org.texi 678 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @set VERSION 7.8.03
  6. @set DATE January 2012
  7. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  8. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  9. @set txicodequoteundirected
  10. @set txicodequotebacktick
  11. @c Version and Contact Info
  12. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  13. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  15. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  16. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  20. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  21. @c =======================================
  22. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  23. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  24. @set cmdnames
  25. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  26. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  27. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  28. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  29. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  30. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  31. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  32. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  33. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  34. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  35. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  36. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  37. @c a key but no command
  38. @c Inserts: @item key
  39. @macro orgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @item @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @macro xorgkey{key}
  44. @kindex \key\
  45. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  46. @end macro
  47. @c one key with a command
  48. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  49. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  50. @ifset cmdnames
  51. @kindex \key\
  52. @findex \command\
  53. @iftex
  54. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  55. @end iftex
  56. @ifnottex
  57. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  58. @end ifnottex
  59. @end ifset
  60. @ifclear cmdnames
  61. @kindex \key\
  62. @item @kbd{\key\}
  63. @end ifclear
  64. @end macro
  65. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  66. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  67. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  68. @ifset cmdnames
  69. @kindex \key\
  70. @findex \command\
  71. @iftex
  72. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  73. @end iftex
  74. @ifnottex
  75. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  76. @end ifnottex
  77. @end ifset
  78. @ifclear cmdnames
  79. @kindex \key\
  80. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  81. @end ifclear
  82. @end macro
  83. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  84. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  85. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  86. @ifset cmdnames
  87. @findex \command\
  88. @iftex
  89. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  90. @end iftex
  91. @ifnottex
  92. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  93. @end ifnottex
  94. @end ifset
  95. @ifclear cmdnames
  96. @item @kbd{\key\}
  97. @end ifclear
  98. @end macro
  99. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  100. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  101. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  102. @ifset cmdnames
  103. @kindex \key\
  104. @findex \command\
  105. @iftex
  106. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  107. @end iftex
  108. @ifnottex
  109. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  110. @end ifnottex
  111. @end ifset
  112. @ifclear cmdnames
  113. @kindex \key\
  114. @item @kbd{\text\}
  115. @end ifclear
  116. @end macro
  117. @c two keys with one command
  118. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  119. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  120. @ifset cmdnames
  121. @kindex \key1\
  122. @kindex \key2\
  123. @findex \command\
  124. @iftex
  125. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  126. @end iftex
  127. @ifnottex
  128. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  129. @end ifnottex
  130. @end ifset
  131. @ifclear cmdnames
  132. @kindex \key1\
  133. @kindex \key2\
  134. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  135. @end ifclear
  136. @end macro
  137. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  138. @c @itemx
  139. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  140. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  141. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  142. @ifset cmdnames
  143. @kindex \key1\
  144. @kindex \key2\
  145. @findex \command\
  146. @iftex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  149. @end iftex
  150. @ifnottex
  151. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  152. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  153. @end ifnottex
  154. @end ifset
  155. @ifclear cmdnames
  156. @kindex \key1\
  157. @kindex \key2\
  158. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  159. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  160. @end ifclear
  161. @end macro
  162. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  163. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  164. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  165. @ifset cmdnames
  166. @kindex \key1\
  167. @kindex \key2\
  168. @findex \command\
  169. @iftex
  170. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  171. @end iftex
  172. @ifnottex
  173. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  174. @end ifnottex
  175. @end ifset
  176. @ifclear cmdnames
  177. @kindex \key1\
  178. @kindex \key2\
  179. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  180. @end ifclear
  181. @end macro
  182. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  183. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  184. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  185. @ifset cmdnames
  186. @kindex \key1\
  187. @kindex \key2\
  188. @findex \command\
  189. @iftex
  190. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  191. @end iftex
  192. @ifnottex
  193. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  194. @end ifnottex
  195. @end ifset
  196. @ifclear cmdnames
  197. @kindex \key1\
  198. @kindex \key2\
  199. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  200. @end ifclear
  201. @end macro
  202. @c two keys with two commands
  203. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  204. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  205. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  206. @ifset cmdnames
  207. @kindex \key1\
  208. @kindex \key2\
  209. @findex \command1\
  210. @findex \command2\
  211. @iftex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  214. @end iftex
  215. @ifnottex
  216. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  217. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  218. @end ifnottex
  219. @end ifset
  220. @ifclear cmdnames
  221. @kindex \key1\
  222. @kindex \key2\
  223. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  224. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  225. @end ifclear
  226. @end macro
  227. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  228. @iftex
  229. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  230. @end iftex
  231. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  232. @macro tsubheading{text}
  233. @ifinfo
  234. @subsubheading \text\
  235. @end ifinfo
  236. @ifnotinfo
  237. @item @b{\text\}
  238. @end ifnotinfo
  239. @end macro
  240. @copying
  241. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  242. Copyright @copyright{} 2004-2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  243. @quotation
  244. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  245. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  246. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  247. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  248. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  249. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  250. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  251. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  252. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  253. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  254. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  255. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  256. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  257. @end quotation
  258. @end copying
  259. @dircategory Emacs
  260. @direntry
  261. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  262. @end direntry
  263. @titlepage
  264. @title The Org Manual
  265. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  266. @author by Carsten Dominik
  267. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, Thomas Dye and Jambunathan K.
  268. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  269. @page
  270. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  271. @insertcopying
  272. @end titlepage
  273. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  274. @contents
  275. @ifnottex
  276. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  277. @top Org Mode Manual
  278. @insertcopying
  279. @end ifnottex
  280. @menu
  281. * Introduction:: Getting started
  282. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  283. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  284. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  285. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  286. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  287. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  288. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  289. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  290. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  291. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  292. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  293. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  294. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  295. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  296. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  297. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  298. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  299. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  300. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  301. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  302. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  303. @detailmenu
  304. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  305. Introduction
  306. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  307. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  308. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  309. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  310. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  311. Document structure
  312. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  313. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  314. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  315. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  316. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  317. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  318. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  319. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  320. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  321. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  322. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  323. Tables
  324. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  325. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  326. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  327. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  328. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  329. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  330. The spreadsheet
  331. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  332. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  333. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  334. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  335. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  336. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  337. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  338. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  339. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  340. Hyperlinks
  341. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  342. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  343. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  344. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  345. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  346. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  347. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  348. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  349. Internal links
  350. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  351. TODO items
  352. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  353. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  354. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  355. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  356. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  357. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  358. Extended use of TODO keywords
  359. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  360. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  361. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  362. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  363. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  364. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  365. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  366. Progress logging
  367. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  368. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  369. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  370. Tags
  371. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  372. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  373. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  374. Properties and columns
  375. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  376. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  377. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  378. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  379. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  380. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  381. Column view
  382. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  383. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  384. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  385. Defining columns
  386. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  387. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  388. Dates and times
  389. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  390. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  391. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  392. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  393. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  394. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  395. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  396. Creating timestamps
  397. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  398. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  399. Deadlines and scheduling
  400. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  401. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  402. Clocking work time
  403. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  404. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  405. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  406. Capture - Refile - Archive
  407. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  408. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  409. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  410. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  411. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  412. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  413. Capture
  414. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  415. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  416. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  417. Capture templates
  418. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  419. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  420. Archiving
  421. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  422. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  423. Agenda views
  424. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  425. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  426. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  427. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  428. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  429. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  430. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  431. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  432. The built-in agenda views
  433. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  434. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  435. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  436. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  437. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  438. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  439. Presentation and sorting
  440. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  441. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  442. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  443. Custom agenda views
  444. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  445. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  446. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  447. Markup for rich export
  448. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  449. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  450. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  451. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  452. * Index entries:: Making an index
  453. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  454. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  455. Structural markup elements
  456. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  457. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  458. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  459. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  460. * Lists:: Lists
  461. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  462. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  463. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  464. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  465. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  466. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  467. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  468. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  469. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  470. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  471. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  472. Exporting
  473. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  474. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  475. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  476. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  477. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  478. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  479. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  480. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  481. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  482. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  483. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  484. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  485. HTML export
  486. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  487. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  488. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org mode
  489. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  490. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  491. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  492. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  493. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  494. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  495. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  496. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  497. * @LaTeX{}/PDF export commands::
  498. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  499. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  500. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  501. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  502. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  503. DocBook export
  504. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  505. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  506. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  507. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  508. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  509. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  510. OpenDocument Text export
  511. * Pre-requisites for @acronym{ODT} export:: What packages @acronym{ODT} exporter relies on
  512. * @acronym{ODT} export commands:: How to invoke @acronym{ODT} export
  513. * Applying custom styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  514. * Links in @acronym{ODT} export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  515. * Tables in @acronym{ODT} export:: How Tables are exported
  516. * Images in @acronym{ODT} export:: How to insert images
  517. * Math formatting in @acronym{ODT} export:: How @LaTeX{} fragments are formatted
  518. * Literal examples in @acronym{ODT} export:: How source and example blocks are formatted
  519. * Advanced topics in @acronym{ODT} export:: Read this if you are a power user
  520. Math formatting in @acronym{ODT} export
  521. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: How to embed @LaTeX{} math fragments
  522. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: How to embed equations in native format
  523. Advanced topics in @acronym{ODT} export
  524. * Exporting and converting to other formats:: How to produce @samp{pdf} and other formats
  525. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Explore the internals
  526. * Creating one-off styles:: How to produce custom highlighting etc
  527. * Customizing tables in @acronym{ODT} export:: How to define and use Table templates
  528. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: How to debug corrupt OpenDocument files
  529. Publishing
  530. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  531. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  532. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  533. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  534. Configuration
  535. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  536. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  537. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  538. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  539. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  540. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  541. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  542. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  543. Sample configuration
  544. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  545. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  546. Working with source code
  547. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  548. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  549. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  550. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  551. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  552. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  553. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  554. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  555. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  556. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  557. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  558. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  559. Header arguments
  560. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  561. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  562. Using header arguments
  563. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  564. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  565. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  566. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  567. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  568. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  569. Specific header arguments
  570. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  571. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  572. be collected and handled
  573. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  574. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  575. directory for code block execution
  576. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  577. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  578. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  579. files during tangling
  580. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  581. code files
  582. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  583. code files
  584. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  585. expansion during tangling
  586. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  587. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  588. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  589. * noweb-sep:: String used to separate noweb references
  590. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  591. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  592. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  593. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  594. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  595. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  596. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  597. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  598. Miscellaneous
  599. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  600. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  601. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  602. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  603. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  604. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  605. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  606. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  607. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  608. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  609. * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files
  610. Interaction with other packages
  611. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  612. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  613. Hacking
  614. * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals
  615. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  616. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  617. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  618. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  619. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  620. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  621. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  622. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  623. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  624. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  625. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  626. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  627. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  628. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  629. MobileOrg
  630. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  631. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  632. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  633. @end detailmenu
  634. @end menu
  635. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  636. @chapter Introduction
  637. @cindex introduction
  638. @menu
  639. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  640. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  641. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  642. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  643. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  644. @end menu
  645. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  646. @section Summary
  647. @cindex summary
  648. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  649. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  650. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  651. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  652. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  653. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  654. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  655. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  656. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  657. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  658. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  659. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  660. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  661. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  662. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  663. linked web pages.
  664. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  665. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  666. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  667. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  668. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  669. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  670. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  671. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  672. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  673. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  674. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  675. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  676. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  677. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  678. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  679. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  680. ends, for example:
  681. @example
  682. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  683. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  684. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  685. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  686. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  687. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  688. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  689. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  690. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  691. @end example
  692. @cindex FAQ
  693. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  694. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  695. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  696. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  697. @cindex print edition
  698. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  699. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  700. Theory Ltd.}
  701. @page
  702. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  703. @section Installation
  704. @cindex installation
  705. @cindex XEmacs
  706. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  707. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  708. to @ref{Activation}. To see what version of Org (if any) is part of your
  709. Emacs distribution, type @kbd{M-x load-library RET org} and then @kbd{M-x
  710. org-version}.}
  711. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  712. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
  713. to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
  714. top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs
  715. binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
  716. directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have
  717. access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
  718. the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
  719. Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  720. @example
  721. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  722. @end example
  723. @noindent
  724. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  725. step for this directory:
  726. @example
  727. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  728. @end example
  729. @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
  730. @example
  731. make
  732. @end example
  733. @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
  734. all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
  735. administrator)
  736. @example
  737. make install
  738. @end example
  739. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  740. @file{install-info} program. The following should correctly install the Info
  741. files on most systems, please send a bug report if not@footnote{The output
  742. from install-info (if any) is also system dependent. In particular Debian
  743. and its derivatives use two different versions of install-info and you may
  744. see the message:
  745. @example
  746. This is not dpkg install-info anymore, but GNU install-info
  747. See the man page for ginstall-info for command line arguments
  748. @end example
  749. @noindent which can be safely ignored.}.
  750. @example
  751. make install-info
  752. @end example
  753. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  754. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  755. when Org mode starts.
  756. @lisp
  757. (require 'org-install)
  758. @end lisp
  759. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  760. @page
  761. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  762. @section Activation
  763. @cindex activation
  764. @cindex autoload
  765. @cindex global key bindings
  766. @cindex key bindings, global
  767. To make sure files with extension @file{.org} use Org mode, add the following
  768. line to your @file{.emacs} file.
  769. @lisp
  770. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  771. @end lisp
  772. @noindent Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on - this is the
  773. default in Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in
  774. Org buffer with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  775. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  776. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  777. global keys (i.e.@: anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  778. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  779. liking.
  780. @lisp
  781. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  782. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  783. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  784. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  785. @end lisp
  786. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  787. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  788. into Org mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  789. like this:
  790. @example
  791. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  792. @end example
  793. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  794. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  795. the file's name is. See also the variable
  796. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  797. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  798. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  799. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  800. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  801. @lisp
  802. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  803. @end lisp
  804. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  805. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  806. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  807. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  808. @section Feedback
  809. @cindex feedback
  810. @cindex bug reports
  811. @cindex maintainer
  812. @cindex author
  813. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  814. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  815. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  816. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  817. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  818. moderators have to do.}.
  819. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  820. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  821. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  822. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  823. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  824. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  825. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  826. @example
  827. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  828. @end example
  829. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  830. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  831. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  832. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  833. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  834. customisations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  835. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  836. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  837. @example
  838. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  839. @end example
  840. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  841. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as @code{emacs
  842. -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as shown below.
  843. @example
  844. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'
  845. ;; activate debugging
  846. (setq debug-on-error t
  847. debug-on-signal nil
  848. debug-on-quit nil)
  849. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  850. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  851. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp"))
  852. ;; activate org
  853. (require 'org-install)
  854. @end example
  855. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  856. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  857. about:
  858. @enumerate
  859. @item What exactly did you do?
  860. @item What did you expect to happen?
  861. @item What happened instead?
  862. @end enumerate
  863. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  864. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  865. @cindex backtrace of an error
  866. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  867. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  868. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  869. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  870. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  871. @enumerate
  872. @item
  873. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  874. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  875. To do this, use
  876. @example
  877. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  878. @end example
  879. @noindent
  880. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  881. menu.
  882. @item
  883. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  884. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  885. @item
  886. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  887. document the steps you take.
  888. @item
  889. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  890. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  891. attach it to your bug report.
  892. @end enumerate
  893. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  894. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  895. Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  896. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  897. @table @code
  898. @item TODO
  899. @itemx WAITING
  900. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  901. user-defined.
  902. @item boss
  903. @itemx ARCHIVE
  904. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  905. meaning are written with all capitals.
  906. @item Release
  907. @itemx PRIORITY
  908. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  909. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  910. @end table
  911. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  912. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_HTML} to start a @code{HTML}
  913. environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to enhance its
  914. readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org files@footnote{Easy
  915. templates insert lowercase keywords and Babel dynamically inserts
  916. @code{#+results}.}
  917. The manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for accessing a
  918. functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different functions,
  919. depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has a generic
  920. name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever possible,
  921. give the function that is internally called by the generic command. For
  922. example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will be
  923. listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it will
  924. be listed to call org-table-move-column-right.
  925. If you prefer, you can compile the manual without the command names by
  926. unsetting the flag @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  927. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  928. @chapter Document structure
  929. @cindex document structure
  930. @cindex structure of document
  931. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  932. edit the structure of the document.
  933. @menu
  934. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  935. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  936. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  937. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  938. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  939. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  940. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  941. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  942. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  943. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  944. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  945. @end menu
  946. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  947. @section Outlines
  948. @cindex outlines
  949. @cindex Outline mode
  950. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  951. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  952. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  953. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  954. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  955. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  956. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  957. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  958. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  959. @section Headlines
  960. @cindex headlines
  961. @cindex outline tree
  962. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  963. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  964. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  965. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  966. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  967. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  968. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  969. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  970. headings indented less then 30 stars.}. For example:
  971. @example
  972. * Top level headline
  973. ** Second level
  974. *** 3rd level
  975. some text
  976. *** 3rd level
  977. more text
  978. * Another top level headline
  979. @end example
  980. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  981. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  982. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  983. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  984. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  985. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  986. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  987. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  988. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  989. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  990. @section Visibility cycling
  991. @cindex cycling, visibility
  992. @cindex visibility cycling
  993. @cindex trees, visibility
  994. @cindex show hidden text
  995. @cindex hide text
  996. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  997. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  998. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  999. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1000. @cindex subtree cycling
  1001. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1002. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1003. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1004. @table @asis
  1005. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1006. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1007. @example
  1008. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1009. '-----------------------------------'
  1010. @end example
  1011. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1012. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1013. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1014. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1015. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1016. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1017. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1018. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1019. @cindex global visibility states
  1020. @cindex global cycling
  1021. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1022. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1023. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1024. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1025. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1026. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1027. @example
  1028. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1029. '--------------------------------------'
  1030. @end example
  1031. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1032. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1033. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1034. @cindex show all, command
  1035. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  1036. Show all, including drawers.
  1037. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1038. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1039. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1040. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1041. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1042. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1043. entire subtree of the parent.
  1044. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1045. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1046. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1047. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1048. buffer
  1049. @ifinfo
  1050. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1051. @end ifinfo
  1052. @ifnotinfo
  1053. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1054. @end ifnotinfo
  1055. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1056. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1057. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1058. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1059. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1060. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1061. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1062. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1063. @end table
  1064. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1065. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1066. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1067. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1068. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1069. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1070. OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1071. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1072. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1073. buffer:
  1074. @example
  1075. #+STARTUP: overview
  1076. #+STARTUP: content
  1077. #+STARTUP: showall
  1078. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1079. @end example
  1080. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1081. @noindent
  1082. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1083. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1084. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1085. @code{all}.
  1086. @table @asis
  1087. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1088. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.@: whatever is
  1089. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1090. entries.
  1091. @end table
  1092. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1093. @section Motion
  1094. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1095. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1096. @cindex headline navigation
  1097. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1098. @table @asis
  1099. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1100. Next heading.
  1101. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1102. Previous heading.
  1103. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1104. Next heading same level.
  1105. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1106. Previous heading same level.
  1107. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1108. Backward to higher level heading.
  1109. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1110. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1111. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1112. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1113. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1114. @example
  1115. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1116. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1117. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1118. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1119. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1120. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1121. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1122. u @r{One level up.}
  1123. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1124. q @r{Quit}
  1125. @end example
  1126. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1127. @noindent
  1128. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1129. @end table
  1130. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1131. @section Structure editing
  1132. @cindex structure editing
  1133. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1134. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1135. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1136. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1137. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1138. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1139. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1140. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1141. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1142. @table @asis
  1143. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1144. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1145. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1146. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1147. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1148. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1149. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1150. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1151. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1152. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1153. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.@:
  1154. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1155. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1156. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1157. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1158. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1159. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1160. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1161. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1162. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1163. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1164. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1165. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1166. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1167. subtree.
  1168. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1169. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1170. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1171. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1172. to the initial level.
  1173. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1174. Promote current heading by one level.
  1175. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1176. Demote current heading by one level.
  1177. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1178. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1179. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1180. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1181. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1182. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1183. level).
  1184. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1185. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1186. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1187. Kill subtree, i.e.@: remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1188. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1189. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1190. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1191. sequential subtrees.
  1192. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1193. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1194. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1195. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1196. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1197. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1198. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1199. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1200. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1201. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1202. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1203. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1204. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1205. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1206. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1207. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1208. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1209. folding.
  1210. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1211. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1212. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1213. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1214. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1215. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1216. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1217. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1218. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  1219. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1220. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1221. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1222. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1223. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1224. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1225. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1226. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1227. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1228. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1229. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1230. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1231. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1232. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1233. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1234. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1235. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1236. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1237. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1238. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1239. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1240. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1241. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1242. @end table
  1243. @cindex region, active
  1244. @cindex active region
  1245. @cindex transient mark mode
  1246. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1247. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1248. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1249. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1250. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1251. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1252. functionality.
  1253. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1254. @section Sparse trees
  1255. @cindex sparse trees
  1256. @cindex trees, sparse
  1257. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1258. @cindex occur, command
  1259. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1260. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1261. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1262. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1263. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1264. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1265. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1266. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1267. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1268. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1269. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1270. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1271. Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1272. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1273. @table @asis
  1274. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1275. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1276. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1277. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1278. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1279. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1280. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1281. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1282. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1283. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1284. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1285. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1286. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1287. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1288. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1289. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1290. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1291. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1292. @end table
  1293. @noindent
  1294. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1295. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1296. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1297. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1298. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1299. For example:
  1300. @lisp
  1301. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1302. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1303. @end lisp
  1304. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1305. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1306. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1307. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1308. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1309. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1310. @cindex visible text, printing
  1311. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1312. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1313. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1314. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1315. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1316. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1317. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1318. @section Plain lists
  1319. @cindex plain lists
  1320. @cindex lists, plain
  1321. @cindex lists, ordered
  1322. @cindex ordered lists
  1323. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1324. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1325. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1326. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1327. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1328. @itemize @bullet
  1329. @item
  1330. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1331. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1332. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1333. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1334. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1335. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1336. bullets.
  1337. @item
  1338. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1339. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1340. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1341. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1342. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1343. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1344. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1345. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1346. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1347. list to start with a different value (e.g.@: 20), start the text of the item
  1348. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1349. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1350. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1351. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1352. @item
  1353. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1354. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1355. description.
  1356. @end itemize
  1357. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1358. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1359. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1360. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1361. than its bullet/number.
  1362. @vindex org-list-ending-method
  1363. @vindex org-list-end-regexp
  1364. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1365. Two methods@footnote{To disable either of them, configure
  1366. @code{org-list-ending-method}.} are provided to terminate lists. A list ends
  1367. whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less or equally
  1368. indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1369. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1370. that case, all items are closed. For finer control, you can end lists with
  1371. any pattern set in @code{org-list-end-regexp}. Here is an example:
  1372. @example
  1373. @group
  1374. ** Lord of the Rings
  1375. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1376. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1377. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1378. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1379. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1380. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1381. - on DVD only
  1382. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1383. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1384. Important actors in this film are:
  1385. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1386. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1387. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1388. @end group
  1389. @end example
  1390. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1391. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1392. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1393. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1394. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1395. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1396. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1397. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1398. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1399. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1400. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1401. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1402. indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1403. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1404. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1405. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1406. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1407. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1408. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1409. to disable them individually.
  1410. @table @asis
  1411. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1412. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1413. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1414. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1415. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1416. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1417. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1418. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1419. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1420. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1421. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1422. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1423. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1424. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1425. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1426. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1427. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1428. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1429. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1430. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1431. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1432. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1433. one.
  1434. @end table
  1435. @table @kbd
  1436. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1437. @item M-S-RET
  1438. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1439. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1440. @item S-up
  1441. @itemx S-down
  1442. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1443. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1444. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1445. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1446. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1447. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1448. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1449. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1450. similar effect.
  1451. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1452. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1453. @item M-up
  1454. @itemx M-down
  1455. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1456. @code{org-liste-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1457. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1458. is automatic.
  1459. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1460. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1461. @item M-left
  1462. @itemx M-right
  1463. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1464. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1465. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1466. @item M-S-left
  1467. @itemx M-S-right
  1468. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1469. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1470. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1471. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1472. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1473. motion or so.
  1474. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1475. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1476. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1477. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1478. @kindex C-c C-c
  1479. @item C-c C-c
  1480. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1481. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1482. consistency in the whole list.
  1483. @kindex C-c -
  1484. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1485. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1486. @item C-c -
  1487. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1488. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1489. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1490. and its position@footnote{See @code{bullet} rule in
  1491. @code{org-list-automatic-rules} for more information.}. With a numeric
  1492. prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an
  1493. active region when calling this, selected text will be changed into an item.
  1494. With a prefix argument, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1495. first line already was a list item, any item marker will be removed from the
  1496. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1497. converted into a list item.
  1498. @kindex C-c *
  1499. @item C-c *
  1500. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1501. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1502. @kindex C-c C-*
  1503. @item C-c C-*
  1504. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1505. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1506. (resp. checked).
  1507. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1508. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1509. @item S-left/right
  1510. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1511. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1512. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1513. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1514. @kindex C-c ^
  1515. @item C-c ^
  1516. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1517. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1518. @end table
  1519. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1520. @section Drawers
  1521. @cindex drawers
  1522. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1523. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1524. @vindex org-drawers
  1525. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1526. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1527. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1528. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
  1529. with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}. Drawers
  1530. look like this:
  1531. @example
  1532. ** This is a headline
  1533. Still outside the drawer
  1534. :DRAWERNAME:
  1535. This is inside the drawer.
  1536. :END:
  1537. After the drawer.
  1538. @end example
  1539. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1540. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1541. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1542. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1543. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1544. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1545. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1546. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1547. @table @kbd
  1548. @kindex C-c C-z
  1549. @item C-c C-z
  1550. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1551. @end table
  1552. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1553. @section Blocks
  1554. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1555. @cindex blocks, folding
  1556. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1557. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1558. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1559. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1560. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1561. or on a per-file basis by using
  1562. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1563. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1564. @example
  1565. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1566. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1567. @end example
  1568. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1569. @section Footnotes
  1570. @cindex footnotes
  1571. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1572. @file{footnote.el} package, Org mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1573. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1574. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e.@: a footnote is
  1575. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1576. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1577. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1578. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1579. @example
  1580. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1581. ...
  1582. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1583. @end example
  1584. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1585. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1586. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1587. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1588. @LaTeX{}}). Here are the valid references:
  1589. @table @code
  1590. @item [1]
  1591. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1592. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1593. snippet.
  1594. @item [fn:name]
  1595. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1596. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1597. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1598. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1599. reference point.
  1600. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1601. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1602. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1603. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1604. @end table
  1605. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1606. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1607. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1608. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1609. for details.
  1610. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1611. @table @kbd
  1612. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1613. @item C-c C-x f
  1614. The footnote action command.
  1615. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1616. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1617. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1618. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1619. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1620. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1621. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1622. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1623. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1624. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1625. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1626. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1627. options is offered:
  1628. @example
  1629. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1630. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1631. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1632. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1633. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1634. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1635. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1636. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1637. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1638. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1639. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1640. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1641. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1642. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g.@: sending}
  1643. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1644. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1645. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1646. @r{to it.}
  1647. @end example
  1648. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1649. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1650. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1651. deletion.
  1652. @kindex C-c C-c
  1653. @item C-c C-c
  1654. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1655. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1656. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1657. @kindex C-c C-o
  1658. @kindex mouse-1
  1659. @kindex mouse-2
  1660. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1661. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1662. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1663. @end table
  1664. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1665. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1666. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1667. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1668. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1669. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1670. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1671. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1672. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1673. @lisp
  1674. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1675. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1676. @end lisp
  1677. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1678. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1679. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1680. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1681. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1682. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1683. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1684. item.
  1685. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1686. @chapter Tables
  1687. @cindex tables
  1688. @cindex editing tables
  1689. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1690. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1691. @ifinfo
  1692. (@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1693. @end ifinfo
  1694. @ifnotinfo
  1695. (see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
  1696. calculator).
  1697. @end ifnotinfo
  1698. @menu
  1699. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1700. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1701. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1702. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1703. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1704. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1705. @end menu
  1706. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1707. @section The built-in table editor
  1708. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1709. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1710. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1711. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1712. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1713. might look like this:
  1714. @example
  1715. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1716. |-------+-------+-----|
  1717. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1718. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1719. @end example
  1720. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1721. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1722. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1723. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1724. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1725. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1726. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1727. create the above table, you would only type
  1728. @example
  1729. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1730. |-
  1731. @end example
  1732. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1733. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1734. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1735. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1736. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1737. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1738. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1739. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1740. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1741. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1742. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1743. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1744. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1745. @table @kbd
  1746. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1747. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1748. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1749. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1750. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1751. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1752. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1753. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1754. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1755. @*
  1756. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1757. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1758. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1759. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1760. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1761. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1762. @c
  1763. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1764. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1765. necessary.
  1766. @c
  1767. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1768. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1769. @c
  1770. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1771. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1772. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1773. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1774. @c
  1775. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1776. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1777. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1778. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1779. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1780. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1781. Move the current column left/right.
  1782. @c
  1783. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1784. Kill the current column.
  1785. @c
  1786. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1787. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1788. @c
  1789. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1790. Move the current row up/down.
  1791. @c
  1792. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1793. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1794. @c
  1795. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1796. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1797. created below the current one.
  1798. @c
  1799. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1800. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1801. is created above the current line.
  1802. @c
  1803. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1804. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1805. below that line.
  1806. @c
  1807. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1808. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1809. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1810. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1811. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1812. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1813. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1814. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1815. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1816. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1817. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1818. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1819. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1820. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1821. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1822. @c
  1823. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1824. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1825. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1826. @c
  1827. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1828. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1829. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1830. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1831. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1832. lines.
  1833. @c
  1834. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1835. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1836. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1837. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1838. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1839. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1840. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1841. above.
  1842. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1843. @cindex formula, in tables
  1844. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1845. @cindex region, active
  1846. @cindex active region
  1847. @cindex transient mark mode
  1848. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1849. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1850. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1851. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1852. @c
  1853. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1854. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1855. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1856. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1857. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1858. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1859. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1860. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1861. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1862. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1863. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1864. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1865. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1866. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1867. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1868. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1869. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1870. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1871. @c
  1872. @item M-x org-table-import
  1873. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1874. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1875. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1876. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1877. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1878. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1879. separator.
  1880. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1881. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1882. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1883. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1884. @c
  1885. @item M-x org-table-export
  1886. @findex org-table-export
  1887. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1888. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1889. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1890. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1891. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1892. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1893. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1894. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1895. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1896. detailed description.
  1897. @end table
  1898. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1899. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1900. it off with
  1901. @lisp
  1902. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1903. @end lisp
  1904. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1905. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1906. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1907. @section Column width and alignment
  1908. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1909. @cindex alignment in tables
  1910. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1911. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1912. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1913. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1914. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1915. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1916. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1917. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1918. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1919. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1920. @example
  1921. @group
  1922. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1923. | | | | | <6> |
  1924. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1925. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1926. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1927. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1928. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1929. @end group
  1930. @end example
  1931. @noindent
  1932. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1933. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1934. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1935. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1936. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1937. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1938. C-c}.
  1939. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1940. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1941. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1942. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1943. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1944. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1945. on a per-file basis with:
  1946. @example
  1947. #+STARTUP: align
  1948. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1949. @end example
  1950. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1951. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  1952. @samp{c}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1953. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  1954. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1955. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1956. automatically when exporting the document.
  1957. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1958. @section Column groups
  1959. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1960. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1961. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1962. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1963. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1964. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1965. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1966. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1967. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} to make a column
  1968. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1969. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1970. @example
  1971. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1972. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1973. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1974. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1975. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1976. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1977. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1978. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1979. @end example
  1980. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1981. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1982. @example
  1983. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1984. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1985. | / | < | | | < | |
  1986. @end example
  1987. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  1988. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  1989. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1990. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1991. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  1992. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  1993. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  1994. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1995. example in Message mode, use
  1996. @lisp
  1997. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1998. @end lisp
  1999. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2000. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2001. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2002. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2003. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2004. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  2005. @section The spreadsheet
  2006. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2007. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2008. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2009. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2010. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2011. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2012. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2013. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2014. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2015. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2016. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2017. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2018. @menu
  2019. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2020. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2021. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2022. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2023. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2024. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2025. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2026. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2027. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2028. @end menu
  2029. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  2030. @subsection References
  2031. @cindex references
  2032. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2033. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2034. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2035. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2036. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2037. @subsubheading Field references
  2038. @cindex field references
  2039. @cindex references, to fields
  2040. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2041. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2042. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2043. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2044. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2045. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2046. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  2047. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2048. representation that looks like this:
  2049. @example
  2050. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2051. @end example
  2052. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2053. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e.@: the
  2054. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2055. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2056. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2057. column from the right.
  2058. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2059. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2060. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2061. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2062. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2063. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2064. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2065. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2066. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2067. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2068. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc@. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2069. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2070. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2071. after the third hline in the table.
  2072. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2073. i.e. to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2074. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2075. implied.
  2076. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2077. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2078. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2079. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2080. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2081. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2082. Here are a few examples:
  2083. @example
  2084. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2085. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2086. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2087. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2088. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2089. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2090. @end example
  2091. @subsubheading Range references
  2092. @cindex range references
  2093. @cindex references, to ranges
  2094. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2095. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2096. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2097. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2098. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2099. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2100. @example
  2101. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2102. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2103. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2104. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2105. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2106. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2107. @end example
  2108. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2109. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2110. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2111. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2112. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2113. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2114. @cindex field coordinates
  2115. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2116. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2117. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2118. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2119. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2120. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2121. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2122. @example
  2123. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2124. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2125. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2126. @end example
  2127. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2128. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2129. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2130. number of rows.
  2131. @subsubheading Named references
  2132. @cindex named references
  2133. @cindex references, named
  2134. @cindex name, of column or field
  2135. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2136. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2137. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2138. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2139. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2140. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2141. line like
  2142. @example
  2143. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2144. @end example
  2145. @noindent
  2146. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2147. @pindex constants.el
  2148. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2149. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2150. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2151. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2152. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2153. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2154. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2155. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2156. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2157. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2158. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2159. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2160. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2161. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2162. numbers.
  2163. @subsubheading Remote references
  2164. @cindex remote references
  2165. @cindex references, remote
  2166. @cindex references, to a different table
  2167. @cindex name, of column or field
  2168. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2169. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2170. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2171. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2172. @example
  2173. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2174. @end example
  2175. @noindent
  2176. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2177. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2178. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2179. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2180. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2181. referenced table.
  2182. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2183. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2184. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2185. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2186. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2187. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2188. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2189. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2190. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2191. Your Programs,calc-eval,Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs,Calc,GNU
  2192. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2193. @c FIXME: The link to the Calc manual in HTML does not work.
  2194. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2195. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2196. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2197. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2198. @cindex format specifier
  2199. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2200. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2201. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2202. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2203. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2204. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2205. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2206. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2207. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2208. @example
  2209. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2210. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2211. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2212. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2213. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2214. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2215. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2216. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  2217. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  2218. L @r{literal}
  2219. @end example
  2220. @noindent
  2221. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2222. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2223. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2224. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2225. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2226. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2227. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2228. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2229. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2230. A few examples:
  2231. @example
  2232. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2233. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2234. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2235. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2236. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2237. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2238. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2239. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2240. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  2241. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2242. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2243. @end example
  2244. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2245. @example
  2246. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{"teen" if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  2247. @end example
  2248. Note that you can also use two org-specific flags @code{T} and @code{t} for
  2249. durations computations @ref{Durations and time values}.
  2250. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2251. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2252. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2253. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful for
  2254. string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is not
  2255. enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening
  2256. parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should
  2257. return either a string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you
  2258. can specify modes and a printf format after a semicolon. With Emacs Lisp
  2259. forms, you need to be conscious about the way field references are
  2260. interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be interpolated as
  2261. a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If you provide the
  2262. @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers (non-number
  2263. fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If
  2264. you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally,
  2265. without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string
  2266. by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes,
  2267. like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  2268. embed them in list or vector syntax. Here are a few examples---note how the
  2269. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp:
  2270. @example
  2271. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2272. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2273. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2274. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2275. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2276. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2277. @end example
  2278. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2279. @subsection Durations and time values
  2280. @cindex Duration, computing
  2281. @cindex Time, computing
  2282. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2283. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2284. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2285. @example
  2286. @group
  2287. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2288. |---------+----------+----------|
  2289. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2290. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2291. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2292. @end group
  2293. @end example
  2294. Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2295. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2296. as @code{[HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2297. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the variable
  2298. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2299. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2300. example above).
  2301. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2302. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2303. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2304. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2305. @cindex field formula
  2306. @cindex range formula
  2307. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2308. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2309. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2310. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2311. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2312. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2313. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2314. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2315. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2316. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2317. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2318. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2319. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2320. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2321. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2322. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2323. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2324. of cause not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2325. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2326. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2327. command
  2328. @table @kbd
  2329. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2330. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2331. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2332. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2333. @end table
  2334. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2335. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2336. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2337. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2338. directly.
  2339. @table @code
  2340. @item $2=
  2341. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2342. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2343. @item @@3=
  2344. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2345. the last row.
  2346. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2347. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2348. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2349. @item $name=
  2350. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2351. @end table
  2352. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2353. @subsection Column formulas
  2354. @cindex column formula
  2355. @cindex formula, for table column
  2356. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2357. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2358. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2359. hlines, everything before the first such line is considered part of the table
  2360. @emph{header} and will not be modified by column formulas. (ii) Fields that
  2361. already get a value from a field/range formula will be left alone by column
  2362. formulas. These conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2363. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2364. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2365. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2366. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2367. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2368. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2369. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2370. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2371. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2372. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2373. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2374. following command:
  2375. @table @kbd
  2376. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2377. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2378. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2379. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2380. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g.@: @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2381. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2382. @end table
  2383. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2384. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2385. @cindex formula editing
  2386. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2387. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2388. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2389. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2390. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2391. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2392. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2393. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2394. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2395. @table @kbd
  2396. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2397. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2398. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2399. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2400. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2401. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2402. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2403. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2404. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2405. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2406. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2407. @kindex C-c @}
  2408. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2409. @item C-c @}
  2410. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2411. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2412. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2413. @kindex C-c @{
  2414. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2415. @item C-c @{
  2416. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2417. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2418. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2419. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2420. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2421. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2422. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2423. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2424. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2425. @table @kbd
  2426. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2427. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2428. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2429. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2430. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2431. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2432. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2433. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2434. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2435. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2436. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2437. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2438. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2439. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2440. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2441. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2442. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2443. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2444. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2445. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2446. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2447. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2448. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2449. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2450. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2451. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2452. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2453. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2454. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2455. down.
  2456. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2457. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2458. @kindex C-c @}
  2459. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2460. @item C-c @}
  2461. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2462. @end table
  2463. @end table
  2464. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2465. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2466. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2467. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2468. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2469. @kindex C-c C-c
  2470. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2471. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2472. recalculation commands in the table.
  2473. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2474. @cindex formula debugging
  2475. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2476. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2477. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2478. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2479. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2480. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2481. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2482. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2483. @subsection Updating the table
  2484. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2485. @cindex updating, table
  2486. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2487. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2488. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2489. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2490. following commands:
  2491. @table @kbd
  2492. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2493. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2494. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2495. @c
  2496. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2497. @item C-u C-c *
  2498. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2499. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2500. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2501. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2502. @c
  2503. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2504. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2505. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2506. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2507. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2508. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2509. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2510. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2511. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2512. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2513. dependencies.
  2514. @end table
  2515. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2516. @subsection Advanced features
  2517. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2518. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2519. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2520. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2521. special marking characters.
  2522. @table @kbd
  2523. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2524. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2525. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2526. change all marks in the region.
  2527. @end table
  2528. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2529. makes use of these features:
  2530. @example
  2531. @group
  2532. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2533. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2534. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2535. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2536. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2537. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2538. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2539. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2540. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2541. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2542. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2543. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2544. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2545. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2546. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2547. @end group
  2548. @end example
  2549. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2550. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2551. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2552. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2553. empty first field.
  2554. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2555. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2556. @table @samp
  2557. @item !
  2558. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2559. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2560. @item ^
  2561. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2562. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2563. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2564. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2565. @item _
  2566. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2567. @emph{below}.
  2568. @item $
  2569. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2570. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2571. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2572. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2573. a per-table basis.
  2574. @item #
  2575. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2576. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2577. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2578. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2579. @item *
  2580. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2581. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2582. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2583. @item
  2584. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2585. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2586. or @samp{*}.
  2587. @item /
  2588. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2589. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2590. @end table
  2591. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2592. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2593. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2594. functions.
  2595. @example
  2596. @group
  2597. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2598. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2599. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2600. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2601. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2602. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2603. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2604. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2605. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2606. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2607. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2608. @end group
  2609. @end example
  2610. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2611. @section Org-Plot
  2612. @cindex graph, in tables
  2613. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2614. @cindex #+PLOT
  2615. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2616. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2617. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2618. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2619. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2620. @example
  2621. @group
  2622. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2623. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2624. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2625. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2626. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2627. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2628. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2629. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2630. @end group
  2631. @end example
  2632. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2633. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2634. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2635. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2636. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2637. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2638. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2639. @table @code
  2640. @item set
  2641. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2642. @item title
  2643. Specify the title of the plot.
  2644. @item ind
  2645. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2646. @item deps
  2647. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2648. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2649. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2650. column).
  2651. @item type
  2652. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2653. @item with
  2654. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2655. (e.g.@: @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2656. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2657. @item file
  2658. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2659. @item labels
  2660. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2661. if they exist).
  2662. @item line
  2663. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2664. @item map
  2665. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2666. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2667. @item timefmt
  2668. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2669. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2670. @item script
  2671. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2672. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2673. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2674. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2675. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2676. the data file.
  2677. @end table
  2678. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2679. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2680. @cindex hyperlinks
  2681. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2682. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2683. @menu
  2684. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2685. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2686. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2687. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2688. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2689. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2690. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2691. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2692. @end menu
  2693. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2694. @section Link format
  2695. @cindex link format
  2696. @cindex format, of links
  2697. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2698. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2699. @example
  2700. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2701. @end example
  2702. @noindent
  2703. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2704. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2705. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2706. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2707. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2708. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2709. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2710. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2711. cursor on the link.
  2712. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2713. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2714. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2715. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2716. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2717. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2718. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2719. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2720. @section Internal links
  2721. @cindex internal links
  2722. @cindex links, internal
  2723. @cindex targets, for links
  2724. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2725. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2726. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2727. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2728. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2729. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2730. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2731. in a file.
  2732. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2733. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2734. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2735. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2736. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2737. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2738. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2739. comment line. For example
  2740. @example
  2741. # <<My Target>>
  2742. @end example
  2743. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2744. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2745. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2746. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2747. first headline.}.
  2748. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2749. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2750. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2751. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2752. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2753. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2754. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2755. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2756. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2757. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2758. earlier.
  2759. @menu
  2760. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2761. @end menu
  2762. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2763. @subsection Radio targets
  2764. @cindex radio targets
  2765. @cindex targets, radio
  2766. @cindex links, radio targets
  2767. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2768. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2769. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2770. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2771. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2772. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2773. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2774. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2775. cursor on or at a target.
  2776. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2777. @section External links
  2778. @cindex links, external
  2779. @cindex external links
  2780. @cindex links, external
  2781. @cindex Gnus links
  2782. @cindex BBDB links
  2783. @cindex IRC links
  2784. @cindex URL links
  2785. @cindex file links
  2786. @cindex VM links
  2787. @cindex RMAIL links
  2788. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2789. @cindex MH-E links
  2790. @cindex USENET links
  2791. @cindex SHELL links
  2792. @cindex Info links
  2793. @cindex Elisp links
  2794. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2795. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2796. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2797. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2798. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2799. @example
  2800. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2801. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2802. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2803. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2804. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2805. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2806. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2807. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2808. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  2809. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2810. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  2811. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  2812. the variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  2813. is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  2814. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  2815. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  2816. will be queried to create it.}
  2817. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2818. file+sys:/path/to/file @r{open via OS, like double-click}
  2819. file+emacs:/path/to/file @r{force opening by Emacs}
  2820. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  2821. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2822. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2823. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2824. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2825. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2826. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2827. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  2828. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  2829. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2830. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2831. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2832. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2833. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2834. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2835. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2836. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2837. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2838. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2839. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  2840. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2841. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2842. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2843. @end example
  2844. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2845. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2846. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2847. format}), for example:
  2848. @example
  2849. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2850. @end example
  2851. @noindent
  2852. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2853. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2854. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2855. image,
  2856. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2857. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2858. @cindex plain text external links
  2859. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2860. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2861. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2862. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2863. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2864. @section Handling links
  2865. @cindex links, handling
  2866. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2867. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2868. @table @kbd
  2869. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2870. @cindex storing links
  2871. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2872. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2873. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2874. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2875. buffer:
  2876. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  2877. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2878. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2879. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  2880. removed from the link and result in a wrong link -- you should avoid putting
  2881. timestamp in the headline.}.
  2882. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2883. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2884. @cindex property, ID
  2885. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2886. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2887. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2888. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2889. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2890. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2891. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2892. to use.
  2893. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2894. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2895. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2896. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2897. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2898. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2899. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2900. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2901. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2902. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2903. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2904. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2905. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2906. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2907. @b{Other files}@*
  2908. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2909. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2910. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2911. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2912. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2913. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2914. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2915. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2916. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2917. entry referenced by the current line.
  2918. @c
  2919. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  2920. @cindex link completion
  2921. @cindex completion, of links
  2922. @cindex inserting links
  2923. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2924. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2925. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2926. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2927. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2928. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2929. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2930. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2931. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2932. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2933. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2934. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2935. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2936. becomes the default description.
  2937. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2938. All links stored during the
  2939. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2940. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2941. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2942. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2943. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2944. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2945. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2946. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2947. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2948. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2949. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2950. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  2951. @cindex file name completion
  2952. @cindex completion, of file names
  2953. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2954. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2955. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2956. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2957. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2958. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2959. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2960. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2961. @c
  2962. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2963. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2964. link and description parts of the link.
  2965. @c
  2966. @cindex following links
  2967. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  2968. @vindex org-file-apps
  2969. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  2970. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2971. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2972. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2973. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2974. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2975. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2976. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2977. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2978. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  2979. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  2980. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  2981. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  2982. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  2983. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  2984. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  2985. @orgkey @key{RET}
  2986. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  2987. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  2988. the link at point.
  2989. @c
  2990. @kindex mouse-2
  2991. @kindex mouse-1
  2992. @item mouse-2
  2993. @itemx mouse-1
  2994. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  2995. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  2996. @c
  2997. @kindex mouse-3
  2998. @item mouse-3
  2999. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3000. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3001. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3002. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3003. @c
  3004. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3005. @cindex inlining images
  3006. @cindex images, inlining
  3007. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3008. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3009. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3010. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3011. images that have no description part in the link, i.e.@: images that will also
  3012. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3013. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3014. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3015. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3016. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  3017. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3018. @cindex mark ring
  3019. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3020. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3021. @c
  3022. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3023. @cindex links, returning to
  3024. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3025. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3026. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3027. previously recorded positions.
  3028. @c
  3029. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3030. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3031. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3032. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3033. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3034. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3035. @lisp
  3036. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3037. (lambda ()
  3038. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3039. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3040. @end lisp
  3041. @end table
  3042. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  3043. @section Using links outside Org
  3044. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3045. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3046. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3047. yourself):
  3048. @lisp
  3049. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3050. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3051. @end lisp
  3052. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  3053. @section Link abbreviations
  3054. @cindex link abbreviations
  3055. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3056. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3057. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3058. abbreviated link looks like this
  3059. @example
  3060. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3061. @end example
  3062. @noindent
  3063. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3064. where the tag is optional.
  3065. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3066. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3067. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3068. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3069. @smalllisp
  3070. @group
  3071. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3072. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3073. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3074. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3075. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3076. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3077. @end group
  3078. @end smalllisp
  3079. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3080. replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
  3081. in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will
  3082. be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3083. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3084. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3085. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3086. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3087. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3088. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3089. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3090. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3091. can define them in the file with
  3092. @cindex #+LINK
  3093. @example
  3094. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3095. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3096. @end example
  3097. @noindent
  3098. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3099. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3100. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g.@: completion)
  3101. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3102. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3103. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3104. @section Search options in file links
  3105. @cindex search option in file links
  3106. @cindex file links, searching
  3107. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3108. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3109. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3110. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3111. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3112. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3113. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3114. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3115. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3116. link, together with an explanation:
  3117. @example
  3118. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3119. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3120. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3121. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3122. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3123. @end example
  3124. @table @code
  3125. @item 255
  3126. Jump to line 255.
  3127. @item My Target
  3128. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3129. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3130. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3131. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3132. the linked file.
  3133. @item *My Target
  3134. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3135. @item #my-custom-id
  3136. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3137. @item /regexp/
  3138. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3139. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3140. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3141. sparse tree with the matches.
  3142. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3143. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3144. @end table
  3145. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3146. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3147. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3148. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3149. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3150. @section Custom Searches
  3151. @cindex custom search strings
  3152. @cindex search strings, custom
  3153. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3154. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3155. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3156. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3157. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3158. citation key.
  3159. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3160. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3161. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3162. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3163. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3164. to be added to the hook variables
  3165. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3166. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3167. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3168. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3169. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3170. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3171. @chapter TODO items
  3172. @cindex TODO items
  3173. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3174. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3175. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3176. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3177. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3178. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3179. item emerged is always present.
  3180. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3181. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3182. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3183. @menu
  3184. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3185. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3186. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3187. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3188. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3189. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3190. @end menu
  3191. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3192. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3193. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3194. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3195. @example
  3196. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3197. @end example
  3198. @noindent
  3199. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3200. @table @kbd
  3201. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3202. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3203. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3204. @example
  3205. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3206. '--------------------------------'
  3207. @end example
  3208. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3209. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3210. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3211. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  3212. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  3213. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  3214. more information.
  3215. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3216. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3217. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3218. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3219. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3220. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3221. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3222. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3223. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3224. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-key}
  3225. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3226. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3227. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3228. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3229. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3230. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3231. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3232. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3233. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3234. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3235. both un-done and done.
  3236. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3237. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3238. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3239. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3240. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3241. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3242. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3243. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3244. @end table
  3245. @noindent
  3246. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3247. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3248. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3249. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3250. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3251. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3252. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3253. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3254. DONE. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3255. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3256. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3257. files.
  3258. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3259. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3260. @menu
  3261. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3262. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3263. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3264. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3265. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3266. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3267. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3268. @end menu
  3269. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3270. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3271. @cindex TODO workflow
  3272. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3273. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3274. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3275. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3276. buffer.}:
  3277. @lisp
  3278. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3279. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3280. @end lisp
  3281. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3282. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3283. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3284. state.
  3285. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3286. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3287. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  3288. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3289. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  3290. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3291. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3292. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3293. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3294. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3295. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3296. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3297. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3298. @cindex TODO types
  3299. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3300. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3301. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3302. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3303. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3304. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3305. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3306. be set up like this:
  3307. @lisp
  3308. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3309. @end lisp
  3310. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3311. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3312. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org mode supports this style by adapting
  3313. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3314. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3315. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3316. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3317. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3318. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3319. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3320. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3321. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3322. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3323. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3324. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3325. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3326. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3327. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3328. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3329. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3330. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3331. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3332. like this:
  3333. @lisp
  3334. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3335. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3336. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3337. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3338. @end lisp
  3339. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3340. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3341. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3342. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3343. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3344. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3345. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3346. @table @kbd
  3347. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3348. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3349. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3350. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3351. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3352. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3353. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3354. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3355. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3356. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3357. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3358. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3359. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3360. @item S-@key{right}
  3361. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3362. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3363. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3364. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3365. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3366. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3367. @end table
  3368. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3369. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3370. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3371. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3372. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section
  3373. key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3374. @lisp
  3375. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3376. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3377. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3378. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3379. @end lisp
  3380. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3381. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3382. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3383. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3384. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3385. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3386. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3387. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3388. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3389. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3390. @cindex keyword options
  3391. @cindex per-file keywords
  3392. @cindex #+TODO
  3393. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3394. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3395. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3396. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3397. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3398. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3399. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3400. file:
  3401. @example
  3402. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3403. @end example
  3404. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3405. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3406. @example
  3407. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3408. @end example
  3409. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3410. @example
  3411. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3412. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3413. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3414. @end example
  3415. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3416. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3417. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3418. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3419. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3420. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3421. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3422. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3423. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3424. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3425. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3426. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3427. for the current buffer.}.
  3428. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3429. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3430. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3431. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3432. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3433. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3434. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3435. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3436. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3437. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3438. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3439. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3440. @lisp
  3441. @group
  3442. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3443. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3444. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3445. @end group
  3446. @end lisp
  3447. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3448. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3449. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3450. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3451. foreground or a background color.
  3452. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3453. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3454. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3455. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3456. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3457. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3458. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3459. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3460. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3461. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3462. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3463. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3464. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3465. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3466. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3467. example:
  3468. @example
  3469. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3470. ** DONE one
  3471. ** TODO two
  3472. * Parent
  3473. :PROPERTIES:
  3474. :ORDERED: t
  3475. :END:
  3476. ** TODO a
  3477. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3478. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3479. @end example
  3480. @table @kbd
  3481. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3482. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3483. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3484. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3485. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3486. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3487. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3488. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3489. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3490. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3491. @end table
  3492. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3493. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3494. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3495. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3496. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3497. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3498. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3499. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3500. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3501. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3502. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3503. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3504. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3505. @page
  3506. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3507. @section Progress logging
  3508. @cindex progress logging
  3509. @cindex logging, of progress
  3510. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3511. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3512. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3513. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3514. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3515. work time}.
  3516. @menu
  3517. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3518. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3519. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3520. @end menu
  3521. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3522. @subsection Closing items
  3523. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3524. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3525. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3526. @lisp
  3527. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3528. @end lisp
  3529. @noindent
  3530. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3531. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3532. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3533. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3534. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3535. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3536. @lisp
  3537. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3538. @end lisp
  3539. @noindent
  3540. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3541. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3542. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3543. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3544. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3545. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3546. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3547. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3548. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3549. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3550. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3551. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3552. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3553. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3554. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3555. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3556. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3557. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3558. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3559. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the
  3560. recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3561. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3562. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3563. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3564. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3565. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3566. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3567. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3568. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3569. setting
  3570. @lisp
  3571. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3572. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3573. @end lisp
  3574. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3575. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3576. @noindent
  3577. @vindex org-log-done
  3578. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3579. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3580. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3581. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3582. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3583. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3584. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3585. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3586. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3587. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3588. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3589. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3590. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3591. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3592. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3593. configured.
  3594. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3595. to a buffer:
  3596. @example
  3597. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3598. @end example
  3599. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3600. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3601. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3602. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3603. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3604. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3605. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3606. @example
  3607. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3608. :PROPERTIES:
  3609. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3610. :END:
  3611. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3612. :PROPERTIES:
  3613. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3614. :END:
  3615. * TODO No logging at all
  3616. :PROPERTIES:
  3617. :LOGGING: nil
  3618. :END:
  3619. @end example
  3620. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3621. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3622. @cindex habits
  3623. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3624. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3625. @enumerate
  3626. @item
  3627. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3628. @code{org-modules}.
  3629. @item
  3630. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3631. @item
  3632. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3633. @item
  3634. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3635. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3636. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3637. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3638. @item
  3639. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3640. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3641. three days, but at most every two days.
  3642. @item
  3643. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3644. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it is not
  3645. enabled it is not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3646. meaningless.
  3647. @end enumerate
  3648. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3649. actual habit with some history:
  3650. @example
  3651. ** TODO Shave
  3652. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3653. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3654. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3655. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3656. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3657. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3658. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3659. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3660. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3661. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3662. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3663. :PROPERTIES:
  3664. :STYLE: habit
  3665. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3666. :END:
  3667. @end example
  3668. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3669. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3670. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3671. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3672. after four days have elapsed.
  3673. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3674. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3675. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3676. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3677. @table @code
  3678. @item Blue
  3679. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3680. @item Green
  3681. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3682. @item Yellow
  3683. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3684. @item Red
  3685. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3686. @end table
  3687. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3688. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3689. the current day falls in the graph.
  3690. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3691. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3692. @table @code
  3693. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3694. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3695. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3696. titles brief and to the point.
  3697. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3698. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3699. @item org-habit-following-days
  3700. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3701. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3702. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3703. default.
  3704. @end table
  3705. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3706. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3707. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3708. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3709. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3710. @section Priorities
  3711. @cindex priorities
  3712. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3713. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3714. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3715. @example
  3716. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3717. @end example
  3718. @noindent
  3719. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3720. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3721. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3722. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3723. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3724. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3725. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3726. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3727. items.
  3728. @table @kbd
  3729. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3730. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3731. @findex org-priority
  3732. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3733. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3734. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3735. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3736. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3737. @c
  3738. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3739. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3740. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3741. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3742. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3743. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3744. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3745. @end table
  3746. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3747. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3748. @vindex org-default-priority
  3749. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3750. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3751. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3752. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3753. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3754. priority):
  3755. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3756. @example
  3757. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3758. @end example
  3759. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3760. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3761. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3762. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3763. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3764. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3765. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3766. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3767. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3768. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3769. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3770. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3771. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3772. @example
  3773. * Organize Party [33%]
  3774. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3775. *** TODO Peter
  3776. *** DONE Sarah
  3777. ** TODO Buy food
  3778. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3779. @end example
  3780. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3781. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3782. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3783. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3784. this issue.
  3785. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3786. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3787. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3788. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3789. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3790. property.
  3791. @example
  3792. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3793. :PROPERTIES:
  3794. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3795. :END:
  3796. @end example
  3797. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3798. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3799. @example
  3800. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3801. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3802. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3803. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3804. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3805. @end example
  3806. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3807. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3808. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3809. @section Checkboxes
  3810. @cindex checkboxes
  3811. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3812. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3813. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3814. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3815. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3816. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3817. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3818. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3819. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3820. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3821. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3822. @example
  3823. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3824. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3825. - [ ] Peter
  3826. - [X] Sarah
  3827. - [ ] Sam
  3828. - [X] order food
  3829. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3830. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3831. @end example
  3832. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3833. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3834. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3835. checked.
  3836. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3837. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3838. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3839. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3840. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3841. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3842. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3843. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3844. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3845. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3846. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3847. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3848. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3849. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3850. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3851. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3852. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3853. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3854. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3855. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3856. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3857. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3858. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3859. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3860. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3861. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3862. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3863. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3864. @table @kbd
  3865. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3866. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
  3867. With a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  3868. one@footnote{`C-u C-c C-c' on the @emph{first} item of a list with no checkbox
  3869. will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is
  3870. considered to be an intermediate state.
  3871. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3872. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3873. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3874. intermediate state.
  3875. @itemize @minus
  3876. @item
  3877. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3878. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3879. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3880. @item
  3881. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3882. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3883. @item
  3884. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3885. @end itemize
  3886. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3887. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  3888. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3889. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3890. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3891. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3892. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3893. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3894. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3895. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3896. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3897. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3898. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  3899. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3900. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3901. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3902. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3903. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3904. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  3905. @end table
  3906. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3907. @chapter Tags
  3908. @cindex tags
  3909. @cindex headline tagging
  3910. @cindex matching, tags
  3911. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3912. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3913. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  3914. support for tags.
  3915. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3916. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3917. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3918. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3919. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3920. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3921. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3922. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3923. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3924. @menu
  3925. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3926. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3927. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3928. @end menu
  3929. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3930. @section Tag inheritance
  3931. @cindex tag inheritance
  3932. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3933. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3934. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3935. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3936. well. For example, in the list
  3937. @example
  3938. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3939. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3940. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3941. @end example
  3942. @noindent
  3943. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3944. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3945. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3946. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3947. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3948. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3949. changes in the line.}:
  3950. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3951. @example
  3952. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3953. @end example
  3954. @noindent
  3955. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3956. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3957. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  3958. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  3959. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3960. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3961. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3962. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3963. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3964. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3965. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3966. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3967. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  3968. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  3969. @section Setting tags
  3970. @cindex setting tags
  3971. @cindex tags, setting
  3972. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3973. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  3974. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  3975. also a special command for inserting tags:
  3976. @table @kbd
  3977. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  3978. @cindex completion, of tags
  3979. @vindex org-tags-column
  3980. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  3981. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  3982. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  3983. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  3984. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  3985. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  3986. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  3987. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  3988. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  3989. @end table
  3990. @vindex org-tag-alist
  3991. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  3992. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  3993. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  3994. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  3995. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  3996. @cindex #+TAGS
  3997. @example
  3998. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  3999. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4000. @end example
  4001. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4002. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4003. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4004. @example
  4005. #+TAGS:
  4006. @end example
  4007. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4008. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4009. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4010. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4011. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4012. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4013. @example
  4014. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4015. @end example
  4016. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4017. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4018. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4019. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4020. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  4021. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  4022. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  4023. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4024. like:
  4025. @lisp
  4026. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4027. @end lisp
  4028. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4029. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4030. @example
  4031. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4032. @end example
  4033. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4034. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4035. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4036. @example
  4037. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4038. @end example
  4039. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4040. @example
  4041. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4042. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4043. @end example
  4044. @noindent
  4045. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4046. braces, as in:
  4047. @example
  4048. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4049. @end example
  4050. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4051. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4052. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4053. these lines to activate any changes.
  4054. @noindent
  4055. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  4056. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4057. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4058. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4059. configuration:
  4060. @lisp
  4061. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4062. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4063. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4064. (:endgroup . nil)
  4065. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4066. @end lisp
  4067. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4068. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4069. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4070. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4071. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4072. keys:
  4073. @table @kbd
  4074. @item a-z...
  4075. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4076. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4077. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4078. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4079. @item @key{TAB}
  4080. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4081. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4082. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4083. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4084. @item @key{SPC}
  4085. Clear all tags for this line.
  4086. @kindex @key{RET}
  4087. @item @key{RET}
  4088. Accept the modified set.
  4089. @item C-g
  4090. Abort without installing changes.
  4091. @item q
  4092. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4093. @item !
  4094. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4095. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4096. @item C-c
  4097. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4098. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4099. selection window.
  4100. @end table
  4101. @noindent
  4102. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4103. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4104. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4105. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4106. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4107. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4108. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4109. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4110. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4111. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4112. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  4113. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  4114. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  4115. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  4116. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  4117. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  4118. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  4119. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  4120. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4121. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4122. @section Tag searches
  4123. @cindex tag searches
  4124. @cindex searching for tags
  4125. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4126. information into special lists.
  4127. @table @kbd
  4128. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4129. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4130. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4131. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4132. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4133. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4134. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4135. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4136. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4137. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4138. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4139. @end table
  4140. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4141. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4142. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4143. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4144. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4145. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4146. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4147. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4148. @chapter Properties and columns
  4149. @cindex properties
  4150. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4151. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4152. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4153. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4154. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4155. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4156. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4157. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4158. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4159. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4160. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4161. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4162. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4163. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4164. @menu
  4165. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4166. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4167. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4168. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4169. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4170. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4171. @end menu
  4172. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4173. @section Property syntax
  4174. @cindex property syntax
  4175. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4176. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4177. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special
  4178. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4179. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4180. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4181. @example
  4182. * CD collection
  4183. ** Classic
  4184. *** Goldberg Variations
  4185. :PROPERTIES:
  4186. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4187. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4188. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4189. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4190. :NDisks: 1
  4191. :END:
  4192. @end example
  4193. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4194. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the sub-tree
  4195. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4196. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4197. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4198. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4199. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4200. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4201. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4202. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4203. @example
  4204. * CD collection
  4205. :PROPERTIES:
  4206. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4207. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4208. :END:
  4209. @end example
  4210. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4211. file, use a line like
  4212. @cindex property, _ALL
  4213. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4214. @example
  4215. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4216. @end example
  4217. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4218. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4219. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4220. @cindex property, +
  4221. @example
  4222. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4223. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4224. @end example
  4225. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4226. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4227. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4228. @cindex property, +
  4229. @example
  4230. * CD collection
  4231. ** Classic
  4232. :PROPERTIES:
  4233. :GENRES: Classic
  4234. :END:
  4235. *** Goldberg Variations
  4236. :PROPERTIES:
  4237. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4238. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4239. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4240. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4241. :NDisks: 1
  4242. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4243. :END:
  4244. @end example
  4245. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4246. @vindex org-global-properties
  4247. Property values set with the global variable
  4248. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4249. Org files.
  4250. @noindent
  4251. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4252. @table @kbd
  4253. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4254. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4255. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4256. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4257. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4258. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4259. @item M-x org-insert-property-drawer
  4260. @findex org-insert-property-drawer
  4261. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4262. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4263. information like deadlines.
  4264. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4265. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4266. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4267. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4268. can be inserted using completion.
  4269. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4270. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4271. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4272. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4273. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4274. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4275. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4276. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4277. nearest column format definition.
  4278. @end table
  4279. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4280. @section Special properties
  4281. @cindex properties, special
  4282. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4283. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4284. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4285. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4286. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4287. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4288. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4289. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4290. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4291. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4292. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4293. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4294. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4295. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4296. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4297. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4298. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4299. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4300. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4301. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4302. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4303. @example
  4304. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4305. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4306. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4307. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4308. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4309. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4310. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4311. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4312. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4313. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4314. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4315. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4316. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4317. ITEM @r{The content of the entry.}
  4318. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4319. @end example
  4320. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4321. @section Property searches
  4322. @cindex properties, searching
  4323. @cindex searching, of properties
  4324. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4325. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4326. @table @kbd
  4327. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4328. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4329. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4330. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4331. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4332. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4333. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4334. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4335. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4336. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4337. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4338. @end table
  4339. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4340. properties}.
  4341. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4342. single property:
  4343. @table @kbd
  4344. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4345. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4346. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4347. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4348. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4349. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4350. @end table
  4351. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4352. @section Property Inheritance
  4353. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4354. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4355. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4356. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4357. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4358. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4359. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4360. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4361. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4362. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4363. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4364. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4365. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4366. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4367. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4368. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4369. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4370. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4371. @table @code
  4372. @item COLUMNS
  4373. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4374. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4375. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4376. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4377. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4378. @item CATEGORY
  4379. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4380. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4381. applies to the entire subtree.
  4382. @item ARCHIVE
  4383. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4384. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4385. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4386. @item LOGGING
  4387. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4388. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4389. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4390. @end table
  4391. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4392. @section Column view
  4393. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4394. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4395. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4396. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4397. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4398. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4399. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4400. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4401. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4402. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4403. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4404. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4405. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4406. @menu
  4407. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4408. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4409. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4410. @end menu
  4411. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4412. @subsection Defining columns
  4413. @cindex column view, for properties
  4414. @cindex properties, column view
  4415. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4416. done by defining a column format line.
  4417. @menu
  4418. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4419. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4420. @end menu
  4421. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4422. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4423. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4424. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4425. @example
  4426. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4427. @end example
  4428. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4429. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4430. @example
  4431. ** Top node for columns view
  4432. :PROPERTIES:
  4433. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4434. :END:
  4435. @end example
  4436. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4437. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4438. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4439. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4440. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4441. deeper part of the tree.
  4442. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4443. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4444. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4445. definition looks like this:
  4446. @example
  4447. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4448. @end example
  4449. @noindent
  4450. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4451. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4452. @example
  4453. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4454. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4455. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4456. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4457. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4458. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4459. @r{name is used.}
  4460. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4461. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4462. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4463. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4464. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4465. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4466. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4467. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4468. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4469. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4470. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4471. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4472. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4473. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4474. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4475. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4476. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4477. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4478. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4479. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4480. @end example
  4481. @noindent
  4482. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4483. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4484. same summary information.
  4485. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4486. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4487. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4488. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4489. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4490. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4491. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4492. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4493. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4494. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4495. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4496. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4497. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4498. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4499. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4500. values.
  4501. @example
  4502. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4503. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4504. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4505. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4506. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4507. @end example
  4508. @noindent
  4509. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4510. item itself, i.e.@: of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4511. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4512. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4513. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4514. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4515. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4516. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4517. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4518. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4519. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4520. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4521. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4522. in the subtree.
  4523. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4524. @subsection Using column view
  4525. @table @kbd
  4526. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4527. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4528. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4529. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4530. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4531. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4532. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4533. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4534. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4535. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4536. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4537. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4538. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4539. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4540. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4541. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4542. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4543. Exit column view.
  4544. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4545. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4546. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4547. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4548. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4549. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4550. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4551. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4552. @item 1..9,0
  4553. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4554. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4555. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4556. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4557. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4558. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4559. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4560. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4561. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4562. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4563. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4564. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4565. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4566. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4567. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4568. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4569. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4570. current column view.
  4571. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4572. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4573. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4574. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4575. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4576. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4577. Delete the current column.
  4578. @end table
  4579. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4580. @subsection Capturing column view
  4581. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4582. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4583. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4584. of this block looks like this:
  4585. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4586. @example
  4587. * The column view
  4588. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4589. #+END:
  4590. @end example
  4591. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4592. @table @code
  4593. @item :id
  4594. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4595. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4596. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4597. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4598. @cindex property, ID
  4599. @example
  4600. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4601. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4602. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4603. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4604. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4605. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4606. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4607. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4608. @end example
  4609. @item :hlines
  4610. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4611. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4612. @item :vlines
  4613. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4614. @item :maxlevel
  4615. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4616. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4617. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4618. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4619. @end table
  4620. @noindent
  4621. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4622. @table @kbd
  4623. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4624. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4625. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4626. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4627. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4628. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4629. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4630. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4631. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4632. blocks in a buffer.
  4633. @end table
  4634. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4635. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4636. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4637. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4638. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4639. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4640. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4641. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4642. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4643. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4644. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4645. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4646. @section The Property API
  4647. @cindex properties, API
  4648. @cindex API, for properties
  4649. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4650. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4651. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4652. property API}.
  4653. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4654. @chapter Dates and times
  4655. @cindex dates
  4656. @cindex times
  4657. @cindex timestamp
  4658. @cindex date stamp
  4659. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4660. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4661. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode. This may be a
  4662. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4663. something was created or last changed. However, in Org mode this term
  4664. is used in a much wider sense.
  4665. @menu
  4666. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4667. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4668. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4669. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4670. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4671. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4672. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4673. @end menu
  4674. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4675. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4676. @cindex timestamps
  4677. @cindex ranges, time
  4678. @cindex date stamps
  4679. @cindex deadlines
  4680. @cindex scheduling
  4681. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4682. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>}@footnote{In this
  4683. simplest form, the day name is optional when you type the date yourself.
  4684. However, any dates inserted or modified by Org will add that day name, for
  4685. reading convenience.} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
  4686. Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601
  4687. date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time
  4688. format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org
  4689. tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the
  4690. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4691. @table @var
  4692. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4693. @cindex timestamp
  4694. @cindex appointment
  4695. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4696. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4697. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4698. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4699. @example
  4700. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4701. * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4702. @end example
  4703. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4704. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4705. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4706. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4707. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4708. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4709. @example
  4710. * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4711. @end example
  4712. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4713. For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the special
  4714. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4715. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  4716. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  4717. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  4718. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  4719. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  4720. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  4721. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org mode users
  4722. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  4723. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  4724. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  4725. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For
  4726. example with optional time
  4727. @example
  4728. * 22:00-23:00 The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4729. <%%(org-float t 4 2)>
  4730. @end example
  4731. @item Time/Date range
  4732. @cindex timerange
  4733. @cindex date range
  4734. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4735. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4736. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4737. @example
  4738. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4739. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4740. @end example
  4741. @item Inactive timestamp
  4742. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4743. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4744. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4745. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4746. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4747. @example
  4748. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4749. @end example
  4750. @end table
  4751. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4752. @section Creating timestamps
  4753. @cindex creating timestamps
  4754. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4755. For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4756. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4757. format.
  4758. @table @kbd
  4759. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4760. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4761. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4762. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4763. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4764. @c
  4765. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4766. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4767. an agenda entry.
  4768. @c
  4769. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4770. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4771. @item C-u C-c .
  4772. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4773. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4774. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4775. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4776. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4777. @c
  4778. @orgkey{C-c C-c}
  4779. Normalize timestamp, insert/fix day name if missing or wrong.
  4780. @c
  4781. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4782. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4783. @c
  4784. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4785. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4786. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4787. instead.
  4788. @c
  4789. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4790. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4791. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4792. @c
  4793. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4794. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4795. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4796. @c
  4797. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4798. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4799. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4800. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4801. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4802. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4803. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4804. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4805. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4806. @c
  4807. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4808. @cindex evaluate time range
  4809. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4810. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4811. the following column).
  4812. @end table
  4813. @menu
  4814. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  4815. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4816. @end menu
  4817. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4818. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4819. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4820. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4821. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4822. When Org mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4823. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4824. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4825. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4826. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4827. copied from an email message. Org mode will find whatever information is in
  4828. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4829. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4830. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4831. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4832. information, Org mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4833. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4834. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4835. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4836. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4837. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4838. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4839. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4840. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org mode are
  4841. in @b{bold}.
  4842. @example
  4843. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4844. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4845. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4846. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4847. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4848. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4849. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4850. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4851. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4852. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4853. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4854. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4855. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4856. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4857. @end example
  4858. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4859. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4860. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4861. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4862. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4863. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4864. the Nth such day, e.g.@:
  4865. @example
  4866. +0 @result{} today
  4867. . @result{} today
  4868. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4869. +4 @result{} same as above
  4870. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4871. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4872. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4873. @end example
  4874. @vindex parse-time-months
  4875. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4876. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4877. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4878. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4879. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  4880. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  4881. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  4882. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  4883. read the docstring of the variable
  4884. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  4885. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4886. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  4887. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  4888. case, e.g.@:
  4889. @example
  4890. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  4891. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  4892. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  4893. @end example
  4894. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4895. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4896. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4897. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4898. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4899. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4900. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4901. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4902. from the minibuffer:
  4903. @kindex <
  4904. @kindex >
  4905. @kindex M-v
  4906. @kindex C-v
  4907. @kindex mouse-1
  4908. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4909. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4910. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4911. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4912. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4913. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4914. @kindex @key{RET}
  4915. @example
  4916. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4917. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4918. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4919. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4920. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4921. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4922. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4923. @end example
  4924. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4925. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4926. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4927. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4928. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4929. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4930. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4931. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4932. @subsection Custom time format
  4933. @cindex custom date/time format
  4934. @cindex time format, custom
  4935. @cindex date format, custom
  4936. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4937. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4938. Org mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4939. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4940. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4941. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4942. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4943. @table @kbd
  4944. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  4945. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4946. @end table
  4947. @noindent
  4948. Org mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  4949. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  4950. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  4951. following consequences:
  4952. @itemize @bullet
  4953. @item
  4954. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  4955. after.
  4956. @item
  4957. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  4958. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  4959. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  4960. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  4961. time will be changed by one minute.
  4962. @item
  4963. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  4964. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  4965. @item
  4966. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  4967. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  4968. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  4969. @item
  4970. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  4971. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  4972. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  4973. @end itemize
  4974. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  4975. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  4976. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  4977. @table @var
  4978. @item DEADLINE
  4979. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  4980. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  4981. to be finished on that date.
  4982. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4983. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  4984. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  4985. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  4986. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  4987. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  4988. @example
  4989. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  4990. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  4991. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  4992. @end example
  4993. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  4994. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  4995. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  4996. @item SCHEDULED
  4997. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  4998. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  4999. date.
  5000. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  5001. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  5002. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  5003. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  5004. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  5005. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.@:
  5006. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  5007. @example
  5008. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  5009. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  5010. @end example
  5011. @noindent
  5012. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org mode should @i{not} be
  5013. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  5014. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  5015. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  5016. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  5017. Org users. In Org mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  5018. want to start working on an action item.
  5019. @end table
  5020. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  5021. entries. Org mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  5022. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  5023. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  5024. @c
  5025. @code{<%%(org-float t 42)>}
  5026. @c
  5027. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org mode does not
  5028. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  5029. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  5030. sexp entry matches.
  5031. @menu
  5032. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  5033. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  5034. @end menu
  5035. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  5036. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  5037. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  5038. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  5039. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  5040. an item:
  5041. @table @kbd
  5042. @c
  5043. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  5044. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  5045. in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be
  5046. removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed
  5047. from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  5048. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  5049. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5050. deadline.
  5051. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  5052. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  5053. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  5054. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  5055. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  5056. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  5057. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  5058. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5059. scheduling time.
  5060. @c
  5061. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  5062. @kindex k a
  5063. @kindex k s
  5064. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  5065. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  5066. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  5067. schedule the marked item.
  5068. @c
  5069. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  5070. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  5071. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5072. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  5073. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  5074. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  5075. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  5076. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  5077. @c
  5078. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  5079. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  5080. @c
  5081. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  5082. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  5083. @end table
  5084. Note that @code{org-schedule} and @code{org-deadline} supports
  5085. setting the date by indicating a relative time: e.g. +1d will set
  5086. the date to the next day after today, and --1w will set the date
  5087. to the previous week before any current timestamp.
  5088. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  5089. @subsection Repeated tasks
  5090. @cindex tasks, repeated
  5091. @cindex repeated tasks
  5092. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org mode helps to
  5093. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  5094. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  5095. @example
  5096. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5097. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  5098. @end example
  5099. @noindent
  5100. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  5101. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  5102. from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in
  5103. a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last:
  5104. @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  5105. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  5106. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  5107. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  5108. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  5109. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  5110. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  5111. repeated entry will not be active. Org mode deals with this in the following
  5112. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  5113. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  5114. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  5115. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  5116. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  5117. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  5118. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  5119. switch the date like this:
  5120. @example
  5121. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5122. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  5123. @end example
  5124. @vindex org-log-repeat
  5125. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  5126. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  5127. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  5128. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  5129. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  5130. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  5131. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  5132. will be visible.
  5133. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  5134. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  5135. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  5136. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  5137. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  5138. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  5139. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  5140. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org mode has
  5141. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  5142. @example
  5143. ** TODO Call Father
  5144. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  5145. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  5146. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  5147. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  5148. and marked it done on Saturday.
  5149. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  5150. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  5151. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  5152. today.
  5153. @end example
  5154. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  5155. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  5156. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  5157. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  5158. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  5159. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  5160. @section Clocking work time
  5161. @cindex clocking time
  5162. @cindex time clocking
  5163. Org mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  5164. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock. When
  5165. you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the clock is
  5166. stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It also computes
  5167. the total time spent on each subtree@footnote{Clocking only works if all
  5168. headings are indented with less than 30 stars. This is a hardcoded
  5169. limitation of `lmax' in `org-clock-sum'.} of a project. And it remembers a
  5170. history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly between a
  5171. number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5172. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5173. @lisp
  5174. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5175. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5176. @end lisp
  5177. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5178. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5179. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5180. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5181. what to do with it.
  5182. @menu
  5183. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5184. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5185. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5186. @end menu
  5187. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5188. @subsection Clocking commands
  5189. @table @kbd
  5190. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5191. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5192. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  5193. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5194. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5195. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5196. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5197. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule
  5198. the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  5199. @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  5200. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5201. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5202. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task.
  5203. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task,
  5204. with letter @kbd{d}.@*
  5205. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5206. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5207. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5208. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5209. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5210. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5211. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5212. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5213. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5214. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5215. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5216. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5217. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5218. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5219. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5220. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5221. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5222. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5223. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5224. @c
  5225. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5226. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5227. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5228. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5229. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5230. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5231. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5232. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5233. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5234. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5235. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5236. @kindex C-c C-y
  5237. @kindex C-c C-c
  5238. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5239. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5240. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5241. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5242. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{up/down},org-clock-timestamps-up/down}
  5243. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease both timestamps at the same
  5244. time so that duration keeps the same.
  5245. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5246. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5247. if it is running in this same item.
  5248. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-cancel}
  5249. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5250. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5251. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5252. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5253. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5254. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5255. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5256. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts
  5257. overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under
  5258. that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility
  5259. cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the
  5260. buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press
  5261. @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5262. @end table
  5263. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5264. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5265. worked on or closed during a day.
  5266. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5267. @subsection The clock table
  5268. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5269. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5270. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5271. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5272. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5273. @table @kbd
  5274. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5275. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5276. report as an Org mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5277. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5278. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5279. update it. The clock table always includes also trees with
  5280. @code{:ARCHIVE:} tag.
  5281. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5282. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5283. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5284. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5285. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5286. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5287. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5288. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5289. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5290. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5291. @end table
  5292. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5293. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5294. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5295. @example
  5296. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5297. #+END: clocktable
  5298. @end example
  5299. @noindent
  5300. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5301. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5302. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5303. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5304. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5305. be selected:
  5306. @example
  5307. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5308. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5309. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5310. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5311. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5312. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5313. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5314. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5315. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5316. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5317. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5318. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5319. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5320. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5321. @r{these formats:}
  5322. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5323. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5324. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5325. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5326. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5327. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5328. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5329. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5330. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5331. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5332. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5333. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5334. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5335. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5336. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5337. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5338. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5339. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5340. @end example
  5341. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5342. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5343. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5344. @example
  5345. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5346. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5347. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5348. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5349. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5350. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5351. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5352. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5353. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5354. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5355. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5356. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5357. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5358. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5359. :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each}
  5360. @r{property will get its own column.}
  5361. :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.}
  5362. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5363. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5364. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5365. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5366. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5367. @end example
  5368. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5369. day, you could write
  5370. @example
  5371. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5372. #+END: clocktable
  5373. @end example
  5374. @noindent
  5375. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5376. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5377. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5378. @example
  5379. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5380. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5381. #+END: clocktable
  5382. @end example
  5383. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5384. @example
  5385. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5386. #+END: clocktable
  5387. @end example
  5388. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5389. would be
  5390. @example
  5391. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5392. #+END: clocktable
  5393. @end example
  5394. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5395. @subsection Resolving idle time
  5396. @cindex resolve idle time
  5397. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5398. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5399. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5400. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5401. applying it to another one.
  5402. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5403. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5404. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5405. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5406. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5407. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5408. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5409. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5410. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5411. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5412. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5413. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5414. @table @kbd
  5415. @item k
  5416. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5417. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5418. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5419. @item K
  5420. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5421. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5422. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5423. @item s
  5424. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5425. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5426. @item S
  5427. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5428. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5429. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5430. @item C
  5431. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5432. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5433. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5434. log with an empty entry.
  5435. @end table
  5436. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5437. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5438. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5439. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5440. the next task you clock in on.
  5441. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5442. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5443. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5444. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5445. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5446. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5447. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5448. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5449. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5450. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due
  5451. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5452. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5453. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5454. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5455. @section Effort estimates
  5456. @cindex effort estimates
  5457. @cindex property, Effort
  5458. @vindex org-effort-property
  5459. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5460. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5461. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5462. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5463. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5464. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5465. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5466. for an entry with the following commands:
  5467. @table @kbd
  5468. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5469. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5470. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5471. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5472. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5473. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5474. @end table
  5475. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5476. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5477. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5478. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5479. buffer you can use
  5480. @example
  5481. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
  5482. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5483. @end example
  5484. @noindent
  5485. @vindex org-global-properties
  5486. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5487. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5488. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5489. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5490. setup may be advised.
  5491. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5492. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5493. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5494. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5495. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5496. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5497. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5498. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5499. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5500. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5501. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5502. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5503. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5504. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5505. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5506. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5507. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5508. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5509. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5510. @cindex relative timer
  5511. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5512. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5513. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5514. @table @kbd
  5515. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5516. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5517. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5518. restarted.
  5519. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5520. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5521. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5522. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5523. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5524. new timer items.
  5525. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5526. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5527. @item C-c C-x ,
  5528. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5529. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5530. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5531. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5532. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5533. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5534. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5535. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5536. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5537. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5538. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5539. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5540. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5541. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5542. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5543. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5544. @end table
  5545. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5546. @section Countdown timer
  5547. @cindex Countdown timer
  5548. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5549. @kindex ;
  5550. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org mode buffer runs a countdown
  5551. timer. Use @kbd{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everywhere else.
  5552. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5553. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5554. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5555. default value.
  5556. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5557. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5558. @cindex capture
  5559. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5560. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5561. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5562. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5563. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5564. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5565. @menu
  5566. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5567. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5568. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5569. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5570. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5571. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5572. @end menu
  5573. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5574. @section Capture
  5575. @cindex capture
  5576. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5577. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5578. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org mode for
  5579. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5580. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5581. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5582. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5583. @example
  5584. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5585. @end example
  5586. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5587. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5588. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5589. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5590. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5591. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5592. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5593. @menu
  5594. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5595. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5596. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5597. @end menu
  5598. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5599. @subsection Setting up capture
  5600. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5601. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5602. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5603. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5604. @example
  5605. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5606. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5607. @end example
  5608. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5609. @subsection Using capture
  5610. @table @kbd
  5611. @orgcmd{C-c c,org-capture}
  5612. Call the command @code{org-capture}. Note that this keybinding is global and
  5613. not active by default - you need to install it. If you have templates
  5614. @cindex date tree
  5615. defined @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for
  5616. selection or use a new Org outline node as the default template. It will
  5617. insert the template into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer
  5618. narrowed to this new node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5619. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-capture-finalize}
  5620. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer, @kbd{C-c
  5621. C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture process,
  5622. so that you can resume your work without further distraction. When called
  5623. with a prefix arg, finalize and then jump to the captured item.
  5624. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-capture-refile}
  5625. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5626. a different place. Please realize that this is a normal refiling command
  5627. that will be executed---so the cursor position at the moment you run this
  5628. command is important. If you have inserted a tree with a parent and
  5629. children, first move the cursor back to the parent. Any prefix argument
  5630. given to this command will be passed on to the @code{org-refile} command.
  5631. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,org-capture-kill}
  5632. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5633. @end table
  5634. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5635. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5636. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5637. rather than to the current date.
  5638. To find the locations of the last stored capture, use @code{org-capture} with
  5639. prefix commands:
  5640. @table @kbd
  5641. @orgkey{C-u C-c c}
  5642. Visit the target location of a capture template. You get to select the
  5643. template in the usual way.
  5644. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-c c}
  5645. Visit the last stored capture item in its buffer.
  5646. @end table
  5647. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5648. @subsection Capture templates
  5649. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5650. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5651. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5652. through the customize interface.
  5653. @table @kbd
  5654. @orgkey{C-c c C}
  5655. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5656. @end table
  5657. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5658. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5659. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5660. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5661. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5662. would look like:
  5663. @example
  5664. (setq org-capture-templates
  5665. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5666. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5667. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5668. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5669. @end example
  5670. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5671. for you like this:
  5672. @example
  5673. * TODO
  5674. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5675. @end example
  5676. @noindent
  5677. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5678. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5679. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5680. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same
  5681. place where you started the capture process.
  5682. To define special keys to capture to a particular template without going
  5683. through the interactive template selection, you can create your key binding
  5684. like this:
  5685. @lisp
  5686. (define-key global-map "\C-cx"
  5687. (lambda () (interactive) (org-capture nil "x")))
  5688. @end lisp
  5689. @menu
  5690. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  5691. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  5692. @end menu
  5693. @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates
  5694. @subsubsection Template elements
  5695. Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in
  5696. @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items:
  5697. @table @var
  5698. @item keys
  5699. The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters
  5700. only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a
  5701. single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using
  5702. several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential
  5703. in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the
  5704. prefix key, for example
  5705. @example
  5706. ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy")
  5707. @end example
  5708. @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will
  5709. be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable.
  5710. @item description
  5711. A short string describing the template, which will be shown during
  5712. selection.
  5713. @item type
  5714. The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are:
  5715. @table @code
  5716. @item entry
  5717. An Org mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the target
  5718. entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org mode file.
  5719. @item item
  5720. A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target
  5721. location. Again the target file should be an Org file.
  5722. @item checkitem
  5723. A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the
  5724. default template.
  5725. @item table-line
  5726. a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the
  5727. line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and
  5728. @code{:table-line-pos} (see below).
  5729. @item plain
  5730. Text to be inserted as it is.
  5731. @end table
  5732. @item target
  5733. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5734. Specification of where the captured item should be placed. In Org mode
  5735. files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become children of this
  5736. node. Other types will be added to the table or list in the body of this
  5737. node. Most target specifications contain a file name. If that file name is
  5738. the empty string, it defaults to @code{org-default-notes-file}. A file can
  5739. also be given as a variable, function, or Emacs Lisp form.
  5740. Valid values are:
  5741. @table @code
  5742. @item (file "path/to/file")
  5743. Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file.
  5744. @item (id "id of existing org entry")
  5745. Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry.
  5746. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline")
  5747. Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file.
  5748. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...)
  5749. For non-unique headings, the full path is safer.
  5750. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location")
  5751. Use a regular expression to position the cursor.
  5752. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file")
  5753. Will create a heading in a date tree for today's date.
  5754. @item (file+datetree+prompt "path/to/file")
  5755. Will create a heading in a date tree, but will prompt for the date.
  5756. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location)
  5757. A function to find the right location in the file.
  5758. @item (clock)
  5759. File to the entry that is currently being clocked.
  5760. @item (function function-finding-location)
  5761. Most general way, write your own function to find both
  5762. file and location.
  5763. @end table
  5764. @item template
  5765. The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an
  5766. appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with
  5767. escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the
  5768. capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file,
  5769. using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for
  5770. more details.
  5771. @item properties
  5772. The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options.
  5773. Recognized properties are:
  5774. @table @code
  5775. @item :prepend
  5776. Normally new captured information will be appended at
  5777. the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...).
  5778. Setting this property will change that.
  5779. @item :immediate-finish
  5780. When set, do not offer to edit the information, just
  5781. file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs
  5782. information that can be added automatically.
  5783. @item :empty-lines
  5784. Set this to the number of lines to insert
  5785. before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1.
  5786. @item :clock-in
  5787. Start the clock in this item.
  5788. @item :clock-keep
  5789. Keep the clock running when filing the captured entry.
  5790. @item :clock-resume
  5791. If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished
  5792. with the capture. Note that @code{:clock-keep} has precedence over
  5793. @code{:clock-resume}. When setting both to @code{t}, the current clock will
  5794. run and the previous one will not be resumed.
  5795. @item :unnarrowed
  5796. Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to
  5797. narrow it so that you only see the new material.
  5798. @item :table-line-pos
  5799. Specification of the location in the table where the new line should be
  5800. inserted. It should be a string like @code{"II-3"} meaning that the new
  5801. line should become the third line before the second horizontal separator
  5802. line.
  5803. @item :kill-buffer
  5804. If the target file was not yet visited when capture was invoked, kill the
  5805. buffer again after capture is completed.
  5806. @end table
  5807. @end table
  5808. @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates
  5809. @subsubsection Template expansion
  5810. In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of
  5811. these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow
  5812. dynamic insertion of content. The templates are expanded in the order given here:
  5813. @smallexample
  5814. %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}.}
  5815. %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result.}
  5816. %<...> @r{the result of format-time-string on the ... format specification.}
  5817. %t @r{timestamp, date only.}
  5818. %T @r{timestamp with date and time.}
  5819. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps.}
  5820. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}.}
  5821. %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the}
  5822. @r{region is active.}
  5823. @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
  5824. %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part.}
  5825. %c @r{Current kill ring head.}
  5826. %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.}
  5827. %k @r{title of the currently clocked task.}
  5828. %K @r{link to the currently clocked task.}
  5829. %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name}).}
  5830. %f @r{file visited by current buffer when org-capture was called.}
  5831. %F @r{full path of the file or directory visited by current buffer.}
  5832. %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below.}
  5833. %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.}
  5834. %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.}
  5835. %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}.}
  5836. @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}.}
  5837. %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.}
  5838. %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.}
  5839. %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}.}
  5840. %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
  5841. @r{You may specify a default value and a completion table with}
  5842. @r{%^@{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...@}.}
  5843. @r{The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history.}
  5844. @end smallexample
  5845. @noindent
  5846. For specific link types, the following keywords will be
  5847. defined@footnote{If you define your own link types (@pxref{Adding
  5848. hyperlink types}), any property you store with
  5849. @code{org-store-link-props} can be accessed in capture templates in a
  5850. similar way.}:
  5851. @vindex org-from-is-user-regexp
  5852. @smallexample
  5853. Link type | Available keywords
  5854. ---------------------------------+----------------------------------------------
  5855. bbdb | %:name %:company
  5856. irc | %:server %:port %:nick
  5857. vm, vm-imap, wl, mh, mew, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id
  5858. | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress
  5859. | %:to %:toname %:toaddress
  5860. | %:date @r{(message date header field)}
  5861. | %:date-timestamp @r{(date as active timestamp)}
  5862. | %:date-timestamp-inactive @r{(date as inactive timestamp)}
  5863. | %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}}
  5864. gnus | %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields}
  5865. w3, w3m | %:url
  5866. info | %:file %:node
  5867. calendar | %:date
  5868. @end smallexample
  5869. @noindent
  5870. To place the cursor after template expansion use:
  5871. @smallexample
  5872. %? @r{After completing the template, position cursor here.}
  5873. @end smallexample
  5874. @node Attachments, RSS Feeds, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5875. @section Attachments
  5876. @cindex attachments
  5877. @vindex org-attach-directory
  5878. It is often useful to associat