * Top level headline
  259. ** Second level
  260. *** 3rd level
  261. some text
  262. *** 3rd level
  263. more text
  264. * Another top level headline
  265. @end smallexample
  266. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  267. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  268. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  269. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  270. @section Visibility cycling
  271. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  272. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  273. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  274. @table @kbd
  275. @item @key{TAB}
  276. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  277. @smallexample
  278. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  279. '-----------------------------------'
  280. @end smallexample
  281. When called with a prefix argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}) or with the shift
  282. key, global cycling is invoked.
  283. @item S-@key{TAB} @r{and} C-u @key{TAB}
  284. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  285. @smallexample
  286. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  287. '--------------------------------------'
  288. @end smallexample
  289. @item C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB}
  290. Show all, including drawers.
  291. @end table
  292. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  293. OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  294. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  295. per-file basis by adding a startup keyword @code{overview}, @code{content},
  296. @code{showall}, like this:
  297. @smallexample
  298. #+STARTUP: content
  299. @end smallexample
  300. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  301. @section Motion
  302. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  303. @table @kbd
  304. @item C-c C-n
  305. Next heading.
  306. @item C-c C-p
  307. Previous heading.
  308. @item C-c C-f
  309. Next heading same level.
  310. @item C-c C-b
  311. Previous heading same level.
  312. @item C-c C-u
  313. Backward to higher level heading.
  314. @end table
  315. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  316. @section Structure editing
  317. @table @kbd
  318. @item M-@key{RET}
  319. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  320. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). When this command is
  321. used in the middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line
  322. becomes the new headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split,
  323. customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}.
  324. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  325. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading.
  326. @item @key{TAB} @r{in new, empty entry}
  327. In a new entry with no text yet, @key{TAB} will cycle through reasonable
  328. levels.
  329. @item M-@key{left}@r{/}@key{right}
  330. Promote/demote current heading by one level.
  331. @item M-S-@key{left}@r{/}@key{right}
  332. Promote/demote the current subtree by one level.
  333. @item M-S-@key{up}@r{/}@key{down}
  334. Move subtree up/down (swap with previous/next subtree of same
  335. level).
  336. @item C-c C-w
  337. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  338. @item C-x n s/w
  339. Narrow buffer to current subtree / widen it again
  340. @end table
  341. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  342. demotion work on all headlines in the region.
  343. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  344. @section Sparse trees
  345. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  346. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  347. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  348. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  349. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  350. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  351. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  352. and you will see immediately how it works.
  353. Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  354. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  355. @table @kbd
  356. @item C-c /
  357. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  358. @item C-c / r
  359. Occur. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. Each
  360. match is also highlighted; the highlights disappear by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  361. @end table
  362. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  363. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  364. @node Plain lists, Footnotes, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  365. @section Plain lists
  366. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  367. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of
  368. checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists,
  369. and the HTML exporter (@pxref{Exporting}) parses and formats them.
  370. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  371. @itemize @bullet
  372. @item
  373. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  374. @samp{*} as bullets.
  375. @item
  376. @emph{Ordered} list items start with @samp{1.} or @samp{1)}.
  377. @item
  378. @emph{Description} list use @samp{ :: } to separate the @emph{term} from the
  379. description.
  380. @end itemize
  381. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  382. line. An item ends before the next line that is indented like its
  383. bullet/number, or less. A list ends when all items are closed, or before two
  384. blank lines. An example:
  385. @smallexample
  386. @group
  387. ** Lord of the Rings
  388. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  389. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  390. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  391. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  392. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  393. Important actors in this film are:
  394. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  395. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend.
  396. @end group
  397. @end smallexample
  398. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  399. an item (the line with the bullet or number).
  400. @table @kbd
  401. @item @key{TAB}
  402. Items can be folded just like headline levels.
  403. @item M-@key{RET}
  404. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  405. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}).
  406. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  407. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  408. @item M-S-@key{up}@r{/}@key{down}
  409. Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item
  410. of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering is
  411. automatic.
  412. @item M-@key{left}@r{/}M-@key{right}
  413. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  414. @item M-S-@key{left}@r{/}@key{right}
  415. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  416. @item C-c C-c
  417. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  418. state of the checkbox. Also verify bullets and indentation consistency in
  419. the whole list.
  420. @item C-c -
  421. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  422. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}).
  423. @end table
  424. @node Footnotes, , Plain lists, Document Structure
  425. @section Footnotes
  426. A footnote is defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in
  427. square brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. The footnote reference
  428. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  429. @smallexample
  430. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  431. ...
  432. [fn:1] The link is:
  433. @end smallexample
  434. @noindent The following commands handle footnotes:
  435. @table @kbd
  436. @item C-c C-x f
  437. The footnote action command. When the cursor is on a footnote reference,
  438. jump to the definition. When it is at a definition, jump to the (first)
  439. reference. Otherwise, create a new footnote. When this command is called
  440. with a prefix argument, a menu of additional options including renumbering is
  441. offered.
  442. @item C-c C-c
  443. Jump between definition and reference.
  444. @end table
  445. @seealso{
  446. @uref{,
  447. Chapter 2 of the manual}@*
  448. @uref{,
  449. Sacha Chua's tutorial}}
  450. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  451. @chapter Tables
  452. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  453. calculations are supported in connection with the Emacs @file{calc}
  454. package
  455. @ifinfo
  456. (@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  457. @end ifinfo
  458. @ifnotinfo
  459. (see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
  460. calculator).
  461. @end ifnotinfo
  462. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with
  463. @samp{|} as the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a
  464. table. @samp{|} is also the column separator. A table might look like
  465. this:
  466. @smallexample
  467. | Name | Phone | Age |
  468. |-------+-------+-----|
  469. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  470. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  471. @end smallexample
  472. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  473. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  474. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  475. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  476. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  477. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  478. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  479. create the above table, you would only type
  480. @smallexample
  481. |Name|Phone|Age|
  482. |-
  483. @end smallexample
  484. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  485. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  486. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  487. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  488. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  489. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  490. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  491. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  492. field is automatically made blank.
  493. @table @kbd
  494. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  495. @item C-c |
  496. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one TAB
  497. character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated. If every
  498. line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed. If not,
  499. lines are split at whitespace into fields.
  500. @*
  501. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  502. table. But it's easier just to start typing, like
  503. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age C-c @key{RET}}.
  504. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  505. @item C-c C-c
  506. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  507. @c
  508. @item @key{TAB}
  509. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  510. necessary.
  511. @c
  512. @item S-@key{TAB}
  513. Re-align, move to previous field.
  514. @c
  515. @item @key{RET}
  516. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  517. necessary.
  518. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  519. @item M-@key{left}
  520. @itemx M-@key{right}
  521. Move the current column left/right.
  522. @c
  523. @item M-S-@key{left}
  524. Kill the current column.
  525. @c
  526. @item M-S-@key{right}
  527. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  528. @c
  529. @item M-@key{up}
  530. @itemx M-@key{down}
  531. Move the current row up/down.
  532. @c
  533. @item M-S-@key{up}
  534. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  535. @c
  536. @item M-S-@key{down}
  537. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  538. created below the current one.
  539. @c
  540. @item C-c -
  541. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  542. is created above the current line.
  543. @c
  544. @item C-c @key{RET}
  545. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  546. below that line.
  547. @c
  548. @item C-c ^
  549. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  550. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  551. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table.
  552. @end table
  553. @seealso{
  554. @uref{, Chapter 3 of the
  555. manual}@*
  556. @uref{, Bastien's
  557. table tutorial}@*
  558. @uref{,
  559. Bastien's spreadsheet tutorial}@*
  560. @uref{, Eric's plotting tutorial}}
  561. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  562. @chapter Hyperlinks
  563. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  564. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  565. @menu
  566. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  567. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  568. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  569. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  570. * Targeted links:: Point at a location in a file
  571. @end menu
  572. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  573. @section Link format
  574. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  575. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  576. @smallexample
  577. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  578. @end smallexample
  579. @noindent
  580. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org will change
  581. the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead of
  582. @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  583. @samp{[[link]]}. To edit the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c
  584. C-l} with the cursor on the link.
  585. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  586. @section Internal links
  587. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  588. current file. The most important case is a link like
  589. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  590. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}.
  591. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  592. lead to a text search in the current file for the corresponding target which
  593. looks like @samp{<<My Target>>}.
  594. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  595. @section External links
  596. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  597. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  598. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  599. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  600. the colon. Here are some examples:
  601. @smallexample
  602. @r{on the web}
  603. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  604. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  605. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  606. @r{another Org file}
  607. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open file in doc-view mode at page NNN}
  608. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  609. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  610. @r{Mail link}
  611. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  612. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  613. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  614. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  615. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  616. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  617. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  618. irc:/ @r{IRC link}
  619. info:org:External%20links @r{Info node link (with encoded space)}
  620. @end smallexample
  621. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  622. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  623. format}), for example:
  624. @smallexample
  625. [[][GNU Emacs]]
  626. @end smallexample
  627. @noindent
  628. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML export
  629. (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable button. If there
  630. is no description at all and the link points to an image, that image will be
  631. inlined into the exported HTML file.
  632. @node Handling links, Targeted links, External links, Hyperlinks
  633. @section Handling links
  634. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  635. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  636. @table @kbd
  637. @item C-c l
  638. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  639. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  640. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  641. buffer (see below).
  642. @c
  643. @item C-c C-l
  644. Insert a link. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer. You
  645. can just type a link, or use history keys @key{up} and @key{down} to access
  646. stored links. You will be prompted for the description part of the link.
  647. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, file name completion is used to
  648. link to a file.
  649. @c
  650. @item C-c C-l @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  651. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  652. link and description parts of the link.
  653. @c
  654. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1 @r{or} mouse-2
  655. Open link at point.
  656. @item C-c &
  657. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  658. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  659. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  660. previously recorded positions.
  661. @c
  662. @end table
  663. @node Targeted links, , Handling links, Hyperlinks
  664. @section Targeted links
  665. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  666. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  667. line number or a search option after a double colon.
  668. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  669. link, together with an explanation:
  670. @smallexample
  671. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]] @r{Find line 255}
  672. [[file:~/ Target]] @r{Find @samp{<<My Target>>}}
  673. [[file:~/]] @r{Find entry with custom id}
  674. @end smallexample
  675. @seealso{
  676. @uref{, Chapter 4 of the
  677. manual}}
  678. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  679. @chapter TODO Items
  680. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  681. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  682. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  683. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  684. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  685. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  686. item emerged is always present.
  687. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  688. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  689. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  690. @menu
  691. * Using TODO states:: Setting and switching states
  692. * Multi-state workflows:: More than just on/off
  693. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  694. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  695. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  696. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  697. @end menu
  698. @node Using TODO states, Multi-state workflows, TODO Items, TODO Items
  699. @section Using TODO states
  700. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  701. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  702. @smallexample
  703. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  704. @end smallexample
  705. @noindent
  706. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  707. @table @kbd
  708. @item C-c C-t
  709. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  710. @smallexample
  711. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  712. '--------------------------------'
  713. @end smallexample
  714. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  715. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  716. @item S-@key{right}@r{/}@key{left}
  717. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling.
  718. @item C-c / t
  719. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  720. buffer, but shows all TODO items and the headings hierarchy above
  721. them.
  722. @item C-c a t
  723. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items from all agenda files
  724. (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. @xref{Global TODO list}, for
  725. more information.
  726. @item S-M-@key{RET}
  727. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  728. @end table
  729. @noindent
  730. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  731. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  732. @node Multi-state workflows, Progress logging, Using TODO states, TODO Items
  733. @section Multi-state workflows
  734. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  735. in the process of working on an item, for example:
  736. @smalllisp
  737. (setq org-todo-keywords
  738. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  739. @end smalllisp
  740. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  741. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  742. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  743. state.
  744. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  745. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED.
  746. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  747. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  748. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  749. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  750. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  751. like this:
  752. @smalllisp
  753. (setq org-todo-keywords
  754. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  755. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  756. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  757. @end smalllisp
  758. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track of
  759. which subsequence should be used for a given entry. The example also shows
  760. how to define keys for fast access of a particular state, by adding a letter
  761. in parenthesis after each keyword---you will be prompted for the key after
  762. @kbd{C-c C-t}.
  763. To define TODO keywords that are valid only in a single file, use the
  764. following text anywhere in the file.
  765. @smallexample
  766. #+TODO: TODO(t) | DONE(d)
  767. #+TODO: REPORT(r) BUG(b) KNOWNCAUSE(k) | FIXED(f)
  768. #+TODO: | CANCELED(c)
  769. @end smallexample
  770. After changing one of these lines, use @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in
  771. the line to make the changes known to Org mode.
  772. @node Progress logging, Priorities, Multi-state workflows, TODO Items
  773. @section Progress logging
  774. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  775. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  776. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  777. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  778. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  779. work time}.
  780. @menu
  781. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  782. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  783. @end menu
  784. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  785. @unnumberedsubsec Closing items
  786. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  787. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  788. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}.
  789. @smalllisp
  790. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  791. @end smalllisp
  792. @noindent
  793. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any of the
  794. DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after
  795. the headline. If you want to record a note along with the timestamp,
  796. use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP:
  797. lognotedone}}
  798. @smalllisp
  799. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  800. @end smalllisp
  801. @noindent
  802. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  803. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  804. @node Tracking TODO state changes, , Closing items, Progress logging
  805. @unnumberedsubsec Tracking TODO state changes
  806. You might want to keep track of TODO state changes. You can either record
  807. just a timestamp, or a time-stamped note for a change. These records will be
  808. inserted after the headline as an itemized list. When taking a lot of notes,
  809. you might want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer. Customize the
  810. variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior.
  811. For state logging, Org mode expects configuration on a per-keyword basis.
  812. This is achieved by adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) and
  813. @samp{@@} (for a note) in parentheses after each keyword. For example:
  814. @smallexample
  815. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  816. @end smallexample
  817. @noindent
  818. will define TODO keywords and fast access keys, and also request that a time
  819. is recorded when the entry is set to DONE, and that a note is recorded when
  820. switching to WAIT or CANCELED. The same syntax works also when setting
  821. @code{org-todo-keywords}.
  822. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  823. @section Priorities
  824. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  825. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  826. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  827. @smallexample
  828. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  829. @end smallexample
  830. @noindent
  831. Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and @samp{C}.
  832. @samp{A} is the highest, @samp{B} the default if none is given. Priorities
  833. make a difference only in the agenda.
  834. @table @kbd
  835. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  836. Set the priority of the current headline. Press @samp{A}, @samp{B} or
  837. @samp{C} to select a priority, or @key{SPC} to remove the cookie.
  838. @c
  839. @item S-@key{up}
  840. @itemx S-@key{down}
  841. Increase/decrease priority of current headline
  842. @end table
  843. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  844. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  845. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  846. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  847. with detailed subtasks on the tree. To keep the overview over the fraction
  848. of subtasks that are already completed, insert either @samp{[/]} or
  849. @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will be updated each time
  850. the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} on the
  851. cookie. For example:
  852. @smallexample
  853. * Organize Party [33%]
  854. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  855. *** TODO Peter
  856. *** DONE Sarah
  857. ** TODO Buy food
  858. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  859. @end smallexample
  860. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  861. @section Checkboxes
  862. Every item in a plain list (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox
  863. by starting it with the string @samp{[ ]}. Checkboxes are not included into
  864. the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a number
  865. of simple steps.
  866. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  867. @smallexample
  868. * TODO Organize party [1/3]
  869. - [-] call people [1/2]
  870. - [ ] Peter
  871. - [X] Sarah
  872. - [X] order food
  873. - [ ] think about what music to play
  874. @end smallexample
  875. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  876. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  877. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  878. checked.
  879. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  880. @table @kbd
  881. @item C-c C-c
  882. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
  883. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  884. Insert a new item with a checkbox.
  885. This works only if the cursor is already in a plain list item
  886. (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  887. @end table
  888. @seealso{
  889. @uref{, Chapter 5 of the manual}@*
  890. @uref{, David
  891. O'Toole's introductory tutorial}@*
  892. @uref{,
  893. Charles Cave's GTD setup}}
  894. @node Tags, Properties, TODO Items, Top
  895. @chapter Tags
  896. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  897. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  898. support for tags.
  899. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  900. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  901. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  902. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  903. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  904. @menu
  905. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  906. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  907. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  908. @end menu
  909. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  910. @section Tag inheritance
  911. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  912. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  913. well. For example, in the list
  914. @smallexample
  915. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  916. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  917. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  918. @end smallexample
  919. @noindent
  920. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  921. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  922. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  923. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  924. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  925. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  926. changes in the line.}:
  927. @smallexample
  928. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  929. @end smallexample
  930. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  931. @section Setting tags
  932. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  933. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  934. also a special command for inserting tags:
  935. @table @kbd
  936. @item C-c C-q
  937. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  938. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  939. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  940. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  941. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  942. things look nice.
  943. @item C-c C-c
  944. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  945. @end table
  946. Org will support tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  947. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  948. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  949. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  950. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  951. @smallexample
  952. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  953. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  954. @end smallexample
  955. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  956. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  957. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  958. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  959. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  960. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  961. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  962. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  963. like:
  964. @smalllisp
  965. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  966. @end smalllisp
  967. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  968. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  969. @smallexample
  970. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  971. @end smallexample
  972. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  973. @section Tag searches
  974. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  975. information into special lists.
  976. @table @kbd
  977. @item C-c \
  978. @itemx C-c / m
  979. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  980. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  981. @item C-c a m
  982. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  983. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  984. @item C-c a M
  985. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  986. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  987. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  988. @end table
  989. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  990. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  991. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  992. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the
  993. search string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry
  994. levels and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  995. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  996. @seealso{
  997. @uref{, Chapter 6 of the manual}@*
  998. @uref{,
  999. Sacha Chua's article about tagging in Org-mode}}
  1000. @node Properties, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  1001. @chapter Properties
  1002. Properties are key-value pairs associates with and entry. They live in a
  1003. special drawer with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each
  1004. property is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  1005. first, and the value after it:
  1006. @smallexample
  1007. * CD collection
  1008. ** Classic
  1009. *** Goldberg Variations
  1010. :PROPERTIES:
  1011. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  1012. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  1013. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  1014. :NDisks: 1
  1015. :END:
  1016. @end smallexample
  1017. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  1018. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  1019. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  1020. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  1021. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  1022. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  1023. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  1024. @smallexample
  1025. * CD collection
  1026. :PROPERTIES:
  1027. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  1028. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  1029. :END:
  1030. @end smallexample
  1031. or globally using @code{org-global-properties}, or file-wide like this:
  1032. @smallexample
  1033. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  1034. @end smallexample
  1035. @table @kbd
  1036. @item C-c C-x p
  1037. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value.
  1038. @item C-c C-c d
  1039. Remove a property from the current entry.
  1040. @end table
  1041. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  1042. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}). The
  1043. syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  1044. properties}.
  1045. @table @kbd
  1046. @end table
  1047. @seealso{
  1048. @uref{,
  1049. Chapter 7 of the manual}@*
  1050. @uref{,Bastien
  1051. Guerry's column view tutorial}}
  1052. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties, Top
  1053. @chapter Dates and Times
  1054. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  1055. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  1056. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode.
  1057. @menu
  1058. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  1059. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  1060. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  1061. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  1062. @end menu
  1063. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  1064. @section Timestamps
  1065. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  1066. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or
  1067. @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 12:00-12:30>}. A
  1068. timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree entry.
  1069. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda
  1070. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  1071. @noindent @b{Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment}@*
  1072. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  1073. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda.
  1074. @smallexample
  1075. * Meet Peter at the movies
  1076. <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  1077. * Discussion on climate change
  1078. <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  1079. @end smallexample
  1080. @noindent @b{Timestamp with repeater interval}@*
  1081. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  1082. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  1083. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  1084. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  1085. @smallexample
  1086. * Pick up Sam at school
  1087. <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  1088. @end smallexample
  1089. @noindent @b{Diary-style sexp entries}@*
  1090. For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the
  1091. special sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  1092. package. For example
  1093. @smallexample
  1094. * The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  1095. <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  1096. @end smallexample
  1097. @noindent @b{Time/Date range}@*
  1098. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range.
  1099. @smallexample
  1100. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  1101. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  1102. @end smallexample
  1103. @noindent @b{Inactive timestamp}@*
  1104. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  1105. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  1106. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  1107. @smallexample
  1108. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time
  1109. [2006-11-01 Wed]
  1110. @end smallexample
  1111. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  1112. @section Creating timestamps
  1113. For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  1114. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  1115. format.
  1116. @table @kbd
  1117. @item C-c .
  1118. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  1119. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  1120. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  1121. succession, a time range is inserted. With a prefix, also add the current
  1122. time.
  1123. @c
  1124. @item C-c !
  1125. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  1126. an agenda entry.
  1127. @c
  1128. @item S-@key{left}@r{/}@key{right}
  1129. Change date at cursor by one day.
  1130. @c
  1131. @item S-@key{up}@r{/}@key{down}
  1132. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  1133. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  1134. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  1135. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  1136. the second time.
  1137. @end table
  1138. When Org mode prompts for a date/time, it will accept any string containing
  1139. some date and/or time information, and intelligently interpret the string,
  1140. deriving defaults for unspecified information from the current date and time.
  1141. You can also select a date in the pop-up calendar. See the manual for more
  1142. information on how exactly the date/time prompt works.
  1143. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  1144. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  1145. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  1146. @noindent @b{DEADLINE}@*
  1147. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  1148. to be finished on that date.
  1149. @table @kbd
  1150. @item C-c C-d
  1151. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp, in the line following the
  1152. headline.
  1153. @end table
  1154. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  1155. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  1156. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  1157. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  1158. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  1159. @smallexample
  1160. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  1161. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  1162. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  1163. @end smallexample
  1164. @noindent @b{SCHEDULED}@*
  1165. Meaning: you are @i{planning to start working} on that task on the given
  1166. date@footnote{This is quite different from what is normally understood by
  1167. @i{scheduling a meeting}, which is done in Org-mode by just inserting a time
  1168. stamp without keyword.}.
  1169. @table @kbd
  1170. @item C-c C-s
  1171. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp, in the line following the
  1172. headline.
  1173. @end table
  1174. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  1175. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  1176. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  1177. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  1178. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE.
  1179. I.e.@: the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  1180. @smallexample
  1181. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  1182. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  1183. @end smallexample
  1184. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org mode helps to
  1185. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  1186. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  1187. @smallexample
  1188. ** TODO Pay the rent
  1189. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  1190. @end smallexample
  1191. @noindent
  1192. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  1193. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  1194. from that time.
  1195. @node Clocking work time, , Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  1196. @section Clocking work time
  1197. Org mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  1198. project.
  1199. @table @kbd
  1200. @item C-c C-x C-i
  1201. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  1202. keyword together with a timestamp. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix
  1203. argument, select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  1204. @c
  1205. @item C-c C-x C-o
  1206. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  1207. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  1208. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  1209. HH:MM}.
  1210. @item C-c C-x C-e
  1211. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  1212. @item C-c C-x C-x
  1213. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  1214. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  1215. @item C-c C-x C-j
  1216. Jump to the entry that contains the currently running clock. With a
  1217. @kbd{C-u} prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked
  1218. tasks.
  1219. @item C-c C-x C-r
  1220. Insert a dynamic block containing a clock
  1221. report as an Org-mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  1222. at an existing clock table, just update it.
  1223. @smallexample
  1224. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  1225. #+END: clocktable
  1226. @end smallexample
  1227. @noindent
  1228. For details about how to customize this view, see @uref{,the manual}.
  1229. @item C-c C-c
  1230. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  1231. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  1232. @end table
  1233. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  1234. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  1235. worked on or closed during a day.
  1236. @seealso{
  1237. @uref{,
  1238. Chapter 8 of the manual}@*
  1239. @uref{, Charles
  1240. Cave's Date and Time tutorial}@*
  1241. @uref{, Bernt Hansen's clocking workflow}}
  1242. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  1243. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  1244. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  1245. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  1246. Org defines a capture process to create tasks. It stores files related to a
  1247. task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the system, tasks and
  1248. projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project trees to an
  1249. archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  1250. @menu
  1251. * Capture::
  1252. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  1253. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  1254. @end menu
  1255. @node Capture, Refiling notes, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  1256. @section Capture
  1257. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  1258. excellent remember package. It lets you store quick notes with little
  1259. interruption of your work flow. Org lets you define templates for new
  1260. entries and associate them with different targets for storing notes.
  1261. @menu
  1262. * Setting up a capture location:: Where notes will be stored
  1263. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  1264. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  1265. @end menu
  1266. @node Setting up a capture location, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  1267. @unnumberedsubsec Setting up a capture location
  1268. The following customization sets a default target@footnote{Using capture
  1269. templates, you can define more fine-grained capture locations, see
  1270. @ref{Capture templates}.} file for notes, and defines a global
  1271. key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a suggestion.}
  1272. for capturing new stuff.
  1273. @example
  1274. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/"))
  1275. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  1276. @end example
  1277. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up a capture location, Capture
  1278. @unnumberedsubsec Using capture
  1279. @table @kbd
  1280. @item C-c c
  1281. Start a capture process. You will be placed into a narrowed indirect buffer
  1282. to edit the item.
  1283. @item C-c C-c
  1284. Once you are done entering information into the capture buffer,
  1285. @kbd{C-c C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture
  1286. process, so that you can resume your work without further distraction.
  1287. @item C-c C-w
  1288. Finalize by moving the entry to a refile location (@pxref{Refiling notes}).
  1289. @item C-c C-k
  1290. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  1291. @end table
  1292. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  1293. @unnumberedsubsec Capture templates
  1294. You can use templates to generate different types of capture notes, and to
  1295. store them in different places. For example, if you would like
  1296. to store new tasks under a heading @samp{Tasks} in file @file{}, and
  1297. journal entries in a date tree in @file{} you could
  1298. use:
  1299. @smallexample
  1300. (setq org-capture-templates
  1301. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/" "Tasks")
  1302. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  1303. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/")
  1304. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  1305. @end smallexample
  1306. @noindent In these entries, the first string is the key to reach the
  1307. template, the second is a short description. Then follows the type of the
  1308. entry and a definition of the target location for storing the note. Finally,
  1309. the template itself, a string with %-escapes to fill in information based on
  1310. time and context.
  1311. When you call @kbd{M-x org-capture}, Org will prompt for a key to select the
  1312. template (if you have more than one template) and then prepare the buffer like
  1313. @smallexample
  1314. * TODO
  1315. [[file:@var{link to where you were when initiating capture}]]
  1316. @end smallexample
  1317. @noindent
  1318. During expansion of the template, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you
  1319. need one of these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.}
  1320. allow dynamic insertion of content. Here is a small selection of the
  1321. possibilities, consult the manual for more.
  1322. @smallexample
  1323. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}}
  1324. %i @r{initial content, the region when remember is called with C-u.}
  1325. %t @r{timestamp, date only}
  1326. %T @r{timestamp with date and time}
  1327. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps}
  1328. @end smallexample
  1329. @node Refiling notes, Archiving, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive
  1330. @section Refiling notes
  1331. When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile some of the entries
  1332. into a different list, for example into a project. Cutting, finding the
  1333. right location, and then pasting the note is cumbersome. To simplify this
  1334. process, you can use the following special command:
  1335. @table @kbd
  1336. @item C-c C-w
  1337. Refile the entry or region at point. This command offers possible locations
  1338. for refiling the entry and lets you select one with completion. The item (or
  1339. all items in the region) is filed below the target heading as a subitem.@*
  1340. By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are considered to be
  1341. targets, but you can have more complex definitions across a number of files.
  1342. See the variable @code{org-refile-targets} for details.
  1343. @item C-u C-c C-w
  1344. Use the refile interface to jump to a heading.
  1345. @item C-u C-u C-c C-w
  1346. Jump to the location where @code{org-refile} last moved a tree to.
  1347. @end table
  1348. @node Archiving, , Refiling notes, Capture - Refile - Archive
  1349. @section Archiving
  1350. When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
  1351. to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
  1352. agenda. Archiving is important to keep your working files compact and global
  1353. searches like the construction of agenda views fast.
  1354. The most common archiving action is to move a project tree to another file,
  1355. the archive file.
  1356. @table @kbd
  1357. @item C-c C-x C-a
  1358. Archive the current entry using the command specified in the variable
  1359. @code{org-archive-default-command}.
  1360. @item C-c C-x C-s@ @r{or short} @ C-c $
  1361. Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
  1362. given by @code{org-archive-location}.
  1363. @end table
  1364. The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
  1365. current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
  1366. current file name. For information and examples on how to change this,
  1367. see the documentation string of the variable
  1368. @code{org-archive-location}. There is also an in-buffer option for
  1369. setting this variable, for example
  1370. @smallexample
  1371. #+ARCHIVE: %s_done::
  1372. @end smallexample
  1373. @seealso{
  1374. @uref{,
  1375. Chapter 9 of the manual}@*
  1376. @uref{, Charles
  1377. Cave's remember tutorial}@*
  1378. @uref{,
  1379. Sebastian Rose's tutorial for capturing from a web browser}}@uref{}@*
  1380. @node Agenda Views, Markup, Capture - Refile - Archive, Top
  1381. @chapter Agenda Views
  1382. Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and tagged
  1383. headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of files. To
  1384. get an overview of open action items, or of events that are important for a
  1385. particular date, this information must be collected, sorted and displayed in
  1386. an organized way. There are several different views, see below.
  1387. The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda buffer}.
  1388. This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the corresponding
  1389. locations in the original Org files, and even to edit these files remotely.
  1390. Remote editing from the agenda buffer means, for example, that you can
  1391. change the dates of deadlines and appointments from the agenda buffer.
  1392. The commands available in the Agenda buffer are listed in @ref{Agenda
  1393. commands}.
  1394. @menu
  1395. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  1396. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  1397. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  1398. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  1399. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  1400. @end menu
  1401. @node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views, Agenda Views
  1402. @section Agenda files
  1403. The information to be shown is normally collected from all @emph{agenda
  1404. files}, the files listed in the variable
  1405. @code{org-agenda-files}.
  1406. @table @kbd
  1407. @item C-c [
  1408. Add current file to the list of agenda files. The file is added to
  1409. the front of the list. If it was already in the list, it is moved to
  1410. the front. With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the end.
  1411. @item C-c ]
  1412. Remove current file from the list of agenda files.
  1413. @item C-,
  1414. Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.
  1415. @end table
  1416. @node Agenda dispatcher, Built-in agenda views, Agenda files, Agenda Views
  1417. @section The agenda dispatcher
  1418. The views are created through a dispatcher, which should be bound to a
  1419. global key---for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Installation}). After
  1420. pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a
  1421. command:
  1422. @table @kbd
  1423. @item a
  1424. The calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  1425. @item t @r{/} T
  1426. A list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}).
  1427. @item m @r{/} M
  1428. A list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching
  1429. tags and properties}).
  1430. @item L
  1431. The timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}).
  1432. @item s
  1433. A list of entries selected by a boolean expression of keywords
  1434. and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in the entry.
  1435. @end table
  1436. @node Built-in agenda views, Agenda commands, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views
  1437. @section The built-in agenda views
  1438. @menu
  1439. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  1440. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  1441. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  1442. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  1443. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  1444. @end menu
  1445. @node Weekly/daily agenda, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views, Built-in agenda views
  1446. @subsection The weekly/daily agenda
  1447. The purpose of the weekly/daily @emph{agenda} is to act like a page of a
  1448. paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day.
  1449. @table @kbd
  1450. @item C-c a a
  1451. Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of Org files. The agenda
  1452. shows the entries for each day.
  1453. @end table
  1454. Emacs contains the calendar and diary by Edward M. Reingold. Org-mode
  1455. understands the syntax of the diary and allows you to use diary sexp entries
  1456. directly in Org files:
  1457. @smallexample
  1458. * Birthdays and similar stuff
  1459. #+CATEGORY: Holiday
  1460. %%(org-calendar-holiday) ; special function for holiday names
  1461. #+CATEGORY: Ann
  1462. %%(diary-anniversary 5 14 1956)@footnote{Note that the order of the arguments (month, day, year) depends on the setting of @code{calendar-date-style}.} Arthur Dent is %d years old
  1463. %%(diary-anniversary 10 2 1869) Mahatma Gandhi would be %d years old
  1464. @end smallexample
  1465. Org can interact with Emacs appointments notification facility. To add all
  1466. the appointments of your agenda files, use the command
  1467. @code{org-agenda-to-appt}. See the docstring for details.
  1468. @node Global TODO list, Matching tags and properties, Weekly/daily agenda, Built-in agenda views
  1469. @subsection The global TODO list
  1470. The global TODO list contains all unfinished TODO items formatted and
  1471. collected into a single place. Remote editing of TODO items lets you
  1472. can change the state of a TODO entry with a single key press. The commands
  1473. available in the TODO list are described in @ref{Agenda commands}.
  1474. @table @kbd
  1475. @item C-c a t
  1476. Show the global TODO list. This collects the TODO items from all
  1477. agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer.
  1478. @item C-c a T
  1479. Like the above, but allows selection of a specific TODO keyword.
  1480. @end table
  1481. @node Matching tags and properties, Timeline, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views
  1482. @subsection Matching tags and properties
  1483. If headlines in the agenda files are marked with @emph{tags} (@pxref{Tags}),
  1484. or have properties (@pxref{Properties}), you can select headlines
  1485. based on this metadata and collect them into an agenda buffer. The match
  1486. syntax described here also applies when creating sparse trees with @kbd{C-c /
  1487. m}. The commands available in the tags list are described in @ref{Agenda
  1488. commands}.
  1489. @table @kbd
  1490. @item C-c a m
  1491. Produce a list of all headlines that match a given set of tags. The
  1492. command prompts for a selection criterion, which is a boolean logic
  1493. expression with tags, like @samp{+work+urgent-withboss} or
  1494. @samp{work|home} (@pxref{Tags}). If you often need a specific search,
  1495. define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1496. @item C-c a M
  1497. Like @kbd{C-c a m}, but only select headlines that are also TODO items.
  1498. @end table
  1499. @subsubheading Match syntax
  1500. A search string can use Boolean operators @samp{&} for AND and @samp{|} for
  1501. OR. @samp{&} binds more strongly than @samp{|}. Parentheses are currently
  1502. not implemented. Each element in the search is either a tag, a regular
  1503. expression matching tags, or an expression like @code{PROPERTY OPERATOR
  1504. VALUE} with a comparison operator, accessing a property value. Each element
  1505. may be preceded by @samp{-}, to select against it, and @samp{+} is syntactic
  1506. sugar for positive selection. The AND operator @samp{&} is optional when
  1507. @samp{+} or @samp{-} is present. Here are some examples, using only tags.
  1508. @table @samp
  1509. @item +work-boss
  1510. Select headlines tagged @samp{:work:}, but discard those also tagged
  1511. @samp{:boss:}.
  1512. @item work|laptop
  1513. Selects lines tagged @samp{:work:} or @samp{:laptop:}.
  1514. @item work|laptop+night
  1515. Like before, but require the @samp{:laptop:} lines to be tagged also
  1516. @samp{:night:}.
  1517. @end table
  1518. You may also test for properties at the same
  1519. time as matching tags, see the manual for more information.
  1520. @node Timeline, Search view, Matching tags and properties, Built-in agenda views
  1521. @subsection Timeline for a single file
  1522. The timeline summarizes all time-stamped items from a single Org mode
  1523. file in a @emph{time-sorted view}. The main purpose of this command is
  1524. to give an overview over events in a project.
  1525. @table @kbd
  1526. @item C-c a L
  1527. Show a time-sorted view of the Org file, with all time-stamped items.
  1528. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all unfinished TODO entries
  1529. (scheduled or not) are also listed under the current date.
  1530. @end table
  1531. @node Search view, , Timeline, Built-in agenda views
  1532. @subsection Search view
  1533. This agenda view is a general text search facility for Org mode entries.
  1534. It is particularly useful to find notes.
  1535. @table @kbd
  1536. @item C-c a s
  1537. This is a special search that lets you select entries by matching a substring
  1538. or specific words using a boolean logic.
  1539. @end table
  1540. For example, the search string @samp{computer equipment} will find entries
  1541. that contain @samp{computer equipment} as a substring.
  1542. Search view can also search for specific keywords in the entry, using Boolean
  1543. logic. The search string @samp{+computer +wifi -ethernet -@{8\.11[bg]@}}
  1544. will search for note entries that contain the keywords @code{computer}
  1545. and @code{wifi}, but not the keyword @code{ethernet}, and which are also
  1546. not matched by the regular expression @code{8\.11[bg]}, meaning to
  1547. exclude both 8.11b and 8.11g.
  1548. Note that in addition to the agenda files, this command will also search
  1549. the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}.
  1550. @node Agenda commands, Custom agenda views, Built-in agenda views, Agenda Views
  1551. @section Commands in the agenda buffer
  1552. Entries in the agenda buffer are linked back to the Org file or diary
  1553. file where they originate. Commands are provided to show and jump to the
  1554. original entry location, and to edit the Org files ``remotely'' from
  1555. the agenda buffer. This is just a selection of the many commands, explore
  1556. the @code{Agenda} menu and the manual for a complete list.
  1557. @table @kbd
  1558. @tsubheading{Motion}
  1559. @item n
  1560. Next line (same as @key{up} and @kbd{C-p}).
  1561. @item p
  1562. Previous line (same as @key{down} and @kbd{C-n}).
  1563. @tsubheading{View/Go to Org file}
  1564. @item mouse-3
  1565. @itemx @key{SPC}
  1566. Display the original location of the item in another window.
  1567. With prefix arg, make sure that the entire entry is made visible in the
  1568. outline, not only the heading.
  1569. @c
  1570. @itemx @key{TAB}
  1571. Go to the original location of the item in another window. Under Emacs
  1572. 22, @kbd{mouse-1} will also work for this.
  1573. @c
  1574. @itemx @key{RET}
  1575. Go to the original location of the item and delete other windows.
  1576. @c
  1577. @tsubheading{Change display}
  1578. @item o
  1579. Delete other windows.
  1580. @c
  1581. @item d @r{/} w
  1582. Switch to day/week view.
  1583. @c
  1584. @item f @r{and} b
  1585. Go forward/backward in time to display the following
  1586. @code{org-agenda-current-span} days. For example, if the display covers a
  1587. week, switch to the following/previous week.
  1588. @c
  1589. @item .
  1590. Go to today.
  1591. @c
  1592. @item j
  1593. Prompt for a date and go there.
  1594. @c
  1595. @item v l @ @r{or short} @ l
  1596. Toggle Logbook mode. In Logbook mode, entries that were marked DONE while
  1597. logging was on (variable @code{org-log-done}) are shown in the agenda, as are
  1598. entries that have been clocked on that day. When called with a @kbd{C-u}
  1599. prefix, show all possible logbook entries, including state changes.
  1600. @c
  1601. @item r @r{or} g
  1602. Recreate the agenda buffer, to reflect the changes.
  1603. @item s
  1604. Save all Org buffers in the current Emacs session, and also the locations of
  1605. IDs.
  1606. @tsubheading{Secondary filtering and query editing}
  1607. @item /
  1608. Filter the current agenda view with respect to a tag. You are prompted for a
  1609. letter to select a tag. Press @samp{-} first to select against the tag.
  1610. @item \
  1611. Narrow the current agenda filter by an additional condition.
  1612. @tsubheading{Remote editing (see the manual for many more commands)}
  1613. @item 0--9
  1614. Digit argument.
  1615. @c
  1616. @item t
  1617. Change the TODO state of the item, in the agenda and in the
  1618. org file.
  1619. @c
  1620. @item C-k
  1621. Delete the current agenda item along with the entire subtree belonging
  1622. to it in the original Org file.
  1623. @c
  1624. @item C-c C-w
  1625. Refile the entry at point.
  1626. @c
  1627. @item C-c C-x C-a @ @r{or short} @ a
  1628. Archive the subtree corresponding to the entry at point using the default
  1629. archiving command set in @code{org-archive-default-command}.
  1630. @c
  1631. @item C-c C-x C-s @ @r{or short} @ $
  1632. Archive the subtree corresponding to the current headline.
  1633. @c
  1634. @item C-c C-s
  1635. Schedule this item, with prefix arg remove the scheduling timestamp
  1636. @c
  1637. @item C-c C-d
  1638. Set a deadline for this item, with prefix arg remove the deadline.
  1639. @c
  1640. @item S-@key{right} @r{and} S-@key{left}
  1641. Change the timestamp associated with the current line by one day.
  1642. @c
  1643. @item I
  1644. Start the clock on the current item.
  1645. @c
  1646. @item O / X
  1647. Stop/cancel the previously started clock.
  1648. @item J
  1649. Jump to the running clock in another window.
  1650. @end table
  1651. @node Custom agenda views, , Agenda commands, Agenda Views
  1652. @section Custom agenda views
  1653. The main application of custom searches is the definition of keyboard
  1654. shortcuts for frequently used searches, either creating an agenda
  1655. buffer, or a sparse tree (the latter covering of course only the current
  1656. buffer).
  1657. Custom commands are configured in the variable
  1658. @code{org-agenda-custom-commands}. You can customize this variable, for
  1659. example by pressing @kbd{C-c a C}. You can also directly set it with
  1660. Emacs Lisp in @file{.emacs}. The following example contains all valid
  1661. search types:
  1662. @smalllisp
  1663. @group
  1664. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1665. '(("w" todo "WAITING")
  1666. ("u" tags "+boss-urgent")
  1667. ("v" tags-todo "+boss-urgent")))
  1668. @end group
  1669. @end smalllisp
  1670. @noindent
  1671. The initial string in each entry defines the keys you have to press after the
  1672. dispatcher command @kbd{C-c a} in order to access the command. Usually this
  1673. will be just a single character. The second parameter is the search type,
  1674. followed by the string or regular expression to be used for the matching.
  1675. The example above will therefore define:
  1676. @table @kbd
  1677. @item C-c a w
  1678. as a global search for TODO entries with @samp{WAITING} as the TODO
  1679. keyword
  1680. @item C-c a u
  1681. as a global tags search for headlines marked @samp{:boss:} but not
  1682. @samp{:urgent:}
  1683. @item C-c a v
  1684. as the same search as @kbd{C-c a u}, but limiting the search to
  1685. headlines that are also TODO items
  1686. @end table
  1687. @seealso{
  1688. @uref{, Chapter 10 of
  1689. the manual}@*
  1690. @uref{,
  1691. Mat Lundin's tutorial about custom agenda commands}@*
  1692. @uref{,
  1693. John Wiegley's setup}}
  1694. @node Markup, Exporting, Agenda Views, Top
  1695. @chapter Markup for rich export
  1696. When exporting Org-mode documents, the exporter tries to reflect the
  1697. structure of the document as accurately as possible in the backend. Since
  1698. export targets like HTML, @LaTeX{}, or DocBook allow much richer formatting,
  1699. Org mode has rules on how to prepare text for rich export. This section
  1700. summarizes the markup rules used in an Org-mode buffer.
  1701. @menu
  1702. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  1703. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  1704. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  1705. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  1706. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: @LaTeX{} can be freely used inside Org documents
  1707. @end menu
  1708. @node Structural markup elements, Images and tables, Markup, Markup
  1709. @section Structural markup elements
  1710. @menu
  1711. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  1712. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  1713. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  1714. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  1715. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  1716. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  1717. @end menu
  1718. @node Document title, Headings and sections, Structural markup elements, Structural markup elements
  1719. @subheading Document title
  1720. @noindent
  1721. The title of the exported document is taken from the special line
  1722. @smallexample
  1723. #+TITLE: This is the title of the document
  1724. @end smallexample
  1725. @node Headings and sections, Table of contents, Document title, Structural markup elements
  1726. @subheading Headings and sections
  1727. The outline structure of the document as described in @ref{Document
  1728. Structure}, forms the basis for defining sections of the exported document.
  1729. However, since the outline structure is also used for (for example) lists of
  1730. tasks, only the first three outline levels will be used as headings. Deeper
  1731. levels will become itemized lists. You can change the location of this
  1732. switch globally by setting the variable @code{org-export-headline-levels}, or on a
  1733. per-file basis with a line
  1734. @smallexample
  1735. #+OPTIONS: H:4
  1736. @end smallexample
  1737. @node Table of contents, Paragraphs, Headings and sections, Structural markup elements
  1738. @subheading Table of contents
  1739. The table of contents is normally inserted directly before the first headline
  1740. of the file.
  1741. @smallexample
  1742. #+OPTIONS: toc:2 (only to two levels in TOC)
  1743. #+OPTIONS: toc:nil (no TOC at all)
  1744. @end smallexample
  1745. @node Paragraphs, Emphasis and monospace, Table of contents, Structural markup elements
  1746. @subheading Paragraphs, line breaks, and quoting
  1747. Paragraphs are separated by at least one empty line. If you need to enforce
  1748. a line break within a paragraph, use @samp{\\} at the end of a line.
  1749. To keep the line breaks in a region, but otherwise use normal formatting, you
  1750. can use this construct, which can also be used to format poetry.
  1751. @smallexample
  1752. #+BEGIN_VERSE
  1753. Great clouds overhead
  1754. Tiny black birds rise and fall
  1755. Snow covers Emacs
  1756. -- AlexSchroeder
  1757. #+END_VERSE
  1758. @end smallexample
  1759. When quoting a passage from another document, it is customary to format this
  1760. as a paragraph that is indented on both the left and the right margin. You
  1761. can include quotations in Org-mode documents like this:
  1762. @smallexample
  1763. #+BEGIN_QUOTE
  1764. Everything should be made as simple as possible,
  1765. but not any simpler -- Albert Einstein
  1766. #+END_QUOTE
  1767. @end smallexample
  1768. If you would like to center some text, do it like this:
  1769. @smallexample
  1770. #+BEGIN_CENTER
  1771. Everything should be made as simple as possible, \\
  1772. but not any simpler
  1773. #+END_CENTER
  1774. @end smallexample
  1775. @node Emphasis and monospace, Comment lines, Paragraphs, Structural markup elements
  1776. @subheading Emphasis and monospace
  1777. You can make words @b{*bold*}, @i{/italic/}, _underlined_, @code{=code=}
  1778. and @code{~verbatim~}, and, if you must, @samp{+strike-through+}. Text
  1779. in the code and verbatim string is not processed for Org-mode specific
  1780. syntax, it is exported verbatim. To insert a horizontal rules, use a line
  1781. consisting of only dashes, and at least 5 of them.
  1782. @node Comment lines, , Emphasis and monospace, Structural markup elements
  1783. @subheading Comment lines
  1784. Lines starting with zero or more whitespace characters followed by @samp{#}
  1785. are treated as comments and will never be exported. Also entire subtrees
  1786. starting with the word @samp{COMMENT} will never be exported. Finally,
  1787. regions surrounded by @samp{#+BEGIN_COMMENT} ... @samp{#+END_COMMENT} will
  1788. not be exported.
  1789. @table @kbd
  1790. @item C-c ;
  1791. Toggle the COMMENT keyword at the beginning of an entry.
  1792. @end table
  1793. @node Images and tables, Literal examples, Structural markup elements, Markup
  1794. @section Images and Tables
  1795. For Org mode tables, the lines before the first horizontal separator line
  1796. will become table header lines. You can use the following lines somewhere
  1797. before the table to assign a caption and a label for cross references, and in
  1798. the text you can refer to the object with @code{\ref@{tab:basic-data@}}:
  1799. @smallexample
  1800. #+CAPTION: This is the caption for the next table (or link)
  1801. #+LABEL: tbl:basic-data
  1802. | ... | ...|
  1803. |-----|----|
  1804. @end smallexample
  1805. Some backends (HTML, @LaTeX{}, and DocBook) allow you to directly include
  1806. images into the exported document. Org does this, if a link to an image
  1807. files does not have a description part, for example @code{[[./img/a.jpg]]}.
  1808. If you wish to define a caption for the image and maybe a label for internal
  1809. cross references, you sure that the link is on a line by itself precede it
  1810. with:
  1811. @smallexample
  1812. #+CAPTION: This is the caption for the next figure link (or table)
  1813. #+LABEL: fig:SED-HR4049
  1814. [[./img/a.jpg]]
  1815. @end smallexample
  1816. You may also define additional attributes for the figure. As this is
  1817. backend-specific, see the sections about the individual backends for more
  1818. information.
  1819. @node Literal examples, Include files, Images and tables, Markup
  1820. @section Literal examples
  1821. You can include literal examples that should not be subjected to
  1822. markup. Such examples will be typeset in monospace, so this is well suited
  1823. for source code and similar examples.
  1824. @smallexample
  1826. Some example from a text file.
  1827. #+END_EXAMPLE
  1828. @end smallexample
  1829. For simplicity when using small examples, you can also start the example
  1830. lines with a colon followed by a space. There may also be additional
  1831. whitespace before the colon:
  1832. @smallexample
  1833. Here is an example
  1834. : Some example from a text file.
  1835. @end smallexample
  1836. For source code from a programming language, or any other text
  1837. that can be marked up by font-lock in Emacs, you can ask for it to
  1838. look like the fontified Emacs buffer
  1839. @smallexample
  1840. #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
  1841. (defun org-xor (a b)
  1842. "Exclusive or."
  1843. (if a (not b) b))
  1844. #+END_SRC
  1845. @end smallexample
  1846. To edit the example in a special buffer supporting this language, use
  1847. @kbd{C-c '} to both enter and leave the editing buffer.
  1848. @node Include files, Embedded @LaTeX{}, Literal examples, Markup
  1849. @section Include files
  1850. During export, you can include the content of another file. For example, to
  1851. include your @file{.emacs} file, you could use:
  1852. @smallexample
  1853. #+INCLUDE: "~/.emacs" src emacs-lisp
  1854. @end smallexample
  1855. @noindent
  1856. The optional second and third parameter are the markup (e.g.@: @samp{quote},
  1857. @samp{example}, or @samp{src}), and, if the markup is @samp{src}, the
  1858. language for formatting the contents. The markup is optional, if it is not
  1859. given, the text will be assumed to be in Org mode format and will be
  1860. processed normally. @kbd{C-c '} will visit the included file.
  1861. @node Embedded @LaTeX{}, , Include files, Markup
  1862. @section Embedded @LaTeX{}
  1863. For scientific notes which need to be able to contain mathematical symbols
  1864. and the occasional formula, Org-mode supports embedding @LaTeX{} code into
  1865. its files. You can directly use TeX-like macros for special symbols, enter
  1866. formulas and entire @LaTeX{} environments.
  1867. @smallexample
  1868. Angles are written as Greek letters \alpha, \beta and \gamma. The mass if
  1869. the sun is M_sun = 1.989 x 10^30 kg. The radius of the sun is R_@{sun@} =
  1870. 6.96 x 10^8 m. If $a^2=b$ and $b=2$, then the solution must be either
  1871. $a=+\sqrt@{2@}$ or $a=-\sqrt@{2@}$.
  1872. \begin@{equation@}
  1873. x=\sqrt@{b@}
  1874. \end@{equation@}
  1875. @end smallexample
  1876. @noindent With
  1877. @uref{,special
  1878. setup}, @LaTeX{} snippets will be included as images when exporting to HTML.
  1879. @seealso{
  1880. @uref{, Chapter 11 of the manual}}
  1881. @node Exporting, Publishing, Markup, Top
  1882. @chapter Exporting
  1883. Org-mode documents can be exported into a variety of other formats: ASCII
  1884. export for inclusion into emails, HTML to publish on the web, @LaTeX{}/PDF
  1885. for beautiful printed documents and DocBook to enter the world of many other
  1886. formats using DocBook tools. There is also export to iCalendar format so
  1887. that planning information can be incorporated into desktop calendars.
  1888. @menu
  1889. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  1890. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  1891. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  1892. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  1893. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  1894. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  1895. * iCalendar export::
  1896. @end menu
  1897. @node Export options, The export dispatcher, Exporting, Exporting
  1898. @section Export options
  1899. The exporter recognizes special lines in the buffer which provide
  1900. additional information. These lines may be put anywhere in the file.
  1901. The whole set of lines can be inserted into the buffer with @kbd{C-c
  1902. C-e t}.
  1903. @table @kbd
  1904. @item C-c C-e t
  1905. Insert template with export options, see example below.
  1906. @end table
  1907. @smallexample
  1908. #+TITLE: the title to be shown (default is the buffer name)
  1909. #+AUTHOR: the author (default taken from @code{user-full-name})
  1910. #+DATE: a date, fixed, of a format string for @code{format-time-string}
  1911. #+EMAIL: his/her email address (default from @code{user-mail-address})
  1912. #+DESCRIPTION: the page description, e.g.@: for the XHTML meta tag
  1913. #+KEYWORDS: the page keywords, e.g.@: for the XHTML meta tag
  1914. #+LANGUAGE: language for HTML, e.g.@: @samp{en} (@code{org-export-default-language})
  1915. #+TEXT: Some descriptive text to be inserted at the beginning.
  1916. #+TEXT: Several lines may be given.
  1917. #+OPTIONS: H:2 num:t toc:t \n:nil @@:t ::t |:t ^:t f:t TeX:t ...
  1918. #+LINK_UP: the ``up'' link of an exported page
  1919. #+LINK_HOME: the ``home'' link of an exported page
  1920. #+LATEX_HEADER: extra line(s) for the @LaTeX{} header, like \usepackage@{xyz@}
  1921. @end smallexample
  1922. @node The export dispatcher, ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export, Export options, Exporting
  1923. @section The export dispatcher
  1924. All export commands can be reached using the export dispatcher, which is a
  1925. prefix key that prompts for an additional key specifying the command.
  1926. Normally the entire file is exported, but if there is an active region that
  1927. contains one outline tree, the first heading is used as document title and
  1928. the subtrees are exported.
  1929. @table @kbd
  1930. @item C-c C-e
  1931. Dispatcher for export and publishing commands.
  1932. @end table
  1933. @node ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export, HTML export, The export dispatcher, Exporting
  1934. @section ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export
  1935. ASCII export produces a simple and very readable version of an Org-mode
  1936. file, containing only plain ASCII. Latin-1 and UTF-8 export augment the file
  1937. with special characters and symbols available in these encodings.
  1938. @table @kbd
  1939. @item C-c C-e a
  1940. Export as ASCII file.
  1941. @item C-c C-e n @ @ @r{and} @ @ C-c C-e N
  1942. Like the above commands, but use Latin-1 encoding.
  1943. @item C-c C-e u @ @ @r{and} @ @ C-c C-e U
  1944. Like the above commands, but use UTF-8 encoding.
  1945. @end table
  1946. @node HTML export, @LaTeX{} and PDF export, ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export, Exporting
  1947. @section HTML export
  1948. @table @kbd
  1949. @item C-c C-e h
  1950. Export as HTML file @file{myfile.html}.
  1951. @item C-c C-e b
  1952. Export as HTML file and immediately open it with a browser.
  1953. @end table
  1954. To insert HTML that should be copied verbatim to
  1955. the exported file use either
  1956. @smallexample
  1957. #+HTML: Literal HTML code for export
  1958. @end smallexample
  1959. @noindent or
  1960. @smallexample
  1961. #+BEGIN_HTML
  1962. All lines between these markers are exported literally
  1963. #+END_HTML
  1964. @end smallexample
  1965. @node @LaTeX{} and PDF export, DocBook export, HTML export, Exporting
  1966. @section @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  1967. @table @kbd
  1968. @item C-c C-e l
  1969. Export as @LaTeX{} file @file{myfile.tex}.
  1970. @item C-c C-e p
  1971. Export as @LaTeX{} and then process to PDF.
  1972. @item C-c C-e d
  1973. Export as @LaTeX{} and then process to PDF, then open the resulting PDF file.
  1974. @end table
  1975. By default, the @LaTeX{} output uses the class @code{article}. You can
  1976. change this by adding an option like @code{#+LaTeX_CLASS: myclass} in your
  1977. file. The class must be listed in @code{org-export-latex-classes}.
  1978. Embedded @LaTeX{} as described in @ref{Embedded @LaTeX{}}, will be correctly
  1979. inserted into the @LaTeX{} file. Similarly to the HTML exporter, you can use
  1980. @code{#+LaTeX:} and @code{#+BEGIN_LaTeX ... #+END_LaTeX} construct to add
  1981. verbatim @LaTeX{} code.
  1982. @node DocBook export, iCalendar export, @LaTeX{} and PDF export, Exporting
  1983. @section DocBook export
  1984. @table @kbd
  1985. @item C-c C-e D
  1986. Export as DocBook file.
  1987. @end table
  1988. Similarly to the HTML exporter, you can use @code{#+DOCBOOK:} and
  1989. @code{#+BEGIN_DOCBOOK ... #+END_DOCBOOK} construct to add verbatim @LaTeX{}
  1990. code.
  1991. @node iCalendar export, , DocBook export, Exporting
  1992. @section iCalendar export
  1993. @table @kbd
  1994. @item C-c C-e i
  1995. Create iCalendar entries for the current file in a @file{.ics} file.
  1996. @item C-c C-e c
  1997. Create a single large iCalendar file from all files in
  1998. @code{org-agenda-files} and write it to the file given by
  1999. @code{org-combined-agenda-icalendar-file}.
  2000. @end table
  2001. @seealso{
  2002. @uref{, Chapter 12 of the manual}@*
  2003. @uref{,
  2004. Sebastian Rose's image handling tutorial}@*
  2005. @uref{, Thomas
  2006. Dye's LaTeX export tutorial}
  2007. @uref{, Eric
  2008. Fraga's BEAMER presentation tutorial}}
  2009. @node Publishing, Working With Source Code, Exporting, Top
  2010. @chapter Publishing
  2011. Org includes a publishing management system that allows you to configure
  2012. automatic HTML conversion of @emph{projects} composed of interlinked org
  2013. files. You can also configure Org to automatically upload your exported HTML
  2014. pages and related attachments, such as images and source code files, to a web
  2015. server. For detailed instructions about setup, see the manual.
  2016. Here is an example:
  2017. @smalllisp
  2018. (setq org-publish-project-alist
  2019. '(("org"
  2020. :base-directory "~/org/"
  2021. :publishing-directory "~/public_html"
  2022. :section-numbers nil
  2023. :table-of-contents nil
  2024. :style "<link rel=\"stylesheet\"
  2025. href=\"../other/mystyle.css\"
  2026. type=\"text/css\"/>")))
  2027. @end smalllisp
  2028. @table @kbd
  2029. @item C-c C-e C
  2030. Prompt for a specific project and publish all files that belong to it.
  2031. @item C-c C-e P
  2032. Publish the project containing the current file.
  2033. @item C-c C-e F
  2034. Publish only the current file.
  2035. @item C-c C-e E
  2036. Publish every project.
  2037. @end table
  2038. Org uses timestamps to track when a file has changed. The above functions
  2039. normally only publish changed files. You can override this and force
  2040. publishing of all files by giving a prefix argument to any of the commands
  2041. above.
  2042. @seealso{
  2043. @uref{, Chapter 13 of the
  2044. manual}@*
  2045. @uref{,
  2046. Sebastian Rose's publishing tutorial}@*
  2047. @uref{, Ian Barton's
  2048. Jekyll/blogging setup}}
  2049. @node Working With Source Code, Miscellaneous, Publishing, Top
  2050. @chapter Working with source code
  2051. Org-mode provides a number of features for working with source code,
  2052. including editing of code blocks in their native major-mode, evaluation of
  2053. code blocks, tangling of code blocks, and exporting code blocks and their
  2054. results in several formats.
  2055. @subheading Structure of Code Blocks
  2056. The structure of code blocks is as follows:
  2057. @example
  2058. #+NAME: <name>
  2059. #+BEGIN_SRC <language> <switches> <header arguments>
  2060. <body>
  2061. #+END_SRC
  2062. @end example
  2063. Where @code{<name>} is a string used to name the code block,
  2064. @code{<language>} specifies the language of the code block
  2065. (e.g.@: @code{emacs-lisp}, @code{shell}, @code{R}, @code{python}, etc...),
  2066. @code{<switches>} can be used to control export of the code block,
  2067. @code{<header arguments>} can be used to control many aspects of code block
  2068. behavior as demonstrated below, and @code{<body>} contains the actual source
  2069. code.
  2070. @subheading Editing source code
  2071. Use @kbd{C-c '} to edit the current code block. This brings up a language
  2072. major-mode edit buffer containing the body of the code block. Saving this
  2073. buffer will write the new contents back to the Org buffer. Use @kbd{C-c '}
  2074. again to exit the edit buffer.
  2075. @subheading Evaluating code blocks
  2076. Use @kbd{C-c C-c} to evaluate the current code block and insert its results
  2077. in the Org-mode buffer. By default, evaluation is only turned on for
  2078. @code{emacs-lisp} code blocks, however support exists for evaluating blocks
  2079. in many languages. For a complete list of supported languages see the
  2080. manual. The following shows a code block and its results.
  2081. @example
  2082. #+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp
  2083. (+ 1 2 3 4)
  2084. #+END_SRC
  2085. #+RESULTS:
  2086. : 10
  2087. @end example
  2088. @subheading Extracting source code
  2089. Use @kbd{C-c C-v t} to create pure source code files by extracting code from
  2090. source blocks in the current buffer. This is referred to as ``tangling''---a
  2091. term adopted from the literate programming community. During ``tangling'' of
  2092. code blocks their bodies are expanded using @code{org-babel-expand-src-block}
  2093. which can expand both variable and ``noweb'' style references. In order to
  2094. tangle a code block it must have a @code{:tangle} header argument, see the
  2095. manual for details.
  2096. @subheading Library of Babel
  2097. Use @kbd{C-c C-v l} to load the code blocks from an Org-mode files into the
  2098. ``Library of Babel'', these blocks can then be evaluated from any Org-mode
  2099. buffer. A collection of generally useful code blocks is distributed with
  2100. Org-mode in @code{contrib/}.
  2101. @subheading Header Arguments
  2102. Many aspects of the evaluation and export of code blocks are controlled
  2103. through header arguments. These can be specified globally, at the file
  2104. level, at the outline subtree level, and at the individual code block level.
  2105. The following describes some of the header arguments.
  2106. @table @code
  2107. @item :var
  2108. The @code{:var} header argument is used to pass arguments to code blocks.
  2109. The values passed to arguments can be literal values, values from org-mode
  2110. tables and literal example blocks, or the results of other named code blocks.
  2111. @item :results
  2112. The @code{:results} header argument controls the @emph{collection},
  2113. @emph{type}, and @emph{handling} of code block results. Values of
  2114. @code{output} or @code{value} (the default) specify how results are collected
  2115. from a code block's evaluation. Values of @code{vector}, @code{scalar}
  2116. @code{file} @code{raw} @code{html} @code{latex} and @code{code} specify the
  2117. type of the results of the code block which dictates how they will be
  2118. incorporated into the Org-mode buffer. Values of @code{silent},
  2119. @code{replace}, @code{prepend}, and @code{append} specify handling of code
  2120. block results, specifically if and how the results should be inserted into
  2121. the Org-mode buffer.
  2122. @item :session
  2123. A header argument of @code{:session} will cause the code block to be
  2124. evaluated in a persistent interactive inferior process in Emacs. This allows
  2125. for persisting state between code block evaluations, and for manual
  2126. inspection of the results of evaluation.
  2127. @item :exports
  2128. Any combination of the @emph{code} or the @emph{results} of a block can be
  2129. retained on export, this is specified by setting the @code{:results} header
  2130. argument to @code{code} @code{results} @code{none} or @code{both}.
  2131. @item :tangle
  2132. A header argument of @code{:tangle yes} will cause a code block's contents to
  2133. be tangled to a file named after the filename of the Org-mode buffer. An
  2134. alternate file name can be specified with @code{:tangle filename}.
  2135. @item :cache
  2136. A header argument of @code{:cache yes} will cause associate a hash of the
  2137. expanded code block with the results, ensuring that code blocks are only
  2138. re-run when their inputs have changed.
  2139. @item :noweb
  2140. A header argument of @code{:noweb yes} will expand ``noweb'' style references
  2141. on evaluation and tangling.
  2142. @item :file
  2143. Code blocks which output results to files (e.g.@: graphs, diagrams and figures)
  2144. can accept a @code{:file filename} header argument in which case the results
  2145. are saved to the named file, and a link to the file is inserted into the
  2146. Org-mode buffer.
  2147. @end table
  2148. @seealso{
  2149. @uref{,
  2150. Chapter 11.3 of the manual}@*
  2151. @uref{,
  2152. The Babel site on Worg}}
  2153. @node Miscellaneous, GNU Free Documentation License, Working With Source Code, Top
  2154. @chapter Miscellaneous
  2155. @menu
  2156. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  2157. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  2158. * MobileOrg:: Org-mode on the iPhone
  2159. @end menu
  2160. @node Completion, Clean view, Miscellaneous, Miscellaneous
  2161. @section Completion
  2162. Org supports in-buffer completion with @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. This type of
  2163. completion does not make use of the minibuffer. You simply type a few
  2164. letters into the buffer and use the key to complete text right there. For
  2165. example, this command will complete @TeX{} symbols after @samp{\}, TODO
  2166. keywords at the beginning of a headline, and tags after @samp{:} in a
  2167. headline.
  2168. @node Clean view, MobileOrg, Completion, Miscellaneous
  2169. @section A cleaner outline view
  2170. Some people find it noisy and distracting that the Org headlines start with a
  2171. potentially large number of stars, and that text below the headlines is not
  2172. indented. While this is no problem when writing a @emph{book-like} document
  2173. where the outline headings are really section headings, in a more
  2174. @emph{list-oriented} outline, indented structure is a lot cleaner:
  2175. @smallexample
  2176. @group
  2177. * Top level headline | * Top level headline
  2178. ** Second level | * Second level
  2179. *** 3rd level | * 3rd level
  2180. some text | some text
  2181. *** 3rd level | * 3rd level
  2182. more text | more text
  2183. * Another top level headline | * Another top level headline
  2184. @end group
  2185. @end smallexample
  2186. @noindent
  2187. If you are using at least Emacs and version 6.29 of Org, this kind
  2188. of view can be achieved dynamically at display time using
  2189. @code{org-indent-mode}, which will prepend intangible space to each line.
  2190. You can turn on @code{org-indent-mode} for all files by customizing the
  2191. variable @code{org-startup-indented}, or you can turn it on for individual
  2192. files using
  2193. @smallexample
  2194. #+STARTUP: indent
  2195. @end smallexample
  2196. If you want a similar effect in earlier version of Emacs and/or Org, or if
  2197. you want the indentation to be hard space characters so that the plain text
  2198. file looks as similar as possible to the Emacs display, Org supports you by
  2199. helping to indent (with @key{TAB}) text below each headline, by hiding
  2200. leading stars, and by only using levels 1, 3, etc to get two characters
  2201. indentation for each level. To get this support in a file, use
  2202. @smallexample
  2203. #+STARTUP: hidestars odd
  2204. @end smallexample
  2205. @node MobileOrg, , Clean view, Miscellaneous
  2206. @section MobileOrg
  2207. @i{MobileOrg} is the name of the mobile companion app for Org mode, currently
  2208. available for iOS and for Android. @i{MobileOrg} offers offline viewing and
  2209. capture support for an Org mode system rooted on a ``real'' computer. It
  2210. does also allow you to record changes to existing entries.
  2211. The @uref{, iOS implementation} for the
  2212. @i{iPhone/iPod Touch/iPad} series of devices, was developed by Richard
  2213. Moreland. Android users should check out
  2214. @uref{, MobileOrg Android}
  2215. by Matt Jones. The two implementations are not identical but offer similar
  2216. features.
  2217. @seealso{
  2218. @uref{, Chapter 15
  2219. of the manual}@*
  2220. @uref{, Appendix B of the
  2221. manual}@*
  2222. @uref{,Key reference card}}
  2223. @node GNU Free Documentation License, , Miscellaneous, Top
  2224. @appendix GNU Free Documentation License
  2225. @include doclicense.texi
  2226. @bye
  2227. @c Local variables:
  2228. @c fill-column: 77
  2229. @c End:
  2230. @c LocalWords: webdavhost pre