org.texi 641 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @set VERSION 7.6
  6. @set DATE July 2011
  7. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  8. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  9. @set txicodequoteundirected
  10. @set txicodequotebacktick
  11. @c Version and Contact Info
  12. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  13. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  15. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  16. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  20. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  21. @c =======================================
  22. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  23. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  24. @set cmdnames
  25. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  26. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  27. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  28. @c xorgcmd{key,cmmand} Key with command name as @itemx
  29. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  30. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  31. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  32. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  33. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  34. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  35. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  36. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  37. @c a key but no command
  38. @c Inserts: @item key
  39. @macro orgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @item @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @macro xorgkey{key}
  44. @kindex \key\
  45. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  46. @end macro
  47. @c one key with a command
  48. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  49. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  50. @ifset cmdnames
  51. @kindex \key\
  52. @findex \command\
  53. @iftex
  54. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  55. @end iftex
  56. @ifnottex
  57. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  58. @end ifnottex
  59. @end ifset
  60. @ifclear cmdnames
  61. @kindex \key\
  62. @item @kbd{\key\}
  63. @end ifclear
  64. @end macro
  65. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  66. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  67. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  68. @ifset cmdnames
  69. @kindex \key\
  70. @findex \command\
  71. @iftex
  72. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  73. @end iftex
  74. @ifnottex
  75. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  76. @end ifnottex
  77. @end ifset
  78. @ifclear cmdnames
  79. @kindex \key\
  80. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  81. @end ifclear
  82. @end macro
  83. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  84. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  85. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  86. @ifset cmdnames
  87. @findex \command\
  88. @iftex
  89. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  90. @end iftex
  91. @ifnottex
  92. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  93. @end ifnottex
  94. @end ifset
  95. @ifclear cmdnames
  96. @item @kbd{\key\}
  97. @end ifclear
  98. @end macro
  99. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  100. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  101. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  102. @ifset cmdnames
  103. @kindex \key\
  104. @findex \command\
  105. @iftex
  106. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  107. @end iftex
  108. @ifnottex
  109. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  110. @end ifnottex
  111. @end ifset
  112. @ifclear cmdnames
  113. @kindex \key\
  114. @item @kbd{\text\}
  115. @end ifclear
  116. @end macro
  117. @c two keys with one command
  118. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  119. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  120. @ifset cmdnames
  121. @kindex \key1\
  122. @kindex \key2\
  123. @findex \command\
  124. @iftex
  125. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  126. @end iftex
  127. @ifnottex
  128. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  129. @end ifnottex
  130. @end ifset
  131. @ifclear cmdnames
  132. @kindex \key1\
  133. @kindex \key2\
  134. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  135. @end ifclear
  136. @end macro
  137. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  138. @c @itemx
  139. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  140. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  141. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  142. @ifset cmdnames
  143. @kindex \key1\
  144. @kindex \key2\
  145. @findex \command\
  146. @iftex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  149. @end iftex
  150. @ifnottex
  151. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  152. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  153. @end ifnottex
  154. @end ifset
  155. @ifclear cmdnames
  156. @kindex \key1\
  157. @kindex \key2\
  158. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  159. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  160. @end ifclear
  161. @end macro
  162. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  163. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  164. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  165. @ifset cmdnames
  166. @kindex \key1\
  167. @kindex \key2\
  168. @findex \command\
  169. @iftex
  170. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  171. @end iftex
  172. @ifnottex
  173. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  174. @end ifnottex
  175. @end ifset
  176. @ifclear cmdnames
  177. @kindex \key1\
  178. @kindex \key2\
  179. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  180. @end ifclear
  181. @end macro
  182. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  183. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  184. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  185. @ifset cmdnames
  186. @kindex \key1\
  187. @kindex \key2\
  188. @findex \command\
  189. @iftex
  190. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  191. @end iftex
  192. @ifnottex
  193. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  194. @end ifnottex
  195. @end ifset
  196. @ifclear cmdnames
  197. @kindex \key1\
  198. @kindex \key2\
  199. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  200. @end ifclear
  201. @end macro
  202. @c two keys with two commands
  203. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  204. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  205. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  206. @ifset cmdnames
  207. @kindex \key1\
  208. @kindex \key2\
  209. @findex \command1\
  210. @findex \command2\
  211. @iftex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  214. @end iftex
  215. @ifnottex
  216. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  217. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  218. @end ifnottex
  219. @end ifset
  220. @ifclear cmdnames
  221. @kindex \key1\
  222. @kindex \key2\
  223. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  224. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  225. @end ifclear
  226. @end macro
  227. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  228. @iftex
  229. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  230. @end iftex
  231. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  232. @macro tsubheading{text}
  233. @ifinfo
  234. @subsubheading \text\
  235. @end ifinfo
  236. @ifnotinfo
  237. @item @b{\text\}
  238. @end ifnotinfo
  239. @end macro
  240. @copying
  241. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  242. Copyright @copyright{} 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
  243. Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  244. @quotation
  245. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  246. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  247. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  248. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  249. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  250. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  251. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  252. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  253. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  254. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  255. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  256. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  257. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  258. @end quotation
  259. @end copying
  260. @dircategory Emacs
  261. @direntry
  262. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  263. @end direntry
  264. @titlepage
  265. @title The Org Manual
  266. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  267. @author by Carsten Dominik
  268. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, and Thomas Dye
  269. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  270. @page
  271. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  272. @insertcopying
  273. @end titlepage
  274. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  275. @contents
  276. @ifnottex
  277. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  278. @top Org Mode Manual
  279. @insertcopying
  280. @end ifnottex
  281. @menu
  282. * Introduction:: Getting started
  283. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  284. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  285. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  286. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  287. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  288. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  289. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  290. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  291. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  292. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  293. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  294. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  295. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  296. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  297. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  298. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  299. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  300. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  301. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  302. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  303. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  304. @detailmenu
  305. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  306. Introduction
  307. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  308. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  309. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  310. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  311. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  312. Document structure
  313. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  314. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  315. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  316. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  317. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  318. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  319. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  320. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  321. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  322. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  323. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  324. Tables
  325. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  326. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  327. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  328. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  329. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  330. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  331. The spreadsheet
  332. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  333. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  334. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  335. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  336. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  337. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  338. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  339. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  340. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  341. Hyperlinks
  342. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  343. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  344. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  345. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  346. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  347. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  348. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  349. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  350. Internal links
  351. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  352. TODO items
  353. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  354. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  355. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  356. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  357. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  358. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  359. Extended use of TODO keywords
  360. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  361. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  362. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  363. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  364. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  365. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  366. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  367. Progress logging
  368. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  369. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  370. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  371. Tags
  372. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  373. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  374. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  375. Properties and columns
  376. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  377. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  378. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  379. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  380. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  381. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  382. Column view
  383. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  384. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  385. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  386. Defining columns
  387. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  388. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  389. Dates and times
  390. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  391. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  392. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  393. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  394. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  395. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  396. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  397. Creating timestamps
  398. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  399. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  400. Deadlines and scheduling
  401. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  402. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  403. Clocking work time
  404. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  405. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  406. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  407. Capture - Refile - Archive
  408. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  409. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  410. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  411. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  412. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  413. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  414. Capture
  415. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  416. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  417. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  418. Capture templates
  419. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  420. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  421. Archiving
  422. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  423. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  424. Agenda views
  425. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  426. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  427. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  428. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  429. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  430. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  431. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  432. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  433. The built-in agenda views
  434. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  435. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  436. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  437. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  438. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  439. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  440. Presentation and sorting
  441. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  442. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  443. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  444. Custom agenda views
  445. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  446. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  447. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  448. Markup for rich export
  449. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  450. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  451. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  452. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  453. * Index entries:: Making an index
  454. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  455. * Embedded LaTeX:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  456. Structural markup elements
  457. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  458. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  459. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  460. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  461. * Lists:: Lists
  462. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  463. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  464. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  465. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  466. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  467. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  468. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  469. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  470. * LaTeX fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  471. * Previewing LaTeX fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  472. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  473. Exporting
  474. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  475. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  476. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  477. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  478. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  479. * LaTeX and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  480. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  481. * OpenDocumentText export:: Exporting to OpenDocumentText
  482. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  483. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  484. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  485. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  486. HTML export
  487. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  488. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  489. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org-mode
  490. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  491. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  492. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  493. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  494. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  495. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  496. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  497. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  498. * LaTeX/PDF export commands:: Which key invokes which commands
  499. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  500. * Quoting LaTeX code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  501. * Tables in LaTeX export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  502. * Images in LaTeX export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  503. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  504. DocBook export
  505. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  506. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  507. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  508. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  509. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  510. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  511. OpenDocument export
  512. * OpenDocumentText export commands:: How to invoke OpenDocumentText export
  513. * Applying Custom Styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  514. * Converting to Other formats:: How to convert to formats like doc, docx etc
  515. * Links in OpenDocumentText export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  516. * Tables in OpenDocumentText export:: How Tables are handled
  517. * Images in OpenDocumentText export:: How to insert figures
  518. * Additional Documentation:: How to handle special characters
  519. Publishing
  520. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  521. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  522. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  523. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  524. Configuration
  525. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  526. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  527. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  528. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  529. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  530. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  531. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  532. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  533. Sample configuration
  534. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  535. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  536. Working with source code
  537. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  538. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  539. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  540. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  541. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org-mode buffer
  542. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  543. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  544. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  545. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  546. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org-mode
  547. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  548. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  549. Header arguments
  550. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  551. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  552. Using header arguments
  553. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  554. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  555. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  556. * Header arguments in Org-mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  557. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  558. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  559. Specific header arguments
  560. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  561. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  562. be collected and handled
  563. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  564. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  565. directory for code block execution
  566. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  567. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  568. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  569. files during tangling
  570. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  571. code files
  572. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  573. code files
  574. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  575. expansion during tangling
  576. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  577. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  578. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  579. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  580. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  581. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  582. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  583. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  584. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  585. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  586. Miscellaneous
  587. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  588. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  589. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  590. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  591. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  592. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  593. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  594. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  595. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  596. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  597. * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files
  598. Interaction with other packages
  599. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  600. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  601. Hacking
  602. * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals
  603. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  604. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  605. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  606. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  607. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  608. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  609. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  610. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  611. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  612. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  613. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  614. * A LaTeX example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  615. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  616. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  617. MobileOrg
  618. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  619. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  620. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  621. @end detailmenu
  622. @end menu
  623. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  624. @chapter Introduction
  625. @cindex introduction
  626. @menu
  627. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  628. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  629. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  630. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  631. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  632. @end menu
  633. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  634. @section Summary
  635. @cindex summary
  636. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  637. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  638. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  639. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  640. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  641. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  642. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  643. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  644. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  645. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  646. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  647. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  648. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  649. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  650. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  651. linked web pages.
  652. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  653. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  654. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  655. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  656. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  657. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  658. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  659. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  660. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  661. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  662. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  663. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  664. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  665. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  666. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  667. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  668. ends, for example:
  669. @example
  670. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  671. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  672. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  673. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  674. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  675. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  676. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  677. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  678. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  679. @end example
  680. @cindex FAQ
  681. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  682. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  683. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  684. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  685. @cindex print edition
  686. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  687. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  688. Theory Ltd.}
  689. @page
  690. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  691. @section Installation
  692. @cindex installation
  693. @cindex XEmacs
  694. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  695. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  696. to @ref{Activation}. To see what version of Org (if any) is part of your
  697. Emacs distribution, type @kbd{M-x load-library RET org} and then @kbd{M-x
  698. org-version}.}
  699. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  700. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
  701. to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
  702. top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs
  703. binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
  704. directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have
  705. access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
  706. the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
  707. Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  708. @example
  709. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  710. @end example
  711. @noindent
  712. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  713. step for this directory:
  714. @example
  715. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  716. @end example
  717. @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
  718. @example
  719. make
  720. @end example
  721. @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
  722. all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
  723. administrator)
  724. @example
  725. make install
  726. @end example
  727. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  728. @file{install-info} program. In Debian it copies the info files into the
  729. correct directory and modifies the info directory file. In many other
  730. systems, the files need to be copied to the correct directory separately, and
  731. @file{install-info} then only modifies the directory file. Check your system
  732. documentation to find out which of the following commands you need:
  733. @example
  734. make install-info
  735. make install-info-debian
  736. @end example
  737. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  738. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  739. when Org-mode starts.
  740. @lisp
  741. (require 'org-install)
  742. @end lisp
  743. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  744. @page
  745. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  746. @section Activation
  747. @cindex activation
  748. @cindex autoload
  749. @cindex global key bindings
  750. @cindex key bindings, global
  751. To make sure files with extension @file{.org} use Org mode, add the following
  752. line to your @file{.emacs} file.
  753. @lisp
  754. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  755. @end lisp
  756. @noindent Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on - this is the
  757. default in Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in
  758. Org buffer with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  759. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  760. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  761. global keys (i.e.@: anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  762. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  763. liking.
  764. @lisp
  765. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  766. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  767. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  768. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  769. @end lisp
  770. @cindex Org-mode, turning on
  771. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  772. into Org-mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  773. like this:
  774. @example
  775. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  776. @end example
  777. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  778. @noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what
  779. the file's name is. See also the variable
  780. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  781. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  782. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  783. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  784. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  785. @lisp
  786. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  787. @end lisp
  788. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  789. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  790. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  791. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  792. @section Feedback
  793. @cindex feedback
  794. @cindex bug reports
  795. @cindex maintainer
  796. @cindex author
  797. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  798. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  799. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  800. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  801. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  802. moderators have to do.}.
  803. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  804. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  805. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  806. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  807. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  808. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  809. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  810. @example
  811. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  812. @end example
  813. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  814. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  815. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  816. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  817. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  818. about:
  819. @enumerate
  820. @item What exactly did you do?
  821. @item What did you expect to happen?
  822. @item What happened instead?
  823. @end enumerate
  824. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  825. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  826. @cindex backtrace of an error
  827. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  828. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  829. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  830. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  831. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  832. @enumerate
  833. @item
  834. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org-mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  835. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  836. To do this, use
  837. @example
  838. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  839. @end example
  840. @noindent
  841. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  842. menu.
  843. @item
  844. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  845. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  846. @item
  847. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  848. document the steps you take.
  849. @item
  850. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  851. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  852. attach it to your bug report.
  853. @end enumerate
  854. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  855. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  856. Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
  857. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  858. @table @code
  859. @item TODO
  860. @itemx WAITING
  861. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  862. user-defined.
  863. @item boss
  864. @itemx ARCHIVE
  865. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  866. meaning are written with all capitals.
  867. @item Release
  868. @itemx PRIORITY
  869. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  870. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  871. @end table
  872. The manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for accessing
  873. functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different functions,
  874. depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has a generic
  875. name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever possible,
  876. give the function that is internally called by the generic command. For
  877. example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will be
  878. listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it will
  879. be listed to call org-table-move-column-right.
  880. If you prefer, you can compile the manual without the command names by
  881. unsetting the flag @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  882. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  883. @chapter Document structure
  884. @cindex document structure
  885. @cindex structure of document
  886. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  887. edit the structure of the document.
  888. @menu
  889. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  890. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  891. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  892. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  893. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  894. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  895. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  896. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  897. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  898. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  899. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  900. @end menu
  901. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  902. @section Outlines
  903. @cindex outlines
  904. @cindex Outline mode
  905. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  906. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  907. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  908. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  909. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  910. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  911. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  912. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  913. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  914. @section Headlines
  915. @cindex headlines
  916. @cindex outline tree
  917. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  918. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  919. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  920. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  921. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  922. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  923. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  924. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.}. For example:
  925. @example
  926. * Top level headline
  927. ** Second level
  928. *** 3rd level
  929. some text
  930. *** 3rd level
  931. more text
  932. * Another top level headline
  933. @end example
  934. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  935. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  936. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  937. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  938. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  939. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  940. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  941. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  942. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  943. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  944. @section Visibility cycling
  945. @cindex cycling, visibility
  946. @cindex visibility cycling
  947. @cindex trees, visibility
  948. @cindex show hidden text
  949. @cindex hide text
  950. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  951. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  952. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  953. @cindex subtree visibility states
  954. @cindex subtree cycling
  955. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  956. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  957. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  958. @table @asis
  959. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  960. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  961. @example
  962. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  963. '-----------------------------------'
  964. @end example
  965. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  966. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  967. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  968. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  969. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  970. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  971. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  972. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  973. @cindex global visibility states
  974. @cindex global cycling
  975. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  976. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  977. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  978. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  979. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  980. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  981. @example
  982. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  983. '--------------------------------------'
  984. @end example
  985. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  986. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  987. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  988. @cindex show all, command
  989. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  990. Show all, including drawers.
  991. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  992. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  993. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  994. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  995. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  996. level, all sibling headings. With double prefix arg, also show the entire
  997. subtree of the parent.
  998. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  999. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1000. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1001. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1002. buffer
  1003. @ifinfo
  1004. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1005. @end ifinfo
  1006. @ifnotinfo
  1007. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1008. @end ifnotinfo
  1009. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1010. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1011. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1012. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1013. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1014. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1015. @end table
  1016. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1017. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1018. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1019. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1020. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1021. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1022. OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1023. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1024. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1025. buffer:
  1026. @example
  1027. #+STARTUP: overview
  1028. #+STARTUP: content
  1029. #+STARTUP: showall
  1030. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1031. @end example
  1032. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1033. @noindent
  1034. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1035. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1036. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1037. @code{all}.
  1038. @table @asis
  1039. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1040. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.@: whatever is
  1041. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1042. entries.
  1043. @end table
  1044. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1045. @section Motion
  1046. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1047. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1048. @cindex headline navigation
  1049. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1050. @table @asis
  1051. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1052. Next heading.
  1053. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1054. Previous heading.
  1055. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1056. Next heading same level.
  1057. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1058. Previous heading same level.
  1059. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1060. Backward to higher level heading.
  1061. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1062. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1063. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1064. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1065. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1066. @example
  1067. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1068. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1069. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1070. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1071. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1072. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1073. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1074. u @r{One level up.}
  1075. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1076. q @r{Quit}
  1077. @end example
  1078. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1079. @noindent
  1080. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1081. @end table
  1082. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1083. @section Structure editing
  1084. @cindex structure editing
  1085. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1086. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1087. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1088. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1089. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1090. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1091. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1092. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1093. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1094. @table @asis
  1095. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1096. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1097. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1098. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1099. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1100. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1101. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1102. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1103. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1104. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1105. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.@:
  1106. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1107. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1108. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1109. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1110. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1111. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1112. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1113. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1114. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1115. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1116. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1117. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1118. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1119. subtree.
  1120. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1121. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1122. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1123. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1124. to the initial level.
  1125. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1126. Promote current heading by one level.
  1127. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1128. Demote current heading by one level.
  1129. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1130. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1131. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1132. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1133. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1134. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1135. level).
  1136. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1137. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1138. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1139. Kill subtree, i.e.@: remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1140. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1141. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1142. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1143. sequential subtrees.
  1144. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1145. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1146. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1147. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1148. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1149. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1150. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1151. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1152. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1153. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1154. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1155. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1156. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1157. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1158. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1159. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1160. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1161. folding.
  1162. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1163. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1164. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1165. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1166. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1167. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1168. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1169. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1170. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  1171. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort-entries-or-items}
  1172. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1173. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1174. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1175. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1176. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1177. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1178. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1179. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1180. sorting will be case-sensitive. With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, duplicate
  1181. entries will also be removed.
  1182. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1183. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1184. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1185. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1186. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1187. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1188. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1189. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1190. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1191. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1192. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1193. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1194. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1195. @end table
  1196. @cindex region, active
  1197. @cindex active region
  1198. @cindex transient mark mode
  1199. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1200. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1201. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1202. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1203. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1204. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1205. functionality.
  1206. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1207. @section Sparse trees
  1208. @cindex sparse trees
  1209. @cindex trees, sparse
  1210. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1211. @cindex occur, command
  1212. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1213. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1214. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1215. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1216. An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1217. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1218. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1219. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1220. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1221. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1222. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1223. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1224. Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1225. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1226. @table @asis
  1227. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1228. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1229. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1230. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1231. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1232. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1233. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1234. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1235. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1236. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1237. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1238. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1239. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1240. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1241. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1242. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1243. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1244. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1245. @end table
  1246. @noindent
  1247. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1248. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1249. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1250. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1251. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1252. For example:
  1253. @lisp
  1254. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1255. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1256. @end lisp
  1257. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1258. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1259. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1260. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1261. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1262. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1263. @cindex visible text, printing
  1264. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1265. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1266. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1267. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1268. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1269. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1270. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1271. @section Plain lists
  1272. @cindex plain lists
  1273. @cindex lists, plain
  1274. @cindex lists, ordered
  1275. @cindex ordered lists
  1276. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1277. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1278. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1279. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1280. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1281. @itemize @bullet
  1282. @item
  1283. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1284. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1285. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1286. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1287. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1288. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1289. bullets.
  1290. @item
  1291. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1292. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1293. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1294. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1295. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1296. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1297. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1298. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1299. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1300. list to start with a different value (e.g.@: 20), start the text of the item
  1301. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1302. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1303. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1304. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1305. @item
  1306. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1307. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1308. description.
  1309. @end itemize
  1310. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1311. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1312. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1313. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1314. than its bullet/number.
  1315. @vindex org-list-ending-method
  1316. @vindex org-list-end-regexp
  1317. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1318. Two methods@footnote{To disable either of them, configure
  1319. @code{org-list-ending-method}.} are provided to terminate lists. A list ends
  1320. whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less or equally
  1321. indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1322. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1323. that case, all items are closed. For finer control, you can end lists with
  1324. any pattern set in @code{org-list-end-regexp}. Here is an example:
  1325. @example
  1326. @group
  1327. ** Lord of the Rings
  1328. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1329. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1330. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1331. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1332. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1333. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1334. - on DVD only
  1335. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1336. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1337. Important actors in this film are:
  1338. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1339. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1340. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1341. @end group
  1342. @end example
  1343. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1344. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1345. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1346. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1347. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1348. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1349. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1350. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1351. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1352. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1353. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}.
  1354. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1355. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1356. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1357. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1358. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1359. to disable them individually.
  1360. @table @asis
  1361. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1362. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1363. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1364. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1365. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1366. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1367. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the
  1368. indentation of the bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real
  1369. headlines, however; the hierarchies remain completely separated.
  1370. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1371. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1372. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1373. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1374. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1375. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1376. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1377. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1378. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1379. one.
  1380. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1381. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1382. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1383. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1384. In a new item with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the item to
  1385. become a child of the previous one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to
  1386. meaningful levels in the list and eventually get it back to its initial
  1387. position.
  1388. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1389. @item S-@key{up}
  1390. @itemx S-@key{down}
  1391. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1392. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1393. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list, but only if
  1394. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1395. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1396. similar effect.
  1397. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  1398. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  1399. @item M-S-@key{up}
  1400. @itemx M-S-@key{down}
  1401. Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item
  1402. of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering is
  1403. automatic.
  1404. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1405. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1406. @item M-@key{left}
  1407. @itemx M-@key{right}
  1408. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1409. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1410. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1411. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1412. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1413. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1414. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1415. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1416. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1417. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1418. motion or so.
  1419. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1420. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1421. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1422. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1423. @kindex C-c C-c
  1424. @item C-c C-c
  1425. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1426. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1427. consistency in the whole list.
  1428. @kindex C-c -
  1429. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1430. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1431. @item C-c -
  1432. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1433. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1434. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1435. and its position@footnote{See @code{bullet} rule in
  1436. @code{org-list-automatic-rules} for more information.}. With a numeric
  1437. prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an
  1438. active region when calling this, selected text will be changed into an item.
  1439. With a prefix argument, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1440. first line already was a list item, any item marker will be removed from the
  1441. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1442. converted into a list item.
  1443. @kindex C-c *
  1444. @item C-c *
  1445. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1446. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1447. @kindex C-c C-*
  1448. @item C-c C-*
  1449. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1450. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1451. (resp. checked).
  1452. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1453. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1454. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  1455. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1456. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1457. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1458. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1459. @kindex C-c ^
  1460. @item C-c ^
  1461. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1462. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1463. @end table
  1464. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1465. @section Drawers
  1466. @cindex drawers
  1467. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1468. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1469. @vindex org-drawers
  1470. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1471. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org-mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1472. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1473. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
  1474. with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}. Drawers
  1475. look like this:
  1476. @example
  1477. ** This is a headline
  1478. Still outside the drawer
  1479. :DRAWERNAME:
  1480. This is inside the drawer.
  1481. :END:
  1482. After the drawer.
  1483. @end example
  1484. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1485. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1486. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1487. press @key{TAB} there. Org-mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1488. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1489. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1490. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1491. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1492. @table @kbd
  1493. @kindex C-c C-z
  1494. @item C-c C-z
  1495. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1496. @end table
  1497. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1498. @section Blocks
  1499. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1500. @cindex blocks, folding
  1501. Org-mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1502. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1503. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1504. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1505. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1506. or on a per-file basis by using
  1507. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1508. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1509. @example
  1510. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1511. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1512. @end example
  1513. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1514. @section Footnotes
  1515. @cindex footnotes
  1516. Org-mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1517. @file{footnote.el} package, Org-mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1518. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1519. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e.@: a footnote is
  1520. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1521. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1522. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1523. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1524. @example
  1525. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1526. ...
  1527. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1528. @end example
  1529. Org-mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1530. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1531. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1532. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1533. LaTeX}). Here are the valid references:
  1534. @table @code
  1535. @item [1]
  1536. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1537. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1538. snippet.
  1539. @item [fn:name]
  1540. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1541. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1542. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1543. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1544. reference point.
  1545. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1546. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1547. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1548. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1549. @end table
  1550. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1551. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1552. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1553. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1554. for details.
  1555. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1556. @table @kbd
  1557. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1558. @item C-c C-x f
  1559. The footnote action command.
  1560. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1561. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1562. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1563. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1564. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1565. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1566. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1567. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1568. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1569. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1570. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1571. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1572. options is offered:
  1573. @example
  1574. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1575. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1576. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1577. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1578. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1579. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1580. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1581. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1582. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1583. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1584. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1585. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1586. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1587. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g.@: sending}
  1588. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1589. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1590. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1591. @r{to it.}
  1592. @end example
  1593. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1594. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1595. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1596. deletion.
  1597. @kindex C-c C-c
  1598. @item C-c C-c
  1599. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1600. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1601. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1602. @kindex C-c C-o
  1603. @kindex mouse-1
  1604. @kindex mouse-2
  1605. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1606. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1607. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1608. @end table
  1609. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1610. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1611. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1612. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1613. If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode structure editing and list
  1614. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1615. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1616. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1617. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1618. @lisp
  1619. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1620. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1621. @end lisp
  1622. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1623. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1624. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1625. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1626. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1627. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1628. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1629. item.
  1630. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1631. @chapter Tables
  1632. @cindex tables
  1633. @cindex editing tables
  1634. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1635. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1636. @ifinfo
  1637. (@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1638. @end ifinfo
  1639. @ifnotinfo
  1640. (see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
  1641. calculator).
  1642. @end ifnotinfo
  1643. @menu
  1644. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1645. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1646. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1647. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1648. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1649. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1650. @end menu
  1651. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1652. @section The built-in table editor
  1653. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1654. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1655. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1656. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1657. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1658. might look like this:
  1659. @example
  1660. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1661. |-------+-------+-----|
  1662. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1663. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1664. @end example
  1665. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1666. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1667. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1668. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1669. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1670. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1671. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1672. create the above table, you would only type
  1673. @example
  1674. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1675. |-
  1676. @end example
  1677. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1678. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1679. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1680. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1681. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1682. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1683. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1684. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1685. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1686. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1687. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1688. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1689. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1690. @table @kbd
  1691. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1692. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1693. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1694. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1695. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1696. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1697. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1698. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1699. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1700. @*
  1701. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1702. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1703. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1704. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1705. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1706. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1707. @c
  1708. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1709. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1710. necessary.
  1711. @c
  1712. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1713. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1714. @c
  1715. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1716. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1717. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1718. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1719. @c
  1720. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1721. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1722. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1723. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1724. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1725. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1726. Move the current column left/right.
  1727. @c
  1728. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1729. Kill the current column.
  1730. @c
  1731. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1732. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1733. @c
  1734. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1735. Move the current row up/down.
  1736. @c
  1737. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1738. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1739. @c
  1740. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1741. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1742. created below the current one.
  1743. @c
  1744. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1745. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1746. is created above the current line.
  1747. @c
  1748. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1749. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1750. below that line.
  1751. @c
  1752. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1753. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1754. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1755. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1756. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1757. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1758. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1759. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1760. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1761. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1762. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1763. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1764. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1765. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1766. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1767. @c
  1768. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1769. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1770. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1771. @c
  1772. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1773. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1774. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1775. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1776. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1777. lines.
  1778. @c
  1779. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1780. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1781. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1782. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1783. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1784. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1785. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1786. above.
  1787. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1788. @cindex formula, in tables
  1789. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1790. @cindex region, active
  1791. @cindex active region
  1792. @cindex transient mark mode
  1793. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1794. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1795. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1796. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1797. @c
  1798. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1799. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1800. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1801. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1802. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1803. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1804. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1805. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1806. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1807. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1808. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1809. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1810. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1811. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1812. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1813. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1814. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1815. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1816. @c
  1817. @item M-x org-table-import
  1818. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1819. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1820. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1821. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1822. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1823. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1824. separator.
  1825. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1826. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1827. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1828. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1829. @c
  1830. @item M-x org-table-export
  1831. @findex org-table-export
  1832. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1833. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1834. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1835. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1836. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1837. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1838. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1839. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1840. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1841. detailed description.
  1842. @end table
  1843. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1844. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1845. it off with
  1846. @lisp
  1847. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1848. @end lisp
  1849. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1850. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1851. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1852. @section Column width and alignment
  1853. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1854. @cindex alignment in tables
  1855. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1856. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1857. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1858. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1859. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1860. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1861. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1862. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1863. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1864. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1865. @example
  1866. @group
  1867. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1868. | | | | | <6> |
  1869. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1870. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1871. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1872. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1873. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1874. @end group
  1875. @end example
  1876. @noindent
  1877. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1878. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1879. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1880. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1881. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1882. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1883. C-c}.
  1884. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1885. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1886. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1887. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1888. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1889. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1890. on a per-file basis with:
  1891. @example
  1892. #+STARTUP: align
  1893. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1894. @end example
  1895. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1896. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  1897. @samp{c}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1898. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  1899. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1900. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1901. automatically when exporting the document.
  1902. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1903. @section Column groups
  1904. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1905. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1906. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1907. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1908. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1909. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1910. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1911. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1912. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} to make a column
  1913. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1914. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1915. @example
  1916. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1917. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1918. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1919. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1920. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1921. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1922. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1923. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1924. @end example
  1925. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1926. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1927. @example
  1928. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1929. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1930. | / | < | | | < | |
  1931. @end example
  1932. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  1933. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  1934. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1935. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1936. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  1937. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  1938. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  1939. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1940. example in Message mode, use
  1941. @lisp
  1942. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1943. @end lisp
  1944. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  1945. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  1946. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  1947. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  1948. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  1949. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  1950. @section The spreadsheet
  1951. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1952. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  1953. @cindex @file{calc} package
  1954. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  1955. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  1956. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  1957. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  1958. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  1959. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  1960. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  1961. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  1962. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  1963. @menu
  1964. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  1965. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  1966. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  1967. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  1968. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  1969. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  1970. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  1971. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  1972. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  1973. @end menu
  1974. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  1975. @subsection References
  1976. @cindex references
  1977. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  1978. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  1979. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  1980. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  1981. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  1982. @subsubheading Field references
  1983. @cindex field references
  1984. @cindex references, to fields
  1985. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  1986. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  1987. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  1988. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  1989. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  1990. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  1991. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  1992. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  1993. representation that looks like this:
  1994. @example
  1995. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  1996. @end example
  1997. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  1998. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e.@: the
  1999. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2000. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2001. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2002. column from the right.
  2003. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2004. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2005. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2006. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2007. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2008. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2009. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2010. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2011. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2012. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2013. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc@. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2014. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2015. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2016. after the third hline in the table.
  2017. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2018. i.e. to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2019. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2020. implied.
  2021. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2022. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2023. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2024. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2025. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2026. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2027. Here are a few examples:
  2028. @example
  2029. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2030. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2031. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2032. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2033. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2034. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2035. @end example
  2036. @subsubheading Range references
  2037. @cindex range references
  2038. @cindex references, to ranges
  2039. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2040. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2041. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2042. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2043. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2044. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2045. @example
  2046. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2047. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2048. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2049. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2050. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2051. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2052. @end example
  2053. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2054. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2055. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2056. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2057. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2058. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2059. @cindex field coordinates
  2060. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2061. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2062. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2063. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2064. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2065. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2066. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2067. @example
  2068. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2069. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2070. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2071. @end example
  2072. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2073. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2074. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2075. number of rows.
  2076. @subsubheading Named references
  2077. @cindex named references
  2078. @cindex references, named
  2079. @cindex name, of column or field
  2080. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2081. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2082. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2083. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2084. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2085. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2086. line like
  2087. @example
  2088. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2089. @end example
  2090. @noindent
  2091. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2092. @pindex constants.el
  2093. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2094. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2095. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2096. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2097. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2098. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2099. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2100. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2101. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2102. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2103. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2104. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2105. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2106. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2107. numbers.
  2108. @subsubheading Remote references
  2109. @cindex remote references
  2110. @cindex references, remote
  2111. @cindex references, to a different table
  2112. @cindex name, of column or field
  2113. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2114. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2115. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2116. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2117. @example
  2118. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2119. @end example
  2120. @noindent
  2121. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2122. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2123. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2124. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2125. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2126. referenced table.
  2127. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2128. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2129. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2130. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2131. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2132. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2133. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2134. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2135. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2136. Your Programs,calc-eval,Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs,Calc,GNU
  2137. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2138. @c FIXME: The link to the Calc manual in HTML does not work.
  2139. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2140. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2141. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2142. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2143. @cindex format specifier
  2144. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2145. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2146. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2147. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2148. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2149. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2150. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2151. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2152. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2153. @example
  2154. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2155. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2156. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2157. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2158. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2159. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2160. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2161. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  2162. T @r{force text interpretation}
  2163. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  2164. L @r{literal}
  2165. @end example
  2166. @noindent
  2167. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2168. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2169. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2170. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2171. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2172. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2173. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2174. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2175. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2176. A few examples:
  2177. @example
  2178. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2179. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2180. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2181. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2182. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2183. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2184. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2185. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2186. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  2187. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2188. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2189. @end example
  2190. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2191. @example
  2192. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{"teen" if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  2193. @end example
  2194. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2195. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2196. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2197. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful for
  2198. string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is not
  2199. enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening
  2200. parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should
  2201. return either a string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you
  2202. can specify modes and a printf format after a semicolon. With Emacs Lisp
  2203. forms, you need to be conscious about the way field references are
  2204. interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be interpolated as
  2205. a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If you provide the
  2206. @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers (non-number
  2207. fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If
  2208. you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally,
  2209. without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string
  2210. by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes,
  2211. like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  2212. embed them in list or vector syntax. Here are a few examples---note how the
  2213. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp:
  2214. @example
  2215. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2216. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2217. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2218. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2219. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2220. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2221. @end example
  2222. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2223. @subsection Durations and time values
  2224. @cindex Duration, computing
  2225. @cindex Time, computing
  2226. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2227. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2228. @example
  2229. @group
  2230. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2231. |--------+--------+---------|
  2232. | 35:00 | 35:00 | 1:10:00 |
  2233. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T
  2234. @end group
  2235. @end example
  2236. Values must be of the form @code{[HH:]MM:SS}, where hours are optional.
  2237. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2238. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2239. @cindex field formula
  2240. @cindex range formula
  2241. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2242. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2243. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2244. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2245. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2246. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2247. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2248. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2249. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2250. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2251. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2252. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2253. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2254. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2255. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2256. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2257. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2258. of cause not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2259. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2260. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2261. command
  2262. @table @kbd
  2263. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2264. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2265. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2266. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2267. @end table
  2268. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2269. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2270. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2271. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2272. directly.
  2273. @table @code
  2274. @item $2=
  2275. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2276. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2277. @item @@3=
  2278. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2279. the last row.
  2280. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2281. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2282. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2283. @item $name=
  2284. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2285. @end table
  2286. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2287. @subsection Column formulas
  2288. @cindex column formula
  2289. @cindex formula, for table column
  2290. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2291. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2292. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2293. hlines, everything before the first such line is considered part of the table
  2294. @emph{header} and will not be modified by column formulas. (ii) Fields that
  2295. already get a value from a field/range formula will be left alone by column
  2296. formulas. These conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2297. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2298. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2299. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2300. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2301. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2302. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2303. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2304. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2305. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2306. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2307. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2308. following command:
  2309. @table @kbd
  2310. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2311. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2312. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2313. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2314. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g.@: @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2315. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2316. @end table
  2317. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2318. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2319. @cindex formula editing
  2320. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2321. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2322. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2323. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2324. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2325. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2326. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2327. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2328. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2329. @table @kbd
  2330. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2331. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2332. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2333. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2334. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2335. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2336. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2337. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2338. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2339. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2340. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2341. @kindex C-c @}
  2342. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2343. @item C-c @}
  2344. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2345. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2346. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2347. @kindex C-c @{
  2348. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2349. @item C-c @{
  2350. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2351. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2352. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2353. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2354. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2355. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2356. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2357. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2358. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2359. @table @kbd
  2360. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2361. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2362. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2363. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2364. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2365. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2366. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2367. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2368. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2369. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2370. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2371. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2372. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2373. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2374. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2375. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2376. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2377. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2378. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2379. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2380. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2381. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2382. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2383. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2384. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2385. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2386. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2387. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2388. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2389. down.
  2390. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2391. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2392. @kindex C-c @}
  2393. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2394. @item C-c @}
  2395. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2396. @end table
  2397. @end table
  2398. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2399. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2400. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2401. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2402. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2403. @kindex C-c C-c
  2404. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2405. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2406. recalculation commands in the table.
  2407. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2408. @cindex formula debugging
  2409. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2410. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2411. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2412. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2413. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2414. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2415. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2416. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2417. @subsection Updating the table
  2418. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2419. @cindex updating, table
  2420. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2421. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2422. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2423. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2424. following commands:
  2425. @table @kbd
  2426. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2427. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2428. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2429. @c
  2430. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2431. @item C-u C-c *
  2432. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2433. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2434. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2435. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2436. @c
  2437. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2438. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2439. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2440. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2441. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2442. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2443. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2444. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2445. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2446. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2447. dependencies.
  2448. @end table
  2449. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2450. @subsection Advanced features
  2451. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if
  2452. you want to be able to assign @i{names} to fields and columns, you need
  2453. to reserve the first column of the table for special marking characters.
  2454. @table @kbd
  2455. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2456. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2457. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2458. change all marks in the region.
  2459. @end table
  2460. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2461. makes use of these features:
  2462. @example
  2463. @group
  2464. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2465. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2466. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2467. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2468. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2469. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2470. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2471. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2472. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2473. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2474. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2475. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2476. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2477. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2478. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2479. @end group
  2480. @end example
  2481. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2482. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2483. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2484. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2485. empty first field.
  2486. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2487. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2488. @table @samp
  2489. @item !
  2490. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2491. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2492. @item ^
  2493. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2494. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2495. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2496. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2497. @item _
  2498. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2499. @emph{below}.
  2500. @item $
  2501. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2502. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2503. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2504. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2505. a per-table basis.
  2506. @item #
  2507. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2508. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2509. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2510. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2511. @item *
  2512. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2513. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2514. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2515. @item
  2516. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2517. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2518. or @samp{*}.
  2519. @item /
  2520. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2521. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2522. @end table
  2523. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2524. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2525. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2526. functions.
  2527. @example
  2528. @group
  2529. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2530. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2531. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2532. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2533. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2534. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2535. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2536. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2537. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2538. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2539. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2540. @end group
  2541. @end example
  2542. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2543. @section Org-Plot
  2544. @cindex graph, in tables
  2545. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2546. @cindex #+PLOT
  2547. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2548. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2549. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2550. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2551. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2552. @example
  2553. @group
  2554. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2555. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2556. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2557. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2558. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2559. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2560. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2561. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2562. @end group
  2563. @end example
  2564. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2565. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2566. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2567. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2568. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2569. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2570. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2571. @table @code
  2572. @item set
  2573. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2574. @item title
  2575. Specify the title of the plot.
  2576. @item ind
  2577. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2578. @item deps
  2579. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2580. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2581. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2582. column).
  2583. @item type
  2584. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2585. @item with
  2586. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2587. (e.g.@: @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2588. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2589. @item file
  2590. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2591. @item labels
  2592. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2593. if they exist).
  2594. @item line
  2595. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2596. @item map
  2597. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2598. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2599. @item timefmt
  2600. Specify format of Org-mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2601. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2602. @item script
  2603. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2604. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2605. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2606. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2607. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2608. the data file.
  2609. @end table
  2610. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2611. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2612. @cindex hyperlinks
  2613. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2614. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2615. @menu
  2616. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2617. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2618. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2619. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2620. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2621. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2622. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2623. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2624. @end menu
  2625. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2626. @section Link format
  2627. @cindex link format
  2628. @cindex format, of links
  2629. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2630. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2631. @example
  2632. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2633. @end example
  2634. @noindent
  2635. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2636. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2637. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2638. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2639. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2640. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2641. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2642. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2643. cursor on the link.
  2644. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2645. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2646. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2647. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2648. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2649. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2650. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2651. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2652. @section Internal links
  2653. @cindex internal links
  2654. @cindex links, internal
  2655. @cindex targets, for links
  2656. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2657. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2658. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2659. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2660. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2661. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2662. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2663. in a file.
  2664. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2665. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2666. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2667. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2668. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2669. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2670. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2671. comment line. For example
  2672. @example
  2673. # <<My Target>>
  2674. @end example
  2675. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2676. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2677. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2678. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2679. first headline.}.
  2680. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2681. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2682. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2683. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2684. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2685. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2686. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2687. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2688. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2689. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2690. earlier.
  2691. @menu
  2692. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2693. @end menu
  2694. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2695. @subsection Radio targets
  2696. @cindex radio targets
  2697. @cindex targets, radio
  2698. @cindex links, radio targets
  2699. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2700. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2701. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2702. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2703. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2704. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2705. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2706. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2707. cursor on or at a target.
  2708. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2709. @section External links
  2710. @cindex links, external
  2711. @cindex external links
  2712. @cindex links, external
  2713. @cindex Gnus links
  2714. @cindex BBDB links
  2715. @cindex IRC links
  2716. @cindex URL links
  2717. @cindex file links
  2718. @cindex VM links
  2719. @cindex RMAIL links
  2720. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2721. @cindex MH-E links
  2722. @cindex USENET links
  2723. @cindex SHELL links
  2724. @cindex Info links
  2725. @cindex Elisp links
  2726. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2727. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2728. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2729. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2730. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2731. @example
  2732. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2733. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2734. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2735. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2736. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2737. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2738. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2739. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2740. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file with line number to jump to}
  2741. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2742. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}
  2743. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2744. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open file in doc-view mode at page NNN}
  2745. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2746. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2747. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2748. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2749. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2750. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2751. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2752. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2753. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2754. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2755. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2756. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2757. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2758. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2759. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2760. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2761. info:org#External%20links @r{Info node link (with encoded space)}
  2762. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2763. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2764. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2765. @end example
  2766. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2767. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2768. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2769. format}), for example:
  2770. @example
  2771. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2772. @end example
  2773. @noindent
  2774. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2775. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2776. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2777. image,
  2778. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2779. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2780. @cindex plain text external links
  2781. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2782. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2783. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2784. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2785. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2786. @section Handling links
  2787. @cindex links, handling
  2788. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2789. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2790. @table @kbd
  2791. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2792. @cindex storing links
  2793. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2794. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2795. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2796. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2797. buffer:
  2798. @b{Org-mode buffers}@*
  2799. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2800. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2801. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  2802. removed from the link and result in a wrong link -- you should avoid putting
  2803. timestamp in the headline.}.
  2804. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2805. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2806. @cindex property, ID
  2807. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2808. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2809. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2810. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2811. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2812. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2813. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2814. to use.
  2815. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2816. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2817. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2818. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2819. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2820. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2821. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2822. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2823. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2824. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2825. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2826. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2827. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2828. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2829. @b{Other files}@*
  2830. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2831. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2832. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2833. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2834. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2835. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2836. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2837. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2838. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2839. entry referenced by the current line.
  2840. @c
  2841. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  2842. @cindex link completion
  2843. @cindex completion, of links
  2844. @cindex inserting links
  2845. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2846. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2847. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2848. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2849. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2850. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2851. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2852. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2853. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2854. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2855. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2856. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2857. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2858. becomes the default description.
  2859. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2860. All links stored during the
  2861. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2862. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2863. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2864. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2865. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2866. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2867. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2868. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2869. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2870. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2871. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2872. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  2873. @cindex file name completion
  2874. @cindex completion, of file names
  2875. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2876. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2877. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2878. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2879. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2880. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2881. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2882. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2883. @c
  2884. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2885. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2886. link and description parts of the link.
  2887. @c
  2888. @cindex following links
  2889. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  2890. @vindex org-file-apps
  2891. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2892. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2893. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2894. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2895. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2896. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2897. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2898. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2899. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  2900. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  2901. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  2902. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  2903. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  2904. headline and entry text.
  2905. @orgkey @key{RET}
  2906. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  2907. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  2908. the link at point.
  2909. @c
  2910. @kindex mouse-2
  2911. @kindex mouse-1
  2912. @item mouse-2
  2913. @itemx mouse-1
  2914. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  2915. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  2916. @c
  2917. @kindex mouse-3
  2918. @item mouse-3
  2919. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  2920. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  2921. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  2922. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  2923. @c
  2924. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  2925. @cindex inlining images
  2926. @cindex images, inlining
  2927. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  2928. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2929. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2930. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  2931. images that have no description part in the link, i.e.@: images that will also
  2932. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  2933. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  2934. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  2935. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  2936. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  2937. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  2938. @cindex mark ring
  2939. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  2940. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  2941. @c
  2942. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  2943. @cindex links, returning to
  2944. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  2945. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  2946. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  2947. previously recorded positions.
  2948. @c
  2949. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  2950. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  2951. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  2952. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  2953. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  2954. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  2955. @lisp
  2956. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  2957. (lambda ()
  2958. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  2959. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  2960. @end lisp
  2961. @end table
  2962. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  2963. @section Using links outside Org
  2964. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  2965. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  2966. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  2967. yourself):
  2968. @lisp
  2969. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  2970. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  2971. @end lisp
  2972. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  2973. @section Link abbreviations
  2974. @cindex link abbreviations
  2975. @cindex abbreviation, links
  2976. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  2977. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  2978. abbreviated link looks like this
  2979. @example
  2980. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  2981. @end example
  2982. @noindent
  2983. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  2984. where the tag is optional.
  2985. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  2986. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  2987. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  2988. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  2989. @smalllisp
  2990. @group
  2991. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  2992. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  2993. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  2994. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  2995. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  2996. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  2997. @end group
  2998. @end smalllisp
  2999. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3000. replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
  3001. in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will
  3002. be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3003. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3004. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3005. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3006. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3007. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3008. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3009. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3010. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3011. can define them in the file with
  3012. @cindex #+LINK
  3013. @example
  3014. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3015. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3016. @end example
  3017. @noindent
  3018. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3019. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3020. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g.@: completion)
  3021. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3022. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3023. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3024. @section Search options in file links
  3025. @cindex search option in file links
  3026. @cindex file links, searching
  3027. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3028. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3029. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3030. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3031. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3032. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3033. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3034. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3035. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3036. link, together with an explanation:
  3037. @example
  3038. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3039. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3040. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3041. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3042. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3043. @end example
  3044. @table @code
  3045. @item 255
  3046. Jump to line 255.
  3047. @item My Target
  3048. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3049. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3050. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3051. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3052. the linked file.
  3053. @item *My Target
  3054. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3055. @item #my-custom-id
  3056. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3057. @item /regexp/
  3058. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3059. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3060. target file is in Org-mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3061. sparse tree with the matches.
  3062. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3063. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3064. @end table
  3065. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3066. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3067. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3068. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3069. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3070. @section Custom Searches
  3071. @cindex custom search strings
  3072. @cindex search strings, custom
  3073. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3074. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3075. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3076. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3077. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3078. citation key.
  3079. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3080. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3081. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3082. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3083. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3084. to be added to the hook variables
  3085. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3086. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3087. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3088. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3089. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3090. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3091. @chapter TODO items
  3092. @cindex TODO items
  3093. Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3094. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3095. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3096. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3097. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3098. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3099. item emerged is always present.
  3100. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3101. throughout your notes file. Org-mode compensates for this by providing
  3102. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3103. @menu
  3104. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3105. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3106. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3107. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3108. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3109. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3110. @end menu
  3111. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3112. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3113. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3114. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3115. @example
  3116. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3117. @end example
  3118. @noindent
  3119. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3120. @table @kbd
  3121. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3122. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3123. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3124. @example
  3125. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3126. '--------------------------------'
  3127. @end example
  3128. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3129. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3130. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3131. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  3132. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  3133. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  3134. more information.
  3135. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3136. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3137. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3138. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3139. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3140. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3141. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3142. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3143. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3144. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-key}
  3145. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3146. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3147. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3148. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3149. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3150. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3151. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3152. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3153. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3154. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3155. both un-done and done.
  3156. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3157. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3158. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3159. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3160. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3161. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3162. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3163. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3164. @end table
  3165. @noindent
  3166. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3167. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3168. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3169. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3170. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3171. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3172. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3173. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3174. DONE. Org-mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3175. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3176. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3177. files.
  3178. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3179. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3180. @menu
  3181. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3182. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3183. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3184. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3185. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3186. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3187. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3188. @end menu
  3189. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3190. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3191. @cindex TODO workflow
  3192. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3193. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3194. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3195. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org-mode in a
  3196. buffer.}:
  3197. @lisp
  3198. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3199. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3200. @end lisp
  3201. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3202. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3203. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3204. state.
  3205. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3206. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3207. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  3208. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3209. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  3210. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3211. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3212. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3213. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3214. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3215. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3216. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3217. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3218. @cindex TODO types
  3219. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3220. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3221. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3222. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3223. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3224. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3225. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3226. be set up like this:
  3227. @lisp
  3228. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3229. @end lisp
  3230. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3231. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3232. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org-mode supports this style by adapting
  3233. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3234. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3235. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3236. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3237. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3238. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3239. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3240. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3241. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3242. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3243. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3244. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3245. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3246. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3247. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3248. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3249. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3250. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3251. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3252. like this:
  3253. @lisp
  3254. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3255. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3256. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3257. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3258. @end lisp
  3259. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org-mode to keep track
  3260. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3261. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3262. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3263. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3264. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3265. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3266. @table @kbd
  3267. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3268. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3269. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3270. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3271. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3272. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3273. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3274. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3275. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3276. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3277. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3278. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3279. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3280. @item S-@key{right}
  3281. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3282. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3283. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3284. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3285. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3286. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3287. @end table
  3288. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3289. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3290. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3291. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3292. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section
  3293. key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3294. @lisp
  3295. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3296. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3297. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3298. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3299. @end lisp
  3300. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3301. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3302. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3303. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3304. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3305. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3306. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3307. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3308. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3309. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3310. @cindex keyword options
  3311. @cindex per-file keywords
  3312. @cindex #+TODO
  3313. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3314. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3315. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3316. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3317. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3318. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3319. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3320. file:
  3321. @example
  3322. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3323. @end example
  3324. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3325. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3326. @example
  3327. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3328. @end example
  3329. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3330. @example
  3331. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3332. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3333. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3334. @end example
  3335. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3336. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3337. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3338. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3339. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3340. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3341. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3342. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3343. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3344. known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode parses these lines only when
  3345. Org-mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3346. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org-mode
  3347. for the current buffer.}.
  3348. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3349. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3350. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3351. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3352. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3353. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3354. Org-mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3355. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3356. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3357. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3358. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3359. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3360. @lisp
  3361. @group
  3362. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3363. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3364. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3365. @end group
  3366. @end lisp
  3367. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3368. work, this does not aways seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3369. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3370. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3371. foreground or a background color.
  3372. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3373. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3374. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3375. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3376. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3377. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3378. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3379. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3380. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3381. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3382. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3383. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3384. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3385. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3386. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3387. example:
  3388. @example
  3389. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3390. ** DONE one
  3391. ** TODO two
  3392. * Parent
  3393. :PROPERTIES:
  3394. :ORDERED: t
  3395. :END:
  3396. ** TODO a
  3397. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3398. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3399. @end example
  3400. @table @kbd
  3401. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3402. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3403. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3404. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3405. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3406. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3407. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3408. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3409. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3410. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3411. @end table
  3412. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3413. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3414. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3415. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3416. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3417. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3418. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3419. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3420. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3421. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3422. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3423. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3424. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3425. @page
  3426. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3427. @section Progress logging
  3428. @cindex progress logging
  3429. @cindex logging, of progress
  3430. Org-mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3431. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3432. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3433. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3434. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3435. work time}.
  3436. @menu
  3437. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3438. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3439. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3440. @end menu
  3441. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3442. @subsection Closing items
  3443. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3444. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3445. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3446. @lisp
  3447. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3448. @end lisp
  3449. @noindent
  3450. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3451. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3452. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3453. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3454. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3455. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3456. @lisp
  3457. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3458. @end lisp
  3459. @noindent
  3460. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3461. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3462. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3463. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3464. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3465. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3466. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3467. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3468. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3469. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3470. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3471. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3472. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3473. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3474. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3475. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3476. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3477. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3478. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3479. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this
  3480. behavior---the recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}. You can
  3481. also overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3482. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3483. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org-mode
  3484. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3485. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) and @samp{@@} (for a note)
  3486. in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the setting
  3487. @lisp
  3488. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3489. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3490. @end lisp
  3491. @noindent
  3492. @vindex org-log-done
  3493. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3494. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3495. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org-mode will record two timestamps
  3496. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3497. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3498. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3499. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3500. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3501. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3502. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3503. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3504. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3505. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3506. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3507. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3508. configured.
  3509. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3510. to a buffer:
  3511. @example
  3512. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3513. @end example
  3514. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3515. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3516. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3517. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3518. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3519. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3520. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3521. @example
  3522. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3523. :PROPERTIES:
  3524. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3525. :END:
  3526. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3527. :PROPERTIES:
  3528. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3529. :END:
  3530. * TODO No logging at all
  3531. :PROPERTIES:
  3532. :LOGGING: nil
  3533. :END:
  3534. @end example
  3535. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3536. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3537. @cindex habits
  3538. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3539. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3540. @enumerate
  3541. @item
  3542. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3543. @code{org-modules}.
  3544. @item
  3545. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3546. @item
  3547. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3548. @item
  3549. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3550. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3551. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3552. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3553. @item
  3554. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3555. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3556. three days, but at most every two days.
  3557. @item
  3558. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3559. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it is not
  3560. enabled it is not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3561. meaningless.
  3562. @end enumerate
  3563. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3564. actual habit with some history:
  3565. @example
  3566. ** TODO Shave
  3567. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3568. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3569. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3570. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3571. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3572. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3573. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3574. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3575. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3576. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3577. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3578. :PROPERTIES:
  3579. :STYLE: habit
  3580. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3581. :END:
  3582. @end example
  3583. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3584. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3585. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3586. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3587. after four days have elapsed.
  3588. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3589. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3590. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3591. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3592. @table @code
  3593. @item Blue
  3594. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3595. @item Green
  3596. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3597. @item Yellow
  3598. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3599. @item Red
  3600. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3601. @end table
  3602. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3603. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3604. the current day falls in the graph.
  3605. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3606. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3607. @table @code
  3608. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3609. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3610. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3611. titles brief and to the point.
  3612. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3613. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3614. @item org-habit-following-days
  3615. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3616. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3617. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3618. default.
  3619. @end table
  3620. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3621. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3622. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3623. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3624. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3625. @section Priorities
  3626. @cindex priorities
  3627. If you use Org-mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3628. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3629. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3630. @example
  3631. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3632. @end example
  3633. @noindent
  3634. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3635. By default, Org-mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3636. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3637. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3638. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3639. have no inherent meaning to Org-mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3640. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3641. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3642. items.
  3643. @table @kbd
  3644. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3645. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3646. @findex org-priority
  3647. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3648. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3649. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3650. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3651. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3652. @c
  3653. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3654. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3655. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3656. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3657. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3658. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3659. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3660. @end table
  3661. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3662. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3663. @vindex org-default-priority
  3664. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3665. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3666. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3667. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3668. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3669. priority):
  3670. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3671. @example
  3672. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3673. @end example
  3674. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3675. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3676. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3677. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3678. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3679. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3680. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3681. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3682. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3683. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3684. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3685. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3686. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3687. @example
  3688. * Organize Party [33%]
  3689. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3690. *** TODO Peter
  3691. *** DONE Sarah
  3692. ** TODO Buy food
  3693. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3694. @end example
  3695. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3696. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3697. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3698. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3699. this issue.
  3700. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3701. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3702. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3703. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3704. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3705. property.
  3706. @example
  3707. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3708. :PROPERTIES:
  3709. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3710. :END:
  3711. @end example
  3712. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3713. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3714. @example
  3715. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3716. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3717. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3718. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3719. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3720. @end example
  3721. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3722. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3723. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3724. @section Checkboxes
  3725. @cindex checkboxes
  3726. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3727. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3728. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3729. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3730. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3731. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3732. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3733. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3734. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3735. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3736. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3737. @example
  3738. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3739. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3740. - [ ] Peter
  3741. - [X] Sarah
  3742. - [ ] Sam
  3743. - [X] order food
  3744. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3745. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3746. @end example
  3747. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3748. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3749. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3750. checked.
  3751. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3752. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3753. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3754. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3755. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3756. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3757. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3758. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3759. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3760. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3761. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3762. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3763. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3764. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3765. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3766. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3767. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3768. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3769. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3770. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3771. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3772. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3773. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3774. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3775. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3776. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3777. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3778. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3779. @table @kbd
  3780. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3781. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3782. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3783. intermediate state.
  3784. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3785. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3786. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3787. intermediate state.
  3788. @itemize @minus
  3789. @item
  3790. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3791. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3792. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3793. @item
  3794. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3795. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3796. @item
  3797. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3798. @end itemize
  3799. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3800. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  3801. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3802. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3803. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3804. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3805. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3806. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3807. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3808. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3809. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3810. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3811. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  3812. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3813. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3814. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3815. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3816. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3817. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  3818. @end table
  3819. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3820. @chapter Tags
  3821. @cindex tags
  3822. @cindex headline tagging
  3823. @cindex matching, tags
  3824. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3825. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3826. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org-mode has extensive
  3827. support for tags.
  3828. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3829. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3830. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3831. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3832. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3833. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3834. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3835. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3836. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3837. @menu
  3838. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3839. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3840. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3841. @end menu
  3842. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3843. @section Tag inheritance
  3844. @cindex tag inheritance
  3845. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3846. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3847. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3848. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3849. well. For example, in the list
  3850. @example
  3851. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3852. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3853. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3854. @end example
  3855. @noindent
  3856. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3857. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3858. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3859. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3860. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3861. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3862. changes in the line.}:
  3863. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3864. @example
  3865. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3866. @end example
  3867. @noindent
  3868. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3869. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3870. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  3871. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  3872. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3873. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3874. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3875. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3876. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3877. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3878. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3879. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3880. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  3881. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  3882. @section Setting tags
  3883. @cindex setting tags
  3884. @cindex tags, setting
  3885. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3886. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  3887. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  3888. also a special command for inserting tags:
  3889. @table @kbd
  3890. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  3891. @cindex completion, of tags
  3892. @vindex org-tags-column
  3893. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org-mode will either offer
  3894. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  3895. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  3896. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  3897. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  3898. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  3899. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  3900. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  3901. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  3902. @end table
  3903. @vindex org-tag-alist
  3904. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  3905. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  3906. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  3907. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  3908. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  3909. @cindex #+TAGS
  3910. @example
  3911. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  3912. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  3913. @end example
  3914. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  3915. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  3916. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  3917. @example
  3918. #+TAGS:
  3919. @end example
  3920. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  3921. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  3922. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  3923. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  3924. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  3925. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  3926. @example
  3927. #+STARTUP: noptag
  3928. @end example
  3929. By default Org-mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  3930. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  3931. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  3932. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  3933. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  3934. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  3935. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  3936. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  3937. like:
  3938. @lisp
  3939. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  3940. @end lisp
  3941. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  3942. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  3943. @example
  3944. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  3945. @end example
  3946. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  3947. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  3948. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  3949. @example
  3950. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  3951. @end example
  3952. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  3953. @example
  3954. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  3955. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  3956. @end example
  3957. @noindent
  3958. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  3959. braces, as in:
  3960. @example
  3961. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  3962. @end example
  3963. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  3964. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  3965. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  3966. these lines to activate any changes.
  3967. @noindent
  3968. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  3969. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  3970. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  3971. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  3972. configuration:
  3973. @lisp
  3974. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  3975. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  3976. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  3977. (:endgroup . nil)
  3978. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  3979. @end lisp
  3980. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  3981. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  3982. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  3983. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  3984. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  3985. keys:
  3986. @table @kbd
  3987. @item a-z...
  3988. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  3989. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  3990. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  3991. @kindex @key{TAB}
  3992. @item @key{TAB}
  3993. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  3994. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  3995. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  3996. @kindex @key{SPC}
  3997. @item @key{SPC}
  3998. Clear all tags for this line.
  3999. @kindex @key{RET}
  4000. @item @key{RET}
  4001. Accept the modified set.
  4002. @item C-g
  4003. Abort without installing changes.
  4004. @item q
  4005. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4006. @item !
  4007. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4008. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4009. @item C-c
  4010. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4011. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4012. selection window.
  4013. @end table
  4014. @noindent
  4015. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4016. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4017. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4018. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4019. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4020. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4021. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4022. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4023. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4024. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4025. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  4026. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  4027. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  4028. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  4029. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  4030. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  4031. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  4032. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  4033. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4034. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4035. @section Tag searches
  4036. @cindex tag searches
  4037. @cindex searching for tags
  4038. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4039. information into special lists.
  4040. @table @kbd
  4041. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4042. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4043. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4044. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4045. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4046. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4047. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4048. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4049. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4050. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4051. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4052. @end table
  4053. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4054. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4055. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4056. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4057. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4058. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4059. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4060. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4061. @chapter Properties and columns
  4062. @cindex properties
  4063. Properties are a set of key-value pairs associated with an entry. There
  4064. are two main applications for properties in Org-mode. First, properties
  4065. are like tags, but with a value. Second, you can use properties to
  4066. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. For
  4067. an example of the first application, imagine maintaining a file where
  4068. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4069. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, one can use a
  4070. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4071. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. For an example of the second
  4072. application of properties, imagine keeping track of your music CDs,
  4073. where properties could be things such as the album, artist, date of
  4074. release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4075. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4076. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4077. @menu
  4078. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4079. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  4080. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4081. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4082. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4083. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4084. @end menu
  4085. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4086. @section Property syntax
  4087. @cindex property syntax
  4088. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4089. Properties are key-value pairs. They need to be inserted into a special
  4090. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4091. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4092. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4093. @example
  4094. * CD collection
  4095. ** Classic
  4096. *** Goldberg Variations
  4097. :PROPERTIES:
  4098. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4099. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4100. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4101. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4102. :NDisks: 1
  4103. :END:
  4104. @end example
  4105. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4106. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4107. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4108. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4109. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4110. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4111. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4112. @example
  4113. * CD collection
  4114. :PROPERTIES:
  4115. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4116. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4117. :END:
  4118. @end example
  4119. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4120. file, use a line like
  4121. @cindex property, _ALL
  4122. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4123. @example
  4124. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4125. @end example
  4126. @vindex org-global-properties
  4127. Property values set with the global variable
  4128. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4129. Org files.
  4130. @noindent
  4131. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4132. @table @kbd
  4133. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4134. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4135. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4136. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4137. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4138. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4139. @item M-x org-insert-property-drawer
  4140. @findex org-insert-property-drawer
  4141. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4142. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4143. information like deadlines.
  4144. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4145. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4146. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4147. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4148. can be inserted using completion.
  4149. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4150. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4151. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4152. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4153. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4154. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4155. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4156. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4157. nearest column format definition.
  4158. @end table
  4159. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4160. @section Special properties
  4161. @cindex properties, special
  4162. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org-mode features,
  4163. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4164. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4165. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4166. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4167. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4168. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4169. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4170. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4171. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4172. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4173. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4174. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4175. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4176. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4177. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4178. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4179. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4180. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4181. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4182. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4183. @example
  4184. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4185. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4186. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4187. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4188. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4189. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4190. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4191. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4192. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4193. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4194. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4195. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4196. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4197. ITEM @r{The content of the entry.}
  4198. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4199. @end example
  4200. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4201. @section Property searches
  4202. @cindex properties, searching
  4203. @cindex searching, of properties
  4204. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4205. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4206. @table @kbd
  4207. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4208. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4209. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4210. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4211. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4212. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4213. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4214. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4215. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4216. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4217. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4218. @end table
  4219. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4220. properties}.
  4221. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4222. single property:
  4223. @table @kbd
  4224. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4225. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4226. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4227. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4228. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4229. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4230. @end table
  4231. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4232. @section Property Inheritance
  4233. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4234. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4235. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4236. The outline structure of Org-mode documents lends itself to an
  4237. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4238. property, the children can inherit this property. Org-mode does not
  4239. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4240. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4241. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4242. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4243. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4244. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4245. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4246. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4247. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4248. Org-mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4249. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4250. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4251. @table @code
  4252. @item COLUMNS
  4253. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4254. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4255. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4256. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4257. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4258. @item CATEGORY
  4259. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4260. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4261. applies to the entire subtree.
  4262. @item ARCHIVE
  4263. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4264. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4265. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4266. @item LOGGING
  4267. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4268. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4269. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4270. @end table
  4271. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4272. @section Column view
  4273. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4274. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4275. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4276. entries. Org-mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4277. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4278. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4279. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4280. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4281. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4282. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4283. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4284. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4285. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4286. @menu
  4287. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4288. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4289. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4290. @end menu
  4291. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4292. @subsection Defining columns
  4293. @cindex column view, for properties
  4294. @cindex properties, column view
  4295. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4296. done by defining a column format line.
  4297. @menu
  4298. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4299. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4300. @end menu
  4301. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4302. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4303. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4304. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4305. @example
  4306. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4307. @end example
  4308. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4309. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4310. @example
  4311. ** Top node for columns view
  4312. :PROPERTIES:
  4313. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4314. :END:
  4315. @end example
  4316. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4317. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4318. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4319. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4320. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4321. deeper part of the tree.
  4322. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4323. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4324. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4325. definition looks like this:
  4326. @example
  4327. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4328. @end example
  4329. @noindent
  4330. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4331. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4332. @example
  4333. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4334. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4335. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4336. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4337. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4338. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4339. @r{name is used.}
  4340. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4341. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4342. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4343. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4344. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4345. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4346. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4347. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4348. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4349. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4350. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4351. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4352. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4353. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4354. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4355. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4356. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4357. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4358. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4359. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4360. @end example
  4361. @noindent
  4362. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4363. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4364. same summary information.
  4365. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4366. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4367. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4368. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4369. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4370. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4371. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4372. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4373. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4374. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4375. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4376. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4377. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4378. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4379. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4380. values.
  4381. @example
  4382. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4383. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4384. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4385. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4386. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4387. @end example
  4388. @noindent
  4389. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4390. item itself, i.e.@: of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4391. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4392. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4393. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4394. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4395. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4396. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4397. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4398. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4399. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4400. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4401. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4402. in the subtree.
  4403. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4404. @subsection Using column view
  4405. @table @kbd
  4406. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4407. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4408. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4409. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4410. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4411. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4412. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4413. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4414. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4415. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4416. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4417. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4418. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4419. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4420. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4421. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4422. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4423. Exit column view.
  4424. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4425. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4426. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4427. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4428. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4429. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4430. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4431. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4432. @item 1..9,0
  4433. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4434. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4435. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4436. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4437. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4438. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4439. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4440. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4441. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4442. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4443. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4444. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4445. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4446. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4447. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4448. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4449. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4450. current column view.
  4451. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4452. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4453. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4454. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4455. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4456. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4457. Delete the current column.
  4458. @end table
  4459. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4460. @subsection Capturing column view
  4461. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4462. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4463. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4464. of this block looks like this:
  4465. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4466. @example
  4467. * The column view
  4468. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4469. #+END:
  4470. @end example
  4471. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4472. @table @code
  4473. @item :id
  4474. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4475. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4476. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4477. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4478. @cindex property, ID
  4479. @example
  4480. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4481. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4482. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4483. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4484. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4485. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4486. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4487. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4488. @end example
  4489. @item :hlines
  4490. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4491. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4492. @item :vlines
  4493. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4494. @item :maxlevel
  4495. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4496. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4497. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4498. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4499. @end table
  4500. @noindent
  4501. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4502. @table @kbd
  4503. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4504. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4505. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4506. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4507. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4508. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4509. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4510. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4511. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4512. blocks in a buffer.
  4513. @end table
  4514. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4515. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4516. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4517. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4518. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4519. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4520. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4521. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4522. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4523. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4524. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4525. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4526. @section The Property API
  4527. @cindex properties, API
  4528. @cindex API, for properties
  4529. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4530. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4531. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4532. property API}.
  4533. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4534. @chapter Dates and times
  4535. @cindex dates
  4536. @cindex times
  4537. @cindex timestamp
  4538. @cindex date stamp
  4539. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4540. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4541. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org-mode. This may be a
  4542. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4543. something was created or last changed. However, in Org-mode this term
  4544. is used in a much wider sense.
  4545. @menu
  4546. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4547. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4548. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4549. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4550. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4551. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4552. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4553. @end menu
  4554. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4555. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4556. @cindex timestamps
  4557. @cindex ranges, time
  4558. @cindex date stamps
  4559. @cindex deadlines
  4560. @cindex scheduling
  4561. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4562. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or
  4563. @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue
  4564. 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601 date/time
  4565. format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time format}.}. A
  4566. timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree entry.
  4567. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda
  4568. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4569. @table @var
  4570. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4571. @cindex timestamp
  4572. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4573. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4574. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4575. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4576. @example
  4577. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4578. * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4579. @end example
  4580. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4581. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4582. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4583. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4584. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4585. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4586. @example
  4587. * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4588. @end example
  4589. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4590. For more complex date specifications, Org-mode supports using the special
  4591. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4592. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  4593. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  4594. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  4595. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  4596. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  4597. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  4598. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org-mode users
  4599. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  4600. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  4601. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  4602. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For example
  4603. @example
  4604. * The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4605. <%%(org-float t 4 2)>
  4606. @end example
  4607. @item Time/Date range
  4608. @cindex timerange
  4609. @cindex date range
  4610. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4611. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4612. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4613. @example
  4614. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4615. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4616. @end example
  4617. @item Inactive timestamp
  4618. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4619. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4620. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4621. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4622. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4623. @example
  4624. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4625. @end example
  4626. @end table
  4627. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4628. @section Creating timestamps
  4629. @cindex creating timestamps
  4630. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4631. For Org-mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4632. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4633. format.
  4634. @table @kbd
  4635. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4636. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4637. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4638. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4639. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4640. @c
  4641. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4642. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4643. an agenda entry.
  4644. @c
  4645. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4646. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4647. @item C-u C-c .
  4648. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4649. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4650. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4651. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4652. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4653. @c
  4654. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4655. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4656. @c
  4657. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4658. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4659. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4660. instead.
  4661. @c
  4662. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4663. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4664. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4665. @c
  4666. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4667. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4668. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4669. @c
  4670. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4671. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4672. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4673. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4674. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4675. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4676. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4677. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4678. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4679. @c
  4680. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4681. @cindex evaluate time range
  4682. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4683. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4684. the following column).
  4685. @end table
  4686. @menu
  4687. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  4688. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4689. @end menu
  4690. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4691. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4692. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4693. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4694. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4695. When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4696. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4697. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4698. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4699. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4700. copied from an email message. Org-mode will find whatever information is in
  4701. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4702. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4703. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4704. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4705. information, Org-mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4706. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4707. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4708. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4709. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4710. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4711. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4712. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4713. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org-mode are
  4714. in @b{bold}.
  4715. @example
  4716. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4717. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4718. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4719. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4720. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4721. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4722. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4723. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4724. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4725. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4726. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4727. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4728. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4729. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4730. @end example
  4731. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4732. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4733. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4734. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4735. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4736. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4737. the Nth such day, e.g.@:
  4738. @example
  4739. +0 @result{} today
  4740. . @result{} today
  4741. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4742. +4 @result{} same as above
  4743. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4744. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4745. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4746. @end example
  4747. @vindex parse-time-months
  4748. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4749. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4750. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4751. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4752. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  4753. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  4754. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  4755. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  4756. read the docstring of the variable
  4757. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  4758. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4759. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  4760. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  4761. case, e.g.@:
  4762. @example
  4763. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  4764. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  4765. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  4766. @end example
  4767. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4768. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4769. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4770. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4771. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4772. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4773. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4774. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4775. from the minibuffer:
  4776. @kindex <
  4777. @kindex >
  4778. @kindex M-v
  4779. @kindex C-v
  4780. @kindex mouse-1
  4781. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4782. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4783. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4784. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4785. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4786. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4787. @kindex @key{RET}
  4788. @example
  4789. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4790. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4791. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4792. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4793. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4794. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4795. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4796. @end example
  4797. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4798. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4799. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4800. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4801. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4802. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4803. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4804. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4805. @subsection Custom time format
  4806. @cindex custom date/time format
  4807. @cindex time format, custom
  4808. @cindex date format, custom
  4809. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4810. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4811. Org-mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4812. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4813. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4814. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4815. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4816. @table @kbd
  4817. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  4818. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4819. @end table
  4820. @noindent
  4821. Org-mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  4822. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  4823. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  4824. following consequences:
  4825. @itemize @bullet
  4826. @item
  4827. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  4828. after.
  4829. @item
  4830. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  4831. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  4832. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  4833. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  4834. time will be changed by one minute.
  4835. @item
  4836. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  4837. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  4838. @item
  4839. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  4840. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  4841. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  4842. @item
  4843. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  4844. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  4845. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  4846. @end itemize
  4847. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  4848. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  4849. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  4850. @table @var
  4851. @item DEADLINE
  4852. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  4853. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  4854. to be finished on that date.
  4855. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4856. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  4857. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  4858. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  4859. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  4860. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  4861. @example
  4862. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  4863. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  4864. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  4865. @end example
  4866. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  4867. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  4868. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  4869. @item SCHEDULED
  4870. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  4871. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  4872. date.
  4873. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  4874. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  4875. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  4876. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  4877. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  4878. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.@:
  4879. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  4880. @example
  4881. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  4882. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  4883. @end example
  4884. @noindent
  4885. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org-mode should @i{not} be
  4886. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  4887. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  4888. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  4889. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  4890. Org users. In Org-mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  4891. want to start working on an action item.
  4892. @end table
  4893. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  4894. entries. Org-mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  4895. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  4896. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  4897. @c
  4898. @code{<%%(org-float t 42)>}
  4899. @c
  4900. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org-mode does not
  4901. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  4902. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  4903. sexp entry matches.
  4904. @menu
  4905. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  4906. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  4907. @end menu
  4908. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  4909. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  4910. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  4911. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  4912. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  4913. an item:
  4914. @table @kbd
  4915. @c
  4916. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  4917. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  4918. in the line directly following the headline. When called with a prefix arg,
  4919. an existing deadline will be removed from the entry. Depending on the
  4920. variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  4921. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  4922. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4923. deadline.
  4924. @c FIXME Any CLOSED timestamp will be removed.????????
  4925. @c
  4926. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  4927. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  4928. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  4929. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  4930. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  4931. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  4932. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  4933. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4934. scheduling time.
  4935. @c
  4936. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  4937. @kindex k a
  4938. @kindex k s
  4939. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  4940. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  4941. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  4942. schedule the marked item.
  4943. @c
  4944. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  4945. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  4946. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4947. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  4948. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  4949. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  4950. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  4951. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  4952. @c
  4953. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  4954. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  4955. @c
  4956. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  4957. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  4958. @end table
  4959. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  4960. @subsection Repeated tasks
  4961. @cindex tasks, repeated
  4962. @cindex repeated tasks
  4963. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org-mode helps to
  4964. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  4965. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  4966. @example
  4967. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4968. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  4969. @end example
  4970. @noindent
  4971. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  4972. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  4973. from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in
  4974. a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last:
  4975. @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  4976. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  4977. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  4978. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  4979. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  4980. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  4981. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  4982. repeated entry will not be active. Org-mode deals with this in the following
  4983. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  4984. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  4985. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  4986. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  4987. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  4988. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  4989. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  4990. switch the date like this:
  4991. @example
  4992. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4993. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  4994. @end example
  4995. @vindex org-log-repeat
  4996. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  4997. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  4998. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  4999. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  5000. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  5001. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  5002. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  5003. will be visible.
  5004. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  5005. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  5006. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  5007. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  5008. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  5009. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  5010. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  5011. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org-mode has
  5012. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  5013. @example
  5014. ** TODO Call Father
  5015. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  5016. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  5017. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  5018. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  5019. and marked it done on Saturday.
  5020. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  5021. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  5022. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  5023. today.
  5024. @end example
  5025. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  5026. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  5027. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  5028. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  5029. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  5030. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  5031. @section Clocking work time
  5032. @cindex clocking time
  5033. @cindex time clocking
  5034. Org-mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  5035. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock.
  5036. When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the
  5037. clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It
  5038. also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project. And it
  5039. remembers a history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly
  5040. between a number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5041. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5042. @lisp
  5043. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5044. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5045. @end lisp
  5046. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5047. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5048. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5049. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5050. what to do with it.
  5051. @menu
  5052. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5053. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5054. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5055. @end menu
  5056. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5057. @subsection Clocking commands
  5058. @table @kbd
  5059. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5060. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5061. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  5062. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5063. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5064. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5065. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5066. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule
  5067. the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  5068. @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  5069. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5070. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5071. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task.
  5072. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task,
  5073. with letter @kbd{d}.@*
  5074. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5075. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5076. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5077. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5078. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5079. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5080. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5081. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5082. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5083. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5084. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5085. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5086. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5087. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5088. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5089. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5090. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5091. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5092. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5093. @c
  5094. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5095. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5096. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5097. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5098. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5099. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5100. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5101. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5102. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5103. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5104. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5105. @kindex C-c C-y
  5106. @kindex C-c C-c
  5107. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5108. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5109. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5110. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5111. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5112. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5113. if it is running in this same item.
  5114. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-cancel}
  5115. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5116. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5117. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5118. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5119. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5120. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5121. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5122. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts
  5123. overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under
  5124. that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility
  5125. cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the
  5126. buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press
  5127. @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5128. @end table
  5129. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5130. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5131. worked on or closed during a day.
  5132. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5133. @subsection The clock table
  5134. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5135. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5136. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5137. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5138. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5139. @table @kbd
  5140. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5141. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5142. report as an Org-mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5143. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5144. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5145. update it.
  5146. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5147. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5148. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5149. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5150. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5151. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5152. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5153. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5154. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5155. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5156. @end table
  5157. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5158. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5159. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5160. @example
  5161. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5162. #+END: clocktable
  5163. @end example
  5164. @noindent
  5165. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5166. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5167. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5168. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5169. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5170. be selected:
  5171. @example
  5172. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5173. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5174. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5175. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5176. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5177. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5178. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5179. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5180. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5181. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5182. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5183. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5184. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5185. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5186. @r{these formats:}
  5187. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5188. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5189. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5190. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5191. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5192. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5193. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5194. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5195. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5196. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5197. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5198. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5199. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5200. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5201. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5202. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5203. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5204. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5205. @end example
  5206. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5207. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5208. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5209. @example
  5210. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5211. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5212. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5213. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5214. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5215. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5216. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5217. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5218. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5219. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5220. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5221. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5222. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5223. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5224. :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each}
  5225. @r{property will get its own column.}
  5226. :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.}
  5227. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5228. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5229. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5230. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5231. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5232. @end example
  5233. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5234. day, you could write
  5235. @example
  5236. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5237. #+END: clocktable
  5238. @end example
  5239. @noindent
  5240. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5241. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5242. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5243. @example
  5244. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5245. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5246. #+END: clocktable
  5247. @end example
  5248. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5249. @example
  5250. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5251. #+END: clocktable
  5252. @end example
  5253. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5254. would be
  5255. @example
  5256. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5257. #+END: clocktable
  5258. @end example
  5259. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5260. @subsection Resolving idle time
  5261. @cindex resolve idle time
  5262. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5263. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5264. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5265. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5266. applying it to another one.
  5267. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5268. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5269. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5270. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5271. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5272. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5273. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5274. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5275. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5276. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5277. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5278. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5279. @table @kbd
  5280. @item k
  5281. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5282. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5283. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5284. @item K
  5285. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5286. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5287. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5288. @item s
  5289. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5290. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5291. @item S
  5292. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5293. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5294. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5295. @item C
  5296. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5297. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5298. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5299. log with an empty entry.
  5300. @end table
  5301. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5302. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5303. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5304. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5305. the next task you clock in on.
  5306. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5307. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5308. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5309. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5310. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5311. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5312. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5313. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5314. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5315. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due
  5316. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5317. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5318. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5319. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5320. @section Effort estimates
  5321. @cindex effort estimates
  5322. @cindex property, Effort
  5323. @vindex org-effort-property
  5324. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5325. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5326. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5327. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5328. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5329. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5330. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5331. for an entry with the following commands:
  5332. @table @kbd
  5333. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5334. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5335. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5336. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5337. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5338. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5339. @end table
  5340. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5341. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5342. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5343. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5344. buffer you can use
  5345. @example
  5346. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
  5347. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5348. @end example
  5349. @noindent
  5350. @vindex org-global-properties
  5351. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5352. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5353. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5354. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5355. setup may be advised.
  5356. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5357. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5358. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5359. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5360. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5361. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5362. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5363. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5364. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5365. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5366. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5367. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5368. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5369. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5370. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5371. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5372. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5373. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5374. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5375. @cindex relative timer
  5376. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5377. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5378. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5379. @table @kbd
  5380. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5381. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5382. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5383. restarted.
  5384. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5385. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5386. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5387. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5388. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5389. new timer items.
  5390. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5391. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5392. @item C-c C-x ,
  5393. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5394. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5395. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5396. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5397. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5398. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5399. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5400. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5401. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5402. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5403. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5404. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5405. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5406. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5407. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5408. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5409. @end table
  5410. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5411. @section Countdown timer
  5412. @cindex Countdown timer
  5413. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5414. @kindex ;
  5415. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org-mode buffer runs a countdown
  5416. timer. Use @kbd{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everwhere else.
  5417. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5418. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5419. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5420. default value.
  5421. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5422. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5423. @cindex capture
  5424. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5425. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5426. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5427. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5428. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5429. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5430. @menu
  5431. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5432. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5433. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5434. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5435. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5436. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5437. @end menu
  5438. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5439. @section Capture
  5440. @cindex capture
  5441. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5442. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5443. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org-mode for
  5444. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5445. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5446. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5447. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5448. @example
  5449. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5450. @end example
  5451. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5452. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5453. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5454. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5455. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5456. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5457. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5458. @menu
  5459. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5460. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5461. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5462. @end menu
  5463. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5464. @subsection Setting up capture
  5465. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5466. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5467. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5468. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5469. @example
  5470. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5471. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5472. @end example
  5473. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5474. @subsection Using capture
  5475. @table @kbd
  5476. @orgcmd{C-c c,org-capture}
  5477. Call the command @code{org-capture}. Note that this keybinding is global and
  5478. not active by default - you need to install it. If you have templates
  5479. @cindex date tree
  5480. defined @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for
  5481. selection or use a new Org outline node as the default template. It will
  5482. insert the template into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer
  5483. narrowed to this new node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5484. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-capture-finalize}
  5485. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer, @kbd{C-c
  5486. C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture process,
  5487. so that you can resume your work without further distraction. When called
  5488. with a prefix arg, finalize and then jump to the captured item.
  5489. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-capture-refile}
  5490. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5491. a different place. Please realize that this is a normal refiling command
  5492. that will be executed---so the cursor position at the moment you run this
  5493. command is important. If you have inserted a tree with a parent and
  5494. children, first move the cursor back to the parent. Any prefix argument
  5495. given to this command will be passed on to the @code{org-refile} command.
  5496. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,org-capture-kill}
  5497. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5498. @end table
  5499. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5500. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5501. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5502. rather than to the current date.
  5503. To find the locations of the last stored capture, use @code{org-capture} with
  5504. prefix commands:
  5505. @table @kbd
  5506. @orgkey{C-u C-c c}
  5507. Visit the target location of a capture template. You get to select the
  5508. template in the usual way.
  5509. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-c c}
  5510. Visit the last stored capture item in its buffer.
  5511. @end table
  5512. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5513. @subsection Capture templates
  5514. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5515. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5516. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5517. through the customize interface.
  5518. @table @kbd
  5519. @orgkey{C-c c C}
  5520. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5521. @end table
  5522. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5523. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5524. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5525. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5526. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5527. would look like:
  5528. @example
  5529. (setq org-capture-templates
  5530. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5531. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5532. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5533. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5534. @end example
  5535. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5536. for you like this:
  5537. @example
  5538. * TODO
  5539. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5540. @end example
  5541. @noindent
  5542. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5543. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5544. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5545. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same
  5546. place where you started the capture process.
  5547. To define special keys to capture to a particular template without going
  5548. through the interactive template selection, you can create your key binding
  5549. like this:
  5550. @lisp
  5551. (define-key global-map "\C-cx"
  5552. (lambda () (interactive) (org-capture nil "x")))
  5553. @end lisp
  5554. @menu
  5555. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  5556. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  5557. @end menu
  5558. @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates
  5559. @subsubsection Template elements
  5560. Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in
  5561. @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items:
  5562. @table @var
  5563. @item keys
  5564. The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters
  5565. only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a
  5566. single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using
  5567. several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential
  5568. in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the
  5569. prefix key, for example
  5570. @example
  5571. ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy")
  5572. @end example
  5573. @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will
  5574. be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable.
  5575. @item description
  5576. A short string describing the template, which will be shown during
  5577. selection.
  5578. @item type
  5579. The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are:
  5580. @table @code
  5581. @item entry
  5582. An Org-mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the target
  5583. entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org-mode file.
  5584. @item item
  5585. A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target
  5586. location. Again the target file should be an Org file.
  5587. @item checkitem
  5588. A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the
  5589. default template.
  5590. @item table-line
  5591. a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the
  5592. line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and
  5593. @code{:table-line-pos} (see below).
  5594. @item plain
  5595. Text to be inserted as it is.
  5596. @end table
  5597. @item target
  5598. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5599. Specification of where the captured item should be placed. In Org-mode
  5600. files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become children of this
  5601. node. Other types will be added to the table or list in the body of this
  5602. node. Most target specifications contain a file name. If that file name is
  5603. the empty string, it defaults to @code{org-default-notes-file}. A file can
  5604. also be given as a variable, function, or Emacs Lisp form.
  5605. Valid values are:
  5606. @table @code
  5607. @item (file "path/to/file")
  5608. Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file.
  5609. @item (id "id of existing org entry")
  5610. Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry.
  5611. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline")
  5612. Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file.
  5613. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...)
  5614. For non-unique headings, the full path is safer.
  5615. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location")
  5616. Use a regular expression to position the cursor.
  5617. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file")
  5618. Will create a heading in a date tree for today's date.
  5619. @item (file+datetree+prompt "path/to/file")
  5620. Will create a heading in a date tree, but will prompt for the date.
  5621. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location)
  5622. A function to find the right location in the file.
  5623. @item (clock)
  5624. File to the entry that is currently being clocked.
  5625. @item (function function-finding-location)
  5626. Most general way, write your own function to find both
  5627. file and location.
  5628. @end table
  5629. @item template
  5630. The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an
  5631. appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with
  5632. escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the
  5633. capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file,
  5634. using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for
  5635. more details.
  5636. @item properties
  5637. The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options.
  5638. Recognized properties are:
  5639. @table @code
  5640. @item :prepend
  5641. Normally new captured information will be appended at
  5642. the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...).
  5643. Setting this property will change that.
  5644. @item :immediate-finish
  5645. When set, do not offer to edit the information, just
  5646. file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs
  5647. information that can be added automatically.
  5648. @item :empty-lines
  5649. Set this to the number of lines to insert
  5650. before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1.
  5651. @item :clock-in
  5652. Start the clock in this item.
  5653. @item :clock-keep
  5654. Keep the clock running when filing the captured entry.
  5655. @item :clock-resume
  5656. If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished
  5657. with the capture. Note that @code{:clock-keep} has precedence over
  5658. @code{:clock-resume}. When setting both to @code{t}, the current clock will
  5659. run and the previous one will not be resumed.
  5660. @item :unnarrowed
  5661. Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to
  5662. narrow it so that you only see the new material.
  5663. @item :table-line-pos
  5664. Specification of the location in the table where the new line should be
  5665. inserted. It should be a string like @code{"II-3"} meaning that the new
  5666. line should become the third line before the second horizontal separator
  5667. line.
  5668. @item :kill-buffer
  5669. If the target file was not yet visited when capture was invoked, kill the
  5670. buffer again after capture is completed.
  5671. @end table
  5672. @end table
  5673. @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates
  5674. @subsubsection Template expansion
  5675. In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of
  5676. these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow
  5677. dynamic insertion of content:
  5678. @comment SJE: should these sentences terminate in period?
  5679. @smallexample
  5680. %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
  5681. @r{You may specify a default value and a completion table with}
  5682. @r{%^@{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...@}}
  5683. @r{The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history.}
  5684. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}}
  5685. %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part}
  5686. %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the}
  5687. @r{region is active.}
  5688. @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
  5689. %t @r{timestamp, date only}
  5690. %T @r{timestamp with date and time}
  5691. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps}
  5692. %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}}
  5693. @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}}
  5694. %<...> @r{the result of format-time-string on the ... format specification}
  5695. %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name})}
  5696. %c @r{Current kill ring head.}
  5697. %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.}
  5698. %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.}
  5699. %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.}
  5700. %k @r{title of the currently clocked task}
  5701. %K @r{link to the currently clocked task}
  5702. %f @r{file visited by current buffer when org-capture was called}
  5703. %F @r{like @code{%f}, but include full path}
  5704. %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.}
  5705. %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.}
  5706. %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}}
  5707. %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below}
  5708. %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}}
  5709. %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result}
  5710. @end smallexample
  5711. @noindent
  5712. For specific link types, the following keywords will be
  5713. defined@footnote{If you define your own link types (@pxref{Adding
  5714. hyperlink types}), any property you store with
  5715. @code{org-store-link-props} can be accessed in capture templates in a
  5716. similar way.}:
  5717. @vindex org-from-is-user-regexp
  5718. @smallexample
  5719. Link type | Available keywords
  5720. ------------------------+----------------------------------------------
  5721. bbdb | %:name %:company
  5722. irc | %:server %:port %:nick
  5723. vm, wl, mh, mew, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id
  5724. | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress
  5725. | %:to %:toname %:toaddress
  5726. | %:date @r{(message date header field)}
  5727. | %:date-timestamp @r{(date as active timestamp)}
  5728. | %:date-timestamp-inactive @r{(date as inactive timestamp)}
  5729. | %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}}
  5730. gnus | %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields}
  5731. w3, w3m | %:url
  5732. info | %:file %:node
  5733. calendar | %:date
  5734. @end smallexample
  5735. @noindent
  5736. To place the cursor after template expansion use:
  5737. @smallexample
  5738. %? @r{After completing the template, position cursor here.}
  5739. @end smallexample
  5740. @node Attachments, RSS Feeds, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5741. @section Attachments
  5742. @cindex attachments
  5743. @vindex org-attach-directory
  5744. It is often useful to associate reference material with an outline node/task.
  5745. Small chunks of plain text can simply be stored in the subtree of a project.
  5746. Hyperlinks (@pxref{Hyperlinks}) can establish associations with
  5747. files that live elsewhere on your computer or in the cloud, like emails or
  5748. source code files belonging to a project. Another method is @i{attachments},
  5749. which are files located in a directory belonging to an outline node. Org
  5750. uses directories named by the unique ID of each entry. These directories are
  5751. located in the @file{data} directory which lives in the same directory where
  5752. your Org file lives@footnote{If you move entries or Org files from one
  5753. directory to another, you may want to configure @code{org-attach-directory}
  5754. to contain an absolute path.}. If you initialize this directory with
  5755. @code{git init}, Org will automatically commit changes when it sees them.
  5756. The attachment system has been contributed to Org by John Wiegley.
  5757. In cases where it seems better to do so, you can also attach a directory of your
  5758. choice to an entry. You can also make children inherit the attachment
  5759. directory from a parent, so that an entire subtree uses the same attached
  5760. directory.
  5761. @noindent The following commands deal with attachments:
  5762. @table @kbd
  5763. @orgcmd{C-c C-a,org-attach}
  5764. The dispatcher for commands related to the attachment system. After these
  5765. keys, a list of commands is displayed and you must press an additional key
  5766. to select a command:
  5767. @table @kbd
  5768. @orgcmdtkc{a,C-c C-a a,org-attach-attach}
  5769. @vindex org-attach-method
  5770. Select a file and move it into the task's attachment directory. The file
  5771. will be copied, moved, or linked, depending on @code{org-attach-method}.
  5772. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5773. @kindex C-c C-a c
  5774. @kindex C-c C-a m
  5775. @kindex C-c C-a l
  5776. @item c/m/l
  5777. Attach a file using the copy/move/link method.
  5778. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5779. @orgcmdtkc{n,C-c C-a n,org-attach-new}
  5780. Create a new attachment as an Emacs buffer.
  5781. @orgcmdtkc{z,C-c C-a z,org-attach-sync}
  5782. Synchronize the current task with its attachment directory, in case you added
  5783. attachments yourself.
  5784. @orgcmdtkc{o,C-c C-a o,org-attach-open}
  5785. @vindex org-file-apps
  5786. Open current task's attachment. If there is more than one, prompt for a
  5787. file name first. Opening will follow the rules set by @code{org-file-apps}.
  5788. For more details, see the information on following hyperlinks
  5789. (@pxref{Handling links}).
  5790. @orgcmdtkc{O,C-c C-a O,org-attach-open-in-emacs}
  5791. Also open the attachment, but force opening the file in Emacs.
  5792. @orgcmdtkc{f,C-c C-a f,org-attach-reveal}
  5793. Open the current task's attachment directory.
  5794. @orgcmdtkc{F,C-c C-a F,org-attach-reveal-in-emacs}
  5795. Also open the directory, but force using @command{dired} in Emacs.
  5796. @orgcmdtkc{d,C-c C-a d,org-attach-delete-one}
  5797. Select and delete a single attachment.
  5798. @orgcmdtkc{D,C-c C-a D,org-attach-delete-all}
  5799. Delete all of a task's attachments. A safer way is to open the directory in
  5800. @command{dired} and delete from there.
  5801. @orgcmdtkc{s,C-c C-a s,org-attach-set-directory}
  5802. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR
  5803. Set a specific directory as the entry's attachment directory. This works by
  5804. putting the directory path into the @code{ATTACH_DIR} property.
  5805. @orgcmdtkc{i,C-c C-a i,org-attach-set-inherit}
  5806. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT
  5807. Set the @code{ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT} property, so that children will use the
  5808. same directory for attachments as the parent does.
  5809. @end table
  5810. @end table
  5811. @node RSS Feeds, Protocols, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5812. @section RSS feeds
  5813. @cindex RSS feeds
  5814. @cindex Atom feeds
  5815. Org can add and change entries based on information found in RSS feeds and
  5816. Atom feeds. You could use this to make a task out of each new podcast in a
  5817. podcast feed. Or you could use a phone-based note-creating service on the
  5818. web to import tasks into Org. To access feeds, configure the variable
  5819. @code{org-feed-alist}. The docstring of this variable has detailed
  5820. information. Here is just an example:
  5821. @example
  5822. (setq org-feed-alist
  5823. '(("Slashdot"
  5824. "http://rss.slashdot.org/Slashdot/slashdot"
  5825. "~/txt/org/feeds.org" "Slashdot Entries")))
  5826. @end example
  5827. @noindent
  5828. will configure that new items from the feed provided by
  5829. @code{rss.slashdot.org} will result in new entries in the file
  5830. @file{~/org/feeds.org} under the heading @samp{Slashdot Entries}, whenever
  5831. the following command is used:
  5832. @table @kbd
  5833. @orgcmd{C-c C-x g,org-feed-update-all}
  5834. @item C-c C-x g
  5835. Collect items from the feeds configured in @code{org-feed-alist} and act upon
  5836. them.
  5837. @orgcmd{C-c C-x G,org-feed-goto-inbox}
  5838. Prompt for a feed name and go to the inbox configured for this feed.
  5839. @end table
  5840. Under the same headline, Org will create a drawer @samp{FEEDSTATUS} in which
  5841. it will store information about the status of items in the feed, to avoid
  5842. adding the same item several times. You should add @samp{FEEDSTATUS} to the
  5843. list of drawers in that file:
  5844. @example
  5845. #+DRAWERS: LOGBOOK PROPERTIES FEEDSTATUS
  5846. @end example
  5847. For more information, including how to read atom feeds, see
  5848. @file{org-feed.el} and the docstring of @code{org-feed-alist}.
  5849. @node Protocols, Refiling notes, RSS Feeds, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5850. @section Protocols for external access
  5851. @cindex protocols, for external access
  5852. @cindex emacsserver
  5853. You can set up Org for handling protocol calls from outside applications that
  5854. are passed to Emacs through the @file{emacsserver}. For example, you can
  5855. configure bookmarks in your web browser to send a link to the current page to
  5856. Org and create a note from it using capture (@pxref{Capture}). Or you
  5857. could create a bookmark that will tell Emacs to open the local source file of
  5858. a remote website you are looking at with the browser. See
  5859. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/org-protocol.php} for detailed
  5860. documentation and setup instructions.
  5861. @node Refiling notes, Archiving, Protocols, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5862. @section Refiling notes
  5863. @cindex refiling notes
  5864. When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile some of the entries
  5865. into a different list, for example into a project. Cutting, finding the
  5866. right location, and then pasting the note is cumbersome. To simplify this
  5867. process, you can use the following special command:
  5868. @table @kbd
  5869. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  5870. @vindex org-reverse-note-order
  5871. @vindex org-refile-targets
  5872. @vindex org-refile-use-outline-path
  5873. @vindex org-outline-path-complete-in-steps
  5874. @vindex org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes
  5875. @vindex org-log-refile
  5876. @vindex org-refile-use-cache
  5877. Refile the entry or region at point. This command offers possible locations
  5878. for refiling the entry and lets you select one with completion. The item (or
  5879. all items in the region) is filed below the target heading as a subitem.
  5880. Depending on @code{org-reverse-note-order}, it will be either the first or
  5881. last subitem.@*
  5882. By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are considered to be
  5883. targets, but you can have more complex definitions across a number of files.
  5884. See the variable @code{org-refile-targets} for details. If you would like to
  5885. select a location via a file-path-like completion along the outline path, see
  5886. the variables @code{org-refile-use-outline-path} and
  5887. @code{org-outline-path-complete-in-steps}. If you would like to be able to
  5888. create new nodes as new parents for refiling on the fly, check the
  5889. variable @code{org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes}.
  5890. When the variable @code{org-log-refile}@footnote{with corresponding
  5891. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logrefile}, @code{lognoterefile},
  5892. and @code{nologrefile}} is set, a timestamp or a note will be
  5893. recorded when an entry has been refiled.
  5894. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-w}
  5895. Use the refile interface to jump to a heading.
  5896. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c C-w,org-refile-goto-last-stored}
  5897. Jump to the location where @code{org-refile} last moved a tree to.
  5898. @item C-2 C-c C-w
  5899. Refile as the child of the item currently being clocked.
  5900. @item C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5901. @orgcmdtkc{C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w,C-0 C-c C-w,org-refile-cache-clear}
  5902. Clear the target cache. Caching of refile targets can be turned on by
  5903. setting @code{org-refile-use-cache}. To make the command see new possible
  5904. targets, you have to clear the cache with this command.
  5905. @end table
  5906. @node Archiving, , Refiling notes, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5907. @section Archiving
  5908. @cindex archiving
  5909. When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
  5910. to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
  5911. agenda. Archiving is important to keep your working files compact and global
  5912. searches like the construction of agenda views fast.
  5913. @table @kbd
  5914. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-a,org-archive-subtree-default}
  5915. @vindex org-archive-default-command
  5916. Archive the current entry using the command specified in the variable
  5917. @code{org-archive-default-command}.
  5918. @end table
  5919. @menu
  5920. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  5921. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  5922. @end menu
  5923. @node Moving subtrees, Internal archiving, Archiving, Archiving
  5924. @subsection Moving a tree to the archive file
  5925. @cindex external archiving
  5926. The most common archiving action is to move a project tree to another file,
  5927. the archive file.
  5928. @table @kbd
  5929. @orgcmdkskc{C-c C-x C-s,C-c $,org-archive-subtree}
  5930. @vindex org-archive-location
  5931. Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
  5932. given by @code{org-archive-location}.
  5933. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-s}
  5934. Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to
  5935. the archive. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.
  5936. If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive
  5937. location. If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command
  5938. is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.
  5939. @end table
  5940. @cindex archive locations
  5941. The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
  5942. current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
  5943. current file name. For information and examples on how to change this,
  5944. see the documentation string of the variable
  5945. @code{org-archive-location}. There is also an in-buffer option for
  5946. setting this variable, for example@footnote{For backward compatibility,
  5947. the following also works: If there are several such lines in a file,
  5948. each specifies the archive location for the text below it. The first
  5949. such line also applies to any text before its definition. However,
  5950. using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is incompatible
  5951. with the outline structure of the document. The correct method for
  5952. setting multiple archive locations in a buffer is using properties.}:
  5953. @cindex #+ARCHIVE
  5954. @example
  5955. #+ARCHIVE: %s_done::
  5956. @end example
  5957. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  5958. @noindent
  5959. If you would like to have a special ARCHIVE location for a single entry
  5960. or a (sub)tree, give the entry an @code{:ARCHIVE:} property with the
  5961. location as the value (@pxref{Properties and Columns}).
  5962. @vindex org-archive-save-context-info
  5963. When a subtree is moved, it receives a number of special properties that
  5964. record context information like the file from where the entry came, its
  5965. outline path the archiving time etc. Configure the variable
  5966. @code{org-archive-save-context-info} to adjust the amount of information
  5967. added.
  5968. @node Internal archiving, , Moving subtrees, Archiving
  5969. @subsection Internal archiving
  5970. If you want to just switch off (for agenda views) certain subtrees without
  5971. moving them to a different file, you can use the @code{ARCHIVE tag}.
  5972. A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at
  5973. its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way:
  5974. @itemize @minus
  5975. @item
  5976. @vindex org-cycle-open-archived-trees
  5977. It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling
  5978. command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}). You can force cycling archived
  5979. subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option
  5980. @code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}. Also normal outline commands like
  5981. @code{show-all} will open archived subtrees.
  5982. @item
  5983. @vindex org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees
  5984. During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in
  5985. archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option
  5986. @code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}.
  5987. @item
  5988. @vindex org-agenda-skip-archived-trees
  5989. During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda Views}), the content of
  5990. archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option
  5991. @code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}, in which case these trees will always
  5992. be included. In the agenda you can press @kbd{v a} to get archives
  5993. temporarily included.
  5994. @item
  5995. @vindex org-export-with-archived-trees
  5996. Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline
  5997. is. Configure the details using the variable
  5998. @code{org-export-with-archived-trees}.
  5999. @item
  6000. @vindex org-columns-skip-archived-trees
  6001. Archived trees are excluded from column view unless the variable
  6002. @code{org-columns-skip-archived-trees} is configured to @code{nil}.
  6003. @end itemize
  6004. The following commands help manage the ARCHIVE tag:
  6005. @table @kbd
  6006. @orgcmd{C-c C-x a,org-toggle-archive-tag}
  6007. Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline. When the tag is set,
  6008. the headline changes to a shadowed face, and the subtree below it is
  6009. hidden.
  6010. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x a}
  6011. Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived.
  6012. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries. If none are
  6013. found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child. If the
  6014. cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the
  6015. level 1 trees will be checked.
  6016. @orgcmd{C-@kbd{TAB},org-force-cycle-archived}
  6017. Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE.
  6018. @orgcmd{C-c C-x A,org-archive-to-archive-sibling}
  6019. Move the current entry to the @emph{Archive Sibling}. This is a sibling of
  6020. the entry with the heading @samp{Archive} and the tag @samp{ARCHIVE}. The
  6021. entry becomes a child of that sibling and in this way retains a lot of its
  6022. original context, including inherited tags and approximate position in the
  6023. outline.
  6024. @end table
  6025. @node Agenda Views, Markup, Capture - Refile - Archive, Top
  6026. @chapter Agenda views
  6027. @cindex agenda views
  6028. Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and
  6029. tagged headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of
  6030. files. To get an overview of open action items, or of events that are
  6031. important for a particular date, this information must be collected,
  6032. sorted and displayed in an organized way.
  6033. Org can select items based on various criteria and display them
  6034. in a separate buffer. Seven different view types are provided:
  6035. @itemize @bullet
  6036. @item
  6037. an @emph{agenda} that is like a calendar and shows information
  6038. for specific dates,
  6039. @item
  6040. a @emph{TODO list} that covers all unfinished
  6041. action items,
  6042. @item
  6043. a @emph{match view}, showings headlines based on the tags, properties, and
  6044. TODO state associated with them,
  6045. @item
  6046. a @emph{timeline view} that shows all events in a single Org file,
  6047. in time-sorted view,
  6048. @item
  6049. a @emph{text search view} that shows all entries from multiple files
  6050. that contain specified keywords,
  6051. @item
  6052. a @emph{stuck projects view} showing projects that currently don't move
  6053. along, and
  6054. @item
  6055. @emph{custom views} that are special searches and combinations of different
  6056. views.
  6057. @end itemize
  6058. @noindent
  6059. The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda
  6060. buffer}. This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the
  6061. corresponding locations in the original Org files, and even to
  6062. edit these files remotely.
  6063. @vindex org-agenda-window-setup
  6064. @vindex org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit
  6065. Two variables control how the agenda buffer is displayed and whether the
  6066. window configuration is restored when the agenda exits:
  6067. @code{org-agenda-window-setup} and
  6068. @code{org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit}.
  6069. @menu
  6070. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  6071. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  6072. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  6073. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  6074. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  6075. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  6076. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  6077. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  6078. @end menu
  6079. @node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views, Agenda Views
  6080. @section Agenda files
  6081. @cindex agenda files
  6082. @cindex files for agenda
  6083. @vindex org-agenda-files
  6084. The information to be shown is normally collected from all @emph{agenda
  6085. files}, the files listed in the variable
  6086. @code{org-agenda-files}@footnote{If the value of that variable is not a
  6087. list, but a single file name, then the list of agenda files will be
  6088. maintained in that external file.}. If a directory is part of this list,
  6089. all files with the extension @file{.org} in this directory will be part
  6090. of the list.
  6091. Thus, even if you only work with a single Org file, that file should
  6092. be put into the list@footnote{When using the dispatcher, pressing
  6093. @kbd{<} before selecting a command will actually limit the command to
  6094. the current file, and ignore @code{org-agenda-files} until the next
  6095. dispatcher command.}. You can customize @code{org-agenda-files}, but
  6096. the easiest way to maintain it is through the following commands
  6097. @cindex files, adding to agenda list
  6098. @table @kbd
  6099. @orgcmd{C-c [,org-agenda-file-to-front}
  6100. Add current file to the list of agenda files. The file is added to
  6101. the front of the list. If it was already in the list, it is moved to
  6102. the front. With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the end.
  6103. @orgcmd{C-c ],org-remove-file}
  6104. Remove current file from the list of agenda files.
  6105. @kindex C-,
  6106. @orgcmd{C-',org-cycle-agenda-files}
  6107. @itemx C-,
  6108. Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.
  6109. @kindex M-x org-iswitchb
  6110. @item M-x org-iswitchb
  6111. Command to use an @code{iswitchb}-like interface to switch to and between Org
  6112. buffers.
  6113. @end table
  6114. @noindent
  6115. The Org menu contains the current list of files and can be used
  6116. to visit any of them.
  6117. If you would like to focus the agenda temporarily on a file not in
  6118. this list, or on just one file in the list, or even on only a subtree in a
  6119. file, then this can be done in different ways. For a single agenda command,
  6120. you may press @kbd{<} once or several times in the dispatcher
  6121. (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}). To restrict the agenda scope for an
  6122. extended period, use the following commands:
  6123. @table @kbd
  6124. @orgcmd{C-c C-x <,org-agenda-set-restriction-lock}
  6125. Permanently restrict the agenda to the current subtree. When with a
  6126. prefix argument, or with the cursor before the first headline in a file,
  6127. the agenda scope is set to the entire file. This restriction remains in
  6128. effect until removed with @kbd{C-c C-x >}, or by typing either @kbd{<}
  6129. or @kbd{>} in the agenda dispatcher. If there is a window displaying an
  6130. agenda view, the new restriction takes effect immediately.
  6131. @orgcmd{C-c C-x >,org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock}
  6132. Remove the permanent restriction created by @kbd{C-c C-x <}.
  6133. @end table
  6134. @noindent
  6135. When working with @file{speedbar.el}, you can use the following commands in
  6136. the Speedbar frame:
  6137. @table @kbd
  6138. @orgcmdtkc{< @r{in the speedbar frame},<,org-speedbar-set-agenda-restriction}
  6139. Permanently restrict the agenda to the item---either an Org file or a subtree
  6140. in such a file---at the cursor in the Speedbar frame.
  6141. If there is a window displaying an agenda view, the new restriction takes
  6142. effect immediately.
  6143. @orgcmdtkc{> @r{in the speedbar frame},>,org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock}
  6144. Lift the restriction.
  6145. @end table
  6146. @node Agenda dispatcher, Built-in agenda views, Agenda files, Agenda Views
  6147. @section The agenda dispatcher
  6148. @cindex agenda dispatcher
  6149. @cindex dispatching agenda commands
  6150. The views are created through a dispatcher, which should be bound to a
  6151. global key---for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Activation}). In the
  6152. following we will assume that @kbd{C-c a} is indeed how the dispatcher
  6153. is accessed and list keyboard access to commands accordingly. After
  6154. pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a
  6155. command. The dispatcher offers the following default commands:
  6156. @table @kbd
  6157. @item a
  6158. Create the calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  6159. @item t @r{/} T
  6160. Create a list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}).
  6161. @item m @r{/} M
  6162. Create a list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching
  6163. tags and properties}).
  6164. @item L
  6165. Create the timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}).
  6166. @item s
  6167. Create a list of entries selected by a boolean expression of keywords
  6168. and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in the entry.
  6169. @item /
  6170. @vindex org-agenda-text-search-extra-files
  6171. Search for a regular expression in all agenda files and additionally in
  6172. the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}. This
  6173. uses the Emacs command @code{multi-occur}. A prefix argument can be
  6174. used to specify the number of context lines for each match, default is
  6175. 1.
  6176. @item # @r{/} !
  6177. Create a list of stuck projects (@pxref{Stuck projects}).
  6178. @item <
  6179. Restrict an agenda command to the current buffer@footnote{For backward
  6180. compatibility, you can also press @kbd{1} to restrict to the current
  6181. buffer.}. After pressing @kbd{<}, you still need to press the character
  6182. selecting the command.
  6183. @item < <
  6184. If there is an active region, restrict the following agenda command to
  6185. the region. Otherwise, restrict it to the current subtree@footnote{For
  6186. backward compatibility, you can also press @kbd{0} to restrict to the
  6187. current region/subtree.}. After pressing @kbd{< <}, you still need to press the
  6188. character selecting the command.
  6189. @end table
  6190. You can also define custom commands that will be accessible through the
  6191. dispatcher, just like the default commands. This includes the
  6192. possibility to create extended agenda buffers that contain several
  6193. blocks together, for example the weekly agenda, the global TODO list and
  6194. a number of special tags matches. @xref{Custom agenda views}.
  6195. @node Built-in agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views
  6196. @section The built-in agenda views
  6197. In this section we describe the built-in views.
  6198. @menu
  6199. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  6200. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  6201. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  6202. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  6203. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  6204. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  6205. @end menu
  6206. @node Weekly/daily agenda, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views, Built-in agenda views
  6207. @subsection The weekly/daily agenda
  6208. @cindex agenda
  6209. @cindex weekly agenda
  6210. @cindex daily agenda
  6211. The purpose of the weekly/daily @emph{agenda} is to act like a page of a
  6212. paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day.
  6213. @table @kbd
  6214. @cindex org-agenda, command
  6215. @orgcmd{C-c a a,org-agenda-list}
  6216. Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of Org files. Th