org.texi 770 KB

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  1. \input texinfo @c -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org.info
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include docstyle.texi
  6. @include org-version.inc
  7. @c Version and Contact Info
  8. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers web page}
  9. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  10. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  11. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  12. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  13. @c %**end of header
  14. @finalout
  15. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  16. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  17. @c =======================================
  18. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  19. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  20. @set cmdnames
  21. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  22. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  23. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  24. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  25. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  26. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  27. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  28. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  29. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  30. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  31. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  32. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  33. @c a key but no command
  34. @c Inserts: @item key
  35. @macro orgkey{key}
  36. @kindex \key\
  37. @item @kbd{\key\}
  38. @end macro
  39. @macro xorgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @c one key with a command
  44. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  45. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  46. @ifset cmdnames
  47. @kindex \key\
  48. @findex \command\
  49. @iftex
  50. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  51. @end iftex
  52. @ifnottex
  53. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  54. @end ifnottex
  55. @end ifset
  56. @ifclear cmdnames
  57. @kindex \key\
  58. @item @kbd{\key\}
  59. @end ifclear
  60. @end macro
  61. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  62. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  63. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  64. @ifset cmdnames
  65. @kindex \key\
  66. @findex \command\
  67. @iftex
  68. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  69. @end iftex
  70. @ifnottex
  71. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  72. @end ifnottex
  73. @end ifset
  74. @ifclear cmdnames
  75. @kindex \key\
  76. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  77. @end ifclear
  78. @end macro
  79. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  80. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  81. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  82. @ifset cmdnames
  83. @findex \command\
  84. @iftex
  85. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  86. @end iftex
  87. @ifnottex
  88. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  89. @end ifnottex
  90. @end ifset
  91. @ifclear cmdnames
  92. @item @kbd{\key\}
  93. @end ifclear
  94. @end macro
  95. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  96. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  97. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  98. @ifset cmdnames
  99. @kindex \key\
  100. @findex \command\
  101. @iftex
  102. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  103. @end iftex
  104. @ifnottex
  105. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  106. @end ifnottex
  107. @end ifset
  108. @ifclear cmdnames
  109. @kindex \key\
  110. @item @kbd{\text\}
  111. @end ifclear
  112. @end macro
  113. @c two keys with one command
  114. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  115. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  116. @ifset cmdnames
  117. @kindex \key1\
  118. @kindex \key2\
  119. @findex \command\
  120. @iftex
  121. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  122. @end iftex
  123. @ifnottex
  124. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  125. @end ifnottex
  126. @end ifset
  127. @ifclear cmdnames
  128. @kindex \key1\
  129. @kindex \key2\
  130. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  131. @end ifclear
  132. @end macro
  133. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  134. @c @itemx
  135. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  136. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  137. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  138. @ifset cmdnames
  139. @kindex \key1\
  140. @kindex \key2\
  141. @findex \command\
  142. @iftex
  143. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  144. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  145. @end iftex
  146. @ifnottex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  149. @end ifnottex
  150. @end ifset
  151. @ifclear cmdnames
  152. @kindex \key1\
  153. @kindex \key2\
  154. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  155. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  156. @end ifclear
  157. @end macro
  158. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  159. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  160. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  161. @ifset cmdnames
  162. @kindex \key1\
  163. @kindex \key2\
  164. @findex \command\
  165. @iftex
  166. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  167. @end iftex
  168. @ifnottex
  169. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  170. @end ifnottex
  171. @end ifset
  172. @ifclear cmdnames
  173. @kindex \key1\
  174. @kindex \key2\
  175. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  176. @end ifclear
  177. @end macro
  178. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  179. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  180. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  181. @ifset cmdnames
  182. @kindex \key1\
  183. @kindex \key2\
  184. @findex \command\
  185. @iftex
  186. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  187. @end iftex
  188. @ifnottex
  189. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  190. @end ifnottex
  191. @end ifset
  192. @ifclear cmdnames
  193. @kindex \key1\
  194. @kindex \key2\
  195. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  196. @end ifclear
  197. @end macro
  198. @c two keys with two commands
  199. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  200. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  201. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  202. @ifset cmdnames
  203. @kindex \key1\
  204. @kindex \key2\
  205. @findex \command1\
  206. @findex \command2\
  207. @iftex
  208. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  209. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  210. @end iftex
  211. @ifnottex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  214. @end ifnottex
  215. @end ifset
  216. @ifclear cmdnames
  217. @kindex \key1\
  218. @kindex \key2\
  219. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  220. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  221. @end ifclear
  222. @end macro
  223. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  224. @iftex
  225. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  226. @end iftex
  227. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  228. @macro tsubheading{text}
  229. @ifinfo
  230. @subsubheading \text\
  231. @end ifinfo
  232. @ifnotinfo
  233. @item @b{\text\}
  234. @end ifnotinfo
  235. @end macro
  236. @copying
  237. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  238. Copyright @copyright{} 2004--2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  239. @quotation
  240. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  241. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  242. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  243. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  244. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  245. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  246. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  247. modify this GNU manual.''
  248. @end quotation
  249. @end copying
  250. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  251. @direntry
  252. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  253. @end direntry
  254. @titlepage
  255. @title The Org Manual
  256. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  257. @author by Carsten Dominik
  258. with contributions by Bastien Guerry, Nicolas Goaziou, Eric Schulte,
  259. Jambunathan K, Dan Davison, Thomas Dye, David O'Toole, and Philip Rooke.
  260. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  261. @page
  262. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  263. @insertcopying
  264. @end titlepage
  265. @c Output the short table of contents at the beginning.
  266. @shortcontents
  267. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  268. @contents
  269. @ifnottex
  270. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  271. @top Org Mode Manual
  272. @insertcopying
  273. @end ifnottex
  274. @menu
  275. * Introduction:: Getting started
  276. * Document structure:: A tree works like your brain
  277. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  278. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  279. * TODO items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  280. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  281. * Properties and columns:: Storing information about an entry
  282. * Dates and times:: Making items useful for planning
  283. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  284. * Agenda views:: Collecting information into views
  285. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  286. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing notes
  287. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  288. * Working with source code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  289. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  290. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  291. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  292. * History and acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  293. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
  294. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  295. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  296. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  297. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  298. @detailmenu
  299. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  300. Introduction
  301. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  302. * Installation:: Installing Org
  303. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  304. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  305. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  306. Document structure
  307. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  308. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  309. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  310. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  311. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  312. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  313. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  314. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  315. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  316. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  317. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  318. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  319. Visibility cycling
  320. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  321. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  322. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  323. Tables
  324. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  325. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  326. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  327. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  328. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  329. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  330. The spreadsheet
  331. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  332. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  333. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  334. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  335. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  336. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  337. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  338. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  339. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  340. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  341. Hyperlinks
  342. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  343. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  344. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  345. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  346. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  347. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  348. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  349. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  350. Internal links
  351. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  352. TODO items
  353. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  354. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  355. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  356. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  357. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  358. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  359. Extended use of TODO keywords
  360. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  361. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  362. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  363. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  364. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  365. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  366. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  367. Progress logging
  368. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  369. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  370. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  371. Tags
  372. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  373. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  374. * Tag hierarchy:: Create a hierarchy of tags
  375. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  376. Properties and columns
  377. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  378. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  379. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  380. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  381. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  382. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  383. Column view
  384. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  385. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  386. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  387. Defining columns
  388. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  389. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  390. Dates and times
  391. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  392. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  393. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  394. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  395. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  396. * Timers:: Notes with a running timer
  397. Creating timestamps
  398. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  399. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  400. Deadlines and scheduling
  401. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  402. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  403. Clocking work time
  404. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  405. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  406. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  407. Capture - Refile - Archive
  408. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  409. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  410. * RSS feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  411. * Protocols:: External (e.g., Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  412. * Refile and copy:: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another
  413. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  414. Capture
  415. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  416. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  417. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  418. Capture templates
  419. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  420. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  421. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context
  422. Protocols for external access
  423. * @code{store-link} protocol:: Store a link, push URL to kill-ring.
  424. * @code{capture} protocol:: Fill a buffer with external information.
  425. * @code{open-source} protocol:: Edit published contents.
  426. Archiving
  427. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  428. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  429. Agenda views
  430. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  431. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  432. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  433. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  434. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  435. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  436. * Exporting agenda views:: Writing a view to a file
  437. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  438. The built-in agenda views
  439. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  440. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  441. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  442. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  443. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  444. Presentation and sorting
  445. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  446. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  447. * Sorting agenda items:: The order of things
  448. * Filtering/limiting agenda items:: Dynamically narrow the agenda
  449. Custom agenda views
  450. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  451. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  452. * Setting options:: Changing the rules
  453. Markup for rich export
  454. * Paragraphs:: The basic unit of text
  455. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  456. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  457. * Images and tables:: Images, tables and caption mechanism
  458. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  459. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  460. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  461. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  462. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  463. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  464. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  465. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  466. Exporting
  467. * The export dispatcher:: The main interface
  468. * Export settings:: Common export settings
  469. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  470. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  471. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create templates
  472. * Comment lines:: What will not be exported
  473. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  474. * Beamer export:: Exporting as a Beamer presentation
  475. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  476. * @LaTeX{} export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  477. * Markdown export:: Exporting to Markdown
  478. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  479. * Org export:: Exporting to Org
  480. * Texinfo export:: Exporting to Texinfo
  481. * iCalendar export:: Exporting to iCalendar
  482. * Other built-in back-ends:: Exporting to a man page
  483. * Advanced configuration:: Fine-tuning the export output
  484. * Export in foreign buffers:: Author tables and lists in Org syntax
  485. Beamer export
  486. * Beamer export commands:: For creating Beamer documents.
  487. * Beamer specific export settings:: For customizing Beamer export.
  488. * Sectioning Frames and Blocks in Beamer:: For composing Beamer slides.
  489. * Beamer specific syntax:: For using in Org documents.
  490. * Editing support:: For using helper functions.
  491. * A Beamer example:: A complete presentation.
  492. HTML export
  493. * HTML Export commands:: Invoking HTML export
  494. * HTML Specific export settings:: Settings for HTML export
  495. * HTML doctypes:: Exporting various (X)HTML flavors
  496. * HTML preamble and postamble:: Inserting preamble and postamble
  497. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org files
  498. * Links in HTML export:: Interpreting and formatting links
  499. * Tables in HTML export:: Formatting and modifying tables
  500. * Images in HTML export:: Inserting figures with HTML output
  501. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Handling math equations
  502. * Text areas in HTML export:: Showing an alternate approach, an example
  503. * CSS support:: Styling HTML output
  504. * JavaScript support:: Folding scripting in the web browser
  505. @LaTeX{} export
  506. * @LaTeX{} export commands:: For producing @LaTeX{} and PDF documents.
  507. * @LaTeX{} specific export settings:: Unique to this @LaTeX{} back-end.
  508. * @LaTeX{} header and sectioning:: For file structure.
  509. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Directly in the Org document.
  510. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to tables.
  511. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to images.
  512. * Plain lists in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to lists.
  513. * Source blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to source code blocks.
  514. * Example blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to example blocks.
  515. * Special blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to special blocks.
  516. * Horizontal rules in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to horizontal rules.
  517. OpenDocument Text export
  518. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: Required packages.
  519. * ODT export commands:: Invoking export.
  520. * ODT specific export settings:: Configuration options.
  521. * Extending ODT export:: Producing @file{.doc}, @file{.pdf} files.
  522. * Applying custom styles:: Styling the output.
  523. * Links in ODT export:: Handling and formatting links.
  524. * Tables in ODT export:: Org table conversions.
  525. * Images in ODT export:: Inserting images.
  526. * Math formatting in ODT export:: Formatting @LaTeX{} fragments.
  527. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: Rendering objects.
  528. * Literal examples in ODT export:: For source code and example blocks.
  529. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: For power users.
  530. Math formatting in ODT export
  531. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: Embedding in @LaTeX{} format.
  532. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: Embedding in native format.
  533. Advanced topics in ODT export
  534. * Configuring a document converter:: Registering a document converter.
  535. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Exploring internals.
  536. * Creating one-off styles:: Customizing styles, highlighting.
  537. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: Defining table templates.
  538. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: Debugging corrupted OpenDocument files.
  539. Texinfo export
  540. * Texinfo export commands:: Invoking commands.
  541. * Texinfo specific export settings:: Setting the environment.
  542. * Texinfo file header:: Generating the header.
  543. * Texinfo title and copyright page:: Creating preamble pages.
  544. * Info directory file:: Installing a manual in Info file hierarchy.
  545. * Headings and sectioning structure:: Building document structure.
  546. * Indices:: Creating indices.
  547. * Quoting Texinfo code:: Incorporating literal Texinfo code.
  548. * Plain lists in Texinfo export:: List attributes.
  549. * Tables in Texinfo export:: Table attributes.
  550. * Images in Texinfo export:: Image attributes.
  551. * Special blocks in Texinfo export:: Special block attributes.
  552. * A Texinfo example:: Processing Org to Texinfo.
  553. Publishing
  554. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  555. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  556. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  557. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  558. Configuration
  559. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  560. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  561. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  562. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  563. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  564. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  565. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  566. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  567. Sample configuration
  568. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  569. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  570. Working with source code
  571. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  572. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  573. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  574. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  575. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  576. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  577. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  578. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  579. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  580. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  581. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  582. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  583. Header arguments
  584. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  585. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  586. Using header arguments
  587. * System-wide header arguments:: Set globally, language-specific
  588. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set in the Org file's headers
  589. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set in the Org file
  590. * Language-specific mode properties::
  591. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most commonly used method
  592. * Arguments in function calls:: The most specific level, takes highest priority
  593. Specific header arguments
  594. * var:: Pass arguments to @samp{src} code blocks
  595. * results:: Specify results type; how to collect
  596. * file:: Specify a path for output file
  597. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  598. * file-ext:: Specify an extension for file output
  599. * output-dir:: Specify a directory for output file
  600. * dir:: Specify the default directory for code block execution
  601. * exports:: Specify exporting code, results, both, none
  602. * tangle:: Toggle tangling; or specify file name
  603. * mkdirp:: Toggle for parent directory creation for target files during tangling
  604. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled code files
  605. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled code files
  606. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb expansion during tangling
  607. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  608. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  609. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  610. * noweb-sep:: String to separate noweb references
  611. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  612. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  613. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  614. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  615. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  616. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  617. * tangle-mode:: Set permission of tangled files
  618. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  619. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  620. * post:: Post processing of results of code block evaluation
  621. * prologue:: Text to prepend to body of code block
  622. * epilogue:: Text to append to body of code block
  623. Miscellaneous
  624. * Completion:: M-TAB guesses completions
  625. * Easy templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  626. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  627. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  628. * Customization:: Adapting Org to changing tastes
  629. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  630. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  631. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  632. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  633. * Interaction:: With other Emacs packages
  634. * org-crypt:: Encrypting Org files
  635. Interaction with other packages
  636. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  637. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  638. Hacking
  639. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  640. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  641. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  642. * Adding export back-ends:: How to write new export back-ends
  643. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  644. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  645. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  646. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  647. * Speeding up your agendas:: Tips on how to speed up your agendas
  648. * Extracting agenda information:: Post-processing of agenda information
  649. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  650. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  651. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  652. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  653. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  654. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  655. * Radio lists:: Sending and receiving lists
  656. MobileOrg
  657. * Setting up the staging area:: For the mobile device
  658. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  659. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  660. @end detailmenu
  661. @end menu
  662. @node Introduction
  663. @chapter Introduction
  664. @cindex introduction
  665. @menu
  666. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  667. * Installation:: Installing Org
  668. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  669. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  670. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  671. @end menu
  672. @node Summary
  673. @section Summary
  674. @cindex summary
  675. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and project planning
  676. with a fast and effective plain-text system. It also is an authoring system
  677. with unique support for literate programming and reproducible research.
  678. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep
  679. the content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and structure
  680. editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created with a
  681. built-in table editor. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites,
  682. emails, Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  683. Org develops organizational tasks around notes files that contain lists or
  684. information about projects as plain text. Project planning and task
  685. management makes use of metadata which is part of an outline node. Based on
  686. this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and create dynamic
  687. @i{agenda views} that also integrate the Emacs calendar and diary. Org can
  688. be used to implement many different project planning schemes, such as David
  689. Allen's GTD system.
  690. Org files can serve as a single source authoring system with export to many
  691. different formats such as HTML, @LaTeX{}, Open Document, and Markdown. New
  692. export backends can be derived from existing ones, or defined from scratch.
  693. Org files can include source code blocks, which makes Org uniquely suited for
  694. authoring technical documents with code examples. Org source code blocks are
  695. fully functional; they can be evaluated in place and their results can be
  696. captured in the file. This makes it possible to create a single file
  697. reproducible research compendium.
  698. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should feel like a
  699. straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not imposed, but a
  700. large amount of functionality is available when needed. Org is a toolbox.
  701. Many users actually run only a (very personal) fraction of Org's capabilities, and
  702. know that there is more whenever they need it.
  703. All of this is achieved with strictly plain text files, the most portable and
  704. future-proof file format. Org runs in Emacs. Emacs is one of the most
  705. widely ported programs, so that Org mode is available on every major
  706. platform.
  707. @cindex FAQ
  708. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  709. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  710. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc. This page is located at
  711. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  712. @cindex print edition
  713. An earlier version (7.3) of this manual is available as a
  714. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from
  715. Network Theory Ltd.}
  716. @page
  717. @node Installation
  718. @section Installation
  719. @cindex installation
  720. Org is part of recent distributions of GNU Emacs, so you normally don't need
  721. to install it. If, for one reason or another, you want to install Org on top
  722. of this pre-packaged version, there are three ways to do it:
  723. @itemize @bullet
  724. @item By using Emacs package system.
  725. @item By downloading Org as an archive.
  726. @item By using Org's git repository.
  727. @end itemize
  728. We @b{strongly recommend} to stick to a single installation method.
  729. @subsubheading Using Emacs packaging system
  730. Recent Emacs distributions include a packaging system which lets you install
  731. Elisp libraries. You can install Org with @kbd{M-x package-install RET org}.
  732. @noindent @b{Important}: you need to do this in a session where no @code{.org} file has
  733. been visited, i.e., where no Org built-in function have been loaded.
  734. Otherwise autoload Org functions will mess up the installation.
  735. Then, to make sure your Org configuration is taken into account, initialize
  736. the package system with @code{(package-initialize)} in your Emacs init file
  737. before setting any Org option. If you want to use Org's package repository,
  738. check out the @uref{http://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}.
  739. @subsubheading Downloading Org as an archive
  740. You can download Org latest release from @uref{http://orgmode.org/, Org's
  741. website}. In this case, make sure you set the load-path correctly in your
  742. Emacs init file:
  743. @lisp
  744. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  745. @end lisp
  746. The downloaded archive contains contributed libraries that are not included
  747. in Emacs. If you want to use them, add the @file{contrib} directory to your
  748. load-path:
  749. @lisp
  750. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  751. @end lisp
  752. Optionally, you can compile the files and/or install them in your system.
  753. Run @code{make help} to list compilation and installation options.
  754. @subsubheading Using Org's git repository
  755. You can clone Org's repository and install Org like this:
  756. @example
  757. $ cd ~/src/
  758. $ git clone git://orgmode.org/org-mode.git
  759. $ make autoloads
  760. @end example
  761. Note that in this case, @code{make autoloads} is mandatory: it defines Org's
  762. version in @file{org-version.el} and Org's autoloads in
  763. @file{org-loaddefs.el}.
  764. Remember to add the correct load-path as described in the method above.
  765. You can also compile with @code{make}, generate the documentation with
  766. @code{make doc}, create a local configuration with @code{make config} and
  767. install Org with @code{make install}. Please run @code{make help} to get
  768. the list of compilation/installation options.
  769. For more detailed explanations on Org's build system, please check the Org
  770. Build System page on @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html,
  771. Worg}.
  772. @node Activation
  773. @section Activation
  774. @cindex activation
  775. @cindex autoload
  776. @cindex ELPA
  777. @cindex global key bindings
  778. @cindex key bindings, global
  779. @findex org-agenda
  780. @findex org-capture
  781. @findex org-store-link
  782. @findex org-iswitchb
  783. Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on: this is the default in
  784. Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer
  785. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  786. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  787. packages, please take the time to check the list (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  788. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  789. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  790. global keys (i.e., anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  791. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  792. liking.
  793. @lisp
  794. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  795. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  796. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  797. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  798. @end lisp
  799. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  800. Files with the @file{.org} extension use Org mode by default. To turn on Org
  801. mode in a file that does not have the extension @file{.org}, make the first
  802. line of a file look like this:
  803. @example
  804. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  805. @end example
  806. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  807. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  808. the file's name is. See also the variable
  809. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  810. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  811. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode} turned on, which is
  812. the default. If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create
  813. an active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  814. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  815. @node Feedback
  816. @section Feedback
  817. @cindex feedback
  818. @cindex bug reports
  819. @cindex maintainer
  820. @cindex author
  821. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  822. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  823. You can subscribe to the list
  824. @uref{https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/emacs-orgmode, on this web page}.
  825. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  826. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  827. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  828. moderators have to do.}.
  829. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  830. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  831. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  832. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  833. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  834. (@kbd{M-x org-version RET}), as well as the Org related setup in the Emacs
  835. init file. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  836. @example
  837. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report RET}
  838. @end example
  839. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  840. that you only need to add your description. If you are not sending the Email
  841. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  842. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  843. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  844. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  845. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  846. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  847. @example
  848. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  849. @end example
  850. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  851. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as
  852. @code{emacs -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  853. shown below.
  854. @lisp
  855. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest 'org-mode'
  856. ;; activate debugging
  857. (setq debug-on-error t
  858. debug-on-signal nil
  859. debug-on-quit nil)
  860. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  861. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  862. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t))
  863. @end lisp
  864. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  865. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  866. about:
  867. @enumerate
  868. @item What exactly did you do?
  869. @item What did you expect to happen?
  870. @item What happened instead?
  871. @end enumerate
  872. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  873. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  874. @cindex backtrace of an error
  875. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  876. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  877. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  878. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  879. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  880. @enumerate
  881. @item
  882. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  883. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  884. To do this, use
  885. @example
  886. @kbd{C-u M-x org-reload RET}
  887. @end example
  888. @noindent
  889. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  890. menu.
  891. @item
  892. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}.
  893. @item
  894. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  895. document the steps you take.
  896. @item
  897. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  898. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  899. attach it to your bug report.
  900. @end enumerate
  901. @node Conventions
  902. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  903. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  904. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  905. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  906. @table @code
  907. @item TODO
  908. @itemx WAITING
  909. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  910. user-defined.
  911. @item boss
  912. @itemx ARCHIVE
  913. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  914. meaning are written with all capitals.
  915. @item Release
  916. @itemx PRIORITY
  917. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  918. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  919. @end table
  920. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  921. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_EXPORT html} to start
  922. a @code{HTML} environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to
  923. enhance its readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org file.
  924. @subsubheading Key bindings and commands
  925. @kindex C-c a
  926. @findex org-agenda
  927. @kindex C-c c
  928. @findex org-capture
  929. The manual suggests a few global key bindings, in particular @kbd{C-c a} for
  930. @code{org-agenda} and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only
  931. suggestions, but the rest of the manual assumes that these key bindings are in
  932. place in order to list commands by key access.
  933. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  934. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  935. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  936. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  937. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  938. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will
  939. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  940. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  941. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  942. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  943. @node Document structure
  944. @chapter Document structure
  945. @cindex document structure
  946. @cindex structure of document
  947. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  948. edit the structure of the document.
  949. @menu
  950. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  951. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  952. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  953. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  954. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  955. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  956. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  957. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  958. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  959. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  960. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  961. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  962. @end menu
  963. @node Outlines
  964. @section Outlines
  965. @cindex outlines
  966. @cindex Outline mode
  967. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  968. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  969. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  970. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  971. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  972. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  973. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  974. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  975. @node Headlines
  976. @section Headlines
  977. @cindex headlines
  978. @cindex outline tree
  979. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  980. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  981. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  982. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  983. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  984. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  985. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  986. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  987. headings indented less than 30 stars.}. For example:
  988. @example
  989. * Top level headline
  990. ** Second level
  991. *** 3rd level
  992. some text
  993. *** 3rd level
  994. more text
  995. * Another top level headline
  996. @end example
  997. @vindex org-footnote-section
  998. @noindent Note that a headline named after @code{org-footnote-section},
  999. which defaults to @samp{Footnotes}, is considered as special. A subtree with
  1000. this headline will be silently ignored by exporting functions.
  1001. Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  1002. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  1003. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  1004. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  1005. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  1006. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  1007. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  1008. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  1009. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  1010. @node Visibility cycling
  1011. @section Visibility cycling
  1012. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1013. @cindex visibility cycling
  1014. @cindex trees, visibility
  1015. @cindex show hidden text
  1016. @cindex hide text
  1017. @menu
  1018. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  1019. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  1020. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  1021. @end menu
  1022. @node Global and local cycling
  1023. @subsection Global and local cycling
  1024. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1025. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1026. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1027. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1028. @cindex subtree cycling
  1029. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1030. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1031. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1032. @table @asis
  1033. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1034. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1035. @example
  1036. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1037. '-----------------------------------'
  1038. @end example
  1039. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1040. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1041. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1042. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1043. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1044. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1045. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1046. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1047. @cindex global visibility states
  1048. @cindex global cycling
  1049. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1050. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1051. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1052. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1053. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1054. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1055. @example
  1056. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1057. '--------------------------------------'
  1058. @end example
  1059. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1060. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1061. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1062. @cindex set startup visibility, command
  1063. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1064. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer (@pxref{Initial visibility}).
  1065. @cindex show all, command
  1066. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},outline-show-all}
  1067. Show all, including drawers.
  1068. @cindex revealing context
  1069. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1070. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1071. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1072. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1073. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1074. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1075. entire subtree of the parent.
  1076. @cindex show branches, command
  1077. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,outline-show-branches}
  1078. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1079. @cindex show children, command
  1080. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},outline-show-children}
  1081. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1082. expose all children down to level N@.
  1083. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1084. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect buffer
  1085. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,https://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/emacs/Indirect-Buffers.html,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual}) will contain the entire
  1086. buffer, but will be narrowed to the current tree. Editing the indirect
  1087. buffer will also change the original buffer, but without affecting visibility
  1088. in that buffer.}. With a numeric prefix argument N, go up to level N and
  1089. then take that tree. If N is negative then go up that many levels. With a
  1090. @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove the previously used indirect buffer.
  1091. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1092. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1093. @end table
  1094. @node Initial visibility
  1095. @subsection Initial visibility
  1096. @cindex visibility, initialize
  1097. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1098. @vindex org-agenda-inhibit-startup
  1099. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1100. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1101. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1102. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1103. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to OVERVIEW,
  1104. i.e., only the top level headlines are visible@footnote{When
  1105. @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} is non-@code{nil}, Org will not honor the default
  1106. visibility state when first opening a file for the agenda (@pxref{Speeding up
  1107. your agendas}).}. This can be configured through the variable
  1108. @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a per-file basis by adding one of the
  1109. following lines anywhere in the buffer:
  1110. @example
  1111. #+STARTUP: overview
  1112. #+STARTUP: content
  1113. #+STARTUP: showall
  1114. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1115. @end example
  1116. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1117. @noindent
  1118. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1119. and columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1120. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1121. @code{all}.
  1122. @table @asis
  1123. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1124. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e., whatever is
  1125. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1126. entries.
  1127. @end table
  1128. @node Catching invisible edits
  1129. @subsection Catching invisible edits
  1130. @vindex org-catch-invisible-edits
  1131. @cindex edits, catching invisible
  1132. Sometimes you may inadvertently edit an invisible part of the buffer and be
  1133. confused on what has been edited and how to undo the mistake. Setting
  1134. @code{org-catch-invisible-edits} to non-@code{nil} will help prevent this. See the
  1135. docstring of this option on how Org should catch invisible edits and process
  1136. them.
  1137. @node Motion
  1138. @section Motion
  1139. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1140. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1141. @cindex headline navigation
  1142. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1143. @table @asis
  1144. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,org-next-visible-heading}
  1145. Next heading.
  1146. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,org-previous-visible-heading}
  1147. Previous heading.
  1148. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1149. Next heading same level.
  1150. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1151. Previous heading same level.
  1152. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1153. Backward to higher level heading.
  1154. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1155. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1156. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1157. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1158. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1159. @example
  1160. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1161. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1162. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1163. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1164. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1165. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1166. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1167. u @r{One level up.}
  1168. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1169. q @r{Quit}
  1170. @end example
  1171. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1172. @noindent
  1173. See also the option @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1174. @end table
  1175. @node Structure editing
  1176. @section Structure editing
  1177. @cindex structure editing
  1178. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1179. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1180. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1181. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1182. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1183. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1184. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1185. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1186. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1187. @table @asis
  1188. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-meta-return}
  1189. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1190. Insert a new heading, item or row.
  1191. If the command is used at the @emph{beginning} of a line, and if there is
  1192. a heading or a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}) at point, the new
  1193. heading/item is created @emph{before} the current line. When used at the
  1194. beginning of a regular line of text, turn that line into a heading.
  1195. When this command is used in the middle of a line, the line is split and the
  1196. rest of the line becomes the new item or headline. If you do not want the
  1197. line to be split, customize @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.
  1198. Calling the command with a @kbd{C-u} prefix unconditionally inserts a new
  1199. heading at the end of the current subtree, thus preserving its contents.
  1200. With a double @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix, the new heading is created at the end of
  1201. the parent subtree instead.
  1202. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1203. Insert a new heading at the end of the current subtree.
  1204. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1205. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1206. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1207. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1208. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1209. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1210. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1211. subtree.
  1212. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1213. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1214. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1215. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1216. to the initial level.
  1217. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1218. Promote current heading by one level.
  1219. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1220. Demote current heading by one level.
  1221. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1222. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1223. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1224. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1225. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1226. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1227. level).
  1228. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1229. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1230. @orgcmd{M-h,org-mark-element}
  1231. Mark the element at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent elements
  1232. of the one just marked. E.g., hitting @key{M-h} on a paragraph will mark it,
  1233. hitting @key{M-h} immediately again will mark the next one.
  1234. @orgcmd{C-c @@,org-mark-subtree}
  1235. Mark the subtree at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent subtrees
  1236. of the same level than the marked subtree.
  1237. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1238. Kill subtree, i.e., remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1239. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1240. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1241. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1242. sequential subtrees.
  1243. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1244. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1245. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1246. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1247. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1248. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1249. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1250. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1251. Depending on the options @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1252. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1253. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1254. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1255. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1256. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1257. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1258. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1259. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1260. folding.
  1261. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1262. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1263. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1264. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1265. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1266. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1267. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1268. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1269. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refile and copy}.
  1270. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1271. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1272. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1273. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1274. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1275. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1276. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1277. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1278. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1279. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1280. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1281. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1282. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1283. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1284. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1285. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1286. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1287. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1288. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1289. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1290. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1291. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1292. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1293. @end table
  1294. @cindex region, active
  1295. @cindex active region
  1296. @cindex transient mark mode
  1297. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1298. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1299. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1300. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1301. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1302. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1303. functionality.
  1304. @node Sparse trees
  1305. @section Sparse trees
  1306. @cindex sparse trees
  1307. @cindex trees, sparse
  1308. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1309. @cindex occur, command
  1310. @vindex org-show-context-detail
  1311. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1312. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1313. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1314. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1315. variable @code{org-show-context-detail} to decide how much context is shown
  1316. around each match.}. Just try it out and you will see immediately how it
  1317. works.
  1318. Org mode contains several commands for creating such trees, all these
  1319. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1320. @table @asis
  1321. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1322. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1323. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / r,C-c / /,org-occur}
  1324. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1325. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1326. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1327. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1328. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1329. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1330. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1331. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1332. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1333. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1334. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1335. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1336. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1337. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1338. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1339. @end table
  1340. @noindent
  1341. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1342. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1343. use the option @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1344. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1345. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1346. For example:
  1347. @lisp
  1348. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1349. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1350. @end lisp
  1351. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1352. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1353. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1354. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1355. @kindex C-c C-e C-v
  1356. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1357. @cindex visible text, printing
  1358. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1359. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts of the
  1360. document. Or you can use @kbd{C-c C-e C-v} to export only the visible part
  1361. of the document and print the resulting file.
  1362. @node Plain lists
  1363. @section Plain lists
  1364. @cindex plain lists
  1365. @cindex lists, plain
  1366. @cindex lists, ordered
  1367. @cindex ordered lists
  1368. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1369. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1370. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1371. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1372. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1373. @itemize @bullet
  1374. @item
  1375. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1376. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1377. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1378. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1379. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1380. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1381. bullets.
  1382. @item
  1383. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1384. @vindex org-list-allow-alphabetical
  1385. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1386. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1387. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1388. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1389. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-list-allow-alphabetical}. To minimize
  1390. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1391. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1392. list to start with a different value (e.g., 20), start the text of the item
  1393. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1394. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1395. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1396. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1397. @item
  1398. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1399. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1400. description.
  1401. @end itemize
  1402. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1403. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1404. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1405. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1406. than its bullet/number.
  1407. @vindex org-list-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1408. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1409. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1410. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-list-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}.
  1411. In that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1412. @example
  1413. @group
  1414. ** Lord of the Rings
  1415. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1416. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1417. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1418. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1419. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1420. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1421. - on DVD only
  1422. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1423. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1424. Important actors in this film are:
  1425. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1426. - @b{Sean Astin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1427. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1428. @end group
  1429. @end example
  1430. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1431. them correctly, and by exporting them properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since
  1432. indentation is what governs the structure of these lists, many structural
  1433. constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...} blocks can be indented to signal that they
  1434. belong to a particular item.
  1435. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1436. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1437. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1438. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1439. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1440. indentation between items and their sub-items, customize
  1441. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1442. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1443. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1444. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1445. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1446. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1447. to disable them individually.
  1448. @table @asis
  1449. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1450. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1451. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1452. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1453. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1454. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1455. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1456. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1457. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1458. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1459. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1460. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1461. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1462. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1463. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1464. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1465. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1466. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1467. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1468. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1469. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1470. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1471. one.
  1472. @end table
  1473. @table @kbd
  1474. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1475. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1476. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1477. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1478. @item S-up
  1479. @itemx S-down
  1480. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1481. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1482. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1483. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1484. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1485. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1486. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1487. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1488. similar effect.
  1489. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1490. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1491. @item M-up
  1492. @itemx M-down
  1493. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1494. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1495. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1496. is automatic.
  1497. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1498. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1499. @item M-left
  1500. @itemx M-right
  1501. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1502. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1503. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1504. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1505. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1506. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1507. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1508. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1509. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1510. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1511. motion or so.
  1512. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1513. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1514. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1515. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1516. @kindex C-c C-c
  1517. @item C-c C-c
  1518. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1519. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1520. consistency in the whole list.
  1521. @kindex C-c -
  1522. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1523. @item C-c -
  1524. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1525. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1526. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1527. and its indentation. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet
  1528. from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, all selected
  1529. lines are converted to list items. With a prefix argument, selected text is
  1530. changed into a single item. If the first line already was a list item, any
  1531. item marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1532. region, a normal line will be converted into a list item.
  1533. @kindex C-c *
  1534. @item C-c *
  1535. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1536. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1537. @kindex C-c C-*
  1538. @item C-c C-*
  1539. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1540. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1541. (resp. checked).
  1542. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1543. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1544. @item S-left/right
  1545. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1546. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1547. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1548. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1549. @kindex C-c ^
  1550. @cindex sorting, of plain list
  1551. @item C-c ^
  1552. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1553. numerically, alphabetically, by time, by checked status for check lists,
  1554. or by a custom function.
  1555. @end table
  1556. @node Drawers
  1557. @section Drawers
  1558. @cindex drawers
  1559. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1560. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  1561. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1562. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1563. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}. They
  1564. can contain anything but a headline and another drawer. Drawers look like
  1565. this:
  1566. @example
  1567. ** This is a headline
  1568. Still outside the drawer
  1569. :DRAWERNAME:
  1570. This is inside the drawer.
  1571. :END:
  1572. After the drawer.
  1573. @end example
  1574. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1575. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1576. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1577. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add
  1578. a property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1579. keywords is also possible using @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@footnote{Many desktops
  1580. intercept @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows. Use @kbd{C-M-i} or
  1581. @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} instead for completion (@pxref{Completion}).}.
  1582. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1583. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1584. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1585. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1586. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}), and you can also arrange
  1587. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1588. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1589. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state
  1590. changes, use
  1591. @table @kbd
  1592. @kindex C-c C-z
  1593. @item C-c C-z
  1594. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1595. @end table
  1596. @vindex org-export-with-drawers
  1597. @vindex org-export-with-properties
  1598. You can select the name of the drawers which should be exported with
  1599. @code{org-export-with-drawers}. In that case, drawer contents will appear in
  1600. export output. Property drawers are not affected by this variable: configure
  1601. @code{org-export-with-properties} instead.
  1602. @node Blocks
  1603. @section Blocks
  1604. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1605. @cindex blocks, folding
  1606. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1607. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1608. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1609. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1610. folded at startup by configuring the option @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1611. or on a per-file basis by using
  1612. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1613. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1614. @example
  1615. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1616. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1617. @end example
  1618. @node Footnotes
  1619. @section Footnotes
  1620. @cindex footnotes
  1621. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes.
  1622. A footnote is started by a footnote marker in square brackets in column 0, no
  1623. indentation allowed. It ends at the next footnote definition, headline, or
  1624. after two consecutive empty lines. The footnote reference is simply the
  1625. marker in square brackets, inside text. Markers always start with
  1626. @code{fn:}. For example:
  1627. @example
  1628. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1629. ...
  1630. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1631. @end example
  1632. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1633. optional inline definition. Here are the valid references:
  1634. @table @code
  1635. @item [fn:name]
  1636. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1637. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1638. @item [fn::This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1639. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1640. reference point.
  1641. @item [fn:name:a definition]
  1642. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1643. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1644. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1645. @end table
  1646. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1647. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1648. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1649. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1650. for details.
  1651. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1652. @table @kbd
  1653. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1654. @item C-c C-x f
  1655. The footnote action command.
  1656. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1657. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1658. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1659. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1660. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1661. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the option
  1662. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1663. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1664. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1665. separately into the location determined by the option
  1666. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1667. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1668. options is offered:
  1669. @example
  1670. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1671. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1672. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1673. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1674. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1675. @r{option @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1676. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1677. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the option}
  1678. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1679. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1680. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1681. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1682. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers.}
  1683. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1684. @r{to it.}
  1685. @end example
  1686. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1687. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1688. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1689. deletion.
  1690. @kindex C-c C-c
  1691. @item C-c C-c
  1692. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1693. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1694. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1695. @kindex C-c C-o
  1696. @kindex mouse-1
  1697. @kindex mouse-2
  1698. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1699. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1700. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1701. @vindex org-edit-footnote-reference
  1702. @kindex C-c '
  1703. @item C-c '
  1704. @item C-c '
  1705. Edit the footnote definition corresponding to the reference at point in
  1706. a separate window. The window can be closed by pressing @kbd{C-c '}.
  1707. @end table
  1708. @node Orgstruct mode
  1709. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1710. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1711. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1712. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1713. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1714. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1715. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode RET}, or
  1716. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1717. @lisp
  1718. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1719. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1720. @end lisp
  1721. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1722. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1723. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1724. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1725. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows.
  1726. When you use @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and
  1727. autofill settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first
  1728. line of an item.
  1729. @vindex orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp
  1730. You can also use Org structure editing to fold and unfold headlines in
  1731. @emph{any} file, provided you defined @code{orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp}:
  1732. the regular expression must match the local prefix to use before Org's
  1733. headlines. For example, if you set this variable to @code{";; "} in Emacs
  1734. Lisp files, you will be able to fold and unfold headlines in Emacs Lisp
  1735. commented lines. Some commands like @code{org-demote} are disabled when the
  1736. prefix is set, but folding/unfolding will work correctly.
  1737. @node Org syntax
  1738. @section Org syntax
  1739. @cindex Org syntax
  1740. A reference document providing a formal description of Org's syntax is
  1741. available as @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-syntax.html, a draft on
  1742. Worg}, written and maintained by Nicolas Goaziou. It defines Org's core
  1743. internal concepts such as @code{headlines}, @code{sections}, @code{affiliated
  1744. keywords}, @code{(greater) elements} and @code{objects}. Each part of an Org
  1745. file falls into one of the categories above.
  1746. To explore the abstract structure of an Org buffer, run this in a buffer:
  1747. @lisp
  1748. M-: (org-element-parse-buffer) RET
  1749. @end lisp
  1750. It will output a list containing the buffer's content represented as an
  1751. abstract structure. The export engine relies on the information stored in
  1752. this list. Most interactive commands (e.g., for structure editing) also
  1753. rely on the syntactic meaning of the surrounding context.
  1754. @cindex syntax checker
  1755. @cindex linter
  1756. You can check syntax in your documents using @code{org-lint} command.
  1757. @node Tables
  1758. @chapter Tables
  1759. @cindex tables
  1760. @cindex editing tables
  1761. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1762. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1763. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1764. @menu
  1765. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1766. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1767. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1768. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1769. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1770. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1771. @end menu
  1772. @node Built-in table editor
  1773. @section The built-in table editor
  1774. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1775. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII@. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1776. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1777. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1778. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1779. might look like this:
  1780. @example
  1781. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1782. |-------+-------+-----|
  1783. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1784. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1785. @end example
  1786. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1787. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1788. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1789. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1790. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1791. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1792. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1793. create the above table, you would only type
  1794. @example
  1795. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1796. |-
  1797. @end example
  1798. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1799. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1800. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1801. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1802. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL}, @key{Backspace}, and all
  1803. character keys in a special way, so that inserting and deleting avoids
  1804. shifting other fields. Also, when typing @emph{immediately after the cursor
  1805. was moved into a new field with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or
  1806. @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is
  1807. too unpredictable for you, configure the option
  1808. @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1809. @table @kbd
  1810. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1811. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1812. Convert the active region to a table. If every line contains at least one
  1813. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1814. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1815. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1816. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1817. C-u} forces TAB, @kbd{C-u C-u C-u} will prompt for a regular expression to
  1818. match the separator, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1819. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1820. @*
  1821. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1822. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1823. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1824. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1825. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1826. Re-align the table and don't move to another field.
  1827. @c
  1828. @orgcmd{C-c SPC,org-table-blank-field}
  1829. Blank the field at point.
  1830. @c
  1831. @orgcmd{TAB,org-table-next-field}
  1832. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1833. necessary.
  1834. @c
  1835. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1836. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1837. @c
  1838. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1839. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1840. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1841. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1842. @c
  1843. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1844. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1845. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1846. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1847. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1848. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1849. Move the current column left/right.
  1850. @c
  1851. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1852. Kill the current column.
  1853. @c
  1854. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1855. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1856. @c
  1857. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1858. Move the current row up/down.
  1859. @c
  1860. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1861. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1862. @c
  1863. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1864. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1865. created below the current one.
  1866. @c
  1867. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1868. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1869. is created above the current line.
  1870. @c
  1871. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1872. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1873. below that line.
  1874. @c
  1875. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1876. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1877. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1878. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1879. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1880. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1881. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1882. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1883. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). You can sort in normal or
  1884. reverse order. You can also supply your own key extraction and comparison
  1885. functions. When called with a prefix argument, alphabetic sorting will be
  1886. case-sensitive.
  1887. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1888. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1889. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1890. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1891. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1892. @c
  1893. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1894. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1895. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1896. @c
  1897. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1898. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1899. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1900. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1901. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1902. lines.
  1903. @c
  1904. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1905. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1906. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1907. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1908. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1909. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1910. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1911. above.
  1912. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1913. @cindex formula, in tables
  1914. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1915. @cindex region, active
  1916. @cindex active region
  1917. @cindex transient mark mode
  1918. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1919. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1920. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1921. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1922. @c
  1923. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1924. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1925. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1926. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1927. Depending on the option @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1928. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1929. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1930. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1931. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1932. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1933. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1934. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1935. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1936. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1937. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1938. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1939. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1940. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1941. @c
  1942. @item M-x org-table-import RET
  1943. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1944. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1945. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1946. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1947. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1948. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1949. separator.
  1950. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1951. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1952. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1953. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1954. @c
  1955. @item M-x org-table-export RET
  1956. @findex org-table-export
  1957. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1958. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1959. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1960. used to export the file can be configured in the option
  1961. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1962. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1963. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1964. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1965. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1966. detailed description.
  1967. @end table
  1968. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1969. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1970. it off with
  1971. @lisp
  1972. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1973. @end lisp
  1974. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1975. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1976. @node Column width and alignment
  1977. @section Column width and alignment
  1978. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1979. @cindex alignment in tables
  1980. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1981. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1982. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1983. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1984. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1985. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set the width of
  1986. a column, one field anywhere in the column may contain just the string
  1987. @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an integer specifying the width of the column in
  1988. characters. The next re-align will then set the width of this column to this
  1989. value.
  1990. @example
  1991. @group
  1992. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1993. | | | | | <6> |
  1994. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1995. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1996. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1997. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1998. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1999. @end group
  2000. @end example
  2001. @noindent
  2002. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  2003. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  2004. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  2005. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  2006. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the grave accent). This will
  2007. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  2008. C-c}.
  2009. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  2010. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  2011. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  2012. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  2013. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  2014. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  2015. on a per-file basis with:
  2016. @example
  2017. #+STARTUP: align
  2018. #+STARTUP: noalign
  2019. @end example
  2020. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  2021. to the right and of string-rich columns to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  2022. @samp{<c>}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  2023. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  2024. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<r10>}.
  2025. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  2026. automatically when exporting the document.
  2027. @node Column groups
  2028. @section Column groups
  2029. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  2030. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical lines because
  2031. that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally however, vertical
  2032. lines can be useful to structure a table into groups of columns, much like
  2033. horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In order to specify column
  2034. groups, you can use a special row where the first field contains only
  2035. @samp{/}. The further fields can either contain @samp{<} to indicate that
  2036. this column should start a group, @samp{>} to indicate the end of a group, or
  2037. @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<} and @samp{>}) to make a column a group
  2038. of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be marked with
  2039. vertical lines. Here is an example:
  2040. @example
  2041. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | ~sqrt(n)~ | ~sqrt[4](N)~ |
  2042. |---+-----+-----+-----+-----------+--------------|
  2043. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  2044. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  2045. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  2046. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  2047. |---+-----+-----+-----+-----------+--------------|
  2048. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  2049. @end example
  2050. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  2051. every vertical line you would like to have:
  2052. @example
  2053. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2054. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2055. | / | < | | | < | |
  2056. @end example
  2057. @node Orgtbl mode
  2058. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2059. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2060. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2061. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  2062. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  2063. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  2064. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode RET}. To turn it on by default, for
  2065. example in Message mode, use
  2066. @lisp
  2067. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2068. @end lisp
  2069. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2070. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2071. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2072. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2073. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2074. @node The spreadsheet
  2075. @section The spreadsheet
  2076. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2077. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2078. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2079. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2080. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2081. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2082. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2083. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2084. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2085. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2086. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2087. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2088. @menu
  2089. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2090. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2091. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2092. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2093. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2094. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2095. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  2096. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2097. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2098. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2099. @end menu
  2100. @node References
  2101. @subsection References
  2102. @cindex references
  2103. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2104. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2105. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2106. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2107. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2108. @subsubheading Field references
  2109. @cindex field references
  2110. @cindex references, to fields
  2111. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2112. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2113. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2114. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2115. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2116. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2117. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the option
  2118. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2119. representation that looks like this:
  2120. @example
  2121. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2122. @end example
  2123. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2124. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e., the
  2125. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2126. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2127. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2128. column from the right.
  2129. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2130. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2131. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2132. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2133. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2134. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2135. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2136. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2137. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2138. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2139. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2140. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2141. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2142. after the third hline in the table.
  2143. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2144. i.e., to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2145. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2146. implied.
  2147. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2148. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2149. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2150. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2151. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2152. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2153. Here are a few examples:
  2154. @example
  2155. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2156. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2157. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2158. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2159. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2160. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2161. @end example
  2162. @subsubheading Range references
  2163. @cindex range references
  2164. @cindex references, to ranges
  2165. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2166. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2167. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2168. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2169. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2170. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2171. @example
  2172. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2173. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2174. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the last but one}
  2175. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2176. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 fields in the row above, starting from 2 columns on the left}
  2177. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2178. @end example
  2179. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2180. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally suppressed,
  2181. so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields. For other options
  2182. with the mode switches @samp{E}, @samp{N} and examples @pxref{Formula syntax
  2183. for Calc}.
  2184. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2185. @cindex field coordinates
  2186. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2187. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2188. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2189. One of the very first actions during evaluation of Calc formulas and Lisp
  2190. formulas is to substitute @code{@@#} and @code{$#} in the formula with the
  2191. row or column number of the field where the current result will go to. The
  2192. traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline} and
  2193. @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2194. @table @code
  2195. @item if(@@# % 2, $#, string(""))
  2196. Insert column number on odd rows, set field to empty on even rows.
  2197. @item $2 = '(identity remote(FOO, @@@@#$1))
  2198. Copy text or values of each row of column 1 of the table named @code{FOO}
  2199. into column 2 of the current table.
  2200. @item @@3 = 2 * remote(FOO, @@1$$#)
  2201. Insert the doubled value of each column of row 1 of the table named
  2202. @code{FOO} into row 3 of the current table.
  2203. @end table
  2204. @noindent For the second/third example, the table named @code{FOO} must have
  2205. at least as many rows/columns as the current table. Note that this is
  2206. inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as O(N^2) because the table
  2207. named @code{FOO} is parsed for each field to be read.} for large number of
  2208. rows/columns.
  2209. @subsubheading Named references
  2210. @cindex named references
  2211. @cindex references, named
  2212. @cindex name, of column or field
  2213. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2214. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2215. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2216. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2217. constant. Constants are defined globally through the option
  2218. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2219. line like
  2220. @example
  2221. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2222. @end example
  2223. @noindent
  2224. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2225. @pindex constants.el
  2226. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}) can be used as
  2227. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2228. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2229. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2230. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2231. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2232. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2233. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2234. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2235. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2236. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2237. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2238. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2239. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2240. numbers.
  2241. @subsubheading Remote references
  2242. @cindex remote references
  2243. @cindex references, remote
  2244. @cindex references, to a different table
  2245. @cindex name, of column or field
  2246. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2247. @cindex #+NAME, for table
  2248. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2249. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2250. @example
  2251. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2252. @end example
  2253. @noindent
  2254. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2255. @code{#+NAME: Name} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2256. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2257. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2258. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2259. referenced table.
  2260. Indirection of NAME-OR-ID: When NAME-OR-ID has the format @code{@@ROW$COLUMN}
  2261. it will be substituted with the name or ID found in this field of the current
  2262. table. For example @code{remote($1, @@>$2)} => @code{remote(year_2013,
  2263. @@>$1)}. The format @code{B3} is not supported because it can not be
  2264. distinguished from a plain table name or ID.
  2265. @node Formula syntax for Calc
  2266. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2267. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2268. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2269. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs @file{Calc}
  2270. package. Note that @file{calc} has the non-standard convention that @samp{/}
  2271. has lower precedence than @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as
  2272. @samp{a/(b*c)}. Before evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc
  2273. from Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc,
  2274. GNU Emacs Calc Manual}), variable substitution takes place according to the
  2275. rules described above.
  2276. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2277. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2278. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2279. @cindex format specifier
  2280. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2281. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2282. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2283. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2284. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2285. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2286. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2287. compact. The default settings can be configured using the option
  2288. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2289. @noindent List of modes:
  2290. @table @asis
  2291. @item @code{p20}
  2292. Set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits.
  2293. @item @code{n3}, @code{s3}, @code{e2}, @code{f4}
  2294. Normal, scientific, engineering or fixed format of the result of Calc passed
  2295. back to Org. Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as long as the Calc
  2296. calculation precision is greater.
  2297. @item @code{D}, @code{R}
  2298. Degree and radian angle modes of Calc.
  2299. @item @code{F}, @code{S}
  2300. Fraction and symbolic modes of Calc.
  2301. @item @code{T}, @code{t}, @code{U}
  2302. Duration computations in Calc or Lisp, @pxref{Durations and time values}.
  2303. @item @code{E}
  2304. If and how to consider empty fields. Without @samp{E} empty fields in range
  2305. references are suppressed so that the Calc vector or Lisp list contains only
  2306. the non-empty fields. With @samp{E} the empty fields are kept. For empty
  2307. fields in ranges or empty field references the value @samp{nan} (not a
  2308. number) is used in Calc formulas and the empty string is used for Lisp
  2309. formulas. Add @samp{N} to use 0 instead for both formula types. For the
  2310. value of a field the mode @samp{N} has higher precedence than @samp{E}.
  2311. @item @code{N}
  2312. Interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers. See the next section
  2313. to see how this is essential for computations with Lisp formulas. In Calc
  2314. formulas it is used only occasionally because there number strings are
  2315. already interpreted as numbers without @samp{N}.
  2316. @item @code{L}
  2317. Literal, for Lisp formulas only. See the next section.
  2318. @end table
  2319. @noindent
  2320. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation and
  2321. -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2322. @samp{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2323. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2324. formatting@footnote{The @samp{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2325. because the value passed to it is converted into an @samp{integer} or
  2326. @samp{double}. The @samp{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2327. signed value to 32 bits. The @samp{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2328. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}. A
  2329. few examples:
  2330. @example
  2331. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2332. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2333. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2334. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2335. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2336. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2337. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2338. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2339. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2340. @end example
  2341. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations, (@pxref{Logical
  2342. Operations, , Logical Operations, calc, GNU Emacs Calc Manual}). For example
  2343. @table @code
  2344. @item if($1 < 20, teen, string(""))
  2345. "teen" if age $1 is less than 20, else the Org table result field is set to
  2346. empty with the empty string.
  2347. @item if("$1" == "nan" || "$2" == "nan", string(""), $1 + $2); E f-1
  2348. Sum of the first two columns. When at least one of the input fields is empty
  2349. the Org table result field is set to empty. @samp{E} is required to not
  2350. convert empty fields to 0. @samp{f-1} is an optional Calc format string
  2351. similar to @samp{%.1f} but leaves empty results empty.
  2352. @item if(typeof(vmean($1..$7)) == 12, string(""), vmean($1..$7); E
  2353. Mean value of a range unless there is any empty field. Every field in the
  2354. range that is empty is replaced by @samp{nan} which lets @samp{vmean} result
  2355. in @samp{nan}. Then @samp{typeof == 12} detects the @samp{nan} from
  2356. @samp{vmean} and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use this when
  2357. the sample set is expected to never have missing values.
  2358. @item if("$1..$7" == "[]", string(""), vmean($1..$7))
  2359. Mean value of a range with empty fields skipped. Every field in the range
  2360. that is empty is skipped. When all fields in the range are empty the mean
  2361. value is not defined and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use
  2362. this when the sample set can have a variable size.
  2363. @item vmean($1..$7); EN
  2364. To complete the example before: Mean value of a range with empty fields
  2365. counting as samples with value 0. Use this only when incomplete sample sets
  2366. should be padded with 0 to the full size.
  2367. @end table
  2368. You can add your own Calc functions defined in Emacs Lisp with @code{defmath}
  2369. and use them in formula syntax for Calc.
  2370. @node Formula syntax for Lisp
  2371. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2372. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2373. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be useful
  2374. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is
  2375. not enough.
  2376. If a formula starts with an apostrophe followed by an opening parenthesis,
  2377. then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a
  2378. string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes
  2379. and a printf format after a semicolon.
  2380. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2381. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be
  2382. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If
  2383. you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers
  2384. (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without
  2385. quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated
  2386. literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted
  2387. as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in
  2388. double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated
  2389. fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax.
  2390. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2391. computations in Lisp:
  2392. @table @code
  2393. @item '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2394. Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1.
  2395. @item '(+ $1 $2);N
  2396. Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}.
  2397. @item '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2398. Compute the sum of columns 1 to 4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}.
  2399. @end table
  2400. @node Durations and time values
  2401. @subsection Durations and time values
  2402. @cindex Duration, computing
  2403. @cindex Time, computing
  2404. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2405. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T}, @code{t}, or @code{U}
  2406. flag, either in Calc formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2407. @example
  2408. @group
  2409. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2410. |---------+----------+----------|
  2411. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2412. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59 |
  2413. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2414. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;U::@@4$3=$1+$2;t
  2415. @end group
  2416. @end example
  2417. Input duration values must be of the form @code{HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2418. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2419. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{U} flag,
  2420. seconds will be omitted so that the result will be only @code{HH:MM} (see
  2421. second formula above). Zero-padding of the hours field will depend upon the
  2422. value of the variable @code{org-table-duration-hour-zero-padding}.
  2423. With the @code{t} flag, computed durations will be displayed according to the
  2424. value of the option @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults
  2425. to @code{'hours} and will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the
  2426. third formula in the example above).
  2427. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2428. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2429. @node Field and range formulas
  2430. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2431. @cindex field formula
  2432. @cindex range formula
  2433. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2434. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2435. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2436. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2437. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2438. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2439. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2440. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2441. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2442. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2443. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2444. inserting/deleting/swapping columns and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2445. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2446. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this, in
  2447. particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table borders (using
  2448. @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines using the
  2449. @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does of course
  2450. not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2451. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2452. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2453. command
  2454. @table @kbd
  2455. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2456. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2457. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2458. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2459. @end table
  2460. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2461. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2462. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2463. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2464. directly.
  2465. @table @code
  2466. @item $2=
  2467. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2468. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2469. @item @@3=
  2470. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2471. the last row.
  2472. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2473. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2474. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2475. @item $name=
  2476. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2477. @end table
  2478. @node Column formulas
  2479. @subsection Column formulas
  2480. @cindex column formula
  2481. @cindex formula, for table column
  2482. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2483. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2484. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2485. hlines with rows above and below, everything before the first such hline is
  2486. considered part of the table @emph{header} and will not be modified by column
  2487. formulas. Therefore a header is mandatory when you use column formulas and
  2488. want to add hlines to group rows, like for example to separate a total row at
  2489. the bottom from the summand rows above. (ii) Fields that already get a value
  2490. from a field/range formula will be left alone by column formulas. These
  2491. conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2492. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2493. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2494. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2495. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2496. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2497. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2498. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2499. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2500. left-hand side of a column formula cannot be the name of column, it must be
  2501. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2502. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2503. following command:
  2504. @table @kbd
  2505. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2506. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2507. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2508. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2509. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g., @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2510. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2511. @end table
  2512. @node Lookup functions
  2513. @subsection Lookup functions
  2514. @cindex lookup functions in tables
  2515. @cindex table lookup functions
  2516. Org has three predefined Emacs Lisp functions for lookups in tables.
  2517. @table @code
  2518. @item (org-lookup-first VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2519. @findex org-lookup-first
  2520. Searches for the first element @code{S} in list @code{S-LIST} for which
  2521. @lisp
  2522. (PREDICATE VAL S)
  2523. @end lisp
  2524. is @code{t}; returns the value from the corresponding position in list
  2525. @code{R-LIST}. The default @code{PREDICATE} is @code{equal}. Note that the
  2526. parameters @code{VAL} and @code{S} are passed to @code{PREDICATE} in the same
  2527. order as the corresponding parameters are in the call to
  2528. @code{org-lookup-first}, where @code{VAL} precedes @code{S-LIST}. If
  2529. @code{R-LIST} is @code{nil}, the matching element @code{S} of @code{S-LIST}
  2530. is returned.
  2531. @item (org-lookup-last VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2532. @findex org-lookup-last
  2533. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first} above, but searches for the @i{last}
  2534. element for which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}.
  2535. @item (org-lookup-all VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2536. @findex org-lookup-all
  2537. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first}, but searches for @i{all} elements for
  2538. which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}, and returns @i{all} corresponding
  2539. values. This function can not be used by itself in a formula, because it
  2540. returns a list of values. However, powerful lookups can be built when this
  2541. function is combined with other Emacs Lisp functions.
  2542. @end table
  2543. If the ranges used in these functions contain empty fields, the @code{E} mode
  2544. for the formula should usually be specified: otherwise empty fields will not be
  2545. included in @code{S-LIST} and/or @code{R-LIST} which can, for example, result
  2546. in an incorrect mapping from an element of @code{S-LIST} to the corresponding
  2547. element of @code{R-LIST}.
  2548. These three functions can be used to implement associative arrays, count
  2549. matching cells, rank results, group data etc. For practical examples
  2550. see @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-lookups.html, this
  2551. tutorial on Worg}.
  2552. @node Editing and debugging formulas
  2553. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2554. @cindex formula editing
  2555. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2556. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2557. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the field.
  2558. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active formulas of a table.
  2559. When offering a formula for editing, Org converts references to the standard
  2560. format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&}) if possible. If you prefer to only work
  2561. with the internal format (like @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the
  2562. option @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2563. @table @kbd
  2564. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2565. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2566. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2567. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2568. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2569. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2570. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2571. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2572. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2573. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2574. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2575. @kindex C-c @}
  2576. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2577. @item C-c @}
  2578. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2579. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2580. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2581. @kindex C-c @{
  2582. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2583. @item C-c @{
  2584. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2585. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2586. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2587. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2588. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2589. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2590. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2591. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2592. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2593. @table @kbd
  2594. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2595. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2596. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2597. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2598. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2599. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2600. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2601. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2602. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2603. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2604. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2605. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2606. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2607. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2608. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.@footnote{Many desktops
  2609. intercept @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows. Use @kbd{C-M-i} or
  2610. @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} instead for completion (@pxref{Completion}).}
  2611. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2612. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2613. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2614. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2615. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2616. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2617. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2618. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2619. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2620. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2621. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2622. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2623. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2624. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2625. down.
  2626. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2627. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2628. @kindex C-c @}
  2629. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2630. @item C-c @}
  2631. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2632. @end table
  2633. @end table
  2634. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2635. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2636. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2637. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2638. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2639. @kindex C-c C-c
  2640. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2641. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2642. recalculation commands in the table.
  2643. @anchor{Using multiple #+TBLFM lines}
  2644. @subsubheading Using multiple #+TBLFM lines
  2645. @cindex #+TBLFM line, multiple
  2646. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2647. @cindex #+TBLFM, switching
  2648. @kindex C-c C-c
  2649. You may apply the formula temporarily. This is useful when you
  2650. switch the formula. Place multiple @samp{#+TBLFM} lines right
  2651. after the table, and then press @kbd{C-c C-c} on the formula to
  2652. apply. Here is an example:
  2653. @example
  2654. | x | y |
  2655. |---+---|
  2656. | 1 | |
  2657. | 2 | |
  2658. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2659. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2660. @end example
  2661. @noindent
  2662. Pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} in the line of @samp{#+TBLFM: $2=$1*2} yields:
  2663. @example
  2664. | x | y |
  2665. |---+---|
  2666. | 1 | 2 |
  2667. | 2 | 4 |
  2668. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2669. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2670. @end example
  2671. @noindent
  2672. Note: If you recalculate this table (with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, for example), you
  2673. will get the following result of applying only the first @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2674. @example
  2675. | x | y |
  2676. |---+---|
  2677. | 1 | 1 |
  2678. | 2 | 2 |
  2679. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2680. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2681. @end example
  2682. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2683. @cindex formula debugging
  2684. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2685. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2686. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2687. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2688. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2689. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2690. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2691. @node Updating the table
  2692. @subsection Updating the table
  2693. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2694. @cindex updating, table
  2695. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2696. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2697. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2698. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2699. following commands:
  2700. @table @kbd
  2701. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2702. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2703. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2704. @c
  2705. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2706. @item C-u C-c *
  2707. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2708. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2709. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2710. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2711. @c
  2712. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2713. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2714. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2715. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2716. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables RET
  2717. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2718. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2719. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables RET
  2720. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2721. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2722. dependencies.
  2723. @end table
  2724. @node Advanced features
  2725. @subsection Advanced features
  2726. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2727. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2728. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2729. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2730. special marking characters.
  2731. @table @kbd
  2732. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2733. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2734. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2735. change all marks in the region.
  2736. @end table
  2737. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2738. makes use of these features:
  2739. @example
  2740. @group
  2741. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2742. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2743. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2744. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2745. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2746. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2747. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2748. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2749. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2750. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2751. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2752. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2753. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2754. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2755. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2756. @end group
  2757. @end example
  2758. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2759. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2760. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2761. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2762. empty first field.
  2763. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2764. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2765. @table @samp
  2766. @item !
  2767. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2768. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2769. @item ^
  2770. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2771. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2772. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2773. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2774. @item _
  2775. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2776. @emph{below}.
  2777. @item $
  2778. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2779. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2780. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2781. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2782. a per-table basis.
  2783. @item #
  2784. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2785. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2786. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2787. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2788. @item *
  2789. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2790. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2791. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2792. @item @w{ }
  2793. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2794. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2795. or @samp{*}.
  2796. @item /
  2797. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2798. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2799. @end table
  2800. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2801. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2802. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2803. functions.
  2804. @example
  2805. @group
  2806. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2807. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2808. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2809. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2810. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2811. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2812. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2813. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2814. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2815. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2816. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2817. @end group
  2818. @end example
  2819. @node Org-Plot
  2820. @section Org-Plot
  2821. @cindex graph, in tables
  2822. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2823. @cindex #+PLOT
  2824. Org-Plot can produce graphs of information stored in org tables, either
  2825. graphically or in ASCII-art.
  2826. @subheading Graphical plots using @file{Gnuplot}
  2827. Org-Plot produces 2D and 3D graphs using @file{Gnuplot}
  2828. @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2829. @uref{http://xafs.org/BruceRavel/GnuplotMode}. To see this in action, ensure
  2830. that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed on your system, then
  2831. call @kbd{C-c " g} or @kbd{M-x org-plot/gnuplot @key{RET}} on the following
  2832. table.
  2833. @example
  2834. @group
  2835. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2836. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2837. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2838. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2839. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2840. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2841. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2842. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2843. @end group
  2844. @end example
  2845. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2846. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2847. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2848. for a complete list of Org-plot options. The @code{#+PLOT:} lines are
  2849. optional. For more information and examples see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2850. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2851. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2852. @table @code
  2853. @item set
  2854. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2855. @item title
  2856. Specify the title of the plot.
  2857. @item ind
  2858. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2859. @item deps
  2860. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2861. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2862. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2863. column).
  2864. @item type
  2865. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2866. @item with
  2867. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2868. (e.g., @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2869. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2870. @item file
  2871. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2872. @item labels
  2873. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2874. if they exist).
  2875. @item line
  2876. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2877. @item map
  2878. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2879. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2880. @item timefmt
  2881. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2882. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2883. @item script
  2884. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2885. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2886. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2887. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2888. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2889. the data file.
  2890. @end table
  2891. @subheading ASCII bar plots
  2892. While the cursor is on a column, typing @kbd{C-c " a} or
  2893. @kbd{M-x orgtbl-ascii-plot @key{RET}} create a new column containing an
  2894. ASCII-art bars plot. The plot is implemented through a regular column
  2895. formula. When the source column changes, the bar plot may be updated by
  2896. refreshing the table, for example typing @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2897. @example
  2898. @group
  2899. | Sede | Max cites | |
  2900. |---------------+-----------+--------------|
  2901. | Chile | 257.72 | WWWWWWWWWWWW |
  2902. | Leeds | 165.77 | WWWWWWWh |
  2903. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | WWW; |
  2904. | Stockholm | 134.19 | WWWWWW: |
  2905. | Morelia | 257.56 | WWWWWWWWWWWH |
  2906. | Rochefourchat | 0.00 | |
  2907. #+TBLFM: $3='(orgtbl-ascii-draw $2 0.0 257.72 12)
  2908. @end group
  2909. @end example
  2910. The formula is an elisp call:
  2911. @lisp
  2912. (orgtbl-ascii-draw COLUMN MIN MAX WIDTH)
  2913. @end lisp
  2914. @table @code
  2915. @item COLUMN
  2916. is a reference to the source column.
  2917. @item MIN MAX
  2918. are the minimal and maximal values displayed. Sources values
  2919. outside this range are displayed as @samp{too small}
  2920. or @samp{too large}.
  2921. @item WIDTH
  2922. is the width in characters of the bar-plot. It defaults to @samp{12}.
  2923. @end table
  2924. @node Hyperlinks
  2925. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2926. @cindex hyperlinks
  2927. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2928. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2929. @menu
  2930. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2931. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2932. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2933. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2934. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2935. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2936. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2937. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2938. @end menu
  2939. @node Link format
  2940. @section Link format
  2941. @cindex link format
  2942. @cindex format, of links
  2943. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2944. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2945. @example
  2946. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2947. @end example
  2948. @noindent
  2949. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2950. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2951. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2952. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2953. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2954. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2955. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2956. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2957. cursor on the link.
  2958. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2959. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2960. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2961. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2962. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2963. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2964. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2965. @node Internal links
  2966. @section Internal links
  2967. @cindex internal links
  2968. @cindex links, internal
  2969. @cindex targets, for links
  2970. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2971. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2972. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2973. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2974. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. You are responsible yourself
  2975. to make sure these custom IDs are unique in a file.
  2976. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2977. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2978. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2979. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2980. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2981. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets, like
  2982. @samp{<<My Target>>}.
  2983. @cindex #+NAME
  2984. If no dedicated target exists, the link will then try to match the exact name
  2985. of an element within the buffer. Naming is done with the @code{#+NAME}
  2986. keyword, which has to be put in the line before the element it refers to, as
  2987. in the following example
  2988. @example
  2989. #+NAME: My Target
  2990. | a | table |
  2991. |----+------------|
  2992. | of | four cells |
  2993. @end example
  2994. If none of the above succeeds, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2995. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2996. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type
  2997. a star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2998. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2999. completions.}.
  3000. During export, internal links will be used to mark objects and assign them
  3001. a number. Marked objects will then be referenced by links pointing to them.
  3002. In particular, links without a description will appear as the number assigned
  3003. to the marked object@footnote{When targeting a @code{#+NAME} keyword,
  3004. @code{#+CAPTION} keyword is mandatory in order to get proper numbering
  3005. (@pxref{Images and tables}).}. In the following excerpt from an Org buffer
  3006. @example
  3007. - one item
  3008. - <<target>>another item
  3009. Here we refer to item [[target]].
  3010. @end example
  3011. @noindent
  3012. The last sentence will appear as @samp{Here we refer to item 2} when
  3013. exported.
  3014. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the link text. In
  3015. the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  3016. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  3017. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  3018. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  3019. earlier.
  3020. @menu
  3021. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  3022. @end menu
  3023. @node Radio targets
  3024. @subsection Radio targets
  3025. @cindex radio targets
  3026. @cindex targets, radio
  3027. @cindex links, radio targets
  3028. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  3029. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  3030. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  3031. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  3032. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  3033. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  3034. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  3035. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3036. cursor on or at a target.
  3037. @node External links
  3038. @section External links
  3039. @cindex links, external
  3040. @cindex external links
  3041. @cindex Gnus links
  3042. @cindex BBDB links
  3043. @cindex IRC links
  3044. @cindex URL links
  3045. @cindex file links
  3046. @cindex RMAIL links
  3047. @cindex MH-E links
  3048. @cindex USENET links
  3049. @cindex SHELL links
  3050. @cindex Info links
  3051. @cindex Elisp links
  3052. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB
  3053. database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs.
  3054. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short identifying
  3055. string followed by a colon. There can be no space after the colon. The
  3056. following list shows examples for each link type.
  3057. @example
  3058. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  3059. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  3060. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  3061. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  3062. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  3063. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3064. file:/ssh:myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  3065. /ssh:myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3066. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  3067. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  3068. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  3069. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  3070. the option @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  3071. is @code{nil}, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is @code{t}, then only
  3072. the exact headline will be matched, ignoring spaces and cookies. If the
  3073. value is @code{query-to-create}, then an exact headline will be searched; if
  3074. it is not found, then the user will be queried to create it.}
  3075. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}@footnote{
  3076. Headline searches always match the exact headline, ignoring
  3077. spaces and cookies. If the headline is not found and the value of the option
  3078. @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline} is @code{query-to-create},
  3079. then the user will be queried to create it.}
  3080. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  3081. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  3082. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  3083. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  3084. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  3085. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  3086. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  3087. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  3088. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  3089. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  3090. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  3091. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  3092. info:org#External links @r{Info node or index link}
  3093. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  3094. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  3095. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  3096. @end example
  3097. @cindex VM links
  3098. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  3099. On top of these built-in link types, some are available through the
  3100. @code{contrib/} directory (@pxref{Installation}). For example, these links
  3101. to VM or Wanderlust messages are available when you load the corresponding
  3102. libraries from the @code{contrib/} directory:
  3103. @example
  3104. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  3105. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  3106. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  3107. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  3108. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  3109. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  3110. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  3111. @end example
  3112. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  3113. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a descriptive
  3114. text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link format}), for example:
  3115. @example
  3116. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  3117. @end example
  3118. @noindent
  3119. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  3120. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  3121. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  3122. image,
  3123. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  3124. @cindex square brackets, around links
  3125. @cindex plain text external links
  3126. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  3127. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  3128. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  3129. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  3130. @node Handling links
  3131. @section Handling links
  3132. @cindex links, handling
  3133. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  3134. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  3135. @table @kbd
  3136. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  3137. @cindex storing links
  3138. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  3139. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  3140. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  3141. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  3142. buffer:
  3143. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  3144. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  3145. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  3146. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  3147. removed from the link and result in a wrong link---you should avoid putting
  3148. timestamp in the headline.}.
  3149. @vindex org-id-link-to-org-use-id
  3150. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  3151. @cindex property, ID
  3152. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  3153. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  3154. @code{org-id-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will
  3155. be created and/or used to construct a link@footnote{The library
  3156. @file{org-id.el} must first be loaded, either through @code{org-customize} by
  3157. enabling @code{org-id} in @code{org-modules}, or by adding @code{(require
  3158. 'org-id)} in your Emacs init file.}. So using this command in Org buffers
  3159. will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom ID, and
  3160. one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from file to
  3161. file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one to use.
  3162. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  3163. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  3164. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  3165. constructed from the author and the subject.
  3166. @b{Web browsers: Eww, W3 and W3M}@*
  3167. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  3168. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  3169. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  3170. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  3171. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  3172. For IRC links, if you set the option @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to @code{t},
  3173. a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for the current
  3174. conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to the
  3175. user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  3176. @b{Other files}@*
  3177. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  3178. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  3179. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  3180. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  3181. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  3182. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  3183. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  3184. @b{Agenda view}@*
  3185. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  3186. entry referenced by the current line.
  3187. @c
  3188. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  3189. @cindex link completion
  3190. @cindex completion, of links
  3191. @cindex inserting links
  3192. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  3193. @vindex org-link-parameters
  3194. Insert a link@footnote{Note that you don't have to use this command to
  3195. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  3196. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  3197. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  3198. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  3199. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  3200. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  3201. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  3202. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  3203. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  3204. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  3205. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  3206. becomes the default description.
  3207. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  3208. All links stored during the
  3209. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  3210. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  3211. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  3212. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  3213. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  3214. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  3215. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works if
  3216. a completion function is defined in the @samp{:complete} property of a link
  3217. in @code{org-link-parameters}.} For example, if you type @kbd{file
  3218. @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see
  3219. below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb @key{RET}} you can complete
  3220. contact names.
  3221. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  3222. @cindex file name completion
  3223. @cindex completion, of file names
  3224. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  3225. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  3226. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  3227. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  3228. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  3229. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  3230. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  3231. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3232. @c
  3233. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  3234. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  3235. link and description parts of the link.
  3236. @c
  3237. @cindex following links
  3238. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  3239. @vindex org-file-apps
  3240. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3241. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  3242. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  3243. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  3244. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  3245. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  3246. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  3247. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  3248. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3249. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3250. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3251. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3252. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3253. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3254. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3255. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3256. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3257. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3258. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3259. the link at point.
  3260. @c
  3261. @kindex mouse-2
  3262. @kindex mouse-1
  3263. @item mouse-2
  3264. @itemx mouse-1
  3265. On links, @kbd{mouse-1} and @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c
  3266. C-o} would.
  3267. @c
  3268. @kindex mouse-3
  3269. @item mouse-3
  3270. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3271. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3272. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3273. option @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3274. @c
  3275. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3276. @cindex inlining images
  3277. @cindex images, inlining
  3278. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3279. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3280. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3281. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3282. images that have no description part in the link, i.e., images that will also
  3283. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3284. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3285. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3286. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3287. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{noinlineimages}}.
  3288. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3289. @cindex mark ring
  3290. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3291. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3292. @c
  3293. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3294. @cindex links, returning to
  3295. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3296. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3297. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3298. previously recorded positions.
  3299. @c
  3300. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3301. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3302. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3303. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3304. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3305. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3306. @lisp
  3307. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3308. (lambda ()
  3309. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3310. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3311. @end lisp
  3312. @end table
  3313. @node Using links outside Org
  3314. @section Using links outside Org
  3315. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3316. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3317. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3318. yourself):
  3319. @lisp
  3320. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3321. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3322. @end lisp
  3323. @node Link abbreviations
  3324. @section Link abbreviations
  3325. @cindex link abbreviations
  3326. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3327. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3328. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3329. abbreviated link looks like this
  3330. @example
  3331. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3332. @end example
  3333. @noindent
  3334. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3335. where the tag is optional.
  3336. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3337. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3338. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3339. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3340. @smalllisp
  3341. @group
  3342. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3343. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3344. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3345. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3346. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3347. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3348. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3349. @end group
  3350. @end smalllisp
  3351. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3352. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3353. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3354. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3355. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3356. If the replacement text doesn't contain any specifier, the tag will simply be
  3357. appended in order to create the link.
  3358. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3359. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3360. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3361. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3362. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3363. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3364. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3365. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3366. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3367. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3368. can define them in the file with
  3369. @cindex #+LINK
  3370. @example
  3371. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3372. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3373. @end example
  3374. @noindent
  3375. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3376. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function that implements
  3377. special (e.g., completion) support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c
  3378. C-l}. Such a function should not accept any arguments, and return the full
  3379. link with prefix. You can add a completion function to a link like this:
  3380. @lisp
  3381. (org-link-set-parameters ``type'' :complete #'some-function)
  3382. @end lisp
  3383. @node Search options
  3384. @section Search options in file links
  3385. @cindex search option in file links
  3386. @cindex file links, searching
  3387. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3388. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3389. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3390. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3391. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3392. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3393. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3394. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3395. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3396. link, together with an explanation:
  3397. @example
  3398. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3399. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3400. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3401. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3402. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3403. @end example
  3404. @table @code
  3405. @item 255
  3406. Jump to line 255.
  3407. @item My Target
  3408. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3409. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3410. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3411. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3412. the linked file.
  3413. @item *My Target
  3414. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3415. @item #my-custom-id
  3416. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3417. @item /regexp/
  3418. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3419. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3420. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3421. sparse tree with the matches.
  3422. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3423. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3424. @end table
  3425. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3426. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3427. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3428. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3429. @node Custom searches
  3430. @section Custom Searches
  3431. @cindex custom search strings
  3432. @cindex search strings, custom
  3433. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3434. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3435. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3436. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3437. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3438. citation key.
  3439. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3440. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3441. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3442. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3443. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3444. to be added to the hook variables
  3445. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3446. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3447. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3448. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3449. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3450. @node TODO items
  3451. @chapter TODO items
  3452. @cindex TODO items
  3453. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3454. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3455. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3456. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3457. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3458. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3459. item emerged is always present.
  3460. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3461. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3462. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3463. @menu
  3464. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3465. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3466. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3467. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3468. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3469. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3470. @end menu
  3471. @node TODO basics
  3472. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3473. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3474. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3475. @example
  3476. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3477. @end example
  3478. @noindent
  3479. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3480. @table @kbd
  3481. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3482. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3483. @vindex org-use-fast-todo-selection
  3484. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3485. @example
  3486. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3487. '--------------------------------'
  3488. @end example
  3489. If TODO keywords have fast access keys (see @ref{Fast access to TODO
  3490. states}), you will be prompted for a TODO keyword through the fast selection
  3491. interface; this is the default behavior when
  3492. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is non-@code{nil}.
  3493. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from agenda buffers with the
  3494. @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3495. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3496. When TODO keywords have no selection keys, select a specific keyword using
  3497. completion; otherwise force cycling through TODO states with no prompt. When
  3498. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is set to @code{prefix}, use the fast
  3499. selection interface.
  3500. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3501. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3502. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3503. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3504. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3505. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3506. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3507. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3508. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3509. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-tree}
  3510. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3511. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3512. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3513. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3514. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3515. / T}), search for a specific TODO@. You will be prompted for the keyword,
  3516. and you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3517. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3518. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the option @code{org-todo-keywords}.
  3519. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states, both un-done and done.
  3520. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3521. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3522. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3523. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3524. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3525. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3526. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3527. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3528. @end table
  3529. @noindent
  3530. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3531. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3532. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3533. @node TODO extensions
  3534. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3535. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3536. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3537. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3538. DONE@. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3539. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3540. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3541. files.
  3542. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3543. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3544. @menu
  3545. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3546. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3547. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3548. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3549. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3550. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3551. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3552. @end menu
  3553. @node Workflow states
  3554. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3555. @cindex TODO workflow
  3556. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3557. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3558. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3559. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3560. buffer.}:
  3561. @lisp
  3562. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3563. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3564. @end lisp
  3565. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3566. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3567. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3568. state.
  3569. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3570. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3571. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED@. You may
  3572. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3573. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY@.
  3574. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3575. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3576. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3577. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3578. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3579. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3580. @node TODO types
  3581. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3582. @cindex TODO types
  3583. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3584. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3585. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3586. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3587. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3588. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3589. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3590. be set up like this:
  3591. @lisp
  3592. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3593. @end lisp
  3594. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3595. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to
  3596. a person, and later to mark it DONE@. Org mode supports this style by
  3597. adapting the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true
  3598. for the @kbd{t} command in the agenda buffers.}. When used several times in
  3599. succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first select
  3600. the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some time
  3601. and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly to
  3602. DONE@. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific name.
  3603. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree by
  3604. using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things Lucy
  3605. has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items from all
  3606. agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix argument
  3607. as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3608. @node Multiple sets in one file
  3609. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3610. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3611. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3612. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3613. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3614. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3615. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3616. like this:
  3617. @lisp
  3618. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3619. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3620. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3621. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3622. @end lisp
  3623. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3624. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3625. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3626. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3627. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3628. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3629. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3630. @table @kbd
  3631. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3632. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3633. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3634. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3635. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3636. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3637. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3638. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3639. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3640. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3641. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3642. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3643. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3644. @item S-@key{right}
  3645. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3646. @kbd{S-@key{left}} and @kbd{S-@key{right}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3647. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{right}} would switch
  3648. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3649. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3650. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3651. @end table
  3652. @node Fast access to TODO states
  3653. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3654. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3655. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3656. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection character after
  3657. each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except
  3658. @code{@@^!}, which have a special meaning here.}. For example:
  3659. @lisp
  3660. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3661. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3662. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3663. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3664. @end lisp
  3665. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3666. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3667. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3668. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the option
  3669. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3670. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3671. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3672. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3673. @node Per-file keywords
  3674. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3675. @cindex keyword options
  3676. @cindex per-file keywords
  3677. @cindex #+TODO
  3678. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3679. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3680. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3681. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines to
  3682. the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file only. For
  3683. example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you need one of the
  3684. following lines anywhere in the file:
  3685. @example
  3686. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3687. @end example
  3688. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3689. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3690. @example
  3691. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3692. @end example
  3693. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3694. @example
  3695. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3696. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3697. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3698. @end example
  3699. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3700. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3701. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3702. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3703. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3704. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3705. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3706. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3707. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3708. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3709. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3710. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3711. for the current buffer.}.
  3712. @node Faces for TODO keywords
  3713. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3714. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3715. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3716. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3717. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3718. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3719. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3720. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3721. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3722. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the option
  3723. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3724. @lisp
  3725. @group
  3726. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3727. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3728. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3729. @end group
  3730. @end lisp
  3731. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3732. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3733. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The option
  3734. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3735. foreground or a background color.
  3736. @node TODO dependencies
  3737. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3738. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3739. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3740. @cindex TODO dependencies, NOBLOCKING
  3741. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3742. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3743. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3744. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3745. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE@. And sometimes
  3746. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3747. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3748. the option @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3749. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE@.
  3750. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3751. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE@. Here is an
  3752. example:
  3753. @example
  3754. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3755. ** DONE one
  3756. ** TODO two
  3757. * Parent
  3758. :PROPERTIES:
  3759. :ORDERED: t
  3760. :END:
  3761. ** TODO a
  3762. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3763. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3764. @end example
  3765. You can ensure an entry is never blocked by using the @code{NOBLOCKING}
  3766. property:
  3767. @example
  3768. * This entry is never blocked
  3769. :PROPERTIES:
  3770. :NOBLOCKING: t
  3771. :END:
  3772. @end example
  3773. @table @kbd
  3774. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3775. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3776. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3777. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3778. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3779. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3780. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the option
  3781. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3782. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3783. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3784. @end table
  3785. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3786. If you set the option @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3787. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3788. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda views}).
  3789. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3790. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3791. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3792. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the option
  3793. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3794. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3795. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3796. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3797. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3798. @page
  3799. @node Progress logging
  3800. @section Progress logging
  3801. @cindex progress logging
  3802. @cindex logging, of progress
  3803. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3804. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3805. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable; settings can be on a
  3806. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3807. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3808. work time}.
  3809. @menu
  3810. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3811. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3812. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3813. @end menu
  3814. @node Closing items
  3815. @subsection Closing items
  3816. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3817. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3818. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3819. @lisp
  3820. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3821. @end lisp
  3822. @vindex org-closed-keep-when-no-todo
  3823. @noindent
  3824. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any of the
  3825. DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after
  3826. the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item through further
  3827. state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you turn the entry back
  3828. to a non-TODO state (by pressing @key{C-c C-t SPC} for example), that line
  3829. will also be removed, unless you set @code{org-closed-keep-when-no-todo} to
  3830. non-@code{nil}. If you want to record a note along with the timestamp,
  3831. use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP:
  3832. lognotedone}.}
  3833. @lisp
  3834. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3835. @end lisp
  3836. @noindent
  3837. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3838. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3839. @node Tracking TODO state changes
  3840. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3841. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3842. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3843. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3844. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3845. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3846. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3847. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3848. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3849. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the option
  3850. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3851. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3852. Customize @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the recommended
  3853. drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3854. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3855. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3856. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3857. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3858. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3859. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3860. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3861. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3862. setting
  3863. @lisp
  3864. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3865. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3866. @end lisp
  3867. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3868. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3869. @noindent
  3870. @vindex org-log-done
  3871. You not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3872. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3873. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3874. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3875. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3876. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3877. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3878. WAIT or CANCELED@. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3879. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3880. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3881. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3882. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3883. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3884. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3885. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3886. configured.
  3887. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3888. to a buffer:
  3889. @example
  3890. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3891. @end example
  3892. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3893. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3894. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3895. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to @code{nil}. You may then turn
  3896. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3897. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3898. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3899. @example
  3900. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3901. :PROPERTIES:
  3902. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3903. :END:
  3904. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3905. :PROPERTIES:
  3906. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3907. :END:
  3908. * TODO No logging at all
  3909. :PROPERTIES:
  3910. :LOGGING: nil
  3911. :END:
  3912. @end example
  3913. @node Tracking your habits
  3914. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3915. @cindex habits
  3916. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3917. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3918. @enumerate
  3919. @item
  3920. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing @code{org-modules}.
  3921. @item
  3922. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3923. @item
  3924. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3925. @item
  3926. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3927. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3928. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3929. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3930. @item
  3931. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3932. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3933. three days, but at most every two days.
  3934. @item
  3935. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled
  3936. (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3937. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an
  3938. error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless.
  3939. @end enumerate
  3940. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3941. actual habit with some history:
  3942. @example
  3943. ** TODO Shave
  3944. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3945. :PROPERTIES:
  3946. :STYLE: habit
  3947. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3948. :END:
  3949. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3950. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3951. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3952. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3953. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3954. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3955. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3956. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3957. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3958. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3959. @end example
  3960. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3961. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3962. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3963. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3964. after four days have elapsed.
  3965. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3966. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3967. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3968. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3969. @table @code
  3970. @item Blue
  3971. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3972. @item Green
  3973. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3974. @item Yellow
  3975. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3976. @item Red
  3977. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3978. @end table
  3979. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3980. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3981. the current day falls in the graph.
  3982. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3983. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3984. @table @code
  3985. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3986. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3987. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3988. titles brief and to the point.
  3989. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3990. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3991. @item org-habit-following-days
  3992. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3993. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3994. If non-@code{nil}, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3995. default.
  3996. @end table
  3997. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3998. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3999. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  4000. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  4001. @node Priorities
  4002. @section Priorities
  4003. @cindex priorities
  4004. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  4005. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  4006. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  4007. @example
  4008. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  4009. @end example
  4010. @noindent
  4011. @vindex org-priority-faces
  4012. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  4013. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  4014. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  4015. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  4016. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  4017. special faces by customizing @code{org-priority-faces}.
  4018. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  4019. items.
  4020. @table @kbd
  4021. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  4022. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  4023. @findex org-priority
  4024. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  4025. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  4026. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  4027. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the agenda
  4028. buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  4029. @c
  4030. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  4031. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  4032. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  4033. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  4034. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  4035. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  4036. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  4037. @end table
  4038. @vindex org-highest-priority
  4039. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  4040. @vindex org-default-priority
  4041. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the options
  4042. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  4043. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  4044. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  4045. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  4046. priority):
  4047. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  4048. @example
  4049. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  4050. @end example
  4051. @node Breaking down tasks
  4052. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  4053. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  4054. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  4055. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  4056. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  4057. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  4058. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  4059. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  4060. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  4061. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  4062. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  4063. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  4064. @example
  4065. * Organize Party [33%]
  4066. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  4067. *** TODO Peter
  4068. *** DONE Sarah
  4069. ** TODO Buy food
  4070. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  4071. @end example
  4072. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  4073. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  4074. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  4075. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  4076. this issue.
  4077. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  4078. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  4079. subtree (not just direct children), configure
  4080. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  4081. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4082. property.
  4083. @example
  4084. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  4085. :PROPERTIES:
  4086. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  4087. :END:
  4088. @end example
  4089. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  4090. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  4091. @example
  4092. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  4093. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  4094. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  4095. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  4096. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  4097. @end example
  4098. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  4099. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  4100. @node Checkboxes
  4101. @section Checkboxes
  4102. @cindex checkboxes
  4103. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  4104. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  4105. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  4106. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  4107. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  4108. (@pxref{TODO items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  4109. in the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  4110. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  4111. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  4112. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  4113. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  4114. @example
  4115. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  4116. - [-] call people [1/3]
  4117. - [ ] Peter
  4118. - [X] Sarah
  4119. - [ ] Sam
  4120. - [X] order food
  4121. - [ ] think about what music to play
  4122. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  4123. @end example
  4124. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  4125. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  4126. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  4127. checked.
  4128. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  4129. @cindex checkbox statistics
  4130. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  4131. @vindex org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics
  4132. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  4133. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  4134. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  4135. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  4136. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  4137. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  4138. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the option
  4139. @code{org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  4140. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  4141. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  4142. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  4143. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  4144. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  4145. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  4146. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  4147. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4148. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  4149. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  4150. @cindex checkbox blocking
  4151. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4152. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  4153. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  4154. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  4155. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  4156. @table @kbd
  4157. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4158. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4159. a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  4160. one@footnote{@kbd{C-u C-c C-c} before the @emph{first} bullet in a list with
  4161. no checkbox will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double
  4162. prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4163. intermediate state.
  4164. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4165. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4166. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4167. intermediate state.
  4168. @itemize @minus
  4169. @item
  4170. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  4171. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  4172. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  4173. @item
  4174. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle the state of the first checkbox in the
  4175. region between this headline and the next---so @emph{not} the entire
  4176. subtree---and propagate this new state to all other checkboxes in the same
  4177. area.
  4178. @item
  4179. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  4180. @end itemize
  4181. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  4182. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  4183. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  4184. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  4185. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  4186. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4187. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  4188. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  4189. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  4190. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  4191. for better visibility, customize @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  4192. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  4193. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  4194. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  4195. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  4196. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  4197. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  4198. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  4199. @end table
  4200. @node Tags
  4201. @chapter Tags
  4202. @cindex tags
  4203. @cindex headline tagging
  4204. @cindex matching, tags
  4205. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  4206. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  4207. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  4208. support for tags.
  4209. @vindex org-tag-faces
  4210. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  4211. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  4212. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  4213. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  4214. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  4215. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the option
  4216. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  4217. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  4218. @menu
  4219. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  4220. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  4221. * Tag hierarchy:: Create a hierarchy of tags
  4222. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  4223. @end menu
  4224. @node Tag inheritance
  4225. @section Tag inheritance
  4226. @cindex tag inheritance
  4227. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  4228. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  4229. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  4230. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  4231. well. For example, in the list
  4232. @example
  4233. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  4234. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  4235. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  4236. @end example
  4237. @noindent
  4238. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  4239. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  4240. explicitly marked with all those tags. You can also set tags that all
  4241. entries in a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in
  4242. a hypothetical level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like
  4243. this@footnote{As with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}
  4244. activates any changes in the line.}:
  4245. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  4246. @example
  4247. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  4248. @end example
  4249. @noindent
  4250. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  4251. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  4252. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, use @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  4253. To turn it off entirely, use @code{org-use-tag-inheritance}.
  4254. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4255. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  4256. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  4257. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  4258. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  4259. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  4260. match in a subtree, configure @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not
  4261. recommended).
  4262. @vindex org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance
  4263. Tag inheritance is relevant when the agenda search tries to match a tag,
  4264. either in the @code{tags} or @code{tags-todo} agenda types. In other agenda
  4265. types, @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} has no effect. Still, you may want to
  4266. have your tags correctly set in the agenda, so that tag filtering works fine,
  4267. with inherited tags. Set @code{org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance} to control
  4268. this: the default value includes all agenda types, but setting this to @code{nil}
  4269. can really speed up agenda generation.
  4270. @node Setting tags
  4271. @section Setting tags
  4272. @cindex setting tags
  4273. @cindex tags, setting
  4274. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  4275. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4276. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4277. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4278. @table @kbd
  4279. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4280. @cindex completion, of tags
  4281. @vindex org-tags-column
  4282. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4283. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4284. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4285. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4286. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4287. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4288. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4289. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4290. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4291. @end table
  4292. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4293. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4294. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4295. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4296. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4297. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4298. @cindex #+TAGS
  4299. @example
  4300. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4301. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4302. @end example
  4303. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4304. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4305. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4306. @example
  4307. #+TAGS:
  4308. @end example
  4309. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4310. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4311. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4312. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4313. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4314. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4315. @example
  4316. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4317. @end example
  4318. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4319. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4320. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4321. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4322. assign unique, case-sensitive, letters to most of your commonly used tags.
  4323. You can do this globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in
  4324. your Emacs init file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items
  4325. in different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4326. like:
  4327. @lisp
  4328. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4329. @end lisp
  4330. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4331. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4332. @example
  4333. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4334. @end example
  4335. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4336. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4337. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4338. @example
  4339. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4340. @end example
  4341. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4342. @example
  4343. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4344. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4345. @end example
  4346. @noindent
  4347. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4348. braces, as in:
  4349. @example
  4350. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4351. @end example
  4352. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4353. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4354. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4355. these lines to activate any changes.
  4356. @noindent
  4357. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tag-alist},
  4358. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4359. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4360. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4361. configuration:
  4362. @lisp
  4363. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4364. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4365. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4366. (:endgroup . nil)
  4367. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4368. @end lisp
  4369. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4370. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4371. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4372. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4373. have no configured keys.}.
  4374. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of tags
  4375. in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually exclusive tags
  4376. will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4377. In this interface, you can also use the following special keys:
  4378. @table @kbd
  4379. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4380. @item @key{TAB}
  4381. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4382. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4383. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4384. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4385. @item @key{SPC}
  4386. Clear all tags for this line.
  4387. @kindex @key{RET}
  4388. @item @key{RET}
  4389. Accept the modified set.
  4390. @item C-g
  4391. Abort without installing changes.
  4392. @item q
  4393. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4394. @item !
  4395. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4396. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4397. @item C-c
  4398. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4399. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4400. selection window.
  4401. @end table
  4402. @noindent
  4403. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4404. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4405. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4406. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4407. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4408. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4409. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4410. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4411. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4412. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4413. modify your list of tags, set @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}.
  4414. Then you no longer have to press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it
  4415. will immediately exit after the first change. If you then occasionally
  4416. need more keys, press @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag
  4417. selection process (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c}
  4418. instead of @kbd{C-c C-c}). If you set the variable to the value
  4419. @code{expert}, the special window is not even shown for single-key tag
  4420. selection, it comes up only when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4421. @node Tag hierarchy
  4422. @section Tag hierarchy
  4423. @cindex group tags
  4424. @cindex tags, groups
  4425. @cindex tag hierarchy
  4426. Tags can be defined in hierarchies. A tag can be defined as a @emph{group
  4427. tag} for a set of other tags. The group tag can be seen as the ``broader
  4428. term'' for its set of tags. Defining multiple @emph{group tags} and nesting
  4429. them creates a tag hierarchy.
  4430. One use-case is to create a taxonomy of terms (tags) that can be used to
  4431. classify nodes in a document or set of documents.
  4432. When you search for a group tag, it will return matches for all members in
  4433. the group and its subgroups. In an agenda view, filtering by a group tag
  4434. will display or hide headlines tagged with at least one of the members of the
  4435. group or any of its subgroups. This makes tag searches and filters even more
  4436. flexible.
  4437. You can set group tags by using brackets and inserting a colon between the
  4438. group tag and its related tags---beware that all whitespaces are mandatory so
  4439. that Org can parse this line correctly:
  4440. @example
  4441. #+TAGS: [ GTD : Control Persp ]
  4442. @end example
  4443. In this example, @samp{GTD} is the @emph{group tag} and it is related to two
  4444. other tags: @samp{Control}, @samp{Persp}. Defining @samp{Control} and
  4445. @samp{Persp} as group tags creates an hierarchy of tags:
  4446. @example
  4447. #+TAGS: [ Control : Context Task ]
  4448. #+TAGS: [ Persp : Vision Goal AOF Project ]
  4449. @end example
  4450. That can conceptually be seen as a hierarchy of tags:
  4451. @example
  4452. - GTD
  4453. - Persp
  4454. - Vision
  4455. - Goal
  4456. - AOF
  4457. - Project
  4458. - Control
  4459. - Context
  4460. - Task
  4461. @end example
  4462. You can use the @code{:startgrouptag}, @code{:grouptags} and
  4463. @code{:endgrouptag} keyword directly when setting @code{org-tag-alist}
  4464. directly:
  4465. @lisp
  4466. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgrouptag)
  4467. ("GTD")
  4468. (:grouptags)
  4469. ("Control")
  4470. ("Persp")
  4471. (:endgrouptag)
  4472. (:startgrouptag)
  4473. ("Control")
  4474. (:grouptags)
  4475. ("Context")
  4476. ("Task")
  4477. (:endgrouptag)))
  4478. @end lisp
  4479. The tags in a group can be mutually exclusive if using the same group syntax
  4480. as is used for grouping mutually exclusive tags together; using curly
  4481. brackets.
  4482. @example
  4483. #+TAGS: @{ Context : @@Home @@Work @@Call @}
  4484. @end example
  4485. When setting @code{org-tag-alist} you can use @code{:startgroup} &
  4486. @code{:endgroup} instead of @code{:startgrouptag} & @code{:endgrouptag} to
  4487. make the tags mutually exclusive.
  4488. Furthermore, the members of a @emph{group tag} can also be regular
  4489. expressions, creating the possibility of a more dynamic and rule-based
  4490. tag structure. The regular expressions in the group must be specified
  4491. within @{ @}. Here is an expanded example:
  4492. @example
  4493. #+TAGS: [ Vision : @{V@@@.+@} ]
  4494. #+TAGS: [ Goal : @{G@@@.+@} ]
  4495. #+TAGS: [ AOF : @{AOF@@@.+@} ]
  4496. #+TAGS: [ Project : @{P@@@.+@} ]
  4497. @end example
  4498. Searching for the tag @samp{Project} will now list all tags also including
  4499. regular expression matches for @samp{P@@@.+}, and similarly for tag searches on
  4500. @samp{Vision}, @samp{Goal} and @samp{AOF}. For example, this would work well
  4501. for a project tagged with a common project-identifier, e.g. @samp{P@@2014_OrgTags}.
  4502. @kindex C-c C-x q
  4503. @vindex org-group-tags
  4504. If you want to ignore group tags temporarily, toggle group tags support
  4505. with @command{org-toggle-tags-groups}, bound to @kbd{C-c C-x q}. If you
  4506. want to disable tag groups completely, set @code{org-group-tags} to @code{nil}.
  4507. @node Tag searches
  4508. @section Tag searches
  4509. @cindex tag searches
  4510. @cindex searching for tags
  4511. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4512. information into special lists.
  4513. @table @kbd
  4514. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4515. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags/property/TODO search.
  4516. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4517. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4518. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4519. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files. @xref{Matching
  4520. tags and properties}.
  4521. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4522. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4523. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4524. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see the option
  4525. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4526. @end table
  4527. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4528. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4529. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4530. tagged as @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search string
  4531. is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels and
  4532. properties. For a complete description with many examples, see @ref{Matching
  4533. tags and properties}.
  4534. @node Properties and columns
  4535. @chapter Properties and columns
  4536. @cindex properties
  4537. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4538. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4539. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4540. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4541. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4542. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4543. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4544. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4545. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4546. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4547. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4548. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4549. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4550. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4551. @menu
  4552. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4553. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4554. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4555. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4556. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4557. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4558. @end menu
  4559. @node Property syntax
  4560. @section Property syntax
  4561. @cindex property syntax
  4562. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4563. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4564. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special drawer
  4565. (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}, which has to be located
  4566. right below a headline, and its planning line (@pxref{Deadlines and
  4567. scheduling}) when applicable. Each property is specified on a single line,
  4568. with the key (surrounded by colons) first, and the value after it. Keys are
  4569. case-insensitive. Here is an example:
  4570. @example
  4571. * CD collection
  4572. ** Classic
  4573. *** Goldberg Variations
  4574. :PROPERTIES:
  4575. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4576. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4577. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4578. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4579. :NDisks: 1
  4580. :END:
  4581. @end example
  4582. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4583. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the subtree
  4584. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4585. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4586. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4587. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4588. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4589. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4590. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4591. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4592. @example
  4593. * CD collection
  4594. :PROPERTIES:
  4595. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4596. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4597. :END:
  4598. @end example
  4599. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4600. file, use a line like
  4601. @cindex property, _ALL
  4602. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4603. @example
  4604. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4605. @end example
  4606. Contrary to properties set from a special drawer, you have to refresh the
  4607. buffer with @kbd{C-c C-c} to activate this change.
  4608. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4609. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4610. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4611. @cindex property, +
  4612. @example
  4613. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4614. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4615. @end example
  4616. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4617. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4618. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4619. @cindex property, +
  4620. @example
  4621. * CD collection
  4622. ** Classic
  4623. :PROPERTIES:
  4624. :GENRES: Classic
  4625. :END:
  4626. *** Goldberg Variations
  4627. :PROPERTIES:
  4628. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4629. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4630. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4631. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4632. :NDisks: 1
  4633. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4634. :END:
  4635. @end example
  4636. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4637. @vindex org-global-properties
  4638. Property values set with the global variable
  4639. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4640. Org files.
  4641. @noindent
  4642. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4643. @table @kbd
  4644. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4645. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4646. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4647. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4648. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4649. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4650. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer RET
  4651. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  4652. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4653. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4654. information like deadlines.
  4655. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4656. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4657. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4658. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4659. can be inserted using completion.
  4660. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4661. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4662. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4663. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4664. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4665. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4666. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4667. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4668. nearest column format definition.
  4669. @end table
  4670. @node Special properties
  4671. @section Special properties
  4672. @cindex properties, special
  4673. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4674. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4675. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in
  4676. a column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The
  4677. following property names are special and should not be used as keys in the
  4678. properties drawer:
  4679. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4680. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4681. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4682. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM_T
  4683. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4684. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4685. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4686. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4687. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4688. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4689. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4690. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4691. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4692. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4693. @example
  4694. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4695. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings.}
  4696. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4697. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4698. CLOCKSUM_T @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree for today.}
  4699. @r{@code{org-clock-sum-today} must be run first to compute the}
  4700. @r{values in the current buffer.}
  4701. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4702. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4703. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4704. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4705. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4706. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4707. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4708. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4709. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4710. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4711. @end example
  4712. @node Property searches
  4713. @section Property searches
  4714. @cindex properties, searching
  4715. @cindex searching, of properties
  4716. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4717. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4718. @table @kbd
  4719. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4720. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4721. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4722. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4723. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4724. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4725. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4726. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4727. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4728. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see the option
  4729. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4730. @end table
  4731. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4732. properties}.
  4733. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4734. single property:
  4735. @table @kbd
  4736. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4737. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4738. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4739. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4740. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4741. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4742. @end table
  4743. @node Property inheritance
  4744. @section Property Inheritance
  4745. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4746. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4747. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4748. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4749. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4750. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4751. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4752. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4753. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4754. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4755. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4756. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4757. inherited properties. If a property has the value @code{nil}, this is
  4758. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4759. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4760. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4761. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4762. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4763. @table @code
  4764. @item COLUMNS
  4765. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4766. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4767. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4768. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4769. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4770. @item CATEGORY
  4771. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4772. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4773. applies to the entire subtree.
  4774. @item ARCHIVE
  4775. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4776. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4777. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4778. @item LOGGING
  4779. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4780. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4781. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4782. @end table
  4783. @node Column view
  4784. @section Column view
  4785. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4786. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4787. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4788. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4789. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4790. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4791. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4792. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4793. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4794. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4795. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4796. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda views}) where
  4797. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4798. @menu
  4799. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4800. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4801. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4802. @end menu
  4803. @node Defining columns
  4804. @subsection Defining columns
  4805. @cindex column view, for properties
  4806. @cindex properties, column view
  4807. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4808. done by defining a column format line.
  4809. @menu
  4810. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4811. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4812. @end menu
  4813. @node Scope of column definitions
  4814. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4815. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4816. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4817. @example
  4818. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4819. @end example
  4820. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4821. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4822. @example
  4823. ** Top node for columns view
  4824. :PROPERTIES:
  4825. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4826. :END:
  4827. @end example
  4828. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4829. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4830. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4831. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4832. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4833. deeper part of the tree.
  4834. @node Column attributes
  4835. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4836. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4837. definition looks like this:
  4838. @example
  4839. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4840. @end example
  4841. @noindent
  4842. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4843. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4844. @example
  4845. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4846. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4847. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4848. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4849. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4850. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4851. @r{name is used.}
  4852. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4853. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children@footnote{If
  4854. more than one summary type apply to the property, the parent
  4855. values are computed according to the first of them.}.}
  4856. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4857. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4858. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4859. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4860. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4861. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4862. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4863. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4864. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4865. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4866. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are
  4867. hours@footnote{A time can also be a duration, using effort
  4868. modifiers defined in @code{org-effort-durations}, e.g.,
  4869. @samp{3d 1h}. If any value in the column is as such, the
  4870. summary will also be an effort duration.}.}
  4871. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4872. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4873. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4874. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age@footnote{An age is defined as
  4875. a duration since a given time-stamp (@pxref{Timestamps}). It
  4876. can also be expressed as days, hours, minutes and seconds,
  4877. identified by @samp{d}, @samp{h}, @samp{m} and @samp{s}
  4878. suffixes, all mandatory, e.g., @samp{0d 13h 0m 10s}.} (in
  4879. days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4880. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4881. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4882. @{est+@} @r{Add @samp{low-high} estimates.}
  4883. @end example
  4884. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4885. combining estimates, expressed as @samp{low-high} ranges or plain numbers.
  4886. For example, instead of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you
  4887. might estimate it as 5--6 days if you're fairly confident you know ho