org.texi 573 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @set VERSION 6.36trans
  6. @set DATE May 2010
  7. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  8. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  9. @set txicodequoteundirected
  10. @set txicodequotebacktick
  11. @c Version and Contact Info
  12. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  13. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  15. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  16. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c Macro definitions
  20. @iftex
  21. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  22. @end iftex
  23. @macro Ie {}
  24. I.e.,
  25. @end macro
  26. @macro ie {}
  27. i.e.,
  28. @end macro
  29. @macro Eg {}
  30. E.g.,
  31. @end macro
  32. @macro eg {}
  33. e.g.,
  34. @end macro
  35. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  36. @macro tsubheading{text}
  37. @ifinfo
  38. @subsubheading \text\
  39. @end ifinfo
  40. @ifnotinfo
  41. @item @b{\text\}
  42. @end ifnotinfo
  43. @end macro
  44. @copying
  45. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  46. Copyright @copyright{} 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation
  47. @quotation
  48. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  49. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  50. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  51. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  52. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  53. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  54. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  55. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  56. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  57. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  58. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  59. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  60. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  61. @end quotation
  62. @end copying
  63. @dircategory Emacs
  64. @direntry
  65. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  66. @end direntry
  67. @titlepage
  68. @title The Org Manual
  69. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  70. @author by Carsten Dominik
  71. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, and Thomas Dye
  72. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  73. @page
  74. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  75. @insertcopying
  76. @end titlepage
  77. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  78. @contents
  79. @ifnottex
  80. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  81. @top Org Mode Manual
  82. @insertcopying
  83. @end ifnottex
  84. @menu
  85. * Introduction:: Getting started
  86. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  87. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  88. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  89. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  90. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  91. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  92. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  93. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  94. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  95. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  96. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  97. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  98. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  99. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  100. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  101. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  102. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  103. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  104. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  105. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  106. @detailmenu
  107. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  108. Introduction
  109. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  110. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  111. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  112. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  113. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  114. Document structure
  115. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  116. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  117. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  118. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  119. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  120. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  121. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  122. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  123. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  124. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  125. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  126. Tables
  127. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  128. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  129. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  130. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  131. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  132. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  133. The spreadsheet
  134. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  135. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  136. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  137. * Field formulas:: Formulas valid for a single field
  138. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  139. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  140. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  141. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  142. Hyperlinks
  143. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  144. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  145. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  146. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  147. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  148. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  149. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  150. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  151. Internal links
  152. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  153. TODO items
  154. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  155. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  156. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  157. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  158. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  159. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  160. Extended use of TODO keywords
  161. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  162. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  163. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  164. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  165. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  166. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  167. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  168. Progress logging
  169. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  170. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  171. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  172. Tags
  173. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  174. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  175. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  176. Properties and columns
  177. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  178. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  179. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  180. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  181. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  182. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  183. Column view
  184. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  185. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  186. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  187. Defining columns
  188. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  189. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  190. Dates and times
  191. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  192. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  193. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  194. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  195. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time if you've been idle
  196. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  197. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  198. Creating timestamps
  199. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  200. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  201. Deadlines and scheduling
  202. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  203. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  204. Capture - Refile - Archive
  205. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  206. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  207. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  208. * Protocols:: External (e.g. Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  209. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  210. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  211. Capture
  212. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  213. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  214. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  215. Capture templates
  216. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  217. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  218. Archiving
  219. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  220. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  221. Agenda views
  222. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  223. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  224. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  225. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  226. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  227. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  228. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  229. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  230. The built-in agenda views
  231. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  232. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  233. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  234. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  235. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  236. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  237. Presentation and sorting
  238. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  239. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  240. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  241. Custom agenda views
  242. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  243. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  244. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  245. Markup for rich export
  246. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  247. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  248. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  249. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  250. * Index entries:: Making an index
  251. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  252. * Embedded LaTeX:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  253. Structural markup elements
  254. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  255. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  256. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  257. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  258. * Lists:: Lists
  259. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  260. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  261. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  262. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  263. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  264. Embedded La@TeX{}
  265. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  266. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  267. * LaTeX fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  268. * Previewing LaTeX fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  269. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  270. Exporting
  271. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  272. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  273. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  274. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  275. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  276. * LaTeX and PDF export:: Exporting to La@TeX{}, and processing to PDF
  277. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  278. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  279. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  280. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  281. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  282. HTML export
  283. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  284. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org-mode
  285. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  286. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  287. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  288. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  289. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  290. * Javascript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  291. La@TeX{} and PDF export
  292. * LaTeX/PDF export commands:: Which key invokes which commands
  293. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  294. * Quoting LaTeX code:: Incorporating literal La@TeX{} code
  295. * Tables in LaTeX export:: Options for exporting tables to La@TeX{}
  296. * Images in LaTeX export:: How to insert figures into La@TeX{} output
  297. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  298. DocBook export
  299. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  300. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  301. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  302. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  303. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  304. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  305. Publishing
  306. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  307. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  308. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  309. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  310. Configuration
  311. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  312. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  313. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  314. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  315. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML export
  316. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  317. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  318. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  319. Sample configuration
  320. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  321. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  322. Working with source code
  323. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  324. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  325. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  326. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  327. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org-mode buffer
  328. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  329. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  330. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  331. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  332. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org-mode
  333. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  334. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  335. Header arguments
  336. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  337. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  338. Using header arguments
  339. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  340. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  341. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  342. * Header arguments in Org-mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  343. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  344. Specific header arguments
  345. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  346. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will be collected and handled
  347. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  348. * dir:: Specify the default directory for code block execution
  349. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  350. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  351. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb expansion during tangling
  352. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  353. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  354. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  355. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  356. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  357. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  358. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  359. Miscellaneous
  360. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  361. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  362. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  363. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  364. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  365. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  366. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  367. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  368. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  369. Interaction with other packages
  370. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  371. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  372. Hacking
  373. * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals
  374. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  375. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  376. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  377. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for La@TeX{} and other programs
  378. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  379. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  380. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  381. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  382. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  383. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  384. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  385. * A LaTeX example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  386. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  387. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  388. MobileOrg
  389. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  390. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  391. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  392. @end detailmenu
  393. @end menu
  394. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  395. @chapter Introduction
  396. @cindex introduction
  397. @menu
  398. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  399. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  400. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  401. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  402. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  403. @end menu
  404. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  405. @section Summary
  406. @cindex summary
  407. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  408. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  409. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  410. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  411. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  412. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  413. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  414. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  415. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  416. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  417. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  418. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  419. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  420. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  421. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  422. linked web pages.
  423. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  424. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  425. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  426. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows to work with
  427. embedded source code block in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  428. documentation, and tangling.
  429. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  430. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  431. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  432. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in La@TeX{}. The structure
  433. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  434. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  435. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  436. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  437. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  438. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  439. ends, for example:
  440. @example
  441. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  442. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  443. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  444. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  445. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  446. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  447. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and La@TeX{} export}
  448. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  449. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  450. @end example
  451. @cindex FAQ
  452. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  453. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  454. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  455. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  456. @page
  457. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  458. @section Installation
  459. @cindex installation
  460. @cindex XEmacs
  461. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  462. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  463. to @ref{Activation}.}
  464. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  465. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
  466. to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
  467. top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs
  468. binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
  469. directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have
  470. access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
  471. the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
  472. Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  473. @example
  474. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  475. @end example
  476. @noindent
  477. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  478. step for this directory:
  479. @example
  480. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  481. @end example
  482. @sp 2
  483. @cartouche
  484. XEmacs users now need to install the file @file{noutline.el} from
  485. the @file{xemacs} sub-directory of the Org distribution. Use the
  486. command:
  487. @example
  488. make install-noutline
  489. @end example
  490. @end cartouche
  491. @sp 2
  492. @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
  493. @example
  494. make
  495. @end example
  496. @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
  497. all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
  498. administrator)
  499. @example
  500. make install
  501. @end example
  502. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  503. @file{install-info} program. In Debian it copies the info files into the
  504. correct directory and modifies the info directory file. In many other
  505. systems, the files need to be copied to the correct directory separately, and
  506. @file{install-info} then only modifies the directory file. Check your system
  507. documentation to find out which of the following commands you need:
  508. @example
  509. make install-info
  510. make install-info-debian
  511. @end example
  512. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  513. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  514. when Org-mode starts.
  515. @lisp
  516. (require 'org-install)
  517. @end lisp
  518. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  519. @page
  520. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  521. @section Activation
  522. @cindex activation
  523. @cindex autoload
  524. @cindex global key bindings
  525. @cindex key bindings, global
  526. Add the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file. The last three lines
  527. define @emph{global} keys for the commands @command{org-store-link},
  528. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb}---please choose suitable
  529. keys yourself.
  530. @lisp
  531. ;; The following lines are always needed. Choose your own keys.
  532. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  533. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  534. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  535. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  536. @end lisp
  537. Furthermore, you must activate @code{font-lock-mode} in Org
  538. buffers, because significant functionality depends on font-locking being
  539. active. You can do this with either one of the following two lines
  540. (XEmacs users must use the second option):
  541. @lisp
  542. (global-font-lock-mode 1) ; for all buffers
  543. (add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock) ; Org buffers only
  544. @end lisp
  545. @cindex Org-mode, turning on
  546. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  547. into Org-mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  548. like this:
  549. @example
  550. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  551. @end example
  552. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  553. @noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what
  554. the file's name is. See also the variable
  555. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  556. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  557. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  558. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  559. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  560. @lisp
  561. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  562. @end lisp
  563. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  564. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  565. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  566. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  567. @section Feedback
  568. @cindex feedback
  569. @cindex bug reports
  570. @cindex maintainer
  571. @cindex author
  572. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  573. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  574. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  575. list after a moderator has approved it.
  576. For bug reports, please provide as much information as possible, including
  577. the version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  578. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  579. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  580. @example
  581. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  582. @end example
  583. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  584. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  585. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  586. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  587. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  588. about:
  589. @enumerate
  590. @item What exactly did you do?
  591. @item What did you expect to happen?
  592. @item What happened instead?
  593. @end enumerate
  594. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this mode.
  595. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  596. @cindex backtrace of an error
  597. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  598. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  599. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  600. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  601. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  602. @enumerate
  603. @item
  604. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org-mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  605. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  606. To do this, use
  607. @example
  608. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  609. @end example
  610. @noindent
  611. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  612. menu.
  613. @item
  614. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  615. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  616. @item
  617. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  618. document the steps you take.
  619. @item
  620. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  621. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  622. attach it to your bug report.
  623. @end enumerate
  624. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  625. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  626. Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
  627. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  628. @table @code
  629. @item TODO
  630. @itemx WAITING
  631. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  632. user-defined.
  633. @item boss
  634. @itemx ARCHIVE
  635. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  636. meaning are written with all capitals.
  637. @item Release
  638. @itemx PRIORITY
  639. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  640. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  641. @end table
  642. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  643. @chapter Document structure
  644. @cindex document structure
  645. @cindex structure of document
  646. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  647. edit the structure of the document.
  648. @menu
  649. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  650. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  651. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  652. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  653. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  654. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  655. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  656. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  657. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  658. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  659. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  660. @end menu
  661. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  662. @section Outlines
  663. @cindex outlines
  664. @cindex Outline mode
  665. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  666. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  667. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  668. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  669. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  670. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  671. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  672. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  673. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  674. @section Headlines
  675. @cindex headlines
  676. @cindex outline tree
  677. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  678. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  679. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  680. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  681. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  682. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  683. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  684. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.}. For example:
  685. @example
  686. * Top level headline
  687. ** Second level
  688. *** 3rd level
  689. some text
  690. *** 3rd level
  691. more text
  692. * Another top level headline
  693. @end example
  694. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  695. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  696. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  697. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  698. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  699. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  700. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  701. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  702. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  703. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  704. @section Visibility cycling
  705. @cindex cycling, visibility
  706. @cindex visibility cycling
  707. @cindex trees, visibility
  708. @cindex show hidden text
  709. @cindex hide text
  710. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  711. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  712. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  713. @cindex subtree visibility states
  714. @cindex subtree cycling
  715. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  716. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  717. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  718. @table @kbd
  719. @kindex @key{TAB}
  720. @item @key{TAB}
  721. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  722. @example
  723. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  724. '-----------------------------------'
  725. @end example
  726. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  727. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  728. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  729. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  730. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  731. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  732. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  733. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  734. @cindex global visibility states
  735. @cindex global cycling
  736. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  737. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  738. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  739. @kindex S-@key{TAB}
  740. @item S-@key{TAB}
  741. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  742. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  743. @example
  744. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  745. '--------------------------------------'
  746. @end example
  747. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  748. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  749. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  750. @cindex show all, command
  751. @kindex C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB}
  752. @item C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB}
  753. Show all, including drawers.
  754. @kindex C-c C-r
  755. @item C-c C-r
  756. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  757. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  758. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  759. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  760. level, all sibling headings. With double prefix arg, also show the entire
  761. subtree of the parent.
  762. @kindex C-c C-k
  763. @item C-c C-k
  764. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  765. @kindex C-c C-x b
  766. @item C-c C-x b
  767. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  768. buffer
  769. @ifinfo
  770. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  771. @end ifinfo
  772. @ifnotinfo
  773. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  774. @end ifnotinfo
  775. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  776. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  777. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  778. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  779. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  780. the previously used indirect buffer.
  781. @end table
  782. @vindex org-startup-folded
  783. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  784. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  785. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  786. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  787. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  788. OVERVIEW, i.e. only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  789. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  790. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  791. buffer:
  792. @example
  793. #+STARTUP: overview
  794. #+STARTUP: content
  795. #+STARTUP: showall
  796. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  797. @end example
  798. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  799. @noindent
  800. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  801. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  802. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  803. @code{all}.
  804. @table @kbd
  805. @kindex C-u C-u @key{TAB}
  806. @item C-u C-u @key{TAB}
  807. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e. whatever is
  808. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  809. entries.
  810. @end table
  811. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  812. @section Motion
  813. @cindex motion, between headlines
  814. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  815. @cindex headline navigation
  816. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  817. @table @kbd
  818. @kindex C-c C-n
  819. @item C-c C-n
  820. Next heading.
  821. @kindex C-c C-p
  822. @item C-c C-p
  823. Previous heading.
  824. @kindex C-c C-f
  825. @item C-c C-f
  826. Next heading same level.
  827. @kindex C-c C-b
  828. @item C-c C-b
  829. Previous heading same level.
  830. @kindex C-c C-u
  831. @item C-c C-u
  832. Backward to higher level heading.
  833. @kindex C-c C-j
  834. @item C-c C-j
  835. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  836. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  837. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  838. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  839. @example
  840. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  841. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  842. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  843. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  844. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  845. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  846. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  847. u @r{One level up.}
  848. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  849. q @r{Quit}
  850. @end example
  851. @vindex org-goto-interface
  852. @noindent
  853. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  854. @end table
  855. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  856. @section Structure editing
  857. @cindex structure editing
  858. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  859. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  860. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  861. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  862. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  863. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  864. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  865. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  866. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  867. @table @kbd
  868. @kindex M-@key{RET}
  869. @item M-@key{RET}
  870. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  871. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a
  872. plain list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force
  873. creation of a new headline, use a prefix argument, or first press @key{RET}
  874. to get to the beginning of the next line. When this command is used in
  875. the middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes
  876. the new headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split,
  877. customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the
  878. command is used at the beginning of a headline, the new headline is
  879. created before the current line. If at the beginning of any other line,
  880. the content of that line is made the new heading. If the command is
  881. used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e. behind the ellipses at the end
  882. of a headline), then a headline like the current one will be inserted
  883. after the end of the subtree.
  884. @kindex C-@key{RET}
  885. @item C-@key{RET}
  886. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  887. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  888. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  889. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  890. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  891. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  892. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  893. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  894. @kindex C-S-@key{RET}
  895. @item C-S-@key{RET}
  896. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  897. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  898. subtree.
  899. @kindex @key{TAB}
  900. @item @key{TAB} @r{in new, empty entry}
  901. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  902. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  903. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  904. to the initial level.
  905. @kindex M-@key{left}
  906. @item M-@key{left}
  907. Promote current heading by one level.
  908. @kindex M-@key{right}
  909. @item M-@key{right}
  910. Demote current heading by one level.
  911. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  912. @item M-S-@key{left}
  913. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  914. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  915. @item M-S-@key{right}
  916. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  917. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  918. @item M-S-@key{up}
  919. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  920. level).
  921. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  922. @item M-S-@key{down}
  923. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  924. @kindex C-c C-x C-w
  925. @item C-c C-x C-w
  926. Kill subtree, i.e. remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  927. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  928. @kindex C-c C-x M-w
  929. @item C-c C-x M-w
  930. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  931. sequential subtrees.
  932. @kindex C-c C-x C-y
  933. @item C-c C-x C-y
  934. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  935. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  936. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  937. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  938. @kindex C-y
  939. @item C-y
  940. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  941. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  942. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  943. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  944. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  945. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  946. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  947. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  948. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  949. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  950. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  951. folding.
  952. @kindex C-c C-x c
  953. @item C-c C-x c
  954. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  955. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  956. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  957. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  958. more details, see the docstring of the command
  959. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  960. @kindex C-c C-w
  961. @item C-c C-w
  962. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  963. @kindex C-c ^
  964. @item C-c ^
  965. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  966. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  967. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  968. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  969. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  970. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  971. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  972. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  973. sorting will be case-sensitive. With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, duplicate
  974. entries will also be removed.
  975. @kindex C-x n s
  976. @item C-x n s
  977. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  978. @kindex C-x n w
  979. @item C-x n w
  980. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  981. @kindex C-c *
  982. @item C-c *
  983. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  984. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  985. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  986. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  987. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  988. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  989. @end table
  990. @cindex region, active
  991. @cindex active region
  992. @cindex transient mark mode
  993. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  994. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  995. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  996. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  997. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  998. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  999. functionality.
  1000. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1001. @section Sparse trees
  1002. @cindex sparse trees
  1003. @cindex trees, sparse
  1004. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1005. @cindex occur, command
  1006. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1007. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1008. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1009. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1010. An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1011. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1012. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1013. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1014. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1015. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1016. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1017. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1018. Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1019. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1020. @table @kbd
  1021. @kindex C-c /
  1022. @item C-c /
  1023. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1024. @kindex C-c / r
  1025. @item C-c / r
  1026. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1027. Occur. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1028. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1029. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1030. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1031. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1032. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1033. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1034. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1035. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1036. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1037. @end table
  1038. @noindent
  1039. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1040. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1041. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1042. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1043. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1044. For example:
  1045. @lisp
  1046. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1047. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1048. @end lisp
  1049. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1050. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1051. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1052. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1053. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1054. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1055. @cindex visible text, printing
  1056. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1057. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1058. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1059. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1060. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1061. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1062. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1063. @section Plain lists
  1064. @cindex plain lists
  1065. @cindex lists, plain
  1066. @cindex lists, ordered
  1067. @cindex ordered lists
  1068. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1069. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of
  1070. checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists,
  1071. and the HTML exporter (@pxref{Exporting}) parses and formats them.
  1072. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1073. @itemize @bullet
  1074. @item
  1075. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1076. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1077. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1078. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star are
  1079. visually indistinguishable from true headlines. In short: even though
  1080. @samp{*} is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.}
  1081. as bullets.
  1082. @item
  1083. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1084. a right parenthesis, such as @samp{1.} or @samp{1)}. If you want a list to
  1085. start a different value (e.g. 20), start the text of the item with
  1086. @code{[@@start:20]}.
  1087. @item
  1088. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1089. separator @samp{ :: } to separate the description @emph{term} from the
  1090. description.
  1091. @end itemize
  1092. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1093. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1094. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1095. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1096. list. Indentation also determines the end of a list item. It ends before
  1097. the next line that is indented like the bullet/number, or less. Empty lines
  1098. are part of the previous item, so you can have several paragraphs in one
  1099. item. If you would like an empty line to terminate all currently open plain
  1100. lists, configure the variable @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.
  1101. Here is an example:
  1102. @example
  1103. @group
  1104. ** Lord of the Rings
  1105. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1106. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1107. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1108. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1109. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1110. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1111. - on DVD only
  1112. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1113. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1114. Important actors in this film are:
  1115. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1116. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1117. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1118. @end group
  1119. @end example
  1120. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1121. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1122. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1123. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1124. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1125. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1126. blocks can be indented to signal that they should be part of a list item.
  1127. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1128. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1129. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1130. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}.
  1131. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line
  1132. of an item (the line with the bullet or number).
  1133. @table @kbd
  1134. @kindex @key{TAB}
  1135. @item @key{TAB}
  1136. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1137. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1138. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1139. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. to @code{integrate}, plain list items
  1140. will be treated like low-level. The level of an item is then given by the
  1141. indentation of the bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real
  1142. headlines, however; the hierarchies remain completely separated.
  1143. If @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists} has not been set, @key{TAB}
  1144. fixes the indentation of the current line in a heuristic way.
  1145. @kindex M-@key{RET}
  1146. @item M-@key{RET}
  1147. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1148. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1149. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1150. of a line, the line is @emph{split} and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1151. item@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the variable
  1152. @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed in the
  1153. @emph{whitespace before a bullet or number}, the new item is created
  1154. @emph{before} the current item. If the command is executed in the white
  1155. space before the text that is part of an item but does not contain the
  1156. bullet, a bullet is added to the current line.
  1157. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1158. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1159. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1160. @kindex @key{TAB}
  1161. @item @key{TAB} @r{in new, empty item}
  1162. In a new item with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the item to
  1163. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1164. and so on, all the way to the left margin. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you
  1165. are back to the initial level.
  1166. @kindex S-@key{up}
  1167. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1168. @item S-@key{up}
  1169. @itemx S-@key{down}
  1170. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1171. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1172. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list, but only if
  1173. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1174. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1175. similar effect.
  1176. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  1177. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  1178. @item M-S-@key{up}
  1179. @itemx M-S-@key{down}
  1180. Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item
  1181. of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering is
  1182. automatic.
  1183. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1184. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1185. @item M-@key{left}
  1186. @itemx M-@key{right}
  1187. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1188. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1189. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1190. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1191. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1192. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1193. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation.
  1194. When these commands are executed several times in direct succession,
  1195. the initially selected region is used, even if the new indentation
  1196. would imply a different hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break
  1197. the command chain with a cursor motion or so.
  1198. @kindex C-c C-c
  1199. @item C-c C-c
  1200. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1201. state of the checkbox. If not, this command makes sure that all the
  1202. items on this list level use the same bullet. Furthermore, if this is
  1203. an ordered list, make sure the numbering is OK.
  1204. @kindex C-c -
  1205. @item C-c -
  1206. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1207. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}). With a numeric prefix
  1208. argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an active
  1209. region when calling this, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1210. first line already was a list item, any item markers will be removed from the
  1211. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1212. converted into a list item.
  1213. @kindex C-c *
  1214. @item C-c *
  1215. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1216. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1217. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1218. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1219. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  1220. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1221. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1222. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1223. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1224. @kindex C-c ^
  1225. @item C-c ^
  1226. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1227. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1228. @end table
  1229. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1230. @section Drawers
  1231. @cindex drawers
  1232. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1233. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1234. @vindex org-drawers
  1235. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1236. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org-mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1237. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1238. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
  1239. with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}. Drawers
  1240. look like this:
  1241. @example
  1242. ** This is a headline
  1243. Still outside the drawer
  1244. :DRAWERNAME:
  1245. This is inside the drawer.
  1246. :END:
  1247. After the drawer.
  1248. @end example
  1249. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1250. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1251. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1252. press @key{TAB} there. Org-mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1253. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1254. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1255. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1256. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way as this is
  1257. done by state changes, use
  1258. @table @kbd
  1259. @kindex C-c C-z
  1260. @item C-c C-z
  1261. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1262. @end table
  1263. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1264. @section Blocks
  1265. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1266. @cindex blocks, folding
  1267. Org-mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1268. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1269. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1270. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1271. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1272. or on a per-file basis by using
  1273. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1274. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1275. @example
  1276. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1277. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1278. @end example
  1279. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1280. @section Footnotes
  1281. @cindex footnotes
  1282. Org-mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1283. @file{footnote.el} package, Org-mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1284. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1285. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e. a footnote is
  1286. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1287. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1288. inside a footnote, use the La@TeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1289. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1290. @example
  1291. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1292. ...
  1293. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1294. @end example
  1295. Org-mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1296. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1297. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1298. encouraged because of possible conflicts with La@TeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1299. LaTeX}). Here are the valid references:
  1300. @table @code
  1301. @item [1]
  1302. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1303. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1304. snippet.
  1305. @item [fn:name]
  1306. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1307. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1308. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1309. A La@TeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1310. reference point.
  1311. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1312. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1313. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1314. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1315. @end table
  1316. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1317. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1318. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1319. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords, see the docstring of that variable
  1320. for details.
  1321. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1322. @table @kbd
  1323. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1324. @item C-c C-x f
  1325. The footnote action command.
  1326. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1327. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1328. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1329. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1330. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1331. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1332. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1333. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1334. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1335. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1336. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1337. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1338. options is offered:
  1339. @example
  1340. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1341. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1342. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1343. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1344. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1345. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1346. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1347. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1348. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1349. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1350. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1351. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1352. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1353. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g. sending}
  1354. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1355. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1356. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1357. @r{to it.}
  1358. @end example
  1359. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1360. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1361. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1362. deletion.
  1363. @kindex C-c C-c
  1364. @item C-c C-c
  1365. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1366. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1367. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1368. @kindex C-c C-o
  1369. @kindex mouse-1
  1370. @kindex mouse-2
  1371. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1372. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1373. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1374. @end table
  1375. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1376. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1377. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1378. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1379. If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode structure editing and list
  1380. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1381. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1382. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1383. turn it on by default, for example in Mail mode, with one of:
  1384. @lisp
  1385. (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1386. (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1387. @end lisp
  1388. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1389. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1390. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1391. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1392. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadow. When you use
  1393. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1394. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1395. item.
  1396. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1397. @chapter Tables
  1398. @cindex tables
  1399. @cindex editing tables
  1400. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1401. calculations are supported in connection with the Emacs @file{calc}
  1402. package
  1403. @ifinfo
  1404. (@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1405. @end ifinfo
  1406. @ifnotinfo
  1407. (see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
  1408. calculator).
  1409. @end ifnotinfo
  1410. @menu
  1411. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1412. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1413. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1414. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1415. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1416. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1417. @end menu
  1418. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1419. @section The built-in table editor
  1420. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1421. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with
  1422. @samp{|} as the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a
  1423. table. @samp{|} is also the column separator. A table might look like
  1424. this:
  1425. @example
  1426. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1427. |-------+-------+-----|
  1428. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1429. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1430. @end example
  1431. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1432. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1433. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1434. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1435. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1436. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1437. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1438. create the above table, you would only type
  1439. @example
  1440. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1441. |-
  1442. @end example
  1443. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1444. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1445. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1446. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1447. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1448. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1449. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1450. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1451. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1452. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1453. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1454. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1455. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1456. @table @kbd
  1457. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1458. @kindex C-c |
  1459. @item C-c |
  1460. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1461. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1462. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1463. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1464. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1465. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1466. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1467. @*
  1468. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1469. table. But it's easier just to start typing, like
  1470. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1471. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1472. @kindex C-c C-c
  1473. @item C-c C-c
  1474. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1475. @c
  1476. @kindex @key{TAB}
  1477. @item @key{TAB}
  1478. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1479. necessary.
  1480. @c
  1481. @kindex S-@key{TAB}
  1482. @item S-@key{TAB}
  1483. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1484. @c
  1485. @kindex @key{RET}
  1486. @item @key{RET}
  1487. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1488. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1489. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1490. @c
  1491. @kindex M-a
  1492. @item M-a
  1493. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1494. @kindex M-e
  1495. @item M-e
  1496. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1497. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1498. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1499. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1500. @item M-@key{left}
  1501. @itemx M-@key{right}
  1502. Move the current column left/right.
  1503. @c
  1504. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1505. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1506. Kill the current column.
  1507. @c
  1508. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1509. @item M-S-@key{right}
  1510. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1511. @c
  1512. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1513. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1514. @item M-@key{up}
  1515. @itemx M-@key{down}
  1516. Move the current row up/down.
  1517. @c
  1518. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  1519. @item M-S-@key{up}
  1520. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1521. @c
  1522. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  1523. @item M-S-@key{down}
  1524. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1525. created below the current one.
  1526. @c
  1527. @kindex C-c -
  1528. @item C-c -
  1529. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1530. is created above the current line.
  1531. @c
  1532. @kindex C-c @key{RET}
  1533. @item C-c @key{RET}
  1534. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1535. below that line.
  1536. @c
  1537. @kindex C-c ^
  1538. @item C-c ^
  1539. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1540. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1541. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1542. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1543. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1544. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1545. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1546. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1547. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1548. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1549. @kindex C-c C-x M-w
  1550. @item C-c C-x M-w
  1551. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1552. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1553. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1554. @c
  1555. @kindex C-c C-x C-w
  1556. @item C-c C-x C-w
  1557. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1558. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1559. @c
  1560. @kindex C-c C-x C-y
  1561. @item C-c C-x C-y
  1562. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1563. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1564. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1565. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1566. lines.
  1567. @c
  1568. @kindex M-@key{RET}
  1569. @itemx M-@kbd{RET}
  1570. Wrap several fields in a column like a paragraph. If there is an active
  1571. region, and both point and mark are in the same column, the text in the
  1572. column is wrapped to minimum width for the given number of lines. A numeric
  1573. prefix argument may be used to change the number of desired lines. If there
  1574. is no region, the current field is split at the cursor position and the text
  1575. fragment to the right of the cursor is prepended to the field one line
  1576. down. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument, the current
  1577. field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field above.
  1578. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1579. @cindex formula, in tables
  1580. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1581. @cindex region, active
  1582. @cindex active region
  1583. @cindex transient mark mode
  1584. @kindex C-c +
  1585. @item C-c +
  1586. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1587. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1588. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1589. @c
  1590. @kindex S-@key{RET}
  1591. @item S-@key{RET}
  1592. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1593. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1594. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1595. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1596. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1597. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1598. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1599. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1600. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1601. @kindex C-c `
  1602. @item C-c `
  1603. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1604. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1605. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1606. edited in place.
  1607. @c
  1608. @item M-x org-table-import
  1609. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1610. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1611. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1612. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1613. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1614. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1615. separator.
  1616. @item C-c |
  1617. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1618. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1619. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1620. @c
  1621. @item M-x org-table-export
  1622. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1623. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1624. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1625. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1626. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1627. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1628. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1629. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1630. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1631. detailed description.
  1632. @end table
  1633. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1634. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1635. it off with
  1636. @lisp
  1637. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1638. @end lisp
  1639. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1640. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1641. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1642. @section Column width and alignment
  1643. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1644. @cindex alignment in tables
  1645. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1646. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1647. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1648. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1649. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1650. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1651. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1652. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1653. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1654. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1655. @example
  1656. @group
  1657. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1658. | | | | | <6> |
  1659. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1660. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1661. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1662. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1663. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1664. @end group
  1665. @end example
  1666. @noindent
  1667. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1668. Note that the full text is still in the buffer, it is only invisible.
  1669. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1670. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1671. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1672. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1673. C-c}.
  1674. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1675. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1676. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1677. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1678. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1679. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1680. on a per-file basis with:
  1681. @example
  1682. #+STARTUP: align
  1683. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1684. @end example
  1685. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1686. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you and use @samp{<r>} or
  1687. @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may also combine alignment and field
  1688. width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1689. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1690. automatically when exporting the document.
  1691. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1692. @section Column groups
  1693. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1694. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1695. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1696. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1697. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1698. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1699. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1700. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1701. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} to make a column
  1702. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1703. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1704. @example
  1705. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1706. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1707. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1708. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1709. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1710. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1711. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1712. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1713. @end example
  1714. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1715. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1716. @example
  1717. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1718. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1719. | / | < | | | < | |
  1720. @end example
  1721. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  1722. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  1723. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1724. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1725. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  1726. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  1727. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  1728. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1729. example in mail mode, use
  1730. @lisp
  1731. (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1732. @end lisp
  1733. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  1734. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  1735. construct La@TeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  1736. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  1737. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  1738. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  1739. @section The spreadsheet
  1740. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1741. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  1742. @cindex @file{calc} package
  1743. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  1744. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  1745. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  1746. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  1747. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  1748. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  1749. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  1750. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  1751. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  1752. @menu
  1753. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  1754. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  1755. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  1756. * Field formulas:: Formulas valid for a single field
  1757. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  1758. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  1759. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  1760. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  1761. @end menu
  1762. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  1763. @subsection References
  1764. @cindex references
  1765. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  1766. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  1767. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  1768. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  1769. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  1770. @subsubheading Field references
  1771. @cindex field references
  1772. @cindex references, to fields
  1773. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  1774. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  1775. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  1776. @c Such references are always fixed to that field, they don't change
  1777. @c when you copy and paste a formula to a different field. So
  1778. @c Org's @code{B3} behaves like @code{$B$3} in other spreadsheets.
  1779. @noindent
  1780. Org also uses another, more general operator that looks like this:
  1781. @example
  1782. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  1783. @end example
  1784. @noindent
  1785. Column references can be absolute like @samp{1}, @samp{2},...@samp{@var{N}},
  1786. or relative to the current column like @samp{+1} or @samp{-2}.
  1787. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal
  1788. separator lines (hlines). You can use absolute row numbers
  1789. @samp{1}...@samp{@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the current row like
  1790. @samp{+3} or @samp{-1}. Or specify the row relative to one of the
  1791. hlines: @samp{I} refers to the first hline@footnote{Note that only
  1792. hlines are counted that @emph{separate} table lines. If the table
  1793. starts with a hline above the header, it does not count.}, @samp{II} to
  1794. the second, etc@. @samp{-I} refers to the first such line above the
  1795. current line, @samp{+I} to the first such line below the current line.
  1796. You can also write @samp{III+2} which is the second data line after the
  1797. third hline in the table.
  1798. @samp{0} refers to the current row and column. Also, if you omit
  1799. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current
  1800. row/column is implied.
  1801. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  1802. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  1803. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  1804. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  1805. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  1806. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  1807. As a special case, references like @samp{$LR5} and @samp{$LR12} can be used
  1808. to refer in a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the
  1809. table.
  1810. Here are a few examples:
  1811. @example
  1812. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column}
  1813. C2 @r{same as previous}
  1814. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row}
  1815. E& @r{same as previous}
  1816. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  1817. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  1818. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  1819. @end example
  1820. @subsubheading Range references
  1821. @cindex range references
  1822. @cindex references, to ranges
  1823. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  1824. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  1825. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  1826. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  1827. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  1828. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  1829. @example
  1830. $1..$3 @r{First three fields in the current row.}
  1831. $P..$Q @r{Range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  1832. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields.}
  1833. A2..C4 @r{Same as above.}
  1834. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  1835. @end example
  1836. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  1837. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  1838. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  1839. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  1840. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  1841. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  1842. @cindex field coordinates
  1843. @cindex coordinates, of field
  1844. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  1845. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  1846. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  1847. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  1848. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  1849. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  1850. @example
  1851. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  1852. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  1853. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  1854. @end example
  1855. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  1856. as the current table. Inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  1857. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  1858. number of rows.
  1859. @subsubheading Named references
  1860. @cindex named references
  1861. @cindex references, named
  1862. @cindex name, of column or field
  1863. @cindex constants, in calculations
  1864. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  1865. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  1866. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  1867. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  1868. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  1869. line like
  1870. @example
  1871. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  1872. @end example
  1873. @noindent
  1874. @vindex constants-unit-system
  1875. @pindex constants.el
  1876. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  1877. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  1878. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  1879. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  1880. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  1881. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  1882. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  1883. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  1884. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  1885. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  1886. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  1887. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  1888. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  1889. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  1890. numbers.
  1891. @subsubheading Remote references
  1892. @cindex remote references
  1893. @cindex references, remote
  1894. @cindex references, to a different table
  1895. @cindex name, of column or field
  1896. @cindex constants, in calculations
  1897. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  1898. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  1899. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  1900. @example
  1901. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  1902. @end example
  1903. @noindent
  1904. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  1905. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  1906. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  1907. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  1908. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  1909. referenced table.
  1910. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  1911. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  1912. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  1913. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  1914. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  1915. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  1916. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  1917. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  1918. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  1919. Your Programs,calc-eval,Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs,Calc,GNU
  1920. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  1921. @c FIXME: The link to the Calc manual in HTML does not work.
  1922. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  1923. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  1924. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  1925. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  1926. @cindex format specifier
  1927. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  1928. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  1929. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  1930. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  1931. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  1932. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  1933. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  1934. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  1935. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  1936. @example
  1937. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  1938. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  1939. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  1940. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  1941. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  1942. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  1943. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  1944. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  1945. T @r{force text interpretation}
  1946. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  1947. L @r{literal}
  1948. @end example
  1949. @noindent
  1950. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  1951. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  1952. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  1953. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  1954. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  1955. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  1956. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  1957. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  1958. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  1959. A few examples:
  1960. @example
  1961. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  1962. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  1963. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  1964. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  1965. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  1966. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  1967. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  1968. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  1969. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  1970. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  1971. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  1972. @end example
  1973. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  1974. @example
  1975. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{``teen'' if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  1976. @end example
  1977. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Field formulas, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  1978. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  1979. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  1980. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful
  1981. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's
  1982. functionality is not enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote
  1983. followed by an opening parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form.
  1984. The evaluation should return either a string or a number. Just as with
  1985. @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes and a printf format after a
  1986. semicolon. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way
  1987. field references are interpolated into the form. By default, a
  1988. reference will be interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes)
  1989. containing the field. If you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all
  1990. referenced elements will be numbers (non-number fields will be zero) and
  1991. interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If you provide the
  1992. @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally, without quotes.
  1993. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string by the Lisp
  1994. form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes, like
  1995. @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  1996. embed them in list or vector syntax. A few examples, note how the
  1997. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp.
  1998. @example
  1999. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2000. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2001. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2002. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2003. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2004. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2005. @end example
  2006. @node Field formulas, Column formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2007. @subsection Field formulas
  2008. @cindex field formula
  2009. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2010. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the
  2011. field, preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=$1+$2}. When you
  2012. press @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in
  2013. the field, the formula will be stored as the formula for this field,
  2014. evaluated, and the current field replaced with the result.
  2015. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2016. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:}
  2017. directly below the table. If you typed the equation in the 4th field of
  2018. the 3rd data line in the table, the formula will look like
  2019. @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows
  2020. with the appropriate commands, @i{absolute references} (but not relative
  2021. ones) in stored formulas are modified in order to still reference the
  2022. same field. Of course this is not true if you edit the table structure
  2023. with normal editing commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2024. The left-hand side of a formula may also be a named field (@pxref{Advanced
  2025. features}), or a last-row reference like @samp{$LR3}.
  2026. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2027. following command
  2028. @table @kbd
  2029. @kindex C-u C-c =
  2030. @item C-u C-c =
  2031. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2032. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2033. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2034. @end table
  2035. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field formulas, The spreadsheet
  2036. @subsection Column formulas
  2037. @cindex column formula
  2038. @cindex formula, for table column
  2039. Often in a table, the same formula should be used for all fields in a
  2040. particular column. Instead of having to copy the formula to all fields
  2041. in that column, Org allows you to assign a single formula to an entire
  2042. column. If the table contains horizontal separator hlines, everything
  2043. before the first such line is considered part of the table @emph{header}
  2044. and will not be modified by column formulas.
  2045. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2046. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2047. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2048. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2049. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2050. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2051. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2052. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The left-hand
  2053. side of a column formula cannot currently be the name of column, it
  2054. must be the numeric column reference.
  2055. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2056. following command:
  2057. @table @kbd
  2058. @kindex C-c =
  2059. @item C-c =
  2060. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2061. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2062. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2063. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g. @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2064. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2065. @end table
  2066. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2067. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2068. @cindex formula editing
  2069. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2070. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2071. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2072. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2073. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2074. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2075. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2076. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2077. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2078. @table @kbd
  2079. @kindex C-c =
  2080. @kindex C-u C-c =
  2081. @item C-c =
  2082. @itemx C-u C-c =
  2083. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2084. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field formulas}.
  2085. @kindex C-u C-u C-c =
  2086. @item C-u C-u C-c =
  2087. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2088. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2089. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2090. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2091. @kindex C-c ?
  2092. @item C-c ?
  2093. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2094. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2095. @kindex C-c @}
  2096. @item C-c @}
  2097. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using
  2098. overlays. These are updated each time the table is aligned; you can
  2099. force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2100. @kindex C-c @{
  2101. @item C-c @{
  2102. Toggle the formula debugger on and off. See below.
  2103. @kindex C-c '
  2104. @item C-c '
  2105. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2106. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2107. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2108. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2109. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2110. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2111. @table @kbd
  2112. @kindex C-c C-c
  2113. @kindex C-x C-s
  2114. @item C-c C-c
  2115. @itemx C-x C-s
  2116. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2117. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2118. @kindex C-c C-q
  2119. @item C-c C-q
  2120. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2121. @kindex C-c C-r
  2122. @item C-c C-r
  2123. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2124. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2125. @kindex @key{TAB}
  2126. @item @key{TAB}
  2127. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2128. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2129. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2130. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2131. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  2132. @item M-@key{TAB}
  2133. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2134. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2135. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2136. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2137. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2138. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2139. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2140. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2141. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2142. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  2143. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  2144. @item M-S-@key{up}/@key{down}
  2145. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2146. down.
  2147. @kindex M-@key{up}
  2148. @kindex M-@key{down}
  2149. @item M-@key{up}/@key{down}
  2150. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2151. @kindex C-c @}
  2152. @item C-c @}
  2153. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2154. @end table
  2155. @end table
  2156. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2157. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2158. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2159. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2160. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2161. @kindex C-c C-c
  2162. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2163. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2164. recalculation commands in the table.
  2165. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2166. @cindex formula debugging
  2167. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2168. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2169. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2170. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2171. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2172. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2173. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2174. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2175. @subsection Updating the table
  2176. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2177. @cindex updating, table
  2178. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2179. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2180. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2181. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2182. following commands:
  2183. @table @kbd
  2184. @kindex C-c *
  2185. @item C-c *
  2186. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2187. from left to right, and all field formulas in the current row.
  2188. @c
  2189. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2190. @item C-u C-c *
  2191. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2192. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2193. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2194. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2195. @c
  2196. @kindex C-u C-u C-c *
  2197. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-c
  2198. @item C-u C-u C-c *
  2199. @itemx C-u C-u C-c C-c
  2200. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2201. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2202. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2203. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2204. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2205. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2206. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2207. dependencies.
  2208. @end table
  2209. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2210. @subsection Advanced features
  2211. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if
  2212. you want to be able to assign @i{names} to fields and columns, you need
  2213. to reserve the first column of the table for special marking characters.
  2214. @table @kbd
  2215. @kindex C-#
  2216. @item C-#
  2217. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2218. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2219. change all marks in the region.
  2220. @end table
  2221. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2222. makes use of these features:
  2223. @example
  2224. @group
  2225. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2226. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2227. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2228. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2229. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2230. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2231. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2232. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2233. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2234. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2235. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2236. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2237. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2238. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2239. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2240. @end group
  2241. @end example
  2242. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2243. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2244. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2245. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2246. empty first field.
  2247. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2248. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2249. @table @samp
  2250. @item !
  2251. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2252. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2253. @item ^
  2254. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2255. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2256. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2257. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2258. @item _
  2259. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2260. @emph{below}.
  2261. @item $
  2262. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2263. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2264. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2265. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2266. a per-table basis.
  2267. @item #
  2268. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2269. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2270. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2271. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2272. @item *
  2273. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2274. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2275. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2276. @item
  2277. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2278. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2279. or @samp{*}.
  2280. @item /
  2281. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2282. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2283. @end table
  2284. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2285. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2286. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2287. functions.
  2288. @example
  2289. @group
  2290. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2291. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2292. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2293. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2294. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2295. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2296. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2297. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2298. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2299. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2300. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2301. @end group
  2302. @end example
  2303. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2304. @section Org-Plot
  2305. @cindex graph, in tables
  2306. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2307. @cindex #+PLOT
  2308. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2309. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2310. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2311. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2312. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2313. @example
  2314. @group
  2315. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2316. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2317. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2318. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2319. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2320. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2321. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2322. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2323. @end group
  2324. @end example
  2325. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2326. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2327. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2328. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2329. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2330. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.php}.
  2331. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2332. @table @code
  2333. @item set
  2334. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2335. @item title
  2336. Specify the title of the plot.
  2337. @item ind
  2338. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2339. @item deps
  2340. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2341. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2342. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2343. column).
  2344. @item type
  2345. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2346. @item with
  2347. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2348. (e.g. @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2349. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2350. @item file
  2351. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2352. @item labels
  2353. List of labels to be used for the deps (defaults to the column headers if
  2354. they exist).
  2355. @item line
  2356. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2357. @item map
  2358. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2359. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2360. @item timefmt
  2361. Specify format of Org-mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2362. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2363. @item script
  2364. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2365. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2366. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2367. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2368. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2369. the data file.
  2370. @end table
  2371. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2372. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2373. @cindex hyperlinks
  2374. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2375. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2376. @menu
  2377. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2378. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2379. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2380. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2381. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2382. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2383. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2384. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2385. @end menu
  2386. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2387. @section Link format
  2388. @cindex link format
  2389. @cindex format, of links
  2390. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2391. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2392. @example
  2393. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2394. @end example
  2395. @noindent
  2396. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2397. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2398. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2399. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2400. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2401. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2402. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2403. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2404. cursor on the link.
  2405. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2406. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2407. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2408. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2409. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2410. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2411. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2412. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2413. @section Internal links
  2414. @cindex internal links
  2415. @cindex links, internal
  2416. @cindex targets, for links
  2417. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2418. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2419. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2420. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2421. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2422. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2423. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2424. in a file.
  2425. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2426. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2427. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2428. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2429. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2430. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2431. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2432. comment line. For example
  2433. @example
  2434. # <<My Target>>
  2435. @end example
  2436. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2437. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2438. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2439. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2440. first headline.}.
  2441. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for the words in the link. In
  2442. the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}. Links starting
  2443. with a star like @samp{*My Target} restrict the search to
  2444. headlines@footnote{To insert a link targeting a headline, in-buffer
  2445. completion can be used. Just type a star followed by a few optional letters
  2446. into the buffer and press @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current
  2447. buffer will be offered as completions. @xref{Handling links}, for more
  2448. commands creating links.}. When searching, Org-mode will first try an
  2449. exact match, but then move on to more and more lenient searches. For
  2450. example, the link @samp{[[*My Targets]]} will find any of the following:
  2451. @example
  2452. ** My targets
  2453. ** TODO my targets are bright
  2454. ** my 20 targets are
  2455. @end example
  2456. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2457. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2458. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2459. earlier.
  2460. @menu
  2461. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2462. @end menu
  2463. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2464. @subsection Radio targets
  2465. @cindex radio targets
  2466. @cindex targets, radio
  2467. @cindex links, radio targets
  2468. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2469. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2470. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2471. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2472. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2473. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2474. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2475. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2476. cursor on or at a target.
  2477. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2478. @section External links
  2479. @cindex links, external
  2480. @cindex external links
  2481. @cindex links, external
  2482. @cindex Gnus links
  2483. @cindex BBDB links
  2484. @cindex IRC links
  2485. @cindex URL links
  2486. @cindex file links
  2487. @cindex VM links
  2488. @cindex RMAIL links
  2489. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2490. @cindex MH-E links
  2491. @cindex USENET links
  2492. @cindex SHELL links
  2493. @cindex Info links
  2494. @cindex Elisp links
  2495. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2496. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2497. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2498. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2499. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2500. @example
  2501. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2502. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2503. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2504. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2505. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2506. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2507. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2508. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2509. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file with line number to jump to}
  2510. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2511. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}
  2512. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2513. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open file in doc-view mode at page NNN}
  2514. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2515. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2516. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2517. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2518. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2519. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2520. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2521. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2522. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2523. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2524. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2525. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2526. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2527. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2528. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2529. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2530. info:org:External%20links @r{Info node link (with encoded space)}
  2531. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2532. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2533. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2534. @end example
  2535. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2536. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2537. format}), for example:
  2538. @example
  2539. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2540. @end example
  2541. @noindent
  2542. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2543. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2544. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2545. image,
  2546. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2547. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2548. @cindex plain text external links
  2549. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2550. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2551. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2552. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2553. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2554. @section Handling links
  2555. @cindex links, handling
  2556. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2557. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2558. @table @kbd
  2559. @kindex C-c l
  2560. @cindex storing links
  2561. @item C-c l
  2562. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2563. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2564. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2565. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2566. buffer:
  2567. @b{Org-mode buffers}@*
  2568. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2569. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2570. be the description.
  2571. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2572. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2573. @cindex property, ID
  2574. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2575. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2576. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2577. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2578. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2579. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2580. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2581. to use.
  2582. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2583. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2584. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2585. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2586. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2587. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2588. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2589. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2590. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2591. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2592. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2593. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2594. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2595. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2596. @b{Other files}@*
  2597. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2598. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2599. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2600. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2601. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2602. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2603. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2604. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2605. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2606. entry referenced by the current line.
  2607. @c
  2608. @kindex C-c C-l
  2609. @cindex link completion
  2610. @cindex completion, of links
  2611. @cindex inserting links
  2612. @item C-c C-l
  2613. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2614. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2615. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2616. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2617. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2618. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2619. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2620. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2621. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2622. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2623. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2624. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2625. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2626. becomes the default description.
  2627. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2628. All links stored during the
  2629. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2630. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2631. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2632. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2633. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2634. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2635. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2636. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2637. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2638. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2639. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2640. @kindex C-u C-c C-l
  2641. @cindex file name completion
  2642. @cindex completion, of file names
  2643. @item C-u C-c C-l
  2644. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2645. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2646. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2647. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2648. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2649. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2650. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2651. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2652. @c
  2653. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2654. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2655. link and description parts of the link.
  2656. @c
  2657. @cindex following links
  2658. @kindex C-c C-o
  2659. @kindex @key{RET}
  2660. @item C-c C-o @ @r{(or, if @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, also} @key{RET}
  2661. @vindex org-file-apps
  2662. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2663. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2664. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2665. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2666. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2667. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2668. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2669. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2670. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  2671. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  2672. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  2673. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  2674. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  2675. headline and entry text.
  2676. @c
  2677. @kindex mouse-2
  2678. @kindex mouse-1
  2679. @item mouse-2
  2680. @itemx mouse-1
  2681. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  2682. would. Under Emacs 22, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  2683. @c
  2684. @kindex mouse-3
  2685. @item mouse-3
  2686. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  2687. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  2688. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  2689. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  2690. @c
  2691. @cindex inlining images
  2692. @cindex images, inlining
  2693. @kindex C-c C-x C-v
  2694. @item C-c C-x C-v
  2695. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  2696. images that have no description part in the link, i.e. images that will also
  2697. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  2698. images that do have a link description.
  2699. @cindex mark ring
  2700. @kindex C-c %
  2701. @item C-c %
  2702. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  2703. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  2704. @c
  2705. @cindex links, returning to
  2706. @kindex C-c &
  2707. @item C-c &
  2708. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  2709. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  2710. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  2711. previously recorded positions.
  2712. @c
  2713. @kindex C-c C-x C-n
  2714. @kindex C-c C-x C-p
  2715. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  2716. @item C-c C-x C-n
  2717. @itemx C-c C-x C-p
  2718. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  2719. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  2720. bindings for this are really too long, you might want to bind this also
  2721. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  2722. @lisp
  2723. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  2724. (lambda ()
  2725. (define-key 'org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  2726. (define-key 'org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  2727. @end lisp
  2728. @end table
  2729. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  2730. @section Using links outside Org
  2731. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  2732. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  2733. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  2734. yourself):
  2735. @lisp
  2736. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  2737. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  2738. @end lisp
  2739. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  2740. @section Link abbreviations
  2741. @cindex link abbreviations
  2742. @cindex abbreviation, links
  2743. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  2744. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  2745. abbreviated link looks like this
  2746. @example
  2747. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  2748. @end example
  2749. @noindent
  2750. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  2751. where the tag is optional.
  2752. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  2753. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  2754. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  2755. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  2756. @lisp
  2757. @group
  2758. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  2759. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  2760. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  2761. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/
  2762. nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  2763. @end group
  2764. @end lisp
  2765. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  2766. replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
  2767. in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will
  2768. be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  2769. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  2770. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  2771. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]} and find out what the Org author is
  2772. doing besides Emacs hacking with @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  2773. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  2774. can define them in the file with
  2775. @cindex #+LINK
  2776. @example
  2777. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  2778. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  2779. @end example
  2780. @noindent
  2781. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  2782. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  2783. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g. completion)
  2784. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  2785. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  2786. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  2787. @section Search options in file links
  2788. @cindex search option in file links
  2789. @cindex file links, searching
  2790. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  2791. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  2792. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  2793. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  2794. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  2795. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  2796. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  2797. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  2798. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  2799. link, together with an explanation:
  2800. @example
  2801. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  2802. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  2803. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  2804. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  2805. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  2806. @end example
  2807. @table @code
  2808. @item 255
  2809. Jump to line 255.
  2810. @item My Target
  2811. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  2812. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  2813. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  2814. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  2815. the linked file.
  2816. @item *My Target
  2817. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  2818. @item #my-custom-id
  2819. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  2820. @item /regexp/
  2821. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  2822. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  2823. target file is in Org-mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  2824. sparse tree with the matches.
  2825. @c If the target file is a directory,
  2826. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  2827. @end table
  2828. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  2829. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  2830. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  2831. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  2832. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  2833. @section Custom Searches
  2834. @cindex custom search strings
  2835. @cindex search strings, custom
  2836. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  2837. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  2838. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  2839. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  2840. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  2841. citation key.
  2842. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  2843. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  2844. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  2845. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  2846. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  2847. to be added to the hook variables
  2848. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  2849. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  2850. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  2851. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  2852. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  2853. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  2854. @chapter TODO items
  2855. @cindex TODO items
  2856. Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  2857. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  2858. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  2859. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  2860. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  2861. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  2862. item emerged is always present.
  2863. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  2864. throughout your notes file. Org-mode compensates for this by providing
  2865. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  2866. @menu
  2867. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  2868. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  2869. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  2870. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  2871. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  2872. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  2873. @end menu
  2874. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  2875. @section Basic TODO functionality
  2876. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  2877. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  2878. @example
  2879. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  2880. @end example
  2881. @noindent
  2882. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  2883. @table @kbd
  2884. @kindex C-c C-t
  2885. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  2886. @item C-c C-t
  2887. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  2888. @example
  2889. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  2890. '--------------------------------'
  2891. @end example
  2892. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  2893. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  2894. @kindex C-u C-c C-t
  2895. @item C-u C-c C-t
  2896. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  2897. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  2898. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  2899. more information.
  2900. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2901. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2902. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  2903. @item S-@key{right}
  2904. @itemx S-@key{left}
  2905. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  2906. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  2907. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  2908. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  2909. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  2910. @kindex C-c / t
  2911. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  2912. @itemx C-c / t
  2913. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  2914. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  2915. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  2916. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  2917. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  2918. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  2919. entries that match any one of these keywords. With numeric prefix argument
  2920. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  2921. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  2922. both un-done and done.
  2923. @kindex C-c a t
  2924. @item C-c a t
  2925. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  2926. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  2927. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  2928. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  2929. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  2930. @kindex S-M-@key{RET}
  2931. @item S-M-@key{RET}
  2932. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  2933. @end table
  2934. @noindent
  2935. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  2936. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  2937. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  2938. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  2939. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  2940. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  2941. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  2942. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  2943. DONE. Org-mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  2944. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  2945. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  2946. files.
  2947. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  2948. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  2949. @menu
  2950. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  2951. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  2952. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  2953. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  2954. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  2955. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  2956. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  2957. @end menu
  2958. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  2959. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  2960. @cindex TODO workflow
  2961. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  2962. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  2963. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  2964. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org-mode in a
  2965. buffer.}:
  2966. @lisp
  2967. (setq org-todo-keywords
  2968. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  2969. @end lisp
  2970. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  2971. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  2972. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  2973. state.
  2974. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  2975. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  2976. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  2977. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  2978. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  2979. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  2980. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  2981. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  2982. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  2983. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  2984. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  2985. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  2986. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  2987. @cindex TODO types
  2988. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  2989. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  2990. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  2991. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  2992. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  2993. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  2994. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  2995. be set up like this:
  2996. @lisp
  2997. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  2998. @end lisp
  2999. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3000. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3001. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org-mode supports this style by adapting
  3002. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3003. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3004. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3005. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3006. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3007. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3008. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3009. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3010. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3011. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3012. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3013. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3014. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3015. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3016. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3017. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3018. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3019. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3020. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3021. like this:
  3022. @lisp
  3023. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3024. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3025. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3026. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3027. @end lisp
  3028. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org-mode to keep track
  3029. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3030. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3031. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3032. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3033. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3034. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3035. @table @kbd
  3036. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3037. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3038. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3039. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3040. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3041. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3042. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3043. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3044. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3045. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3046. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3047. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3048. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3049. @item S-@key{right}
  3050. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3051. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3052. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3053. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3054. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3055. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3056. @end table
  3057. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3058. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3059. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3060. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3061. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section
  3062. key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3063. @lisp
  3064. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3065. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3066. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3067. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3068. @end lisp
  3069. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3070. If you then press @code{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3071. will be switched to this state. @key{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3072. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3073. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3074. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3075. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3076. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3077. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3078. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3079. @cindex keyword options
  3080. @cindex per-file keywords
  3081. @cindex #+TODO
  3082. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3083. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3084. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3085. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3086. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3087. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3088. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3089. file:
  3090. @example
  3091. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3092. @end example
  3093. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3094. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3095. @example
  3096. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3097. @end example
  3098. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3099. @example
  3100. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3101. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3102. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3103. @end example
  3104. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3105. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3106. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3107. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3108. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3109. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3110. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3111. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3112. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3113. known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode parses these lines only when
  3114. Org-mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3115. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org-mode
  3116. for the current buffer.}.
  3117. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3118. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3119. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3120. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3121. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3122. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3123. Org-mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3124. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3125. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3126. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3127. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3128. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3129. @lisp
  3130. @group
  3131. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3132. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3133. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3134. @end group
  3135. @end lisp
  3136. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3137. work, this does not aways seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3138. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3139. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3140. foreground or a background color.
  3141. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3142. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3143. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3144. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3145. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3146. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3147. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3148. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3149. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3150. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3151. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3152. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3153. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3154. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3155. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3156. example:
  3157. @example
  3158. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3159. ** DONE one
  3160. ** TODO two
  3161. * Parent
  3162. :PROPERTIES:
  3163. :ORDERED: t
  3164. :END:
  3165. ** TODO a
  3166. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3167. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3168. @end example
  3169. @table @kbd
  3170. @kindex C-c C-x o
  3171. @item C-c C-x o
  3172. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3173. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3174. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3175. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3176. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3177. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3178. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3179. @kindex C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3180. @item C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3181. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3182. @end table
  3183. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3184. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3185. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3186. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3187. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3188. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3189. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3190. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3191. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3192. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3193. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3194. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3195. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3196. @page
  3197. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3198. @section Progress logging
  3199. @cindex progress logging
  3200. @cindex logging, of progress
  3201. Org-mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3202. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3203. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3204. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3205. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3206. work time}.
  3207. @menu
  3208. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3209. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3210. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3211. @end menu
  3212. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3213. @subsection Closing items
  3214. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3215. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3216. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}.
  3217. @lisp
  3218. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3219. @end lisp
  3220. @noindent
  3221. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3222. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3223. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3224. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3225. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3226. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3227. @lisp
  3228. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3229. @end lisp
  3230. @noindent
  3231. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3232. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3233. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3234. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3235. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3236. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3237. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3238. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3239. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3240. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3241. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3242. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3243. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3244. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3245. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3246. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3247. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3248. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3249. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3250. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this
  3251. behavior---the recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}. You can
  3252. also overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3253. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3254. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org-mode
  3255. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3256. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) and @samp{@@} (for a note)
  3257. in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the setting
  3258. @lisp
  3259. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3260. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3261. @end lisp
  3262. @noindent
  3263. @vindex org-log-done
  3264. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3265. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3266. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org-mode will record two timestamps
  3267. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3268. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3269. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3270. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3271. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3272. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3273. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3274. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3275. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3276. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3277. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3278. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3279. configured.
  3280. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3281. to a buffer:
  3282. @example
  3283. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3284. @end example
  3285. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3286. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3287. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3288. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3289. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3290. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3291. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3292. @example
  3293. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3294. :PROPERTIES:
  3295. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3296. :END:
  3297. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3298. :PROPERTIES:
  3299. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3300. :END:
  3301. * TODO No logging at all
  3302. :PROPERTIES:
  3303. :LOGGING: nil
  3304. :END:
  3305. @end example
  3306. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3307. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3308. @cindex habits
  3309. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3310. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3311. @enumerate
  3312. @item
  3313. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3314. @code{org-modules}.
  3315. @item
  3316. The habit is a TODO, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3317. @item
  3318. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3319. @item
  3320. The TODO has a scheduled date, with a @code{.+} style repeat interval.
  3321. @item
  3322. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3323. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3324. three days, but at most every two days.
  3325. @item
  3326. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3327. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it's not
  3328. enabled it's not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3329. meaningless.
  3330. @end enumerate
  3331. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3332. actual habit with some history:
  3333. @example
  3334. ** TODO Shave
  3335. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3336. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3337. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3338. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3339. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3340. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3341. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3342. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3343. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3344. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3345. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3346. :PROPERTIES:
  3347. :STYLE: habit
  3348. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3349. :END:
  3350. @end example
  3351. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3352. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3353. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3354. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3355. after four days have elapsed.
  3356. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3357. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3358. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3359. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3360. @table @code
  3361. @item Blue
  3362. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3363. @item Green
  3364. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3365. @item Yellow
  3366. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3367. @item Red
  3368. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3369. @end table
  3370. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3371. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3372. the current day falls in the graph.
  3373. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3374. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3375. @table @code
  3376. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3377. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3378. overwrite any text in that column, so it's a good idea to keep your habits'
  3379. titles brief and to the point.
  3380. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3381. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3382. @item org-habit-following-days
  3383. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3384. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3385. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3386. default.
  3387. @end table
  3388. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3389. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3390. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3391. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3392. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3393. @section Priorities
  3394. @cindex priorities
  3395. If you use Org-mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3396. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3397. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3398. @example
  3399. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3400. @end example
  3401. @noindent
  3402. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3403. By default, Org-mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3404. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3405. treated as priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only in the
  3406. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they have no
  3407. inherent meaning to Org-mode. The cookies can be highlighted with special
  3408. faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3409. Priorities can be attached to any outline tree entries; they do not need
  3410. to be TODO items.
  3411. @table @kbd
  3412. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3413. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3414. Set the priority of the current headline. The command prompts for a
  3415. priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}. When you press
  3416. @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the headline.
  3417. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3418. agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3419. @c
  3420. @kindex S-@key{up}
  3421. @kindex S-@key{down}
  3422. @item S-@key{up}
  3423. @itemx S-@key{down}
  3424. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3425. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3426. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3427. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3428. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3429. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3430. @end table
  3431. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3432. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3433. @vindex org-default-priority
  3434. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3435. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3436. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3437. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3438. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3439. priority):
  3440. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3441. @example
  3442. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3443. @end example
  3444. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3445. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3446. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3447. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3448. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3449. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3450. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3451. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3452. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3453. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3454. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3455. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3456. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3457. @example
  3458. * Organize Party [33%]
  3459. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3460. *** TODO Peter
  3461. *** DONE Sarah
  3462. ** TODO Buy food
  3463. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3464. @end example
  3465. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3466. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3467. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3468. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3469. this issue.
  3470. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3471. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3472. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3473. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3474. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3475. property.
  3476. @example
  3477. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3478. :PROPERTIES:
  3479. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3480. :END:
  3481. @end example
  3482. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3483. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3484. @example
  3485. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3486. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3487. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3488. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3489. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3490. @end example
  3491. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3492. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3493. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3494. @section Checkboxes
  3495. @cindex checkboxes
  3496. Every item in a plain list (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a
  3497. checkbox by starting it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is
  3498. similar to TODO items (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight.
  3499. Checkboxes are not included into the global TODO list, so they are often
  3500. great to split a task into a number of simple steps. Or you can use
  3501. them in a shopping list. To toggle a checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or
  3502. use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3503. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3504. @example
  3505. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3506. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3507. - [ ] Peter
  3508. - [X] Sarah
  3509. - [ ] Sam
  3510. - [X] order food
  3511. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3512. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3513. @end example
  3514. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3515. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3516. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3517. checked.
  3518. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3519. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3520. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3521. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3522. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3523. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3524. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3525. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3526. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3527. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3528. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3529. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3530. represent the all checkboxes below the cookie, not just the direct
  3531. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3532. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3533. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3534. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3535. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3536. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3537. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3538. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3539. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3540. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3541. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3542. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3543. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3544. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3545. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3546. @table @kbd
  3547. @kindex C-c C-c
  3548. @item C-c C-c
  3549. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3550. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3551. intermediate state.
  3552. @kindex C-c C-x C-b
  3553. @item C-c C-x C-b
  3554. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3555. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3556. intermediate state.
  3557. @itemize @minus
  3558. @item
  3559. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3560. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3561. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3562. @item
  3563. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3564. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3565. @item
  3566. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3567. @end itemize
  3568. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  3569. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  3570. Insert a new item with a checkbox.
  3571. This works only if the cursor is already in a plain list item
  3572. (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3573. @kindex C-c C-x o
  3574. @item C-c C-x o
  3575. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3576. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3577. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3578. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3579. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3580. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3581. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3582. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3583. @kindex C-c #
  3584. @item C-c #
  3585. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3586. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3587. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3588. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3589. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3590. hand, use this command to get things back into sync. Or simply toggle any
  3591. entry twice (checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c}).
  3592. @end table
  3593. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3594. @chapter Tags
  3595. @cindex tags
  3596. @cindex headline tagging
  3597. @cindex matching, tags
  3598. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3599. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3600. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org-mode has extensive
  3601. support for tags.
  3602. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3603. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3604. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3605. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3606. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3607. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3608. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3609. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3610. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3611. @menu
  3612. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3613. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3614. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3615. @end menu
  3616. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3617. @section Tag inheritance
  3618. @cindex tag inheritance
  3619. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3620. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3621. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3622. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3623. well. For example, in the list
  3624. @example
  3625. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3626. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3627. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3628. @end example
  3629. @noindent
  3630. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3631. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3632. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3633. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3634. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3635. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3636. changes in the line.}:
  3637. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3638. @example
  3639. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3640. @end example
  3641. @noindent
  3642. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3643. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3644. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  3645. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  3646. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3647. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3648. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3649. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3650. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3651. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3652. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3653. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3654. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  3655. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  3656. @section Setting tags
  3657. @cindex setting tags
  3658. @cindex tags, setting
  3659. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3660. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  3661. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  3662. also a special command for inserting tags:
  3663. @table @kbd
  3664. @kindex C-c C-q
  3665. @item C-c C-q
  3666. @cindex completion, of tags
  3667. @vindex org-tags-column
  3668. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org-mode will either offer
  3669. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  3670. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  3671. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  3672. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  3673. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  3674. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  3675. @kindex C-c C-c
  3676. @item C-c C-c
  3677. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  3678. @end table
  3679. @vindex org-tag-alist
  3680. Org will support tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  3681. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  3682. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  3683. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  3684. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  3685. @cindex #+TAGS
  3686. @example
  3687. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  3688. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  3689. @end example
  3690. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  3691. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  3692. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  3693. @example
  3694. #+TAGS:
  3695. @end example
  3696. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  3697. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  3698. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  3699. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  3700. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  3701. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  3702. @example
  3703. #+STARTUP: noptag
  3704. @end example
  3705. By default Org-mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  3706. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  3707. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  3708. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  3709. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  3710. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  3711. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  3712. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  3713. like:
  3714. @lisp
  3715. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  3716. @end lisp
  3717. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  3718. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  3719. @example
  3720. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  3721. @end example
  3722. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  3723. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  3724. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  3725. @example
  3726. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  3727. @end example
  3728. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  3729. @example
  3730. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  3731. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  3732. @end example
  3733. @noindent
  3734. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  3735. braces, as in:
  3736. @example
  3737. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  3738. @end example
  3739. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  3740. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  3741. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  3742. these lines to activate any changes.
  3743. @noindent
  3744. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  3745. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  3746. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  3747. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  3748. configuration:
  3749. @lisp
  3750. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  3751. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  3752. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  3753. (:endgroup . nil)
  3754. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  3755. @end lisp
  3756. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  3757. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  3758. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  3759. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  3760. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  3761. keys:
  3762. @table @kbd
  3763. @item a-z...
  3764. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  3765. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  3766. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  3767. @kindex @key{TAB}
  3768. @item @key{TAB}
  3769. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  3770. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  3771. @kindex @key{SPC}
  3772. @item @key{SPC}
  3773. Clear all tags for this line.
  3774. @kindex @key{RET}
  3775. @item @key{RET}
  3776. Accept the modified set.
  3777. @item C-g
  3778. Abort without installing changes.
  3779. @item q
  3780. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  3781. @item !
  3782. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  3783. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  3784. @item C-c
  3785. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  3786. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  3787. selection window.
  3788. @end table
  3789. @noindent
  3790. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  3791. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  3792. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  3793. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  3794. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  3795. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  3796. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  3797. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  3798. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  3799. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  3800. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  3801. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  3802. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  3803. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  3804. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  3805. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  3806. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  3807. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  3808. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  3809. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  3810. @section Tag searches
  3811. @cindex tag searches
  3812. @cindex searching for tags
  3813. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  3814. information into special lists.
  3815. @table @kbd
  3816. @kindex C-c \
  3817. @kindex C-c / m
  3818. @item C-c \
  3819. @itemx C-c / m
  3820. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  3821. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  3822. @kindex C-c a m
  3823. @item C-c a m
  3824. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  3825. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  3826. @kindex C-c a M
  3827. @item C-c a M
  3828. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3829. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  3830. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  3831. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  3832. @end table
  3833. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  3834. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  3835. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  3836. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  3837. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  3838. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  3839. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  3840. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  3841. @chapter Properties and columns
  3842. @cindex properties
  3843. Properties are a set of key-value pairs associated with an entry. There
  3844. are two main applications for properties in Org-mode. First, properties
  3845. are like tags, but with a value. Second, you can use properties to
  3846. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. For
  3847. an example of the first application, imagine maintaining a file where
  3848. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  3849. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, one can use a
  3850. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  3851. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. For an example of the second
  3852. application of properties, imagine keeping track of your music CDs,
  3853. where properties could be things such as the album, artist, date of
  3854. release, number of tracks, and so on.
  3855. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  3856. (@pxref{Column view}).
  3857. @menu
  3858. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  3859. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  3860. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  3861. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  3862. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  3863. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  3864. @end menu
  3865. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  3866. @section Property syntax
  3867. @cindex property syntax
  3868. @cindex drawer, for properties
  3869. Properties are key-value pairs. They need to be inserted into a special
  3870. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  3871. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  3872. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  3873. @example
  3874. * CD collection
  3875. ** Classic
  3876. *** Goldberg Variations
  3877. :PROPERTIES:
  3878. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  3879. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  3880. :Artist: Glen Gould
  3881. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  3882. :NDisks: 1
  3883. :END:
  3884. @end example
  3885. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  3886. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  3887. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  3888. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  3889. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  3890. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  3891. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  3892. @example
  3893. * CD collection
  3894. :PROPERTIES:
  3895. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  3896. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  3897. :END:
  3898. @end example
  3899. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  3900. file, use a line like
  3901. @cindex property, _ALL
  3902. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  3903. @example
  3904. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  3905. @end example
  3906. @vindex org-global-properties
  3907. Property values set with the global variable
  3908. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  3909. Org files.
  3910. @noindent
  3911. The following commands help to work with properties:
  3912. @table @kbd
  3913. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3914. @item M-@key{TAB}
  3915. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  3916. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  3917. @kindex C-c C-x p
  3918. @item C-c C-x p
  3919. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  3920. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  3921. @item M-x org-insert-property-drawer
  3922. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  3923. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  3924. information like deadlines.
  3925. @kindex C-c C-c
  3926. @item C-c C-c
  3927. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  3928. @item C-c C-c s
  3929. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  3930. can be inserted using completion.
  3931. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3932. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3933. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  3934. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  3935. @item C-c C-c d
  3936. Remove a property from the current entry.
  3937. @item C-c C-c D
  3938. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  3939. @item C-c C-c c
  3940. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  3941. nearest column format definition.
  3942. @end table
  3943. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  3944. @section Special properties
  3945. @cindex properties, special
  3946. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org-mode
  3947. features, like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the
  3948. previous chapters. This interface exists so that you can include
  3949. these states in a column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in
  3950. queries. The following property names are special and should not be
  3951. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  3952. @cindex property, special, TODO
  3953. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  3954. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  3955. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  3956. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  3957. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  3958. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  3959. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  3960. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  3961. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  3962. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  3963. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  3964. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  3965. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  3966. @example
  3967. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  3968. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  3969. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  3970. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  3971. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  3972. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  3973. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  3974. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  3975. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  3976. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  3977. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  3978. @r{must be run first to compute the values.}
  3979. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  3980. ITEM @r{The content of the entry.}
  3981. @end example
  3982. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  3983. @section Property searches
  3984. @cindex properties, searching
  3985. @cindex searching, of properties
  3986. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  3987. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  3988. @table @kbd
  3989. @kindex C-c \
  3990. @kindex C-c / m
  3991. @item C-c \
  3992. @itemx C-c / m
  3993. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  3994. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  3995. @kindex C-c a m
  3996. @item C-c a m
  3997. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  3998. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  3999. @kindex C-c a M
  4000. @item C-c a M
  4001. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4002. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4003. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4004. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4005. @end table
  4006. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4007. properties}.
  4008. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4009. single property:
  4010. @table @kbd
  4011. @kindex C-c / p
  4012. @item C-c / p
  4013. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4014. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4015. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4016. value. If you enclose the value into curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4017. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4018. @end table
  4019. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4020. @section Property Inheritance
  4021. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4022. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4023. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4024. The outline structure of Org-mode documents lends itself for an
  4025. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4026. property, the children can inherit this property. Org-mode does not
  4027. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4028. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4029. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4030. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4031. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4032. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4033. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4034. interpreted as an explicit undefine of he property, so that inheritance
  4035. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4036. Org-mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4037. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4038. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4039. @table @code
  4040. @item COLUMNS
  4041. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4042. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4043. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4044. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4045. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4046. @item CATEGORY
  4047. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4048. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4049. applies to the entire subtree.
  4050. @item ARCHIVE
  4051. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4052. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4053. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4054. @item LOGGING
  4055. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4056. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4057. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4058. @end table
  4059. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4060. @section Column view
  4061. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4062. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4063. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4064. entries. Org-mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4065. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4066. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4067. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4068. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4069. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4070. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4071. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4072. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4073. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4074. @menu
  4075. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4076. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4077. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4078. @end menu
  4079. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4080. @subsection Defining columns
  4081. @cindex column view, for properties
  4082. @cindex properties, column view
  4083. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4084. done by defining a column format line.
  4085. @menu
  4086. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4087. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4088. @end menu
  4089. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4090. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4091. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4092. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4093. @example
  4094. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4095. @end example
  4096. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4097. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4098. @example
  4099. ** Top node for columns view
  4100. :PROPERTIES:
  4101. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4102. :END:
  4103. @end example
  4104. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4105. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4106. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4107. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4108. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4109. deeper part of the tree.
  4110. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4111. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4112. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4113. definition looks like this:
  4114. @example
  4115. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4116. @end example
  4117. @noindent
  4118. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4119. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4120. @example
  4121. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4122. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4123. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4124. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4125. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4126. (title) @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the}
  4127. @r{property name is used.}
  4128. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4129. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4130. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4131. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4132. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4133. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4134. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4135. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4136. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4137. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4138. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4139. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4140. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4141. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4142. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4143. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4144. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4145. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4146. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4147. @end example
  4148. @noindent
  4149. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4150. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4151. same summary information.
  4152. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4153. values.
  4154. @example
  4155. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4156. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4157. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4158. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4159. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4160. @end example
  4161. @noindent
  4162. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4163. item itself, i.e. of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4164. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4165. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4166. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4167. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4168. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4169. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4170. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4171. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4172. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4173. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4174. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4175. in the subtree.
  4176. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4177. @subsection Using column view
  4178. @table @kbd
  4179. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4180. @kindex C-c C-x C-c
  4181. @item C-c C-x C-c
  4182. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4183. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4184. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4185. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4186. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4187. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4188. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4189. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4190. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4191. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4192. @kindex r
  4193. @item r
  4194. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4195. @kindex g
  4196. @item g
  4197. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4198. @kindex q
  4199. @item q
  4200. Exit column view.
  4201. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4202. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4203. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4204. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4205. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4206. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4207. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4208. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4209. @item 1..9,0
  4210. Directly select the nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4211. @kindex n
  4212. @kindex p
  4213. @itemx n / p
  4214. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4215. @kindex e
  4216. @item e
  4217. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4218. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4219. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4220. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4221. @kindex C-c C-c
  4222. @item C-c C-c
  4223. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4224. @kindex v
  4225. @item v
  4226. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4227. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4228. @kindex a
  4229. @item a
  4230. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4231. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4232. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4233. current column view.
  4234. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4235. @kindex <
  4236. @kindex >
  4237. @item < / >
  4238. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4239. @kindex S-M-@key{right}
  4240. @item S-M-@key{right}
  4241. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4242. @kindex S-M-@key{left}
  4243. @item S-M-@key{left}
  4244. Delete the current column.
  4245. @end table
  4246. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4247. @subsection Capturing column view
  4248. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4249. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4250. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4251. of this block looks like this:
  4252. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4253. @example
  4254. * The column view
  4255. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4256. #+END:
  4257. @end example
  4258. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4259. @table @code
  4260. @item :id
  4261. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4262. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4263. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4264. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4265. @cindex property, ID
  4266. @example
  4267. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4268. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4269. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4270. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4271. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4272. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4273. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4274. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4275. @end example
  4276. @item :hlines
  4277. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4278. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4279. @item :vlines
  4280. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4281. @item :maxlevel
  4282. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4283. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4284. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4285. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4286. @end table
  4287. @noindent
  4288. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4289. @table @kbd
  4290. @kindex C-c C-x i
  4291. @item C-c C-x i
  4292. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4293. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4294. @kindex C-c C-c
  4295. @item C-c C-c
  4296. @kindex C-c C-x C-u
  4297. @itemx C-c C-x C-u
  4298. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4299. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4300. @kindex C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4301. @item C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4302. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4303. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  4304. @end table
  4305. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4306. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4307. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4308. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4309. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4310. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4311. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4312. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4313. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4314. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4315. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4316. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4317. @section The Property API
  4318. @cindex properties, API
  4319. @cindex API, for properties
  4320. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4321. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4322. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4323. property API}.
  4324. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4325. @chapter Dates and times
  4326. @cindex dates
  4327. @cindex times
  4328. @cindex timestamp
  4329. @cindex date stamp
  4330. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4331. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4332. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org-mode. This may be a
  4333. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4334. something was created or last changed. However, in Org-mode this term
  4335. is used in a much wider sense.
  4336. @menu
  4337. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4338. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4339. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4340. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4341. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time if you've been idle
  4342. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4343. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4344. @end menu
  4345. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4346. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4347. @cindex timestamps
  4348. @cindex ranges, time
  4349. @cindex date stamps
  4350. @cindex deadlines
  4351. @cindex scheduling
  4352. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4353. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or
  4354. @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue
  4355. 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601 date/time
  4356. format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time format}.}. A
  4357. timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree entry.
  4358. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda
  4359. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4360. @table @var
  4361. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4362. @cindex timestamp
  4363. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4364. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4365. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4366. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4367. @example
  4368. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4369. * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4370. @end example
  4371. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4372. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4373. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4374. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4375. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4376. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4377. @example
  4378. * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4379. @end example
  4380. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4381. For more complex date specifications, Org-mode supports using the
  4382. special sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4383. package. For example
  4384. @example
  4385. * The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4386. <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  4387. @end example
  4388. @item Time/Date range
  4389. @cindex timerange
  4390. @cindex date range
  4391. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4392. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4393. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4394. @example
  4395. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4396. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4397. @end example
  4398. @item Inactive timestamp
  4399. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4400. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4401. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4402. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4403. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4404. @example
  4405. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4406. @end example
  4407. @end table
  4408. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4409. @section Creating timestamps
  4410. @cindex creating timestamps
  4411. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4412. For Org-mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4413. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4414. format.
  4415. @table @kbd
  4416. @kindex C-c .
  4417. @item C-c .
  4418. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4419. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4420. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4421. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4422. @c
  4423. @kindex C-c !
  4424. @item C-c !
  4425. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4426. an agenda entry.
  4427. @c
  4428. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4429. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4430. @item C-u C-c .
  4431. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4432. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4433. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4434. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4435. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4436. @c
  4437. @kindex C-c <
  4438. @item C-c <
  4439. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4440. @c
  4441. @kindex C-c >
  4442. @item C-c >
  4443. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4444. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4445. instead.
  4446. @c
  4447. @kindex C-c C-o
  4448. @item C-c C-o
  4449. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4450. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4451. @c
  4452. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4453. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4454. @item S-@key{left}
  4455. @itemx S-@key{right}
  4456. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4457. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4458. @c
  4459. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4460. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4461. @item S-@key{up}
  4462. @itemx S-@key{down}
  4463. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4464. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4465. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4466. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4467. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4468. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4469. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4470. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4471. @c
  4472. @kindex C-c C-y
  4473. @cindex evaluate time range
  4474. @item C-c C-y
  4475. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4476. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4477. the following column).
  4478. @end table
  4479. @menu
  4480. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  4481. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4482. @end menu
  4483. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4484. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4485. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4486. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4487. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4488. When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4489. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4490. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4491. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4492. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4493. copied from an email message. Org-mode will find whatever information is in
  4494. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4495. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4496. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4497. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4498. information, Org-mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4499. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4500. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4501. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4502. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4503. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4504. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4505. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4506. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org-mode are
  4507. in @b{bold}.
  4508. @example
  4509. 3-2-5 --> 2003-02-05
  4510. 2/5/3 --> 2003-02-05
  4511. 14 --> @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4512. 12 --> @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4513. 2/5 --> @b{2007}-02-05
  4514. Fri --> nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4515. sep 15 --> @b{2006}-09-15
  4516. feb 15 --> @b{2007}-02-15
  4517. sep 12 9 --> 2009-09-12
  4518. 12:45 --> @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4519. 22 sept 0:34 --> @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4520. w4 --> ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4521. 2012 w4 fri --> Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4522. 2012-w04-5 --> Same as above
  4523. @end example
  4524. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4525. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4526. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4527. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4528. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4529. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4530. the nth such day. E.g.
  4531. @example
  4532. +0 --> today
  4533. . --> today
  4534. +4d --> four days from today
  4535. +4 --> same as above
  4536. +2w --> two weeks from today
  4537. ++5 --> five days from default date
  4538. +2tue --> second Tuesday from now.
  4539. @end example
  4540. @vindex parse-time-months
  4541. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4542. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4543. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4544. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4545. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4546. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4547. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4548. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4549. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4550. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4551. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4552. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4553. from the minibuffer:
  4554. @kindex <
  4555. @kindex >
  4556. @kindex M-v
  4557. @kindex C-v
  4558. @kindex mouse-1
  4559. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4560. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4561. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4562. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4563. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4564. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4565. @kindex @key{RET}
  4566. @example
  4567. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4568. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4569. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4570. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4571. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4572. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4573. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4574. @end example
  4575. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4576. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4577. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4578. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4579. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4580. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4581. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4582. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4583. @subsection Custom time format
  4584. @cindex custom date/time format
  4585. @cindex time format, custom
  4586. @cindex date format, custom
  4587. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4588. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4589. Org-mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4590. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4591. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4592. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4593. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4594. @table @kbd
  4595. @kindex C-c C-x C-t
  4596. @item C-c C-x C-t
  4597. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4598. @end table
  4599. @noindent
  4600. Org-mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  4601. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  4602. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  4603. following consequences:
  4604. @itemize @bullet
  4605. @item
  4606. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  4607. after.
  4608. @item
  4609. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  4610. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  4611. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  4612. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  4613. time will be changed by one minute.
  4614. @item
  4615. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  4616. will not be overlayed, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  4617. @item
  4618. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  4619. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  4620. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  4621. @item
  4622. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  4623. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  4624. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  4625. @end itemize
  4626. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  4627. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  4628. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  4629. @table @var
  4630. @item DEADLINE
  4631. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  4632. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  4633. to be finished on that date.
  4634. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4635. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  4636. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  4637. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  4638. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  4639. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  4640. @example
  4641. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  4642. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  4643. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  4644. @end example
  4645. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  4646. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  4647. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  4648. @item SCHEDULED
  4649. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  4650. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  4651. date.
  4652. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  4653. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  4654. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  4655. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  4656. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  4657. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE.
  4658. I.e. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  4659. @example
  4660. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  4661. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  4662. @end example
  4663. @noindent
  4664. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org-mode should @i{not} be
  4665. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  4666. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  4667. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  4668. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  4669. Org users. In Org-mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  4670. want to start working on an action item.
  4671. @end table
  4672. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  4673. entries. Org-mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  4674. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  4675. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  4676. @c
  4677. @code{<%%(diary-float t 42)>}
  4678. @c
  4679. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org-mode does not
  4680. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  4681. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  4682. sexp entry matches.
  4683. @menu
  4684. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  4685. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  4686. @end menu
  4687. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  4688. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  4689. The following commands allow you to quickly insert a deadline or to schedule
  4690. an item:
  4691. @table @kbd
  4692. @c
  4693. @kindex C-c C-d
  4694. @item C-c C-d
  4695. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  4696. in the line directly following the headline. When called with a prefix arg,
  4697. an existing deadline will be removed from the entry. Depending on the
  4698. variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  4699. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  4700. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4701. deadline.
  4702. @c FIXME Any CLOSED timestamp will be removed.????????
  4703. @c
  4704. @kindex C-c C-s
  4705. @item C-c C-s
  4706. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  4707. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  4708. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  4709. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  4710. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  4711. keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline}, and
  4712. @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4713. scheduling time.
  4714. @c
  4715. @kindex C-c C-x C-k
  4716. @kindex k a
  4717. @kindex k s
  4718. @item C-c C-x C-k
  4719. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  4720. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  4721. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  4722. schedule the marked item.
  4723. @c
  4724. @kindex C-c / d
  4725. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  4726. @item C-c / d
  4727. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4728. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  4729. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  4730. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  4731. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  4732. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  4733. @c
  4734. @kindex C-c / b
  4735. @item C-c / b
  4736. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  4737. @c
  4738. @kindex C-c / a
  4739. @item C-c / a
  4740. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  4741. @end table
  4742. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  4743. @subsection Repeated tasks
  4744. @cindex tasks, repeated
  4745. @cindex repeated tasks
  4746. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org-mode helps to
  4747. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  4748. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  4749. @example
  4750. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4751. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  4752. @end example
  4753. @noindent
  4754. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  4755. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  4756. from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in
  4757. a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last:
  4758. @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  4759. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  4760. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  4761. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  4762. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  4763. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  4764. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  4765. repeated entry will not be active. Org-mode deals with this in the following
  4766. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  4767. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  4768. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  4769. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  4770. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  4771. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  4772. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  4773. switch the date like this:
  4774. @example
  4775. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4776. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  4777. @end example
  4778. @vindex org-log-repeat
  4779. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  4780. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  4781. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  4782. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  4783. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  4784. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  4785. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  4786. will be visible.
  4787. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  4788. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  4789. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  4790. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  4791. forgot to call you father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  4792. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  4793. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  4794. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org-mode has
  4795. special repeaters markers with @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  4796. @example
  4797. ** TODO Call Father
  4798. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  4799. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  4800. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  4801. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  4802. and marked it done on Saturday.
  4803. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  4804. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  4805. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  4806. today.
  4807. @end example
  4808. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  4809. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  4810. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  4811. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  4812. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  4813. @node Clocking work time, Resolving idle time, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  4814. @section Clocking work time
  4815. Org-mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  4816. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock.
  4817. When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the
  4818. clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It
  4819. also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project. And it
  4820. remembers a history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly
  4821. between a number of tasks absorbing your time.
  4822. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  4823. @lisp
  4824. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  4825. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  4826. @end lisp
  4827. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  4828. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  4829. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  4830. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  4831. what to do with it.
  4832. @table @kbd
  4833. @kindex C-c C-x C-i
  4834. @item C-c C-x C-i
  4835. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  4836. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  4837. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  4838. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  4839. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  4840. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  4841. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  4842. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task.
  4843. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task,
  4844. with letter @kbd{d}.@*
  4845. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  4846. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  4847. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  4848. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  4849. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  4850. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  4851. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  4852. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  4853. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  4854. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  4855. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  4856. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  4857. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  4858. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  4859. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  4860. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  4861. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  4862. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  4863. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  4864. @kindex C-c C-x C-o
  4865. @item C-c C-x C-o
  4866. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  4867. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  4868. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  4869. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  4870. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  4871. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  4872. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  4873. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  4874. @kindex C-c C-x C-e
  4875. @item C-c C-x C-e
  4876. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  4877. @kindex C-c C-y
  4878. @kindex C-c C-c
  4879. @item C-c C-y @ @ @r{or}@ @ C-c C-c
  4880. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  4881. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  4882. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  4883. @kindex C-c C-t
  4884. @item C-c C-t
  4885. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  4886. if it is running in this same item.
  4887. @kindex C-c C-x C-x
  4888. @item C-c C-x C-x
  4889. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  4890. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  4891. @kindex C-c C-x C-j
  4892. @item C-c C-x C-j
  4893. Jump to the entry that contains the currently running clock. With a
  4894. @kbd{C-u} prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked
  4895. tasks.
  4896. @kindex C-c C-x C-d
  4897. @item C-c C-x C-d
  4898. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  4899. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This
  4900. puts overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time
  4901. recorded under that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You
  4902. can use visibility cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear
  4903. when you change the buffer (see variable
  4904. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  4905. @kindex C-c C-x C-r
  4906. @item C-c C-x C-r
  4907. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  4908. report as an Org-mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  4909. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  4910. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  4911. update it.
  4912. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  4913. @example
  4914. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  4915. #+END: clocktable
  4916. @end example
  4917. @noindent
  4918. If such a block already exists at point, its content is replaced by the
  4919. new table. The @samp{BEGIN} line can specify options:
  4920. @example
  4921. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  4922. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  4923. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  4924. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  4925. file @r{the full current buffer}
  4926. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  4927. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  4928. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  4929. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  4930. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  4931. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  4932. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  4933. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  4934. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  4935. @r{these formats:}
  4936. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  4937. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  4938. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  4939. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  4940. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  4941. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  4942. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  4943. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  4944. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  4945. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  4946. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  4947. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  4948. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  4949. :stepskip0 @r{Don't show steps that have zero time}
  4950. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute}
  4951. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  4952. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  4953. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  4954. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula.}
  4955. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  4956. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  4957. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  4958. @end example
  4959. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  4960. day, you could write
  4961. @example
  4962. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  4963. #+END: clocktable
  4964. @end example
  4965. @noindent
  4966. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  4967. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  4968. only to fit it into the manual.}
  4969. @example
  4970. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  4971. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  4972. #+END: clocktable
  4973. @end example
  4974. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  4975. @example
  4976. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  4977. #+END: clocktable
  4978. @end example
  4979. @kindex C-c C-c
  4980. @item C-c C-c
  4981. @kindex C-c C-x C-u
  4982. @itemx C-c C-x C-u
  4983. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4984. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4985. @kindex C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4986. @item C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4987. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4988. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  4989. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4990. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4991. @item S-@key{left}
  4992. @itemx S-@key{right}
  4993. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  4994. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  4995. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  4996. @end table
  4997. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  4998. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  4999. worked on or closed during a day.
  5000. @node Resolving idle time, Effort estimates, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5001. @section Resolving idle time
  5002. @cindex resolve idle time
  5003. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5004. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5005. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5006. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5007. applying it to another one.
  5008. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5009. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5010. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5011. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5012. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5013. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5014. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5015. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5016. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5017. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5018. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5019. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5020. @table @kbd
  5021. @item k
  5022. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5023. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5024. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5025. @item K
  5026. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5027. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5028. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5029. @item s
  5030. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5031. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5032. @item S
  5033. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5034. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5035. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5036. @item C
  5037. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5038. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5039. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5040. log with an empty entry.
  5041. @end table
  5042. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5043. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5044. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5045. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5046. the next task you clock in on.
  5047. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5048. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5049. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5050. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5051. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5052. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5053. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5054. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5055. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5056. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness, it's just happening due
  5057. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5058. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5059. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5060. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Resolving idle time, Dates and Times
  5061. @section Effort estimates
  5062. @cindex effort estimates
  5063. @cindex property, Effort
  5064. @vindex org-effort-property
  5065. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5066. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5067. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5068. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5069. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5070. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5071. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5072. for an entry with the following commands:
  5073. @table @kbd
  5074. @kindex C-c C-x e
  5075. @item C-c C-x e
  5076. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5077. argument, set it to the NTH allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5078. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5079. @kindex C-c C-x C-e
  5080. @item C-c C-x C-e
  5081. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5082. @end table
  5083. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5084. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5085. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5086. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5087. buffer you can use
  5088. @example
  5089. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00
  5090. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5091. @end example
  5092. @noindent
  5093. @vindex org-global-properties
  5094. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5095. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5096. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5097. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5098. setup may be advised.
  5099. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5100. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5101. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5102. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5103. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5104. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5105. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5106. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5107. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5108. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5109. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5110. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5111. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5112. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5113. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5114. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5115. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5116. @node Relative timer, , Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5117. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5118. @cindex relative timer
  5119. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5120. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5121. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5122. @table @kbd
  5123. @kindex C-c C-x .
  5124. @item C-c C-x .
  5125. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5126. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5127. restarted.
  5128. @kindex C-c C-x -
  5129. @item C-c C-x -
  5130. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5131. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5132. @kindex M-@key{RET}
  5133. @item M-@key{RET}
  5134. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5135. new timer items.
  5136. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5137. @item C-c C-x ,
  5138. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused.
  5139. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5140. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5141. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5142. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5143. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5144. @kindex C-c C-x 0
  5145. @item C-c C-x 0
  5146. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5147. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5148. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5149. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5150. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5151. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5152. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5153. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5154. @end table
  5155. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5156. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5157. @cindex capture
  5158. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5159. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5160. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5161. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5162. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5163. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5164. @menu
  5165. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5166. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5167. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5168. * Protocols:: External (e.g. Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5169. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5170. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5171. @end menu
  5172. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5173. @section Capture
  5174. @cindex capture
  5175. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5176. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5177. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org-mode for
  5178. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5179. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5180. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5181. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5182. @example
  5183. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5184. @end example
  5185. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5186. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5187. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5188. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5189. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5190. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5191. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5192. @menu
  5193. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5194. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5195. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5196. @end menu
  5197. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5198. @subsection Setting up capture
  5199. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5200. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5201. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5202. @example
  5203. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5204. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5205. @end example
  5206. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5207. @subsection Using capture
  5208. @table @kbd
  5209. @kindex C-c c
  5210. @item C-c c
  5211. Call the command @code{org-capture}. If you have templates defined
  5212. @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for selection or use
  5213. a new Org outline node as the default template. It will insert the template
  5214. into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer narrowed to this new
  5215. node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5216. @kindex C-c C-c
  5217. @item C-c C-c
  5218. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer,
  5219. @kbd{C-c C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture
  5220. process, so that you can resume your work without further distraction.
  5221. @kindex C-c C-w
  5222. @item C-c C-w
  5223. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5224. a different place.
  5225. @kindex C-c C-k
  5226. @item C-c C-k
  5227. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5228. @end table
  5229. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5230. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5231. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5232. rather than to the current date.
  5233. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5234. @subsection Capture templates
  5235. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5236. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5237. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5238. through the customize interface.
  5239. @table @kbd
  5240. @kindex C-c c C
  5241. @item C-c c C
  5242. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5243. @end table
  5244. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5245. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5246. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5247. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5248. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5249. would look like:
  5250. @example
  5251. (setq org-capture-templates
  5252. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5253. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5254. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5255. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5256. @end example
  5257. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5258. for you like this:
  5259. @example
  5260. * TODO
  5261. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5262. @end example
  5263. @noindent
  5264. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5265. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5266. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5267. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same
  5268. place where you started the capture process.
  5269. @menu
  5270. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  5271. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  5272. @end menu
  5273. @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates
  5274. @subsubsection Template elements
  5275. Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in
  5276. @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items:
  5277. @table @var
  5278. @item keys
  5279. The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters
  5280. only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a
  5281. single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using
  5282. several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential
  5283. in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the
  5284. prefix key, for example
  5285. @example
  5286. ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy")
  5287. @end example
  5288. @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will
  5289. be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable.
  5290. @item description
  5291. A short string describing the template, which will be shown during
  5292. selection.
  5293. @item type
  5294. The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are:
  5295. @table @code
  5296. @item entry
  5297. An Org-mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the
  5298. target entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org-mode
  5299. file.
  5300. @item item
  5301. A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target
  5302. location. Again the target file should be an Org file.
  5303. @item checkitem
  5304. A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the
  5305. default template.
  5306. @item table-line
  5307. a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the
  5308. line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and
  5309. @code{:table-line-pos} (see below).
  5310. @item plain
  5311. Text to be inserted as it is.
  5312. @end table
  5313. @item target
  5314. Specification of where the captured item should be placed.
  5315. In Org-mode files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become
  5316. children of this node, other types will be added to the table or list in the
  5317. body of this node.
  5318. Valid values are:
  5319. @table @code
  5320. @item (file "path/to/file")
  5321. Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file.
  5322. @item (id "id of existing org entry")
  5323. Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry.
  5324. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline")
  5325. Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file.
  5326. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...)
  5327. For non-unique headings, the full path is safer.
  5328. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location")
  5329. Use a regular expression to position the cursor.
  5330. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file")
  5331. Will create a heading in a date tree.
  5332. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location)
  5333. A function to find the right location in the file.
  5334. @item (clock)
  5335. File to the entry that is currently being clocked.
  5336. @item (function function-finding-location)
  5337. Most general way, write your own function to find both
  5338. file and location.
  5339. @end table
  5340. @item template
  5341. The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an
  5342. appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with
  5343. escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the
  5344. capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file,
  5345. using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for
  5346. more details.
  5347. @item properties
  5348. The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options.
  5349. Recognized properties are:
  5350. @table @code
  5351. @item :prepend
  5352. Normally new captured information will be appended at
  5353. the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...).
  5354. Setting this property will change that.
  5355. @item :immediate-finish
  5356. When set, do not offer to edit the information, just
  5357. file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs
  5358. information that can be added automatically.
  5359. @item :empty-lines
  5360. Set this to the number of lines to insert
  5361. before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1.
  5362. @item :clock-in
  5363. Start the clock in this item.
  5364. @item :clock-resume
  5365. If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished
  5366. with the capture.
  5367. @item :unnarrowed
  5368. Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to
  5369. narrow it so that you only see the new material.
  5370. @end table
  5371. @end table
  5372. @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates
  5373. @subsubsection Template expansion
  5374. In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of
  5375. these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow
  5376. dynamic insertion of content:
  5377. @comment SJE: should these sentences terminate in period?
  5378. @smallexample
  5379. %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
  5380. @r{You may specify a default value and a completion table with}
  5381. @r{%^@{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...@}}
  5382. @r{The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history.}
  5383. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}}
  5384. %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part}
  5385. %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the}
  5386. @r{region is active.}
  5387. @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
  5388. %t @r{timestamp, date only}
  5389. %T @r{timestamp with date and time}
  5390. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps}
  5391. %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}}
  5392. @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}}
  5393. %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name})}
  5394. %c @r{Current kill ring head.}
  5395. %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.}
  5396. %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.}
  5397. %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.}
  5398. %k @r{title of the currently clocked task}
  5399. %K @r{link to the currently clocked task}
  5400. %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.}
  5401. %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.}
  5402. %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}}
  5403. %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below}
  5404. %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}}
  5405. %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result}
  5406. @end smallexample
  5407. @noindent
  5408. For specific link types, the following keywords will be
  5409. defined@footnote{If you define your own link types (@pxref{Adding
  5410. hyperlink types}), any property you store with
  5411. @code{org-store-link-props} can be accessed in capture templates in a
  5412. similar way.}:
  5413. @vindex org-from-is-user-regexp
  5414. @smallexample
  5415. Link type | Available keywords
  5416. -------------------+----------------------------------------------
  5417. bbdb | %:name %:company
  5418. bbdb | %::server %:port %:nick
  5419. vm, wl, mh, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id
  5420. | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress
  5421. | %:to %:toname %:toaddress
  5422. | %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}}
  5423. gnus | %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields}
  5424. w3, w3m | %:url
  5425. info | %:file %:node
  5426. calendar | %:date
  5427. @end smallexample
  5428. @noindent
  5429. To place the cursor after template expansion use:
  5430. @smallexample
  5431. %? @r{After completing the template, position cursor here.}
  5432. @end smallexample
  5433. @node Attachments, RSS Feeds, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5434. @section Attachments
  5435. @cindex attachments
  5436. @vindex org-attach-directory
  5437. It is often useful to associate reference material with an outline node/task.
  5438. Small chunks of plain text can simply be stored in the subtree of a project.
  5439. Hyperlinks (@pxref{Hyperlinks}) can establish associations with
  5440. files that live elsewhere on your computer or in the cloud, like emails or
  5441. source code files belonging to a project. Another method is @i{attachments},
  5442. which are files located in a directory belonging to an outline node. Org
  5443. uses directories named by the unique ID of each entry. These directories are
  5444. located in the @file{data} directory which lives in the same directory where
  5445. your Org file lives@footnote{If you move entries or Org files from one
  5446. directory to another, you may want to configure @code{org-attach-directory}
  5447. to contain an absolute path.}. If you initialize this directory with
  5448. @code{git init}, Org will automatically commit changes when it sees them.
  5449. The attachment system has been contributed to Org by John Wiegley.
  5450. In cases where it seems better to do so, you can also attach a directory of your
  5451. choice to an entry. You can also make children inherit the attachment
  5452. directory from a parent, so that an entire subtree uses the same attached
  5453. directory.
  5454. @noindent The following commands deal with attachments:
  5455. @table @kbd
  5456. @kindex C-c C-a
  5457. @item C-c C-a
  5458. The dispatcher for commands related to the attachment system. After these
  5459. keys, a list of commands is displayed and you must press an additional key
  5460. to select a command:
  5461. @table @kbd
  5462. @kindex C-c C-a a
  5463. @item a
  5464. @vindex org-attach-method
  5465. Select a file and move it into the task's attachment directory. The file
  5466. will be copied, moved, or linked, depending on @code{org-attach-method}.
  5467. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5468. @kindex C-c C-a c
  5469. @kindex C-c C-a m
  5470. @kindex C-c C-a l
  5471. @item c/m/l
  5472. Attach a file using the copy/move/link method.
  5473. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5474. @kindex C-c C-a n
  5475. @item n
  5476. Create a new attachment as an Emacs buffer.
  5477. @kindex C-c C-a z
  5478. @item z
  5479. Synchronize the current task with its attachment directory, in case you added
  5480. attachments yourself.
  5481. @kindex C-c C-a o
  5482. @item o
  5483. @vindex org-file-apps
  5484. Open current task's attachment. If there is more than one, prompt for a
  5485. file name first. Opening will follow the rules set by @code{org-file-apps}.
  5486. For more details, see the information on following hyperlinks
  5487. (@pxref{Handling links}).
  5488. @kindex C-c C-a O
  5489. @item O
  5490. Also open the attachment, but force opening the file in Emacs.
  5491. @kindex C-c C-a f
  5492. @item f
  5493. Open the current task's attachment directory.
  5494. @kindex C-c C-a F
  5495. @item F
  5496. Also open the directory, but force using @command{dired} in Emacs.
  5497. @kindex C-c C-a d
  5498. @item d
  5499. Select and delete a single attachment.
  5500. @kindex C-c C-a D
  5501. @item D
  5502. Delete all of a task's attachments. A safer way is to open the directory in
  5503. @command{dired} and delete from there.
  5504. @kindex C-c C-a s
  5505. @item C-c C-a s
  5506. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR
  5507. Set a specific directory as the entry's attachment directory. This works by
  5508. putting the directory path into the @code{ATTACH_DIR} property.
  5509. @kindex C-c C-a i
  5510. @item C-c C-a i
  5511. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT
  5512. Set the @code{ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT} property, so that children will use the
  5513. same directory for attachments as the parent does.
  5514. @end table
  5515. @end table
  5516. @node RSS Feeds, Protocols, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5517. @section RSS feeds
  5518. @cindex RSS feeds
  5519. @cindex Atom feeds
  5520. Org can add and change entries based on information found in RSS feeds and
  5521. Atom feeds. You could use this to make a task out of each new podcast in a
  5522. podcast feed. Or you could use a phone-based note-creating service on the
  5523. web to import tasks into Org. To access feeds, configure the variable
  5524. @code{org-feed-alist}. The docstring of this variable has detailed
  5525. information. Here is just an example:
  5526. @example
  5527. (setq org-feed-alist
  5528. '(("Slashdot"
  5529. "http://rss.slashdot.org/Slashdot/slashdot"
  5530. "~/txt/org/feeds.org" "Slashdot Entries")))
  5531. @end example
  5532. @noindent
  5533. will configure that new items from the feed provided by
  5534. @code{rss.slashdot.org} will result in new entries in the file
  5535. @file{~/org/feeds.org} under the heading @samp{Slashdot Entries}, whenever
  5536. the following command is used:
  5537. @table @kbd
  5538. @kindex C-c C-x g
  5539. @item C-c C-x g
  5540. Collect items from the feeds configured in @code{org-feed-alist} and act upon
  5541. them.
  5542. @kindex C-c C-x G
  5543. @item C-c C-x G
  5544. Prompt for a feed name and go to the inbox configured for this feed.
  5545. @end table
  5546. Under the same headline, Org will create a drawer @samp{FEEDSTATUS} in which
  5547. it will store information about the status of items in the feed, to avoid
  5548. adding the same item several times. You should add @samp{FEEDSTATUS} to the
  5549. list of drawers in that file:
  5550. @example
  5551. #+DRAWERS: LOGBOOK PROPERTIES FEEDSTATUS
  5552. @end example
  5553. For more information, including how to read atom feeds, see
  5554. @file{org-feed.el} and the docstring of @code{org-feed-alist}.
  5555. @node Protocols, Refiling notes, RSS Feeds, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5556. @section Protocols for external access
  5557. @cindex protocols, for external access
  5558. @cindex emacsserver
  5559. You can set up Org for handling protocol calls from outside applications that
  5560. are passed to Emacs through the @file{emacsserver}. For example, you can
  5561. configure bookmarks in your web browser to send a link to the current page to
  5562. Org and create a note from it using capture (@pxref{Capture}). Or you
  5563. could create a bookmark that will tell Emacs to open the local source file of
  5564. a remote website you are looking at with the browser. See
  5565. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/org-protocol.php} for detailed
  5566. documentation and setup instructions.
  5567. @node Refiling notes, Archiving, Protocols, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5568. @section Refiling notes
  5569. @cindex refiling notes
  5570. When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile some of the entries
  5571. into a different list, for example into a project. Cutting, finding the
  5572. right location, and then pasting the note is cumbersome. To simplify this
  5573. process, you can use the following special command:
  5574. @table @kbd
  5575. @kindex C-c C-w
  5576. @item C-c C-w
  5577. @vindex org-reverse-note-order
  5578. @vindex org-refile-targets
  5579. @vindex org-refile-use-outline-path
  5580. @vindex org-outline-path-complete-in-steps
  5581. @vindex org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes
  5582. @vindex org-log-refile
  5583. @vindex org-refile-use-cache
  5584. Refile the entry or region at point. This command offers possible locations
  5585. for refiling the entry and lets you select one with completion. The item (or
  5586. all items in the region) is filed below the target heading as a subitem.
  5587. Depending on @code{org-reverse-note-order}, it will be either the first or
  5588. last subitem.@*
  5589. By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are considered to be
  5590. targets, but you can have more complex definitions across a number of files.
  5591. See the variable @code{org-refile-targets} for details. If you would like to
  5592. select a location via a file-path-like completion along the outline path, see
  5593. the variables @code{org-refile-use-outline-path} and
  5594. @code{org-outline-path-complete-in-steps}. If you would like to be able to
  5595. create new nodes as new parents for refiling on the fly, check the
  5596. variable @code{org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes}.
  5597. When the variable @code{org-log-refile}@footnote{with corresponding
  5598. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logrefile}, @code{lognoterefile},
  5599. and @code{nologrefile}} is set, a time stamp or a note will be
  5600. recorded when an entry has been refiled.
  5601. @kindex C-u C-c C-w
  5602. @item C-u C-c C-w
  5603. Use the refile interface to jump to a heading.
  5604. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5605. @item C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5606. Jump to the location where @code{org-refile} last moved a tree to.
  5607. @item C-2 C-c C-w
  5608. Refile as the child of the item currently being clocked.
  5609. @item C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5610. Clear the target cache. Caching of refile targets can be turned on by
  5611. setting @code{org-refile-use-cache}. To make the command seen new possible
  5612. targets, you have to clear the cache with this command.
  5613. @end table
  5614. @node Archiving, , Refiling notes, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5615. @section Archiving
  5616. @cindex archiving
  5617. When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
  5618. to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
  5619. agenda. Archiving is important to keep your working files compact and global
  5620. searches like the construction of agenda views fast.
  5621. @table @kbd
  5622. @kindex C-c C-x C-a
  5623. @item C-c C-x C-a
  5624. @vindex org-archive-default-command
  5625. Archive the current entry using the command specified in the variable
  5626. @code{org-archive-default-command}.
  5627. @end table
  5628. @menu
  5629. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  5630. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  5631. @end menu
  5632. @node Moving subtrees, Internal archiving, Archiving, Archiving
  5633. @subsection Moving a tree to the archive file
  5634. @cindex external archiving
  5635. The most common archiving action is to move a project tree to another file,
  5636. the archive file.
  5637. @table @kbd
  5638. @kindex C-c $
  5639. @kindex C-c C-x C-s
  5640. @item C-c C-x C-s@ @r{or short} @ C-c $
  5641. @vindex org-archive-location
  5642. Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
  5643. given by @code{org-archive-location}.
  5644. @kindex C-u C-c C-x C-s
  5645. @item C-u C-c C-x C-s
  5646. Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to
  5647. the archive. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.
  5648. If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive
  5649. location. If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command
  5650. is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.
  5651. @end table
  5652. @cindex archive locations
  5653. The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
  5654. current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
  5655. current file name. For information and examples on how to change this,
  5656. see the documentation string of the variable
  5657. @code{org-archive-location}. There is also an in-buffer option for
  5658. setting this variable, for example@footnote{For backward compatibility,
  5659. the following also works: If there are several such lines in a file,
  5660. each specifies the archive location for the text below it. The first
  5661. such line also applies to any text before its definition. However,
  5662. using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is incompatible
  5663. with the outline structure of the document. The correct method for
  5664. setting multiple archive locations in a buffer is using properties.}:
  5665. @cindex #+ARCHIVE
  5666. @example
  5667. #+ARCHIVE: %s_done::
  5668. @end example
  5669. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  5670. @noindent
  5671. If you would like to have a special ARCHIVE location for a single entry
  5672. or a (sub)tree, give the entry an @code{:ARCHIVE:} property with the
  5673. location as the value (@pxref{Properties and Columns}).
  5674. @vindex org-archive-save-context-info
  5675. When a subtree is moved, it receives a number of special properties that
  5676. record context information like the file from where the entry came, its
  5677. outline path the archiving time etc. Configure the variable
  5678. @code{org-archive-save-context-info} to adjust the amount of information
  5679. added.
  5680. @node Internal archiving, , Moving subtrees, Archiving
  5681. @subsection Internal archiving
  5682. If you want to just switch off (for agenda views) certain subtrees without
  5683. moving them to a different file, you can use the @code{ARCHIVE tag}.
  5684. A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at
  5685. its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way:
  5686. @itemize @minus
  5687. @item
  5688. @vindex org-cycle-open-archived-trees
  5689. It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling
  5690. command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}). You can force cycling archived
  5691. subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option
  5692. @code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}. Also normal outline commands like
  5693. @code{show-all} will open archived subtrees.
  5694. @item
  5695. @vindex org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees
  5696. During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in
  5697. archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option
  5698. @code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}.
  5699. @item
  5700. @vindex org-agenda-skip-archived-trees
  5701. During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda Views}), the content of
  5702. archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option
  5703. @code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}, in which case these trees will always
  5704. be included. In the agenda you can press @kbd{v a} to get archives
  5705. temporarily included.
  5706. @item
  5707. @vindex org-export-with-archived-trees
  5708. Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline
  5709. is. Configure the details using the variable
  5710. @code{org-export-with-archived-trees}.
  5711. @item
  5712. @vindex org-columns-skip-archived-trees
  5713. Archived trees are excluded from column view unless the variable
  5714. @code{org-columns-skip-archived-trees} is configured to @code{nil}.
  5715. @end itemize
  5716. The following commands help manage the ARCHIVE tag:
  5717. @table @kbd
  5718. @kindex C-c C-x a
  5719. @item C-c C-x a
  5720. Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline. When the tag is set,
  5721. the headline changes to a shadowed face, and the subtree below it is
  5722. hidden.
  5723. @kindex C-u C-c C-x a
  5724. @item C-u C-c C-x a
  5725. Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived.
  5726. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries. If none are
  5727. found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child. If the
  5728. cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the
  5729. level 1 trees will be checked.
  5730. @kindex C-@kbd{TAB}
  5731. @item C-@kbd{TAB}
  5732. Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE.
  5733. @kindex C-c C-x A
  5734. @item C-c C-x A
  5735. Move the current entry to the @emph{Archive Sibling}. This is a sibling of
  5736. the entry with the heading @samp{Archive} and the tag @samp{ARCHIVE}. The
  5737. entry becomes a child of that sibling and in this way retains a lot of its
  5738. original context, including inherited tags and approximate position in the
  5739. outline.
  5740. @end table
  5741. @node Agenda Views, Markup, Capture - Refile - Archive, Top
  5742. @chapter Agenda views
  5743. @cindex agenda views
  5744. Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and
  5745. tagged headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of
  5746. files. To get an overview of open action items, or of events that are
  5747. important for a particular date, this information must be collected,
  5748. sorted and displayed in an organized way.
  5749. Org can select items based on various criteria and display them
  5750. in a separate buffer. Seven different view types are provided:
  5751. @itemize @bullet
  5752. @item
  5753. an @emph{agenda} that is like a calendar and shows information
  5754. for specific dates,
  5755. @item
  5756. a @emph{TODO list} that covers all unfinished
  5757. action items,
  5758. @item
  5759. a @emph{match view}, showings headlines based on the tags, properties, and
  5760. TODO state associated with them,
  5761. @item
  5762. a @emph{timeline view} that shows all events in a single Org file,
  5763. in time-sorted view,
  5764. @item
  5765. a @emph{text search view} that shows all entries from multiple files
  5766. that contain specified keywords,
  5767. @item
  5768. a @emph{stuck projects view} showing projects that currently don't move
  5769. along, and
  5770. @item
  5771. @emph{custom views} that are special searches and combinations of different
  5772. views.
  5773. @end itemize
  5774. @noindent
  5775. The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda
  5776. buffer}. This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the
  5777. corresponding locations in the original Org files, and even to
  5778. edit these files remotely.
  5779. @vindex org-agenda-window-setup
  5780. @vindex org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit
  5781. Two variables control how the agenda buffer is displayed and whether the
  5782. window configuration is restored when the agenda exits:
  5783. @code{org-agenda-window-setup} and
  5784. @code{org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit}.
  5785. @menu
  5786. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  5787. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  5788. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  5789. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  5790. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  5791. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  5792. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  5793. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  5794. @end menu
  5795. @node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views, Agenda Views
  5796. @section Agenda files
  5797. @cindex agenda files
  5798. @cindex files for agenda
  5799. @vindex org-agenda-files
  5800. The information to be shown is normally collected from all @emph{agenda
  5801. files}, the files listed in the variable
  5802. @code{org-agenda-files}@footnote{If the value of that variable is not a
  5803. list, but a single file name, then the list of agenda files will be
  5804. maintained in that external file.}. If a directory is part of this list,
  5805. all files with the extension @file{.org} in this directory will be part
  5806. of the list.
  5807. Thus, even if you only work with a single Org file, that file should
  5808. be put into the list@footnote{When using the dispatcher, pressing
  5809. @kbd{<} before selecting a command will actually limit the command to
  5810. the current file, and ignore @code{org-agenda-files} until the next
  5811. dispatcher command.}. You can customize @code{org-agenda-files}, but
  5812. the easiest way to maintain it is through the following commands
  5813. @cindex files, adding to agenda list
  5814. @table @kbd
  5815. @kindex C-c [
  5816. @item C-c [
  5817. Add current file to the list of agenda files. The file is added to
  5818. the front of the list. If it was already in the list, it is moved to
  5819. the front. With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the end.
  5820. @kindex C-c ]
  5821. @item C-c ]
  5822. Remove current file from the list of agenda files.
  5823. @kindex C-,
  5824. @kindex C-'
  5825. @item C-,
  5826. @itemx C-'
  5827. Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.
  5828. @kindex M-x org-iswitchb
  5829. @item M-x org-iswitchb
  5830. Command to use an @code{iswitchb}-like interface to switch to and between Org
  5831. buffers.
  5832. @end table
  5833. @noindent
  5834. The Org menu contains the current list of files and can be used
  5835. to visit any of them.
  5836. If you would like to focus the agenda temporarily on a file not in
  5837. this list, or on just one file in the list, or even on only a subtree in a
  5838. file, then this can be done in different ways. For a single agenda command,
  5839. you may press @kbd{<} once or several times in the dispatcher
  5840. (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}). To restrict the agenda scope for an
  5841. extended period, use the following commands:
  5842. @table @kbd
  5843. @kindex C-c C-x <
  5844. @item C-c C-x <
  5845. Permanently restrict the agenda to the current subtree. When with a
  5846. prefix argument, or with the cursor before the first headline in a file,
  5847. the agenda scope is set to the entire file. This restriction remains in
  5848. effect until removed with @kbd{C-c C-x >}, or by typing either @kbd{<}
  5849. or @kbd{>} in the agenda dispatcher. If there is a window displaying an
  5850. agenda view, the new restriction takes effect immediately.
  5851. @kindex C-c C-x >
  5852. @item C-c C-x >
  5853. Remove the permanent restriction created by @kbd{C-c C-x <}.
  5854. @end table
  5855. @noindent
  5856. When working with @file{speedbar.el}, you can use the following commands in
  5857. the Speedbar frame:
  5858. @table @kbd
  5859. @kindex <
  5860. @item < @r{in the speedbar frame}
  5861. Permanently restrict the agenda to the item---either an Org file or a subtree
  5862. in such a file---at the cursor in the Speedbar frame.
  5863. If there is a window displaying an agenda view, the new restriction takes
  5864. effect immediately.
  5865. @kindex >
  5866. @item > @r{in the speedbar frame}
  5867. Lift the restriction.
  5868. @end table
  5869. @node Agenda dispatcher, Built-in agenda views, Agenda files, Agenda Views
  5870. @section The agenda dispatcher
  5871. @cindex agenda dispatcher
  5872. @cindex dispatching agenda commands
  5873. The views are created through a dispatcher, which should be bound to a
  5874. global key---for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Installation}). In the
  5875. following we will assume that @kbd{C-c a} is indeed how the dispatcher
  5876. is accessed and list keyboard access to commands accordingly. After
  5877. pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a
  5878. command. The dispatcher offers the following default commands:
  5879. @table @kbd
  5880. @item a
  5881. Create the calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  5882. @item t @r{/} T
  5883. Create a list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}).
  5884. @item m @r{/} M
  5885. Create a list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching
  5886. tags and properties}).
  5887. @item L
  5888. Create the timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}).
  5889. @item s
  5890. Create a list of entries selected by a boolean expression of keywords
  5891. and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in the entry.
  5892. @item /
  5893. @vindex org-agenda-text-search-extra-files
  5894. Search for a regular expression in all agenda files and additionally in
  5895. the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}. This
  5896. uses the Emacs command @code{multi-occur}. A prefix argument can be
  5897. used to specify the number of context lines for each match, default is
  5898. 1.
  5899. @item # @r{/} !
  5900. Create a list of stuck projects (@pxref{Stuck projects}).
  5901. @item <
  5902. Restrict an agenda command to the current buffer@footnote{For backward
  5903. compatibility, you can also press @kbd{1} to restrict to the current
  5904. buffer.}. After pressing @kbd{<}, you still need to press the character
  5905. selecting the command.
  5906. @item < <
  5907. If there is an active region, restrict the following agenda command to
  5908. the region. Otherwise, restrict it to the current subtree@footnote{For
  5909. backward compatibility, you can also press @kbd{0} to restrict to the
  5910. current region/subtree.}. After pressing @kbd{< <}, you still need to press the
  5911. character selecting the command.
  5912. @end table
  5913. You can also define custom commands that will be accessible through the
  5914. dispatcher, just like the default commands. This includes the
  5915. possibility to create extended agenda buffers that contain several
  5916. blocks together, for example the weekly agenda, the global TODO list and
  5917. a number of special tags matches. @xref{Custom agenda views}.
  5918. @node Built-in agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views
  5919. @section The built-in agenda views
  5920. In this section we describe the built-in views.
  5921. @menu
  5922. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  5923. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  5924. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  5925. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  5926. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  5927. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  5928. @end menu
  5929. @node Weekly/daily agenda, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views, Built-in agenda views
  5930. @subsection The weekly/daily agenda
  5931. @cindex agenda
  5932. @cindex weekly agenda
  5933. @cindex daily agenda
  5934. The purpose of the weekly/daily @emph{agenda} is to act like a page of a
  5935. paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day.
  5936. @table @kbd
  5937. @cindex org-agenda, command
  5938. @kindex C-c a a
  5939. @item C-c a a
  5940. @vindex org-agenda-ndays
  5941. Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of Org files. The agenda
  5942. shows the entries for each day. With a numeric prefix@footnote{For backward
  5943. compatibility, the universal prefix @kbd{C-u} causes all TODO entries to be
  5944. listed before the agenda. This feature is deprecated, use the dedicated TODO
  5945. list, or a block agenda instead (@pxref{Block agenda}).} (like @kbd{C-u 2 1
  5946. C-c a a}) you may set the number of days to be displayed (see also the
  5947. variable @code{org-agenda-ndays})
  5948. @end table
  5949. Remote editing from the agenda buffer means, for example, that you can
  5950. change the dates of deadlines and appointments from the agenda buffer.
  5951. The commands available in the Agenda buffer are listed in @ref{Agenda
  5952. commands}.
  5953. @subsubheading Calendar/Diary integration
  5954. @cindex calendar integration
  5955. @cindex diary integration
  5956. Emacs contains the calendar and diary by Edward M. Reingold. The
  5957. calendar displays a three-month calendar with holidays from different
  5958. countries and cultures. The diary allows you to keep track of
  5959. anniversaries, lunar phases, sunrise/set, recurrent appointments
  5960. (weekly, monthly) and more. In this way, it is quite complementary to
  5961. Org. It can be very useful to combine output from Org with
  5962. the diary.
  5963. In order to include entries from the Emacs diary into Org-mode's
  5964. agenda, you only need to customize the variable
  5965. @lisp
  5966. (setq org-agenda-include-diary t)
  5967. @end lisp
  5968. @noindent After that, everything will happen automatically. All diary
  5969. entries including holidays, anniversaries, etc., will be included in the
  5970. agenda buffer created by Org-mode. @key{SPC}, @key{TAB}, and
  5971. @key{RET} can be used from the agenda buffer to jump to the diary
  5972. file in order to edit existing diary entries. The @kbd{i} command to
  5973. insert new entries for the current date works in the agenda buffer, as
  5974. well as the commands @kbd{S}, @kbd{M}, and @kbd{C} to display
  5975. Sunrise/Sunset times, show lunar phases and to convert to other
  5976. calendars, respectively. @kbd{c} can be used to switch back and forth
  5977. between calendar and agenda.
  5978. If you are using the diary only for sexp entries and holidays, it is
  5979. faster to not use the above setting, but instead to copy or even move
  5980. the entries into an Org file. Org-mode evaluates diary-style sexp
  5981. entries, and does it faster because there is no overhead for first
  5982. creating the diary display. Note that the sexp entries must start at
  5983. the left margin, no whitespace is allowed before them. For example,
  5984. the following segment of an Org file will be processed and entries
  5985. will be made in the agenda:
  5986. @example
  5987. * Birthdays and similar stuff
  5988. #+CATEGORY: Holiday
  5989. %%(org-calendar-holiday) ; special function for holiday names
  5990. #+CATEGORY: Ann
  5991. %%(diary-anniversary 5 14 1956)@footnote{Note that the order of the arguments (month, day, year) depends on the setting of @code{calendar-date-style}.} Arthur Dent is %d years old
  5992. %%(diary-anniversary 10 2 1869) Mahatma Gandhi would be %d years old
  5993. @end example
  5994. @subsubheading Anniversaries from BBDB
  5995. @cindex BBDB, anniversaries
  5996. @cindex anniversaries, from BBDB
  5997. If you are using the Big Brothers Database to store your contacts, you will
  5998. very likely prefer to store anniversaries in BBDB rather than in a
  5999. separate Org or diary file. Org supports this and will show BBDB
  6000. anniversaries as part of the agenda. All you need to do is to add the
  6001. following to one your your agenda files:
  6002. @example
  6003. * Anniversaries
  6004. :PROPERTIES:
  6005. :CATEGORY: Anniv
  6006. :END:
  6007. %%(org-bbdb-anniversaries)
  6008. @end example
  6009. You can then go ahead and define anniversaries for a BBDB record. Basically,
  6010. you need to press @kbd{C-o anniversary @key{RET}} with the cursor in a BBDB
  6011. record and then add the date in the format @code{YYYY-MM-DD}, followed by a
  6012. space and the class of the anniversary (@samp{birthday} or @samp{wedding}, or
  6013. a format string). If you omit the class, it will default to @samp{birthday}.
  6014. Here are a few examples, the header for the file @file{org-bbdb.el} contains
  6015. more detailed information.
  6016. @example
  6017. 1973-06-22
  6018. 1955-08-02 wedding
  6019. 2008-04-14 %s released version 6.01 of org-mode, %d years ago
  6020. @end example
  6021. After a change to BBDB, or for the first agenda display during an Emacs
  6022. session, the agenda display will suffer a short delay as Org updates its
  6023. hash with anniversaries. However, from then on things will be very fast---much
  6024. faster in fact than a long list of @samp{%%(diary-anniversary)} entries
  6025. in an Org or Diary file.
  6026. @subsubheading Appointment reminders
  6027. @cindex @file{appt.el}
  6028. @cindex appointment reminders
  6029. Org can interact with Emacs appointments notification facility. To add all
  6030. the appointments of your agenda files, use the command
  6031. @code{org-agenda-to-appt}. This command also lets you filter through the
  6032. list of your appointments and add only those belonging to a specific category
  6033. or matching a regular expression. See the docstring for details.
  6034. @node Global TODO list, Matching tags and properties, Weekly/daily agenda, Built-in agenda views
  6035. @subsection The global TODO list
  6036. @cindex global TODO list
  6037. @cindex TODO list, global
  6038. The global TODO list contains all unfinished TODO items formatted and
  6039. collected into a single place.
  6040. @table @kbd
  6041. @kindex C-c a t
  6042. @item C-c a t
  6043. Show the global TODO list. This collects the TODO items from all agenda
  6044. files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. By default, this lists
  6045. items with a state the is not a DONE state. The buffer is in
  6046. @code{agenda-mode}, so there are commands to examine and manipulate the TODO
  6047. entries directly from that buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  6048. @kindex C-c a T
  6049. @item C-c a T
  6050. @cindex TODO keyword matching
  6051. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  6052. Like the above, but allows selection of a specific TODO keyword. You can
  6053. also do this by specifying a prefix argument to @kbd{C-c a t}. You are
  6054. prompted for a keyword, and you may also specify several keywords by
  6055. separating them with @samp{|} as the boolean OR operator. With a numeric
  6056. prefix, the nth keyword in @code{org-todo-keywords} is selected.
  6057. @kindex r
  6058. The @kbd{r} key in the agenda buffer regenerates it, and you can give
  6059. a prefix argument to this command to change the selected TODO keyword,
  6060. for example @kbd{3 r}. If you often need a search for a specific
  6061. keyword, define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).@*
  6062. Matching specific TODO keywords can also be done as part of a tags
  6063. search (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  6064. @end table
  6065. Remote editing of TODO items means that you can change the state of a
  6066. TODO entry with a single key press. The commands available in the
  6067. TODO list are described in @ref{Agenda commands}.
  6068. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into TODO list
  6069. Normally the global TODO list simply shows all headlines with TODO
  6070. keywords. This list can become very long. There are two ways to keep
  6071. it more compact:
  6072. @itemize @minus
  6073. @item
  6074. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled
  6075. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines
  6076. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date
  6077. Some people view a TODO item that has been @emph{scheduled} for execution or
  6078. have a @emph{deadline} (@pxref{Timestamps}) as no longer @emph{open}.
  6079. Configure the variables @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled},
  6080. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines}, and/or
  6081. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date} to exclude such items from the
  6082. global TODO list.
  6083. @item
  6084. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  6085. TODO items may have sublevels to break up the task into subtasks. In
  6086. such cases it may be enough to list only the highest level TODO headline
  6087. and omit the sublevels from the global list. Configure the variable
  6088. @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels} to get this behavior.
  6089. @end itemize
  6090. @node Matching tags and properties, Timeline, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views
  6091. @subsection Matching tags and properties
  6092. @cindex matching, of tags
  6093. @cindex matching, of properties
  6094. @cindex tags view
  6095. @cindex match view
  6096. If headlines in the agenda files are marked with @emph{tags} (@pxref{Tags}),
  6097. or have properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), you can select headlines
  6098. based on this metadata and collect them into an agenda buffer. The match
  6099. syntax described here also applies when creating sparse trees with @kbd{C-c /
  6100. m}.
  6101. @table @kbd
  6102. @kindex C-c a m
  6103. @item C-c a m
  6104. Produce a list of all headlines that match a given set of tags. The
  6105. command prompts for a selection criterion, which is a boolean logic
  6106. expression with tags, like @samp{+work+urgent-withboss} or
  6107. @samp{work|home} (@pxref{Tags}). If you often need a specific search,
  6108. define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  6109. @kindex C-c a M
  6110. @item C-c a M
  6111. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  6112. @vindex org-agenda-tags-todo-honor-ignore-options
  6113. Like @kbd{C-c a m}, but only select headlines that are also TODO items in a
  6114. not-DONE state and force checking subitems (see variable
  6115. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}). To exclude scheduled/deadline items,
  6116. see the variable @code{org-agenda-tags-todo-honor-ignore-options}. Matching
  6117. specific TODO keywords together with a tags match is also possible, see
  6118. @ref{Tag searches}.
  6119. @end table
  6120. The commands available in the tags list are described in @ref{Agenda
  6121. commands}.
  6122. @subsubheading Match syntax
  6123. @cindex Boolean logic, for tag/property searches
  6124. A search string can use Boolean operators @samp{&} for AND and @samp{|} for
  6125. OR. @samp{&} binds more strongly than @samp{|}. Parentheses are currently
  6126. not implemented. Each element in the search is either a tag, a regular
  6127. expression matching tags, or an expression like @code{PROPERTY OPERATOR
  6128. VALUE} with a comparison operator, accessing a property value. Each element
  6129. may be preceded by @samp{-}, to select against it, and @samp{+} is syntactic
  6130. sugar for positive selection. The AND operator @samp{&} is optional when
  6131. @samp{+} or @samp{-} is present. Here are some examples, using only tags.
  6132. @table @samp
  6133. @item +work-boss
  6134. Select headlines tagged @samp{:work:}, but discard those also tagged
  6135. @samp{:boss:}.
  6136. @item work|laptop
  6137. Selects lines tagged @samp{:work:} or @samp{:laptop:}.
  6138. @item work|laptop+night
  6139. Like before, but require the @samp{:laptop:} lines to be tagged also
  6140. @samp{:night:}.
  6141. @end table
  6142. @cindex regular expressions, with tags search
  6143. Instead of a tag, you may also specify a regular expression enclosed in curly
  6144. braces. For example,
  6145. @samp{work+@{^boss.*@}} matches headlines that contain the tag
  6146. @samp{:work:} and any tag @i{starting} with @samp{boss}.
  6147. @cindex TODO keyword matching, with tags search
  6148. @cindex level, require for tags/property match
  6149. @cindex category, require for tags/property match
  6150. @vindex org-odd-levels-only
  6151. You may also test for properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) at the same
  6152. time as matching tags. The properties may be real properties, or special
  6153. properties that represent other metadata (@pxref{Special properties}). For
  6154. example, the ``property'' @code{TODO} represents the TODO keyword of the
  6155. entry. Or, the ``property'' @code{LEVEL} represents the level of an entry.
  6156. So a search @samp{+LEVEL=3+boss-TODO="DONE"} lists all level three headlines
  6157. that have the tag @samp{boss} and are @emph{not} marked with the TODO keyword
  6158. DONE. In buffers with @code{org-odd-levels-only} set, @samp{LEVEL} does not
  6159. count the number of stars, but @samp{LEVEL=2} will correspond to 3 stars etc.
  6160. Here are more examples:
  6161. @table @samp
  6162. @item work+TODO="WAITING"
  6163. Select @samp{:work:}-tagged TODO lines with the specific TODO
  6164. keyword @samp{WAITING}.
  6165. @item work+TODO="WAITING"|home+TODO="WAITING"
  6166. Waiting tasks both at work and at home.
  6167. @end table
  6168. When matching properties, a number of different operators can be used to test
  6169. the value of a property. Here is a complex example:
  6170. @example
  6171. +work-boss+PRIORITY="A"+Coffee="unlimited"+Effort<2 \
  6172. +With=@{Sarah\|Denny@}+SCHEDULED>="<2008-10-11>"
  6173. @end example
  6174. @noindent
  6175. The type of comparison will depend on how the comparison value is written:
  6176. @itemize @minus
  6177. @item
  6178. If the comparison value is a plain number, a numerical comparison is done,
  6179. and the allowed operators are @samp{<}, @samp{=}, @samp{>}, @samp{<=},
  6180. @samp{>=}, and @samp{<>}.
  6181. @item
  6182. If the comparison value is enclosed in double-quotes,
  6183. a string comparison is done, and the same operators are allowed.
  6184. @item
  6185. If the comparison value is enclosed in double-quotes @emph{and} angular
  6186. brackets (like @samp{DEADLINE<="<2008-12-24 18:30>"}), both values are
  6187. assumed to be date/time specifications in the standard Org way, and the
  6188. comparison will be done accordingly. Special values that will be recognized
  6189. are @code{"<now>"} for now (including time), and @code{"<today>"}, and
  6190. @code{"<tomorrow>"} for these days at 0:00 hours, i.e. without a time
  6191. specification. Also strings like @code{"<+5d>"} or @code{"<-2m>"} with units
  6192. @code{d}, @code{w}, @code{m}, and @code{y} for day, week, month, and year,
  6193. respectively, can be used.
  6194. @item
  6195. If the comparison value is enclosed
  6196. in curly braces, a regexp match is performed, with @samp{=} meaning that the
  6197. regexp matches the property value, and @samp{<>} meaning that it does not
  6198. match.
  6199. @end itemize
  6200. So the search string in the example finds entries tagged @samp{:work:} but
  6201. not @samp{:boss:}, which also have a priority value @samp{A}, a
  6202. @samp{:Coffee:} property with the value @samp{unlimited}, an @samp{Effort}
  6203. property that is numerically smaller than 2, a @samp{:With:} property that is
  6204. matched by the regular expression @samp{Sarah\|Denny}, and that are scheduled
  6205. on or after October 11, 2008.
  6206. Accessing TODO, LEVEL, and CATEGORY during a search is fast. Accessing any
  6207. other properties will slow down the search. However, once you have paid the
  6208. price by accessing one property, testing additional properties is cheap
  6209. again.
  6210. You can configure Org-mode to use property inheritance during a search, but
  6211. beware that this can slow down searches considerably. See @ref{Property
  6212. inheritance}, for details.
  6213. For backward compatibility, and also for typing speed, there is also a
  6214. different way to test TODO states in a search. For this, terminate the
  6215. tags/property part of the search string (which may include several terms
  6216. connected with @samp{|}) with a @samp{/} and then specify a Boolean
  6217. expression just for TODO keywords. The syntax is then similar to that for
  6218. tags, but should be applied with care: for example, a positive selection on
  6219. several TODO keywords cannot meaningfully be combined with boolean AND.
  6220. However, @emph{negative selection} combined with AND can be meaningful. To
  6221. make sure that only lines are checked that actually have any TODO keyword
  6222. (resulting in a speed-up), use @kbd{C-c a M}, or equivalently start the TODO
  6223. part after the slash with @samp{!}. Using @kbd{C-c a M} or @samp{/!} will
  6224. not match TODO keywords in a DONE state. Examples:
  6225. @table @samp
  6226. @item work/WAITING
  6227. Same as @samp{work+TODO="WAITING"}
  6228. @item work/!-WAITING-NEXT
  6229. Select @samp{:work:}-tagged TODO lines that are neither @samp{WAITING}
  6230. nor @samp{NEXT}
  6231. @item work/!+WAITING|+NEXT
  6232. Select @samp{:work:}-tagged TODO lines that are either @samp{WAITING} or
  6233. @samp{NEXT}.
  6234. @end table
  6235. @node Timeline, Search view, Matching tags and properties, Built-in agenda views
  6236. @subsection Timeline for a single file
  6237. @cindex timeline, single file
  6238. @cindex time-sorted view
  6239. The timeline summarizes all time-stamped items from a single Org-mode
  6240. file in a @emph{time-sorted view}. The main purpose of this command is
  6241. to give an overview over events in a project.
  6242. @table @kbd
  6243. @kindex C-c a L
  6244. @item C-c a L
  6245. Show a time-sorted view of the Org file, with all time-stamped items.
  6246. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all unfinished TODO entries
  6247. (scheduled or not) are also listed under the current date.
  6248. @end table
  6249. @noindent
  6250. The commands available in the timeline buffer are listed in
  6251. @ref{Agenda commands}.
  6252. @node Search view, Stuck projects, Timeline, Built-in agenda views
  6253. @subsection Search view
  6254. @cindex search view
  6255. @cindex text search
  6256. @cindex searching, for text
  6257. This agenda view is a general text search facility for Org-mode entries.
  6258. It is particularly useful to find notes.
  6259. @table @kbd
  6260. @kindex C-c a s
  6261. @item C-c a s
  6262. This is a special search that lets you select entries by matching a substring
  6263. or specific words using a boolean logic.
  6264. @end table
  6265. For example, the search string @samp{computer equipment} will find entries
  6266. that contain @samp{computer equipment} as a substring. If the two words are
  6267. separated by more space or a line break, the search will still match.
  6268. Search view can also search for specific keywords in the entry, using Boolean
  6269. logic. The search string @samp{+computer +wifi -ethernet -@{8\.11[bg]@}}
  6270. will search for note entries that contain the keywords @code{computer}
  6271. and @code{wifi}, but not the keyword @code{ethernet}, and which are also
  6272. not matched by the regular expression @code{8\.11[bg]}, meaning to
  6273. exclude both 8.11b and 8.11g. The first @samp{+} is necessary to turn on
  6274. word search, other @samp{+} characters are optional. For more details, see
  6275. the docstring of the command @code{org-search-view}.
  6276. @vindex org-agenda-text-search-extra-files
  6277. Note that in addition to the agenda files, this command will also search
  6278. the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}.
  6279. @node Stuck projects, , Search view, Built-in agenda views
  6280. @subsection Stuck projects
  6281. If you are following a system like David Allen's GTD to organize your
  6282. work, one of the ``duties'' you have is a regular review to make sure
  6283. that all projects move along. A @emph{stuck} project is a project that
  6284. has no defined next actions, so it will never show up in the TODO lists
  6285. Org-mode produces. During the review, you need to identify such
  6286. projects and define next actions for them.
  6287. @table @kbd
  6288. @kindex C-c a #
  6289. @item C-c a #
  6290. List projects that are stuck.
  6291. @kindex C-c a !
  6292. @item C-c a !
  6293. @vindex org-stuck-projects
  6294. Customize the variable @code{org-stuck-projects} to define what a stuck
  6295. project is and how to find it.
  6296. @end table
  6297. You almost certainly will have to configure this view before it will
  6298. work for you. The built-in default assumes that all your projects are
  6299. level-2 headlines, and that a project is not stuck if it has at least
  6300. one entry marked with a TODO keyword TODO or NEXT or NEXTACTION.
  6301. Let's assume that you, in your own way of using Org-mode, identify
  6302. projects with a tag PROJECT, and that you use a TODO keyword MAYBE to
  6303. indicate a project that should not be considered yet. Let's further
  6304. assume that the TODO keyword DONE marks finished projects, and that NEXT
  6305. and TODO indicate next actions. The tag @@SHOP indicates shopping and
  6306. is a next action even without the NEXT tag. Finally, if the project
  6307. contains the special word IGNORE anywhere, it should not be listed
  6308. either. In this case you would start by identifying eligible projects
  6309. with a tags/todo match@footnote{@xref{Tag searches}.}
  6310. @samp{+PROJECT/-MAYBE-DONE}, and then check for TODO, NEXT, @@SHOP, and
  6311. IGNORE in the subtree to identify projects that are not stuck. The
  6312. correct customization for this is
  6313. @lisp
  6314. (setq org-stuck-projects
  6315. '("+PROJECT/-MAYBE-DONE" ("NEXT" "TODO") ("@@SHOP")
  6316. "\\<IGNORE\\>"))
  6317. @end lisp
  6318. Note that if a project is identified as non-stuck, the subtree of this entry
  6319. will still be searched for stuck projects.
  6320. @node Presentation and sorting, Agenda commands, Built-in agenda views, Agenda Views
  6321. @section Presentation and sorting
  6322. @cindex presentation, of agenda items
  6323. @vindex org-agenda-prefix-format
  6324. Before displaying items in an agenda view, Org-mode visually prepares
  6325. the items and sorts them. Each item occupies a single line. The line
  6326. starts with a @emph{prefix} that contains the @emph{category}
  6327. (@pxref{Categories}) of the item and other important information. You can
  6328. customize the prefix using the option @code{org-agenda-prefix-format}.
  6329. The prefix is followed by a cleaned-up version of the outline headline
  6330. associated with the item.
  6331. @menu
  6332. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  6333. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  6334. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  6335. @end menu
  6336. @node Categories, Time-of-day specifications, Presentation and sorting, Presentation and sorting
  6337. @subsection Categories
  6338. @cindex category
  6339. The category is a broad label assigned to each agenda item. By default,
  6340. the category is simply derived from the file name, but you can also
  6341. specify it with a special line in the buffer, like this@footnote{For
  6342. backward compatibility, the following also works: if there are several
  6343. such lines in a file, each specifies the category for the text below it.
  6344. The first category also applies to any text before the first CATEGORY
  6345. line. However, using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is
  6346. incompatible with the outline structure of the document. The correct
  6347. method for setting multiple categories in a buffer is using a
  6348. property.}:
  6349. @example
  6350. #+CATEGORY: Thesis
  6351. @end example
  6352. @noindent
  6353. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  6354. If you would like to have a special CATEGORY for a single entry or a
  6355. (sub)tree, give the entry a @code{:CATEGORY:} property with the
  6356. special category you want to apply as the value.
  6357. @noindent
  6358. The display in the agenda buffer looks best if the category is not
  6359. longer than 10 characters.
  6360. @node Time-of-day specifications, Sorting of agenda items, Categories, Presentation and sorting
  6361. @subsection Time-of-day specifications
  6362. @cindex time-of-day specification
  6363. Org-mode checks each agenda item for a time-of-day specification. The
  6364. time can be part of the timestamp that triggered inclusion into the
  6365. agenda, for example as in @w{@samp{<2005-05-10 Tue 19:00>}}. Time
  6366. ranges can be specified with two timestamps, like
  6367. @c
  6368. @w{@samp{<2005-05-10 Tue 20:30>--<2005-05-10 Tue 22:15>}}.
  6369. In the headline of the entry itself, a time(range) may also appear as
  6370. plain text (like @samp{12:45} or a @samp{8:30-1pm}). If the agenda
  6371. integrates the Emacs diary (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), time
  6372. specifications in diary entries are recognized as well.
  6373. For agenda display, Org-mode extracts the time and displays it in a
  6374. standard 24 hour format as part of the prefix. The example times in
  6375. the previous paragraphs would end up in the agenda like this:
  6376. @example
  6377. 8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer
  6378. 12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub
  6379. 19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem
  6380. 20:30-22:15 Marvin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge
  6381. @end example
  6382. @cindex time grid
  6383. If the agenda is in single-day mode, or for the display of today, the
  6384. timed entries are embedded in a time grid, like
  6385. @example
  6386. 8:00...... ------------------
  6387. 8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer
  6388. 10:00...... ------------------
  6389. 12:00...... ------------------
  6390. 12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub
  6391. 14:00...... ------------------
  6392. 16:00...... ------------------
  6393. 18:00...... ------------------
  6394. 19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem
  6395. 20:00...... ------------------
  6396. 20:30-22:15 Marvin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge
  6397. @end example
  6398. @vindex org-agenda-use-time-grid
  6399. @vindex org-agenda-time-grid
  6400. The time grid can be turned on and off with the variable
  6401. @code{org-agenda-use-time-grid}, and can be configured with
  6402. @code{org-agenda-time-grid}.
  6403. @node Sorting of agenda items, , Time-of-day specifications, Presentation and sorting
  6404. @subsection Sorting of agenda items
  6405. @cindex sorting, of agenda items
  6406. @cindex priorities, of agenda items
  6407. Before being inserted into a view, the items are sorted. How this is
  6408. done depends on the type of view.
  6409. @itemize @bullet
  6410. @item
  6411. @vindex org-agenda-files
  6412. For the daily/weekly agenda, the items for each day are sorted. The
  6413. default order is to first collect all items containing an explicit
  6414. time-of-day specification. These entries will be shown at the beginning
  6415. of the list, as a @emph{schedule} for the day. After that, items remain
  6416. grouped in categories, in the sequence given by @code{org-agenda-files}.
  6417. Within each category, items are sorted by priority (@pxref{Priorities}),
  6418. which is composed of the base priority (2000 for priority @samp{A}, 1000
  6419. for @samp{B}, and 0 for @samp{C}), plus additional increments for
  6420. overdue scheduled or deadline items.
  6421. @item
  6422. For the TODO list, items remain in the order of categories, but within
  6423. each category, sorting takes place according to priority
  6424. (@pxref{Priorities}). The priority used for sorting derives from the
  6425. priority cookie, with additions depending on how close an item is to its due
  6426. or scheduled date.
  6427. @item
  6428. For tags matches, items are not sorted at all, but just appear in the
  6429. sequence in which they are found in the agenda files.
  6430. @end itemize
  6431. @vindex org-agenda-sorting-strategy
  6432. Sorting can be customized using the variable
  6433. @code{org-agenda-sorting-strategy}, and may also include criteria based on
  6434. the estimated effort of an entry (@pxref{Effort estimates}).
  6435. @node Agenda commands, Custom agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda Views
  6436. @section Commands in the agenda buffer
  6437. @cindex commands, in agenda buffer
  6438. Entries in the agenda buffer are linked back to the Org file or diary
  6439. file where they originate. You are not allowed to edit the agenda
  6440. buffer itself, but commands are provided to show and jump to the
  6441. original entry location, and to edit the Org files ``remotely'' from
  6442. the agenda buffer. In this way, all information is stored only once,
  6443. removing the risk that your agenda and note files may diverge.
  6444. Some commands can be executed with mouse clicks on agenda lines. For
  6445. the other commands, the cursor needs to be in the desired line.
  6446. @table @kbd
  6447. @tsubheading{Motion}
  6448. @cindex motion commands in agenda
  6449. @kindex n
  6450. @item n
  6451. Next line (same as @key{up} and @kbd{C-p}).
  6452. @kindex p
  6453. @item p
  6454. Previous line (same as @key{down} and @kbd{C-n}).
  6455. @tsubheading{View/Go to Org file}
  6456. @kindex mouse-3
  6457. @kindex @key{SPC}
  6458. @item mouse-3
  6459. @itemx @key{SPC}
  6460. Display the original location of the item in another window.
  6461. With prefix arg, make sure that the entire entry is made visible in the
  6462. outline, not only the heading.
  6463. @c
  6464. @kindex L
  6465. @item L
  6466. Display original location and recenter that window.
  6467. @c
  6468. @kindex mouse-2
  6469. @kindex mouse-1
  6470. @kindex @key{TAB}
  6471. @item mouse-2
  6472. @itemx mouse-1
  6473. @itemx @key{TAB}
  6474. Go to the original location of the item in another window. Under Emacs
  6475. 22, @kbd{mouse-1} will also works for this.
  6476. @c
  6477. @kindex @key{RET}
  6478. @itemx @key{RET}
  6479. Go to the original location of the item and delete other windows.
  6480. @c
  6481. @kindex F
  6482. @item F
  6483. @vindex org-agenda-start-with-follow-mode
  6484. Toggle Follow mode. In Follow mode, as you move the cursor through
  6485. the agenda buffer, the other window always shows the corresponding
  6486. location in the Org file. The initial setting for this mode in new
  6487. agenda buffers can be set with the variable
  6488. @code{org-agenda-start-with-follow-mode}.
  6489. @c
  6490. @kindex C-c C-x b
  6491. @item C-c C-x b
  6492. Display the entire subtree of the current item in an indirect buffer. With a
  6493. numeric prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  6494. negative, go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove the
  6495. previously used indirect buffer.
  6496. @kindex C-c C-o
  6497. @item C-c C-o
  6498. Follow a link in the entry. This will offer a selection of any links in the
  6499. text belonging to the referenced Org node. If there is only one link, it
  6500. will be followed without a selection prompt.
  6501. @tsubheading{Change display}
  6502. @cindex display changing, in agenda
  6503. @kindex o
  6504. @item o
  6505. Delete other windows.
  6506. @c
  6507. @kindex v d
  6508. @kindex d
  6509. @kindex v w
  6510. @kindex w
  6511. @kindex v m
  6512. @kindex v y
  6513. @item v d @ @r{or short} @ d
  6514. @itemx v w @ @r{or short} @ w
  6515. @itemx v m
  6516. @itemx v y
  6517. Switch to day/week/month/year view. When switching to day or week view,
  6518. this setting becomes the default for subsequent agenda commands. Since
  6519. month and year views are slow to create, they do not become the default.
  6520. A numeric prefix argument may be used to jump directly to a specific day
  6521. of the year, ISO week, month, or year, respectively. For example,
  6522. @kbd{32 d} jumps to February 1st, @kbd{9 w} to ISO week number 9. When
  6523. setting day, week, or month view, a year may be encoded in the prefix
  6524. argument as well. For example, @kbd{200712 w} will jump to week 12 in
  6525. 2007. If such a year specification has only one or two digits, it will
  6526. be mapped to the interval 1938-2037.
  6527. @c
  6528. @kindex f
  6529. @item f
  6530. @vindex org-agenda-ndays
  6531. Go forward in time to display the following @code{org-agenda-ndays} days.
  6532. For example, if the display covers a week, switch to the following week.
  6533. With prefix arg, go forward that many times @code{org-agenda-ndays} days.
  6534. @c
  6535. @kindex b
  6536. @item b
  6537. Go backward in time to display earlier dates.
  6538. @c
  6539. @kindex .
  6540. @item .
  6541. Go to today.
  6542. @c
  6543. @kindex j
  6544. @item j
  6545. Prompt for a date and go there.
  6546. @c
  6547. @kindex D
  6548. @item D
  6549. Toggle the inclusion of diary entries. See @ref{Weekly/daily agenda}.
  6550. @c
  6551. @kindex v l
  6552. @kindex v L
  6553. @kindex l
  6554. @item v l @ @r{or short} @ l
  6555. @vindex org-log-done
  6556. @vindex org-agenda-log-mode-items
  6557. Toggle Logbook mode. In Logbook mode, entries that were marked DONE while
  6558. logging was on (variable @code{org-log-done}) are shown in the agenda, as are
  6559. entries that have been clocked on that day. You can configure the entry
  6560. types that should be included in log mode using the variable
  6561. @code{org-agenda-log-mode-items}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, show
  6562. all possible logbook entries, including state changes. When called with two
  6563. prefix args @kbd{C-u C-u}, show only logging information, nothing else.
  6564. @kbd{v L} is equivalent to @kbd{C-u v l}.
  6565. @c
  6566. @kindex v [
  6567. @kindex [
  6568. @item v [ @ @r{or short} @ [
  6569. Include inactive timestamps into the current view. Only for weekly/daily
  6570. agenda and timeline views.
  6571. @c
  6572. @kindex v a
  6573. @kindex v A
  6574. @item v a
  6575. @itemx v A
  6576. Toggle Archives mode. In Archives mode, trees that are marked
  6577. @code{ARCHIVED} are also scanned when producing the agenda. When you use the
  6578. capital @kbd{A}, even all archive files are included. To exit archives mode,
  6579. press @kbd{v a} again.
  6580. @c
  6581. @kindex v R
  6582. @kindex R
  6583. @item v R @ @r{or short} @ R
  6584. @vindex org-agenda-start-with-clockreport-mode
  6585. Toggle Clockreport mode. In Clockreport mode, the daily/weekly agenda will
  6586. always show a table with the clocked times for the timespan and file scope
  6587. covered by the current agenda view. The initial setting for this mode in new
  6588. agenda buffers can be set with the variable
  6589. @code{org-agenda-start-with-clockreport-mode}.
  6590. @c
  6591. @kindex v E
  6592. @kindex E
  6593. @item v E @ @r{or short} @ E
  6594. @vindex org-agenda-start-with-entry-text-mode
  6595. @vindex org-agenda-entry-text-maxlines
  6596. Toggle entry text mode. In entry text mode, a number of lines from the Org
  6597. outline node referenced by an agenda line will be displayed below the line.
  6598. The maximum number of lines is given by the variable
  6599. @code{org-agenda-entry-text-maxlines}. Calling this command with a numeric
  6600. prefix argument will temporarily modify that number to the prefix value.
  6601. @c
  6602. @kindex G
  6603. @item G
  6604. @vindex org-agenda-use-time-grid
  6605. @vindex org-agenda-time-grid
  6606. Toggle the time grid on and off. See also the variables
  6607. @code{org-agenda-use-time-grid} and @code{org-agenda-time-grid}.
  6608. @c
  6609. @kindex r
  6610. @item r
  6611. Recreate the agenda buffer, for example to reflect the changes after
  6612. modification of the timestamps of items with @kbd{S-@key{left}} and
  6613. @kbd{S-@key{right}}. When the buffer is the global TODO list, a prefix
  6614. argument is interpreted to create a selective list for a specific TODO
  6615. keyword.
  6616. @kindex g
  6617. @item g
  6618. Same as @kbd{r}.
  6619. @c
  6620. @kindex s
  6621. @kindex C-x C-s
  6622. @item s
  6623. @itemx C-x C-s
  6624. Save all Org buffers in the current Emacs session, and also the locations of
  6625. IDs.
  6626. @c
  6627. @kindex C-c C-x C-c
  6628. @item C-c C-x C-c
  6629. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  6630. Invoke column view (@pxref{Column view}) in the agenda buffer. The column
  6631. view format is taken from the entry at point, or (if there is no entry at
  6632. point), from the first entry in the agenda view. So whatever the format for
  6633. that entry would be in the original buffer (taken from a property, from a
  6634. @code{#+COLUMNS} line, or from the default variable
  6635. @code{org-columns-default-format}), will be used in the agenda.
  6636. @kindex C-c C-x >
  6637. @item C-c C-x >
  6638. Remove the restriction lock on the agenda, if it is currently restricted to a
  6639. file or subtree (@pxref{Agenda files}).
  6640. @tsubheading{Secondary filtering and query editing}
  6641. @cindex filtering, by tag and effort, in agenda
  6642. @cindex tag filtering, in agenda
  6643. @cindex effort filtering, in agenda
  6644. @cindex query editing, in agenda
  6645. @kindex /
  6646. @item /
  6647. @vindex org-agenda-filter-preset
  6648. Filter the current agenda view with respect to a tag and/or effort estimates.
  6649. The difference between this and a custom agenda command is that filtering is
  6650. very fast, so that you can switch quickly between different filters without
  6651. having to recreate the agenda@footnote{Custom commands can preset a filter by
  6652. binding the variable @code{org-agenda-filter-preset} as an option. This
  6653. filter will then be applied to the view and persist as a basic filter through
  6654. refreshes and more secondary filtering.}
  6655. You will be prompted for a tag selection letter, SPC will mean any tag at
  6656. all. Pressing @key{TAB} at that prompt will offer use completion to select a
  6657. tag (including any tags that do not have a selection character). The command
  6658. then hides all entries that do not contain or inherit this tag. When called
  6659. with prefix arg, remove the entries that @emph{do} have the tag. A second
  6660. @kbd{/} at the prompt will turn off the filter and unhide any hidden entries.
  6661. If the first key you press is either @kbd{+} or @kbd{-}, the previous filter
  6662. will be narrowed by requiring or forbidding the selected additional tag.
  6663. Instead of pressing @kbd{+} or @kbd{-} after @kbd{/}, you can also
  6664. immediately use the @kbd{\} command.
  6665. @vindex org-sort-agenda-noeffort-is-high
  6666. In order to filter for effort estimates, you should set-up allowed
  6667. efforts globally, for example
  6668. @lisp
  6669. (setq org-global-properties
  6670. '(("Effort_ALL". "0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00")))
  6671. @end lisp
  6672. You can then filter for an effort by first typing an operator, one of
  6673. @kbd{<}, @kbd{>}, and @kbd{=}, and then the one-digit index of an effort
  6674. estimate in your array of allowed values, where @kbd{0} means the 10th value.
  6675. The filter will then restrict to entries with effort smaller-or-equal, equal,
  6676. or larger-or-equal than the selected value. If the digits 0-9 are not used
  6677. as fast access keys to tags, you can also simply press the index digit
  6678. directly without an operator. In this case, @kbd{<} will be assumed. For
  6679. application of the operator, entries without a defined effort will be treated
  6680. according to the value of @code{org-sort-agenda-noeffort-is-high}. To filter
  6681. for tasks without effort definition, press @kbd{?} as the operator.
  6682. Org also supports automatic, context-aware tag filtering. If the variable
  6683. @code{org-agenda-auto-exclude-function} is set to a user-defined function,
  6684. that function can decide which tags should be excluded from the agenda
  6685. automatically. Once this is set, the @kbd{/} command then accepts @kbd{RET}
  6686. as a sub-option key and runs the auto exclusion logic. For example, let's
  6687. say you use a @code{Net} tag to identify tasks which need network access, an
  6688. @code{Errand} tag for errands in town, and a @code{Call} tag for making phone
  6689. calls. You could auto-exclude these tags based on the availability of the
  6690. Internet, and outside of business hours, with something like this:
  6691. @lisp
  6692. @group
  6693. (defun org-my-auto-exclude-function (tag)
  6694. (and (cond
  6695. ((string= tag "Net")
  6696. (/= 0 (call-process "/sbin/ping" nil nil nil
  6697. "-c1" "-q" "-t1" "mail.gnu.org")))
  6698. ((or (string= tag "Errand") (string= tag "Call"))
  6699. (let ((hour (nth 2 (decode-time))))
  6700. (or (< hour 8) (> hour 21)))))
  6701. (concat "-" tag)))
  6702. (setq org-agenda-auto-exclude-function 'org-my-auto-exclude-function)
  6703. @end group
  6704. @end lisp
  6705. @kindex \
  6706. @item \
  6707. Narrow the current agenda filter by an additional condition. When called with
  6708. prefix arg, remove the entries that @emph{do} have the tag, or that do match
  6709. the effort criterion. You can achieve the same effect by pressing @kbd{+} or
  6710. @kbd{-} as the first key after the @kbd{/} command.
  6711. @kindex [
  6712. @kindex ]
  6713. @kindex @{
  6714. @kindex @}
  6715. @item [ ] @{ @}
  6716. @table @i
  6717. @item @r{in} search view
  6718. add new search words (@kbd{[} and @kbd{]}) or new regular expressions
  6719. (@kbd{@{} and @kbd{@}}) to the query string. The opening bracket/brace will
  6720. add a positive search term prefixed by @samp{+}, indicating that this search
  6721. term @i{must} occur/match in the entry. The closing bracket/brace will add a
  6722. negative search term which @i{must not} occur/match in the entry for it to be
  6723. selected.
  6724. @end table
  6725. @page
  6726. @tsubheading{Remote editing}
  6727. @cindex remote editing, from agenda
  6728. @item 0-9
  6729. Digit argument.
  6730. @c
  6731. @cindex undoing remote-editing events
  6732. @cindex remote editing, undo
  6733. @kindex C-_
  6734. @item C-_
  6735. Undo a change due to a remote editing command. The change is undone
  6736. both in the agenda buffer and in the remote buffer.
  6737. @c
  6738. @kindex t
  6739. @item t
  6740. Change the TODO state of the item, both in the agenda and in the
  6741. original org file.
  6742. @c
  6743. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  6744. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  6745. @item C-S-@key{right}@r{/}@key{left}
  6746. Switch to the next/previous set of TODO keywords.
  6747. @c
  6748. @kindex C-k
  6749. @item C-k
  6750. @vindex org-agenda-confirm-kill
  6751. Delete the current agenda item along with the entire subtree belonging
  6752. to it in the original Org file. If the text to be deleted remotely
  6753. is longer than one line, the kill needs to be confirmed by the user. See
  6754. variable @code{org-agenda-confirm-kill}.
  6755. @c
  6756. @kindex C-c C-w
  6757. @item C-c C-w
  6758. Refile the entry at point.
  6759. @c
  6760. @kindex C-c C-x C-a
  6761. @kindex a
  6762. @item C-c C-x C-a @ @r{or short} @ a
  6763. @vindex org-archive-default-command
  6764. Archive the subtree corresponding to the entry at point using the default
  6765. archiving command set in @code{org-archive-default-command}. When using the
  6766. @code{a} key, confirmation will be required.
  6767. @c
  6768. @kindex C-c C-x a
  6769. @item C-c C-x a
  6770. Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline.
  6771. @c
  6772. @kindex C-c C-x A
  6773. @item C-c C-x A
  6774. Move the subtree corresponding to the current entry to its @emph{archive
  6775. sibling}.
  6776. @c
  6777. @kindex $
  6778. @kindex C-c C-x C-s
  6779. @item C-c C-x C-s @ @r{or short} @ $
  6780. Archive the subtree corresponding to the current headline. This means the
  6781. entry will be moved to the configured archive location, most likely a
  6782. different file.
  6783. @c
  6784. @kindex T
  6785. @item T
  6786. @vindex org-agenda-show-inherited-tags
  6787. Show all tags associated with the current item. This is useful if you have
  6788. turned off @code{org-agenda-show-inherited-tags}, but still want to see all
  6789. tags of a headline occasionally.
  6790. @c
  6791. @kindex :
  6792. @item :
  6793. Set tags for the current headline. If there is an active region in the
  6794. agenda, change a tag for all headings in the region.
  6795. @c
  6796. @kindex ,
  6797. @item ,
  6798. Set the priority for the current item. Org-mode prompts for the
  6799. priority character. If you reply with @key{SPC}, the priority cookie
  6800. is removed from the entry.
  6801. @c
  6802. @kindex P
  6803. @item P
  6804. Display weighted priority of current item.
  6805. @c
  6806. @kindex +
  6807. @kindex S-@key{up}
  6808. @item +
  6809. @itemx S-@key{up}
  6810. Increase the priority of the current item. The priority is changed in
  6811. the original buffer, but the agenda is not resorted. Use the @kbd{r}
  6812. key for this.
  6813. @c
  6814. @kindex -
  6815. @kindex S-@key{down}