org.texi 682 KB

1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344454647484950515253545556575859606162636465666768697071727374757677787980818283848586878889909192939495969798991001011021031041051061071081091101111121131141151161171181191201211221231241251261271281291301311321331341351361371381391401411421431441451461471481491501511521531541551561571581591601611621631641651661671681691701711721731741751761771781791801811821831841851861871881891901911921931941951961971981992002012022032042052062072082092102112122132142152162172182192202212222232242252262272282292302312322332342352362372382392402412422432442452462472482492502512522532542552562572582592602612622632642652662672682692702712722732742752762772782792802812822832842852862872882892902912922932942952962972982993003013023033043053063073083093103113123133143153163173183193203213223233243253263273283293303313323333343353363373383393403413423433443453463473483493503513523533543553563573583593603613623633643653663673683693703713723733743753763773783793803813823833843853863873883893903913923933943953963973983994004014024034044054064074084094104114124134144154164174184194204214224234244254264274284294304314324334344354364374384394404414424434444454464474484494504514524534544554564574584594604614624634644654664674684694704714724734744754764774784794804814824834844854864874884894904914924934944954964974984995005015025035045055065075085095105115125135145155165175185195205215225235245255265275285295305315325335345355365375385395405415425435445455465475485495505515525535545555565575585595605615625635645655665675685695705715725735745755765775785795805815825835845855865875885895905915925935945955965975985996006016026036046056066076086096106116126136146156166176186196206216226236246256266276286296306316326336346356366376386396406416426436446456466476486496506516526536546556566576586596606616626636646656666676686696706716726736746756766776786796806816826836846856866876886896906916926936946956966976986997007017027037047057067077087097107117127137147157167177187197207217227237247257267277287297307317327337347357367377387397407417427437447457467477487497507517527537547557567577587597607617627637647657667677687697707717727737747757767777787797807817827837847857867877887897907917927937947957967977987998008018028038048058068078088098108118128138148158168178188198208218228238248258268278288298308318328338348358368378388398408418428438448458468478488498508518528538548558568578588598608618628638648658668678688698708718728738748758768778788798808818828838848858868878888898908918928938948958968978988999009019029039049059069079089099109119129139149159169179189199209219229239249259269279289299309319329339349359369379389399409419429439449459469479489499509519529539549559569579589599609619629639649659669679689699709719729739749759769779789799809819829839849859869879889899909919929939949959969979989991000100110021003100410051006100710081009101010111012101310141015101610171018101910201021102210231024102510261027102810291030103110321033103410351036103710381039104010411042104310441045104610471048104910501051105210531054105510561057105810591060106110621063106410651066106710681069107010711072107310741075107610771078107910801081108210831084108510861087108810891090109110921093109410951096109710981099110011011102110311041105110611071108110911101111111211131114111511161117111811191120112111221123112411251126112711281129113011311132113311341135113611371138113911401141114211431144114511461147114811491150115111521153115411551156115711581159116011611162116311641165116611671168116911701171117211731174117511761177117811791180118111821183118411851186118711881189119011911192119311941195119611971198119912001201120212031204120512061207120812091210121112121213121412151216121712181219122012211222122312241225122612271228122912301231123212331234123512361237123812391240124112421243124412451246124712481249125012511252125312541255125612571258125912601261126212631264126512661267126812691270127112721273127412751276127712781279128012811282128312841285128612871288128912901291129212931294129512961297129812991300130113021303130413051306130713081309131013111312131313141315131613171318131913201321132213231324132513261327132813291330133113321333133413351336133713381339134013411342134313441345134613471348134913501351135213531354135513561357135813591360136113621363136413651366136713681369137013711372137313741375137613771378137913801381138213831384138513861387138813891390139113921393139413951396139713981399140014011402140314041405140614071408140914101411141214131414141514161417141814191420142114221423142414251426142714281429143014311432143314341435143614371438143914401441144214431444144514461447144814491450145114521453145414551456145714581459146014611462146314641465146614671468146914701471147214731474147514761477147814791480148114821483148414851486148714881489149014911492149314941495149614971498149915001501150215031504150515061507150815091510151115121513151415151516151715181519152015211522152315241525152615271528152915301531153215331534153515361537153815391540154115421543154415451546154715481549155015511552155315541555155615571558155915601561156215631564156515661567156815691570157115721573157415751576157715781579158015811582158315841585158615871588158915901591159215931594159515961597159815991600160116021603160416051606160716081609161016111612161316141615161616171618161916201621162216231624162516261627162816291630163116321633163416351636163716381639164016411642164316441645164616471648164916501651165216531654165516561657165816591660166116621663166416651666166716681669167016711672167316741675167616771678167916801681168216831684168516861687168816891690169116921693169416951696169716981699170017011702170317041705170617071708170917101711171217131714171517161717171817191720172117221723172417251726172717281729173017311732173317341735173617371738173917401741174217431744174517461747174817491750175117521753175417551756175717581759176017611762176317641765176617671768176917701771177217731774177517761777177817791780178117821783178417851786178717881789179017911792179317941795179617971798179918001801180218031804180518061807180818091810181118121813181418151816181718181819182018211822182318241825182618271828182918301831183218331834183518361837183818391840184118421843184418451846184718481849185018511852185318541855185618571858185918601861186218631864186518661867186818691870187118721873187418751876187718781879188018811882188318841885188618871888188918901891189218931894189518961897189818991900190119021903190419051906190719081909191019111912191319141915191619171918191919201921192219231924192519261927192819291930193119321933193419351936193719381939194019411942194319441945194619471948194919501951195219531954195519561957195819591960196119621963196419651966196719681969197019711972197319741975197619771978197919801981198219831984198519861987198819891990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017201820192020202120222023202420252026202720282029203020312032203320342035203620372038203920402041204220432044204520462047204820492050205120522053205420552056205720582059206020612062206320642065206620672068206920702071207220732074207520762077207820792080208120822083208420852086208720882089209020912092209320942095209620972098209921002101210221032104210521062107210821092110211121122113211421152116211721182119212021212122212321242125212621272128212921302131213221332134213521362137213821392140214121422143214421452146214721482149215021512152215321542155215621572158215921602161216221632164216521662167216821692170217121722173217421752176217721782179218021812182218321842185218621872188218921902191219221932194219521962197219821992200220122022203220422052206220722082209221022112212221322142215221622172218221922202221222222232224222522262227222822292230223122322233223422352236223722382239224022412242224322442245224622472248224922502251225222532254225522562257225822592260226122622263226422652266226722682269227022712272227322742275227622772278227922802281228222832284228522862287228822892290229122922293229422952296229722982299230023012302230323042305230623072308230923102311231223132314231523162317231823192320232123222323232423252326232723282329233023312332233323342335233623372338233923402341234223432344234523462347234823492350235123522353235423552356235723582359236023612362236323642365236623672368236923702371237223732374237523762377237823792380238123822383238423852386238723882389239023912392239323942395239623972398239924002401240224032404240524062407240824092410241124122413241424152416241724182419242024212422242324242425242624272428242924302431243224332434243524362437243824392440244124422443244424452446244724482449245024512452245324542455245624572458245924602461246224632464246524662467246824692470247124722473247424752476247724782479248024812482248324842485248624872488248924902491249224932494249524962497249824992500250125022503250425052506250725082509251025112512251325142515251625172518251925202521252225232524252525262527252825292530253125322533253425352536253725382539254025412542254325442545254625472548254925502551255225532554255525562557255825592560256125622563256425652566256725682569257025712572257325742575257625772578257925802581258225832584258525862587258825892590259125922593259425952596259725982599260026012602260326042605260626072608260926102611261226132614261526162617261826192620262126222623262426252626262726282629263026312632263326342635263626372638263926402641264226432644264526462647264826492650265126522653265426552656265726582659266026612662266326642665266626672668266926702671267226732674267526762677267826792680268126822683268426852686268726882689269026912692269326942695269626972698269927002701270227032704270527062707270827092710271127122713271427152716271727182719272027212722272327242725272627272728272927302731273227332734273527362737273827392740274127422743274427452746274727482749275027512752275327542755275627572758275927602761276227632764276527662767276827692770277127722773277427752776277727782779278027812782278327842785278627872788278927902791279227932794279527962797279827992800280128022803280428052806280728082809281028112812281328142815281628172818281928202821282228232824282528262827282828292830283128322833283428352836283728382839284028412842284328442845284628472848284928502851285228532854285528562857285828592860286128622863286428652866286728682869287028712872287328742875287628772878287928802881288228832884288528862887288828892890289128922893289428952896289728982899290029012902290329042905290629072908290929102911291229132914291529162917291829192920292129222923292429252926292729282929293029312932293329342935293629372938293929402941294229432944294529462947294829492950295129522953295429552956295729582959296029612962296329642965296629672968296929702971297229732974297529762977297829792980298129822983298429852986298729882989299029912992299329942995299629972998299930003001300230033004300530063007300830093010301130123013301430153016301730183019302030213022302330243025302630273028302930303031303230333034303530363037303830393040304130423043304430453046304730483049305030513052305330543055305630573058305930603061306230633064306530663067306830693070307130723073307430753076307730783079308030813082308330843085308630873088308930903091309230933094309530963097309830993100310131023103310431053106310731083109311031113112311331143115311631173118311931203121312231233124312531263127312831293130313131323133313431353136313731383139314031413142314331443145314631473148314931503151315231533154315531563157315831593160316131623163316431653166316731683169317031713172317331743175317631773178317931803181318231833184318531863187318831893190319131923193319431953196319731983199320032013202320332043205320632073208320932103211321232133214321532163217321832193220322132223223322432253226322732283229323032313232323332343235323632373238323932403241324232433244324532463247324832493250325132523253325432553256325732583259326032613262326332643265326632673268326932703271327232733274327532763277327832793280328132823283328432853286328732883289329032913292329332943295329632973298329933003301330233033304330533063307330833093310331133123313331433153316331733183319332033213322332333243325332633273328332933303331333233333334333533363337333833393340334133423343334433453346334733483349335033513352335333543355335633573358335933603361336233633364336533663367336833693370337133723373337433753376337733783379338033813382338333843385338633873388338933903391339233933394339533963397339833993400340134023403340434053406340734083409341034113412341334143415341634173418341934203421342234233424342534263427342834293430343134323433343434353436343734383439344034413442344334443445344634473448344934503451345234533454345534563457345834593460346134623463346434653466346734683469347034713472347334743475347634773478347934803481348234833484348534863487348834893490349134923493349434953496349734983499350035013502350335043505350635073508350935103511351235133514351535163517351835193520352135223523352435253526352735283529353035313532353335343535353635373538353935403541354235433544354535463547354835493550355135523553355435553556355735583559356035613562356335643565356635673568356935703571357235733574357535763577357835793580358135823583358435853586358735883589359035913592359335943595359635973598359936003601360236033604360536063607360836093610361136123613361436153616361736183619362036213622362336243625362636273628362936303631363236333634363536363637363836393640364136423643364436453646364736483649365036513652365336543655365636573658365936603661366236633664366536663667366836693670367136723673367436753676367736783679368036813682368336843685368636873688368936903691369236933694369536963697369836993700370137023703370437053706370737083709371037113712371337143715371637173718371937203721372237233724372537263727372837293730373137323733373437353736373737383739374037413742374337443745374637473748374937503751375237533754375537563757375837593760376137623763376437653766376737683769377037713772377337743775377637773778377937803781378237833784378537863787378837893790379137923793379437953796379737983799380038013802380338043805380638073808380938103811381238133814381538163817381838193820382138223823382438253826382738283829383038313832383338343835383638373838383938403841384238433844384538463847384838493850385138523853385438553856385738583859386038613862386338643865386638673868386938703871387238733874387538763877387838793880388138823883388438853886388738883889389038913892389338943895389638973898389939003901390239033904390539063907390839093910391139123913391439153916391739183919392039213922392339243925392639273928392939303931393239333934393539363937393839393940394139423943394439453946394739483949395039513952395339543955395639573958395939603961396239633964396539663967396839693970397139723973397439753976397739783979398039813982398339843985398639873988398939903991399239933994399539963997399839994000400140024003400440054006400740084009401040114012401340144015401640174018401940204021402240234024402540264027402840294030403140324033403440354036403740384039404040414042404340444045404640474048404940504051405240534054405540564057405840594060406140624063406440654066406740684069407040714072407340744075407640774078407940804081408240834084408540864087408840894090409140924093409440954096409740984099410041014102410341044105410641074108410941104111411241134114411541164117411841194120412141224123412441254126412741284129413041314132413341344135413641374138413941404141414241434144414541464147414841494150415141524153415441554156415741584159416041614162416341644165416641674168416941704171417241734174417541764177417841794180418141824183418441854186418741884189419041914192419341944195419641974198419942004201420242034204420542064207420842094210421142124213421442154216421742184219422042214222422342244225422642274228422942304231423242334234423542364237423842394240424142424243424442454246424742484249425042514252425342544255425642574258425942604261426242634264426542664267426842694270427142724273427442754276427742784279428042814282428342844285428642874288428942904291429242934294429542964297429842994300430143024303430443054306430743084309431043114312431343144315431643174318431943204321432243234324432543264327432843294330433143324333433443354336433743384339434043414342434343444345434643474348434943504351435243534354435543564357435843594360436143624363436443654366436743684369437043714372437343744375437643774378437943804381438243834384438543864387438843894390439143924393439443954396439743984399440044014402440344044405440644074408440944104411441244134414441544164417441844194420442144224423442444254426442744284429443044314432443344344435443644374438443944404441444244434444444544464447444844494450445144524453445444554456445744584459446044614462446344644465446644674468446944704471447244734474447544764477447844794480448144824483448444854486448744884489449044914492449344944495449644974498449945004501450245034504450545064507450845094510451145124513451445154516451745184519452045214522452345244525452645274528452945304531453245334534453545364537453845394540454145424543454445454546454745484549455045514552455345544555455645574558455945604561456245634564456545664567456845694570457145724573457445754576457745784579458045814582458345844585458645874588458945904591459245934594459545964597459845994600460146024603460446054606460746084609461046114612461346144615461646174618461946204621462246234624462546264627462846294630463146324633463446354636463746384639464046414642464346444645464646474648464946504651465246534654465546564657465846594660466146624663466446654666466746684669467046714672467346744675467646774678467946804681468246834684468546864687468846894690469146924693469446954696469746984699470047014702470347044705470647074708470947104711471247134714471547164717471847194720472147224723472447254726472747284729473047314732473347344735473647374738473947404741474247434744474547464747474847494750475147524753475447554756475747584759476047614762476347644765476647674768476947704771477247734774477547764777477847794780478147824783478447854786478747884789479047914792479347944795479647974798479948004801480248034804480548064807480848094810481148124813481448154816481748184819482048214822482348244825482648274828482948304831483248334834483548364837483848394840484148424843484448454846484748484849485048514852485348544855485648574858485948604861486248634864486548664867486848694870487148724873487448754876487748784879488048814882488348844885488648874888488948904891489248934894489548964897489848994900490149024903490449054906490749084909491049114912491349144915491649174918491949204921492249234924492549264927492849294930493149324933493449354936493749384939494049414942494349444945494649474948494949504951495249534954495549564957495849594960496149624963496449654966496749684969497049714972497349744975497649774978497949804981498249834984498549864987498849894990499149924993499449954996499749984999500050015002500350045005500650075008500950105011501250135014501550165017501850195020502150225023502450255026502750285029503050315032503350345035503650375038503950405041504250435044504550465047504850495050505150525053505450555056505750585059506050615062506350645065506650675068506950705071507250735074507550765077507850795080508150825083508450855086508750885089509050915092509350945095509650975098509951005101510251035104510551065107510851095110511151125113511451155116511751185119512051215122512351245125512651275128512951305131513251335134513551365137513851395140514151425143514451455146514751485149515051515152515351545155515651575158515951605161516251635164516551665167516851695170517151725173517451755176517751785179518051815182518351845185518651875188518951905191519251935194519551965197519851995200520152025203520452055206520752085209521052115212521352145215521652175218521952205221522252235224522552265227522852295230523152325233523452355236523752385239524052415242524352445245524652475248524952505251525252535254525552565257525852595260526152625263526452655266526752685269527052715272527352745275527652775278527952805281528252835284528552865287528852895290529152925293529452955296529752985299530053015302530353045305530653075308530953105311531253135314531553165317531853195320532153225323532453255326532753285329533053315332533353345335533653375338533953405341534253435344534553465347534853495350535153525353535453555356535753585359536053615362536353645365536653675368536953705371537253735374537553765377537853795380538153825383538453855386538753885389539053915392539353945395539653975398539954005401540254035404540554065407540854095410541154125413541454155416541754185419542054215422542354245425542654275428542954305431543254335434543554365437543854395440544154425443544454455446544754485449545054515452545354545455545654575458545954605461546254635464546554665467546854695470547154725473547454755476547754785479548054815482548354845485548654875488548954905491549254935494549554965497549854995500550155025503550455055506550755085509551055115512551355145515551655175518551955205521552255235524552555265527552855295530553155325533553455355536553755385539554055415542554355445545554655475548554955505551555255535554555555565557555855595560556155625563556455655566556755685569557055715572557355745575557655775578557955805581558255835584558555865587558855895590559155925593559455955596559755985599560056015602560356045605560656075608560956105611561256135614561556165617561856195620562156225623562456255626562756285629563056315632563356345635563656375638563956405641564256435644564556465647564856495650565156525653565456555656565756585659566056615662566356645665566656675668566956705671567256735674567556765677567856795680568156825683568456855686568756885689569056915692569356945695569656975698569957005701570257035704570557065707570857095710571157125713571457155716571757185719572057215722572357245725572657275728572957305731573257335734573557365737573857395740574157425743574457455746574757485749575057515752575357545755575657575758575957605761576257635764576557665767576857695770577157725773577457755776577757785779578057815782578357845785578657875788578957905791579257935794579557965797579857995800580158025803580458055806580758085809581058115812581358145815581658175818581958205821582258235824582558265827582858295830583158325833583458355836583758385839584058415842584358445845584658475848584958505851585258535854585558565857585858595860586158625863586458655866586758685869587058715872587358745875587658775878587958805881588258835884588558865887588858895890589158925893589458955896589758985899590059015902590359045905590659075908590959105911591259135914591559165917591859195920592159225923592459255926592759285929593059315932593359345935593659375938593959405941594259435944594559465947594859495950595159525953595459555956595759585959596059615962596359645965596659675968596959705971597259735974597559765977597859795980598159825983598459855986598759885989599059915992599359945995599659975998599960006001600260036004600560066007600860096010601160126013601460156016601760186019602060216022602360246025602660276028602960306031603260336034603560366037603860396040604160426043604460456046604760486049605060516052605360546055605660576058605960606061606260636064606560666067606860696070607160726073607460756076607760786079608060816082608360846085608660876088608960906091609260936094609560966097609860996100610161026103610461056106610761086109611061116112611361146115611661176118611961206121612261236124612561266127612861296130613161326133613461356136613761386139614061416142614361446145614661476148614961506151615261536154615561566157615861596160616161626163616461656166616761686169617061716172617361746175617661776178617961806181618261836184618561866187618861896190619161926193619461956196619761986199620062016202620362046205620662076208620962106211621262136214621562166217621862196220622162226223622462256226622762286229623062316232623362346235623662376238623962406241624262436244624562466247624862496250625162526253625462556256625762586259626062616262626362646265626662676268626962706271627262736274627562766277627862796280628162826283628462856286628762886289629062916292629362946295629662976298629963006301630263036304630563066307630863096310631163126313631463156316631763186319632063216322632363246325632663276328632963306331633263336334633563366337633863396340634163426343634463456346634763486349635063516352635363546355635663576358635963606361636263636364636563666367636863696370637163726373637463756376637763786379638063816382638363846385638663876388638963906391639263936394639563966397639863996400640164026403640464056406640764086409641064116412641364146415641664176418641964206421642264236424642564266427642864296430643164326433643464356436643764386439644064416442644364446445644664476448644964506451645264536454645564566457645864596460646164626463646464656466646764686469647064716472647364746475647664776478647964806481648264836484648564866487648864896490649164926493649464956496649764986499650065016502650365046505650665076508650965106511651265136514651565166517651865196520652165226523652465256526652765286529653065316532653365346535653665376538653965406541654265436544654565466547654865496550655165526553655465556556655765586559656065616562656365646565656665676568656965706571657265736574657565766577657865796580658165826583658465856586658765886589659065916592659365946595659665976598659966006601660266036604660566066607660866096610661166126613661466156616661766186619662066216622662366246625662666276628662966306631663266336634663566366637663866396640664166426643664466456646664766486649665066516652665366546655665666576658665966606661666266636664666566666667666866696670667166726673667466756676667766786679668066816682668366846685668666876688668966906691669266936694669566966697669866996700670167026703670467056706670767086709671067116712671367146715671667176718671967206721672267236724672567266727672867296730673167326733673467356736673767386739674067416742674367446745674667476748674967506751675267536754675567566757675867596760676167626763676467656766676767686769677067716772677367746775677667776778677967806781678267836784678567866787678867896790679167926793679467956796679767986799680068016802680368046805680668076808680968106811681268136814681568166817681868196820682168226823682468256826682768286829683068316832683368346835683668376838683968406841684268436844684568466847684868496850685168526853685468556856685768586859686068616862686368646865686668676868686968706871687268736874687568766877687868796880688168826883688468856886688768886889689068916892689368946895689668976898689969006901690269036904690569066907690869096910691169126913691469156916691769186919692069216922692369246925692669276928692969306931693269336934693569366937693869396940694169426943694469456946694769486949695069516952695369546955695669576958695969606961696269636964696569666967696869696970697169726973697469756976697769786979698069816982698369846985698669876988698969906991699269936994699569966997699869997000700170027003700470057006700770087009701070117012701370147015701670177018701970207021702270237024702570267027702870297030703170327033703470357036703770387039704070417042704370447045704670477048704970507051705270537054705570567057705870597060706170627063706470657066706770687069707070717072707370747075707670777078707970807081708270837084708570867087708870897090709170927093709470957096709770987099710071017102710371047105710671077108710971107111711271137114711571167117711871197120712171227123712471257126712771287129713071317132713371347135713671377138713971407141714271437144714571467147714871497150715171527153715471557156715771587159716071617162716371647165716671677168716971707171717271737174717571767177717871797180718171827183718471857186718771887189719071917192719371947195719671977198719972007201720272037204720572067207720872097210721172127213721472157216721772187219722072217222722372247225722672277228722972307231723272337234723572367237723872397240724172427243724472457246724772487249725072517252725372547255725672577258725972607261726272637264726572667267726872697270727172727273727472757276727772787279728072817282728372847285728672877288728972907291729272937294729572967297729872997300730173027303730473057306730773087309731073117312731373147315731673177318731973207321732273237324732573267327732873297330733173327333733473357336733773387339734073417342734373447345734673477348734973507351735273537354735573567357735873597360736173627363736473657366736773687369737073717372737373747375737673777378737973807381738273837384738573867387738873897390739173927393739473957396739773987399740074017402740374047405740674077408740974107411741274137414741574167417741874197420742174227423742474257426742774287429743074317432743374347435743674377438743974407441744274437444744574467447744874497450745174527453745474557456745774587459746074617462746374647465746674677468746974707471747274737474747574767477747874797480748174827483748474857486748774887489749074917492749374947495749674977498749975007501750275037504750575067507750875097510751175127513751475157516751775187519752075217522752375247525752675277528752975307531753275337534753575367537753875397540754175427543754475457546754775487549755075517552755375547555755675577558755975607561756275637564756575667567756875697570757175727573757475757576757775787579758075817582758375847585758675877588758975907591759275937594759575967597759875997600760176027603760476057606760776087609761076117612761376147615761676177618761976207621762276237624762576267627762876297630763176327633763476357636763776387639764076417642764376447645764676477648764976507651765276537654765576567657765876597660766176627663766476657666766776687669767076717672767376747675767676777678767976807681768276837684768576867687768876897690769176927693769476957696769776987699770077017702770377047705770677077708770977107711771277137714771577167717771877197720772177227723772477257726772777287729773077317732773377347735773677377738773977407741774277437744774577467747774877497750775177527753775477557756775777587759776077617762776377647765776677677768776977707771777277737774777577767777777877797780778177827783778477857786778777887789779077917792779377947795779677977798779978007801780278037804780578067807780878097810781178127813781478157816781778187819782078217822782378247825782678277828782978307831783278337834783578367837783878397840784178427843784478457846784778487849785078517852785378547855785678577858785978607861786278637864786578667867786878697870787178727873787478757876787778787879788078817882788378847885788678877888788978907891789278937894789578967897789878997900790179027903790479057906790779087909791079117912791379147915791679177918791979207921792279237924792579267927792879297930793179327933793479357936793779387939794079417942794379447945794679477948794979507951795279537954795579567957795879597960796179627963796479657966796779687969797079717972797379747975797679777978797979807981798279837984798579867987798879897990799179927993799479957996799779987999800080018002800380048005800680078008800980108011801280138014801580168017801880198020802180228023802480258026802780288029803080318032803380348035803680378038803980408041804280438044804580468047804880498050805180528053805480558056805780588059806080618062806380648065806680678068806980708071807280738074807580768077807880798080808180828083808480858086808780888089809080918092809380948095809680978098809981008101810281038104810581068107810881098110811181128113811481158116811781188119812081218122812381248125812681278128812981308131813281338134813581368137813881398140814181428143814481458146814781488149815081518152815381548155815681578158815981608161816281638164816581668167816881698170817181728173817481758176817781788179818081818182818381848185818681878188818981908191819281938194819581968197819881998200820182028203820482058206820782088209821082118212821382148215821682178218821982208221822282238224822582268227822882298230823182328233823482358236823782388239824082418242824382448245824682478248824982508251825282538254825582568257825882598260826182628263826482658266826782688269827082718272827382748275827682778278827982808281828282838284828582868287828882898290829182928293829482958296829782988299830083018302830383048305830683078308830983108311831283138314831583168317831883198320832183228323832483258326832783288329833083318332833383348335833683378338833983408341834283438344834583468347834883498350835183528353835483558356835783588359836083618362836383648365836683678368836983708371837283738374837583768377837883798380838183828383838483858386838783888389839083918392839383948395839683978398839984008401840284038404840584068407840884098410841184128413841484158416841784188419842084218422842384248425842684278428842984308431843284338434843584368437843884398440844184428443844484458446844784488449845084518452845384548455845684578458845984608461846284638464846584668467846884698470847184728473847484758476847784788479848084818482848384848485848684878488848984908491849284938494849584968497849884998500850185028503850485058506850785088509851085118512851385148515851685178518851985208521852285238524852585268527852885298530853185328533853485358536853785388539854085418542854385448545854685478548854985508551855285538554855585568557855885598560856185628563856485658566856785688569857085718572857385748575857685778578857985808581858285838584858585868587858885898590859185928593859485958596859785988599860086018602860386048605860686078608860986108611861286138614861586168617861886198620862186228623862486258626862786288629863086318632863386348635863686378638863986408641864286438644864586468647864886498650865186528653865486558656865786588659866086618662866386648665866686678668866986708671867286738674867586768677867886798680868186828683868486858686868786888689869086918692869386948695869686978698869987008701870287038704870587068707870887098710871187128713871487158716871787188719872087218722872387248725872687278728872987308731873287338734873587368737873887398740874187428743874487458746874787488749875087518752875387548755875687578758875987608761876287638764876587668767876887698770877187728773877487758776877787788779878087818782878387848785878687878788878987908791879287938794879587968797879887998800880188028803880488058806880788088809881088118812881388148815881688178818881988208821882288238824882588268827882888298830883188328833883488358836883788388839884088418842884388448845884688478848884988508851885288538854885588568857885888598860886188628863886488658866886788688869887088718872887388748875887688778878887988808881888288838884888588868887888888898890889188928893889488958896889788988899890089018902890389048905890689078908890989108911891289138914891589168917891889198920892189228923892489258926892789288929893089318932893389348935893689378938893989408941894289438944894589468947894889498950895189528953895489558956895789588959896089618962896389648965896689678968896989708971897289738974897589768977897889798980898189828983898489858986898789888989899089918992899389948995899689978998899990009001900290039004900590069007900890099010901190129013901490159016901790189019902090219022902390249025902690279028902990309031903290339034903590369037903890399040904190429043904490459046904790489049905090519052905390549055905690579058905990609061906290639064906590669067906890699070907190729073907490759076907790789079908090819082908390849085908690879088908990909091909290939094909590969097909890999100910191029103910491059106910791089109911091119112911391149115911691179118911991209121912291239124912591269127912891299130913191329133913491359136913791389139914091419142914391449145914691479148914991509151915291539154915591569157915891599160916191629163916491659166916791689169917091719172917391749175917691779178917991809181918291839184918591869187918891899190919191929193919491959196919791989199920092019202920392049205920692079208920992109211921292139214921592169217921892199220922192229223922492259226922792289229923092319232923392349235923692379238923992409241924292439244924592469247924892499250925192529253925492559256925792589259926092619262926392649265926692679268926992709271927292739274927592769277927892799280928192829283928492859286928792889289929092919292929392949295929692979298929993009301930293039304930593069307930893099310931193129313931493159316931793189319932093219322932393249325932693279328932993309331933293339334933593369337933893399340934193429343934493459346934793489349935093519352935393549355935693579358935993609361936293639364936593669367936893699370937193729373937493759376937793789379938093819382938393849385938693879388938993909391939293939394939593969397939893999400940194029403940494059406940794089409941094119412941394149415941694179418941994209421942294239424942594269427942894299430943194329433943494359436943794389439944094419442944394449445944694479448944994509451945294539454945594569457945894599460946194629463946494659466946794689469947094719472947394749475947694779478947994809481948294839484948594869487948894899490949194929493949494959496949794989499950095019502950395049505950695079508950995109511951295139514951595169517951895199520952195229523952495259526952795289529953095319532953395349535953695379538953995409541954295439544954595469547954895499550955195529553955495559556955795589559956095619562956395649565956695679568956995709571957295739574957595769577957895799580958195829583958495859586958795889589959095919592959395949595959695979598959996009601960296039604960596069607960896099610961196129613961496159616961796189619962096219622962396249625962696279628962996309631963296339634963596369637963896399640964196429643964496459646964796489649965096519652965396549655965696579658965996609661966296639664966596669667966896699670967196729673967496759676967796789679968096819682968396849685968696879688968996909691969296939694969596969697969896999700970197029703970497059706970797089709971097119712971397149715971697179718971997209721972297239724972597269727972897299730973197329733973497359736973797389739974097419742974397449745974697479748974997509751975297539754975597569757975897599760976197629763976497659766976797689769977097719772977397749775977697779778977997809781978297839784978597869787978897899790979197929793979497959796979797989799980098019802980398049805980698079808980998109811981298139814981598169817981898199820982198229823982498259826982798289829983098319832983398349835983698379838983998409841984298439844984598469847984898499850985198529853985498559856985798589859986098619862986398649865986698679868986998709871987298739874987598769877987898799880988198829883988498859886988798889889989098919892989398949895989698979898989999009901990299039904990599069907990899099910991199129913991499159916991799189919992099219922992399249925992699279928992999309931993299339934993599369937993899399940994199429943994499459946994799489949995099519952995399549955995699579958995999609961996299639964996599669967996899699970997199729973997499759976997799789979998099819982998399849985998699879988998999909991999299939994999599969997999899991000010001100021000310004100051000610007100081000910010100111001210013100141001510016100171001810019100201002110022100231002410025100261002710028100291003010031100321003310034100351003610037100381003910040100411004210043100441004510046100471004810049100501005110052100531005410055100561005710058100591006010061100621006310064100651006610067100681006910070100711007210073100741007510076100771007810079100801008110082100831008410085100861008710088100891009010091100921009310094100951009610097100981009910100101011010210103101041010510106101071010810109101101011110112101131011410115101161011710118101191012010121101221012310124101251012610127101281012910130101311013210133101341013510136101371013810139101401014110142101431014410145101461014710148101491015010151101521015310154101551015610157101581015910160101611016210163101641016510166101671016810169101701017110172101731017410175101761017710178101791018010181101821018310184101851018610187101881018910190101911019210193101941019510196101971019810199102001020110202102031020410205102061020710208102091021010211102121021310214102151021610217102181021910220102211022210223102241022510226102271022810229102301023110232102331023410235102361023710238102391024010241102421024310244102451024610247102481024910250102511025210253102541025510256102571025810259102601026110262102631026410265102661026710268102691027010271102721027310274102751027610277102781027910280102811028210283102841028510286102871028810289102901029110292102931029410295102961029710298102991030010301103021030310304103051030610307103081030910310103111031210313103141031510316103171031810319103201032110322103231032410325103261032710328103291033010331103321033310334103351033610337103381033910340103411034210343103441034510346103471034810349103501035110352103531035410355103561035710358103591036010361103621036310364103651036610367103681036910370103711037210373103741037510376103771037810379103801038110382103831038410385103861038710388103891039010391103921039310394103951039610397103981039910400104011040210403104041040510406104071040810409104101041110412104131041410415104161041710418104191042010421104221042310424104251042610427104281042910430104311043210433104341043510436104371043810439104401044110442104431044410445104461044710448104491045010451104521045310454104551045610457104581045910460104611046210463104641046510466104671046810469104701047110472104731047410475104761047710478104791048010481104821048310484104851048610487104881048910490104911049210493104941049510496104971049810499105001050110502105031050410505105061050710508105091051010511105121051310514105151051610517105181051910520105211052210523105241052510526105271052810529105301053110532105331053410535105361053710538105391054010541105421054310544105451054610547105481054910550105511055210553105541055510556105571055810559105601056110562105631056410565105661056710568105691057010571105721057310574105751057610577105781057910580105811058210583105841058510586105871058810589105901059110592105931059410595105961059710598105991060010601106021060310604106051060610607106081060910610106111061210613106141061510616106171061810619106201062110622106231062410625106261062710628106291063010631106321063310634106351063610637106381063910640106411064210643106441064510646106471064810649106501065110652106531065410655106561065710658106591066010661106621066310664106651066610667106681066910670106711067210673106741067510676106771067810679106801068110682106831068410685106861068710688106891069010691106921069310694106951069610697106981069910700107011070210703107041070510706107071070810709107101071110712107131071410715107161071710718107191072010721107221072310724107251072610727107281072910730107311073210733107341073510736107371073810739107401074110742107431074410745107461074710748107491075010751107521075310754107551075610757107581075910760107611076210763107641076510766107671076810769107701077110772107731077410775107761077710778107791078010781107821078310784107851078610787107881078910790107911079210793107941079510796107971079810799108001080110802108031080410805108061080710808108091081010811108121081310814108151081610817108181081910820108211082210823108241082510826108271082810829108301083110832108331083410835108361083710838108391084010841108421084310844108451084610847108481084910850108511085210853108541085510856108571085810859108601086110862108631086410865108661086710868108691087010871108721087310874108751087610877108781087910880108811088210883108841088510886108871088810889108901089110892108931089410895108961089710898108991090010901109021090310904109051090610907109081090910910109111091210913109141091510916109171091810919109201092110922109231092410925109261092710928109291093010931109321093310934109351093610937109381093910940109411094210943109441094510946109471094810949109501095110952109531095410955109561095710958109591096010961109621096310964109651096610967109681096910970109711097210973109741097510976109771097810979109801098110982109831098410985109861098710988109891099010991109921099310994109951099610997109981099911000110011100211003110041100511006110071100811009110101101111012110131101411015110161101711018110191102011021110221102311024110251102611027110281102911030110311103211033110341103511036110371103811039110401104111042110431104411045110461104711048110491105011051110521105311054110551105611057110581105911060110611106211063110641106511066110671106811069110701107111072110731107411075110761107711078110791108011081110821108311084110851108611087110881108911090110911109211093110941109511096110971109811099111001110111102111031110411105111061110711108111091111011111111121111311114111151111611117111181111911120111211112211123111241112511126111271112811129111301113111132111331113411135111361113711138111391114011141111421114311144111451114611147111481114911150111511115211153111541115511156111571115811159111601116111162111631116411165111661116711168111691117011171111721117311174111751117611177111781117911180111811118211183111841118511186111871118811189111901119111192111931119411195111961119711198111991120011201112021120311204112051120611207112081120911210112111121211213112141121511216112171121811219112201122111222112231122411225112261122711228112291123011231112321123311234112351123611237112381123911240112411124211243112441124511246112471124811249112501125111252112531125411255112561125711258112591126011261112621126311264112651126611267112681126911270112711127211273112741127511276112771127811279112801128111282112831128411285112861128711288112891129011291112921129311294112951129611297112981129911300113011130211303113041130511306113071130811309113101131111312113131131411315113161131711318113191132011321113221132311324113251132611327113281132911330113311133211333113341133511336113371133811339113401134111342113431134411345113461134711348113491135011351113521135311354113551135611357113581135911360113611136211363113641136511366113671136811369113701137111372113731137411375113761137711378113791138011381113821138311384113851138611387113881138911390113911139211393113941139511396113971139811399114001140111402114031140411405114061140711408114091141011411114121141311414114151141611417114181141911420114211142211423114241142511426114271142811429114301143111432114331143411435114361143711438114391144011441114421144311444114451144611447114481144911450114511145211453114541145511456114571145811459114601146111462114631146411465114661146711468114691147011471114721147311474114751147611477114781147911480114811148211483114841148511486114871148811489114901149111492114931149411495114961149711498114991150011501115021150311504115051150611507115081150911510115111151211513115141151511516115171151811519115201152111522115231152411525115261152711528115291153011531115321153311534115351153611537115381153911540115411154211543115441154511546115471154811549115501155111552115531155411555115561155711558115591156011561115621156311564115651156611567115681156911570115711157211573115741157511576115771157811579115801158111582115831158411585115861158711588115891159011591115921159311594115951159611597115981159911600116011160211603116041160511606116071160811609116101161111612116131161411615116161161711618116191162011621116221162311624116251162611627116281162911630116311163211633116341163511636116371163811639116401164111642116431164411645116461164711648116491165011651116521165311654116551165611657116581165911660116611166211663116641166511666116671166811669116701167111672116731167411675116761167711678116791168011681116821168311684116851168611687116881168911690116911169211693116941169511696116971169811699117001170111702117031170411705117061170711708117091171011711117121171311714117151171611717117181171911720117211172211723117241172511726117271172811729117301173111732117331173411735117361173711738117391174011741117421174311744117451174611747117481174911750117511175211753117541175511756117571175811759117601176111762117631176411765117661176711768117691177011771117721177311774117751177611777117781177911780117811178211783117841178511786117871178811789117901179111792117931179411795117961179711798117991180011801118021180311804118051180611807118081180911810118111181211813118141181511816118171181811819118201182111822118231182411825118261182711828118291183011831118321183311834118351183611837118381183911840118411184211843118441184511846118471184811849118501185111852118531185411855118561185711858118591186011861118621186311864118651186611867118681186911870118711187211873118741187511876118771187811879118801188111882118831188411885118861188711888118891189011891118921189311894118951189611897118981189911900119011190211903119041190511906119071190811909119101191111912119131191411915119161191711918119191192011921119221192311924119251192611927119281192911930119311193211933119341193511936119371193811939119401194111942119431194411945119461194711948119491195011951119521195311954119551195611957119581195911960119611196211963119641196511966119671196811969119701197111972119731197411975119761197711978119791198011981119821198311984119851198611987119881198911990119911199211993119941199511996119971199811999120001200112002120031200412005120061200712008120091201012011120121201312014120151201612017120181201912020120211202212023120241202512026120271202812029120301203112032120331203412035120361203712038120391204012041120421204312044120451204612047120481204912050120511205212053120541205512056120571205812059120601206112062120631206412065120661206712068120691207012071120721207312074120751207612077120781207912080120811208212083120841208512086120871208812089120901209112092120931209412095120961209712098120991210012101121021210312104121051210612107121081210912110121111211212113121141211512116121171211812119121201212112122121231212412125121261212712128121291213012131121321213312134121351213612137121381213912140121411214212143121441214512146121471214812149121501215112152121531215412155121561215712158121591216012161121621216312164121651216612167121681216912170121711217212173121741217512176121771217812179121801218112182121831218412185121861218712188121891219012191121921219312194121951219612197121981219912200122011220212203122041220512206122071220812209122101221112212122131221412215122161221712218122191222012221122221222312224122251222612227122281222912230122311223212233122341223512236122371223812239122401224112242122431224412245122461224712248122491225012251122521225312254122551225612257122581225912260122611226212263122641226512266122671226812269122701227112272122731227412275122761227712278122791228012281122821228312284122851228612287122881228912290122911229212293122941229512296122971229812299123001230112302123031230412305123061230712308123091231012311123121231312314123151231612317123181231912320123211232212323123241232512326123271232812329123301233112332123331233412335123361233712338123391234012341123421234312344123451234612347123481234912350123511235212353123541235512356123571235812359123601236112362123631236412365123661236712368123691237012371123721237312374123751237612377123781237912380123811238212383123841238512386123871238812389123901239112392123931239412395123961239712398123991240012401124021240312404124051240612407124081240912410124111241212413124141241512416124171241812419124201242112422124231242412425124261242712428124291243012431124321243312434124351243612437124381243912440124411244212443124441244512446124471244812449124501245112452124531245412455124561245712458124591246012461124621246312464124651246612467124681246912470124711247212473124741247512476124771247812479124801248112482124831248412485124861248712488124891249012491124921249312494124951249612497124981249912500125011250212503125041250512506125071250812509125101251112512125131251412515125161251712518125191252012521125221252312524125251252612527125281252912530125311253212533125341253512536125371253812539125401254112542125431254412545125461254712548125491255012551125521255312554125551255612557125581255912560125611256212563125641256512566125671256812569125701257112572125731257412575125761257712578125791258012581125821258312584125851258612587125881258912590125911259212593125941259512596125971259812599126001260112602126031260412605126061260712608126091261012611126121261312614126151261612617126181261912620126211262212623126241262512626126271262812629126301263112632126331263412635126361263712638126391264012641126421264312644126451264612647126481264912650126511265212653126541265512656126571265812659126601266112662126631266412665126661266712668126691267012671126721267312674126751267612677126781267912680126811268212683126841268512686126871268812689126901269112692126931269412695126961269712698126991270012701127021270312704127051270612707127081270912710127111271212713127141271512716127171271812719127201272112722127231272412725127261272712728127291273012731127321273312734127351273612737127381273912740127411274212743127441274512746127471274812749127501275112752127531275412755127561275712758127591276012761127621276312764127651276612767127681276912770127711277212773127741277512776127771277812779127801278112782127831278412785127861278712788127891279012791127921279312794127951279612797127981279912800128011280212803128041280512806128071280812809128101281112812128131281412815128161281712818128191282012821128221282312824128251282612827128281282912830128311283212833128341283512836128371283812839128401284112842128431284412845128461284712848128491285012851128521285312854128551285612857128581285912860128611286212863128641286512866128671286812869128701287112872128731287412875128761287712878128791288012881128821288312884128851288612887128881288912890128911289212893128941289512896128971289812899129001290112902129031290412905129061290712908129091291012911129121291312914129151291612917129181291912920129211292212923129241292512926129271292812929129301293112932129331293412935129361293712938129391294012941129421294312944129451294612947129481294912950129511295212953129541295512956129571295812959129601296112962129631296412965129661296712968129691297012971129721297312974129751297612977129781297912980129811298212983129841298512986129871298812989129901299112992129931299412995129961299712998129991300013001130021300313004130051300613007130081300913010130111301213013130141301513016130171301813019130201302113022130231302413025130261302713028130291303013031130321303313034130351303613037130381303913040130411304213043130441304513046130471304813049130501305113052130531305413055130561305713058130591306013061130621306313064130651306613067130681306913070130711307213073130741307513076130771307813079130801308113082130831308413085130861308713088130891309013091130921309313094130951309613097130981309913100131011310213103131041310513106131071310813109131101311113112131131311413115131161311713118131191312013121131221312313124131251312613127131281312913130131311313213133131341313513136131371313813139131401314113142131431314413145131461314713148131491315013151131521315313154131551315613157131581315913160131611316213163131641316513166131671316813169131701317113172131731317413175131761317713178131791318013181131821318313184131851318613187131881318913190131911319213193131941319513196131971319813199132001320113202132031320413205132061320713208132091321013211132121321313214132151321613217132181321913220132211322213223132241322513226132271322813229132301323113232132331323413235132361323713238132391324013241132421324313244132451324613247132481324913250132511325213253132541325513256132571325813259132601326113262132631326413265132661326713268132691327013271132721327313274132751327613277132781327913280132811328213283132841328513286132871328813289132901329113292132931329413295132961329713298132991330013301133021330313304133051330613307133081330913310133111331213313133141331513316133171331813319133201332113322133231332413325133261332713328133291333013331133321333313334133351333613337133381333913340133411334213343133441334513346133471334813349133501335113352133531335413355133561335713358133591336013361133621336313364133651336613367133681336913370133711337213373133741337513376133771337813379133801338113382133831338413385133861338713388133891339013391133921339313394133951339613397133981339913400134011340213403134041340513406134071340813409134101341113412134131341413415134161341713418134191342013421134221342313424134251342613427134281342913430134311343213433134341343513436134371343813439134401344113442134431344413445134461344713448134491345013451134521345313454134551345613457134581345913460134611346213463134641346513466134671346813469134701347113472134731347413475134761347713478134791348013481134821348313484134851348613487134881348913490134911349213493134941349513496134971349813499135001350113502135031350413505135061350713508135091351013511135121351313514135151351613517135181351913520135211352213523135241352513526135271352813529135301353113532135331353413535135361353713538135391354013541135421354313544135451354613547135481354913550135511355213553135541355513556135571355813559135601356113562135631356413565135661356713568135691357013571135721357313574135751357613577135781357913580135811358213583135841358513586135871358813589135901359113592135931359413595135961359713598135991360013601136021360313604136051360613607136081360913610136111361213613136141361513616136171361813619136201362113622136231362413625136261362713628136291363013631136321363313634136351363613637136381363913640136411364213643136441364513646136471364813649136501365113652136531365413655136561365713658136591366013661136621366313664136651366613667136681366913670136711367213673136741367513676136771367813679136801368113682136831368413685136861368713688136891369013691136921369313694136951369613697136981369913700137011370213703137041370513706137071370813709137101371113712137131371413715137161371713718137191372013721137221372313724137251372613727137281372913730137311373213733137341373513736137371373813739137401374113742137431374413745137461374713748137491375013751137521375313754137551375613757137581375913760137611376213763137641376513766137671376813769137701377113772137731377413775137761377713778137791378013781137821378313784137851378613787137881378913790137911379213793137941379513796137971379813799138001380113802138031380413805138061380713808138091381013811138121381313814138151381613817138181381913820138211382213823138241382513826138271382813829138301383113832138331383413835138361383713838138391384013841138421384313844138451384613847138481384913850138511385213853138541385513856138571385813859138601386113862138631386413865138661386713868138691387013871138721387313874138751387613877138781387913880138811388213883138841388513886138871388813889138901389113892138931389413895138961389713898138991390013901139021390313904139051390613907139081390913910139111391213913139141391513916139171391813919139201392113922139231392413925139261392713928139291393013931139321393313934139351393613937139381393913940139411394213943139441394513946139471394813949139501395113952139531395413955139561395713958139591396013961139621396313964139651396613967139681396913970139711397213973139741397513976139771397813979139801398113982139831398413985139861398713988139891399013991139921399313994139951399613997139981399914000140011400214003140041400514006140071400814009140101401114012140131401414015140161401714018140191402014021140221402314024140251402614027140281402914030140311403214033140341403514036140371403814039140401404114042140431404414045140461404714048140491405014051140521405314054140551405614057140581405914060140611406214063140641406514066140671406814069140701407114072140731407414075140761407714078140791408014081140821408314084140851408614087140881408914090140911409214093140941409514096140971409814099141001410114102141031410414105141061410714108141091411014111141121411314114141151411614117141181411914120141211412214123141241412514126141271412814129141301413114132141331413414135141361413714138141391414014141141421414314144141451414614147141481414914150141511415214153141541415514156141571415814159141601416114162141631416414165141661416714168141691417014171141721417314174141751417614177141781417914180141811418214183141841418514186141871418814189141901419114192141931419414195141961419714198141991420014201142021420314204142051420614207142081420914210142111421214213142141421514216142171421814219142201422114222142231422414225142261422714228142291423014231142321423314234142351423614237142381423914240142411424214243142441424514246142471424814249142501425114252142531425414255142561425714258142591426014261142621426314264142651426614267142681426914270142711427214273142741427514276142771427814279142801428114282142831428414285142861428714288142891429014291142921429314294142951429614297142981429914300143011430214303143041430514306143071430814309143101431114312143131431414315143161431714318143191432014321143221432314324143251432614327143281432914330143311433214333143341433514336143371433814339143401434114342143431434414345143461434714348143491435014351143521435314354143551435614357143581435914360143611436214363143641436514366143671436814369143701437114372143731437414375143761437714378143791438014381143821438314384143851438614387143881438914390143911439214393143941439514396143971439814399144001440114402144031440414405144061440714408144091441014411144121441314414144151441614417144181441914420144211442214423144241442514426144271442814429144301443114432144331443414435144361443714438144391444014441144421444314444144451444614447144481444914450144511445214453144541445514456144571445814459144601446114462144631446414465144661446714468144691447014471144721447314474144751447614477144781447914480144811448214483144841448514486144871448814489144901449114492144931449414495144961449714498144991450014501145021450314504145051450614507145081450914510145111451214513145141451514516145171451814519145201452114522145231452414525145261452714528145291453014531145321453314534145351453614537145381453914540145411454214543145441454514546145471454814549145501455114552145531455414555145561455714558145591456014561145621456314564145651456614567145681456914570145711457214573145741457514576145771457814579145801458114582145831458414585145861458714588145891459014591145921459314594145951459614597145981459914600146011460214603146041460514606146071460814609146101461114612146131461414615146161461714618146191462014621146221462314624146251462614627146281462914630146311463214633146341463514636146371463814639146401464114642146431464414645146461464714648146491465014651146521465314654146551465614657146581465914660146611466214663146641466514666146671466814669146701467114672146731467414675146761467714678146791468014681146821468314684146851468614687146881468914690146911469214693146941469514696146971469814699147001470114702147031470414705147061470714708147091471014711147121471314714147151471614717147181471914720147211472214723147241472514726147271472814729147301473114732147331473414735147361473714738147391474014741147421474314744147451474614747147481474914750147511475214753147541475514756147571475814759147601476114762147631476414765147661476714768147691477014771147721477314774147751477614777147781477914780147811478214783147841478514786147871478814789147901479114792147931479414795147961479714798147991480014801148021480314804148051480614807148081480914810148111481214813148141481514816148171481814819148201482114822148231482414825148261482714828148291483014831148321483314834148351483614837148381483914840148411484214843148441484514846148471484814849148501485114852148531485414855148561485714858148591486014861148621486314864148651486614867148681486914870148711487214873148741487514876148771487814879148801488114882148831488414885148861488714888148891489014891148921489314894148951489614897148981489914900149011490214903149041490514906149071490814909149101491114912149131491414915149161491714918149191492014921149221492314924149251492614927149281492914930149311493214933149341493514936149371493814939149401494114942149431494414945149461494714948149491495014951149521495314954149551495614957149581495914960149611496214963149641496514966149671496814969149701497114972149731497414975149761497714978149791498014981149821498314984149851498614987149881498914990149911499214993149941499514996149971499814999150001500115002150031500415005150061500715008150091501015011150121501315014150151501615017150181501915020150211502215023150241502515026150271502815029150301503115032150331503415035150361503715038150391504015041150421504315044150451504615047150481504915050150511505215053150541505515056150571505815059150601506115062150631506415065150661506715068150691507015071150721507315074150751507615077150781507915080150811508215083150841508515086150871508815089150901509115092150931509415095150961509715098150991510015101151021510315104151051510615107151081510915110151111511215113151141511515116151171511815119151201512115122151231512415125151261512715128151291513015131151321513315134151351513615137151381513915140151411514215143151441514515146151471514815149151501515115152151531515415155151561515715158151591516015161151621516315164151651516615167151681516915170151711517215173151741517515176151771517815179151801518115182151831518415185151861518715188151891519015191151921519315194151951519615197151981519915200152011520215203152041520515206152071520815209152101521115212152131521415215152161521715218152191522015221152221522315224152251522615227152281522915230152311523215233152341523515236152371523815239152401524115242152431524415245152461524715248152491525015251152521525315254152551525615257152581525915260152611526215263152641526515266152671526815269152701527115272152731527415275152761527715278152791528015281152821528315284152851528615287152881528915290152911529215293152941529515296152971529815299153001530115302153031530415305153061530715308153091531015311153121531315314153151531615317153181531915320153211532215323153241532515326153271532815329153301533115332153331533415335153361533715338153391534015341153421534315344153451534615347153481534915350153511535215353153541535515356153571535815359153601536115362153631536415365153661536715368153691537015371153721537315374153751537615377153781537915380153811538215383153841538515386153871538815389153901539115392153931539415395153961539715398153991540015401154021540315404154051540615407154081540915410154111541215413154141541515416154171541815419154201542115422154231542415425154261542715428154291543015431154321543315434154351543615437154381543915440154411544215443154441544515446154471544815449154501545115452154531545415455154561545715458154591546015461154621546315464154651546615467154681546915470154711547215473154741547515476154771547815479154801548115482154831548415485154861548715488154891549015491154921549315494154951549615497154981549915500155011550215503155041550515506155071550815509155101551115512155131551415515155161551715518155191552015521155221552315524155251552615527155281552915530155311553215533155341553515536155371553815539155401554115542155431554415545155461554715548155491555015551155521555315554155551555615557155581555915560155611556215563155641556515566155671556815569155701557115572155731557415575155761557715578155791558015581155821558315584155851558615587155881558915590155911559215593155941559515596155971559815599156001560115602156031560415605156061560715608156091561015611156121561315614156151561615617156181561915620156211562215623156241562515626156271562815629156301563115632156331563415635156361563715638156391564015641156421564315644156451564615647156481564915650156511565215653156541565515656156571565815659156601566115662156631566415665156661566715668156691567015671156721567315674156751567615677156781567915680156811568215683156841568515686156871568815689156901569115692156931569415695156961569715698156991570015701157021570315704157051570615707157081570915710157111571215713157141571515716157171571815719157201572115722157231572415725157261572715728157291573015731157321573315734157351573615737157381573915740157411574215743157441574515746157471574815749157501575115752157531575415755157561575715758157591576015761157621576315764157651576615767157681576915770157711577215773157741577515776157771577815779157801578115782157831578415785157861578715788157891579015791157921579315794157951579615797157981579915800158011580215803158041580515806158071580815809158101581115812158131581415815158161581715818158191582015821158221582315824158251582615827158281582915830158311583215833158341583515836158371583815839158401584115842158431584415845158461584715848158491585015851158521585315854158551585615857158581585915860158611586215863158641586515866158671586815869158701587115872158731587415875158761587715878158791588015881158821588315884158851588615887158881588915890158911589215893158941589515896158971589815899159001590115902159031590415905159061590715908159091591015911159121591315914159151591615917159181591915920159211592215923159241592515926159271592815929159301593115932159331593415935159361593715938159391594015941159421594315944159451594615947159481594915950159511595215953159541595515956159571595815959159601596115962159631596415965159661596715968159691597015971159721597315974159751597615977159781597915980159811598215983159841598515986159871598815989159901599115992159931599415995159961599715998159991600016001160021600316004160051600616007160081600916010160111601216013160141601516016160171601816019160201602116022160231602416025160261602716028160291603016031160321603316034160351603616037160381603916040160411604216043160441604516046160471604816049160501605116052160531605416055160561605716058160591606016061160621606316064160651606616067160681606916070160711607216073160741607516076160771607816079160801608116082160831608416085160861608716088160891609016091160921609316094160951609616097160981609916100161011610216103161041610516106161071610816109161101611116112161131611416115161161611716118161191612016121161221612316124161251612616127161281612916130161311613216133161341613516136161371613816139161401614116142161431614416145161461614716148161491615016151161521615316154161551615616157161581615916160161611616216163161641616516166161671616816169161701617116172161731617416175161761617716178161791618016181161821618316184161851618616187161881618916190161911619216193161941619516196161971619816199162001620116202162031620416205162061620716208162091621016211162121621316214162151621616217162181621916220162211622216223162241622516226162271622816229162301623116232162331623416235162361623716238162391624016241162421624316244162451624616247162481624916250162511625216253162541625516256162571625816259162601626116262162631626416265162661626716268162691627016271162721627316274162751627616277162781627916280162811628216283162841628516286162871628816289162901629116292162931629416295162961629716298162991630016301163021630316304163051630616307163081630916310163111631216313163141631516316163171631816319163201632116322163231632416325163261632716328163291633016331163321633316334163351633616337163381633916340163411634216343163441634516346163471634816349163501635116352163531635416355163561635716358163591636016361163621636316364163651636616367163681636916370163711637216373163741637516376163771637816379163801638116382163831638416385163861638716388163891639016391163921639316394163951639616397163981639916400164011640216403164041640516406164071640816409164101641116412164131641416415164161641716418164191642016421164221642316424164251642616427164281642916430164311643216433164341643516436164371643816439164401644116442164431644416445164461644716448164491645016451164521645316454164551645616457164581645916460164611646216463164641646516466164671646816469164701647116472164731647416475164761647716478164791648016481164821648316484164851648616487164881648916490164911649216493164941649516496164971649816499165001650116502165031650416505165061650716508165091651016511165121651316514165151651616517165181651916520165211652216523165241652516526165271652816529165301653116532165331653416535165361653716538165391654016541165421654316544165451654616547165481654916550165511655216553165541655516556165571655816559165601656116562165631656416565165661656716568165691657016571165721657316574165751657616577165781657916580165811658216583165841658516586165871658816589165901659116592165931659416595165961659716598165991660016601166021660316604166051660616607166081660916610166111661216613166141661516616166171661816619166201662116622166231662416625166261662716628166291663016631166321663316634166351663616637166381663916640166411664216643166441664516646166471664816649166501665116652166531665416655166561665716658
  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @set VERSION 7.8.04
  6. @set DATE March 2012
  7. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  8. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  9. @set txicodequoteundirected
  10. @set txicodequotebacktick
  11. @c Version and Contact Info
  12. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  13. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  15. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  16. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  20. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  21. @c =======================================
  22. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  23. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  24. @set cmdnames
  25. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  26. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  27. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  28. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  29. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  30. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  31. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  32. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  33. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  34. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  35. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  36. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  37. @c a key but no command
  38. @c Inserts: @item key
  39. @macro orgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @item @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @macro xorgkey{key}
  44. @kindex \key\
  45. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  46. @end macro
  47. @c one key with a command
  48. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  49. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  50. @ifset cmdnames
  51. @kindex \key\
  52. @findex \command\
  53. @iftex
  54. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  55. @end iftex
  56. @ifnottex
  57. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  58. @end ifnottex
  59. @end ifset
  60. @ifclear cmdnames
  61. @kindex \key\
  62. @item @kbd{\key\}
  63. @end ifclear
  64. @end macro
  65. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  66. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  67. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  68. @ifset cmdnames
  69. @kindex \key\
  70. @findex \command\
  71. @iftex
  72. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  73. @end iftex
  74. @ifnottex
  75. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  76. @end ifnottex
  77. @end ifset
  78. @ifclear cmdnames
  79. @kindex \key\
  80. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  81. @end ifclear
  82. @end macro
  83. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  84. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  85. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  86. @ifset cmdnames
  87. @findex \command\
  88. @iftex
  89. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  90. @end iftex
  91. @ifnottex
  92. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  93. @end ifnottex
  94. @end ifset
  95. @ifclear cmdnames
  96. @item @kbd{\key\}
  97. @end ifclear
  98. @end macro
  99. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  100. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  101. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  102. @ifset cmdnames
  103. @kindex \key\
  104. @findex \command\
  105. @iftex
  106. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  107. @end iftex
  108. @ifnottex
  109. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  110. @end ifnottex
  111. @end ifset
  112. @ifclear cmdnames
  113. @kindex \key\
  114. @item @kbd{\text\}
  115. @end ifclear
  116. @end macro
  117. @c two keys with one command
  118. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  119. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  120. @ifset cmdnames
  121. @kindex \key1\
  122. @kindex \key2\
  123. @findex \command\
  124. @iftex
  125. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  126. @end iftex
  127. @ifnottex
  128. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  129. @end ifnottex
  130. @end ifset
  131. @ifclear cmdnames
  132. @kindex \key1\
  133. @kindex \key2\
  134. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  135. @end ifclear
  136. @end macro
  137. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  138. @c @itemx
  139. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  140. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  141. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  142. @ifset cmdnames
  143. @kindex \key1\
  144. @kindex \key2\
  145. @findex \command\
  146. @iftex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  149. @end iftex
  150. @ifnottex
  151. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  152. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  153. @end ifnottex
  154. @end ifset
  155. @ifclear cmdnames
  156. @kindex \key1\
  157. @kindex \key2\
  158. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  159. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  160. @end ifclear
  161. @end macro
  162. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  163. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  164. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  165. @ifset cmdnames
  166. @kindex \key1\
  167. @kindex \key2\
  168. @findex \command\
  169. @iftex
  170. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  171. @end iftex
  172. @ifnottex
  173. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  174. @end ifnottex
  175. @end ifset
  176. @ifclear cmdnames
  177. @kindex \key1\
  178. @kindex \key2\
  179. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  180. @end ifclear
  181. @end macro
  182. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  183. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  184. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  185. @ifset cmdnames
  186. @kindex \key1\
  187. @kindex \key2\
  188. @findex \command\
  189. @iftex
  190. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  191. @end iftex
  192. @ifnottex
  193. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  194. @end ifnottex
  195. @end ifset
  196. @ifclear cmdnames
  197. @kindex \key1\
  198. @kindex \key2\
  199. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  200. @end ifclear
  201. @end macro
  202. @c two keys with two commands
  203. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  204. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  205. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  206. @ifset cmdnames
  207. @kindex \key1\
  208. @kindex \key2\
  209. @findex \command1\
  210. @findex \command2\
  211. @iftex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  214. @end iftex
  215. @ifnottex
  216. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  217. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  218. @end ifnottex
  219. @end ifset
  220. @ifclear cmdnames
  221. @kindex \key1\
  222. @kindex \key2\
  223. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  224. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  225. @end ifclear
  226. @end macro
  227. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  228. @iftex
  229. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  230. @end iftex
  231. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  232. @macro tsubheading{text}
  233. @ifinfo
  234. @subsubheading \text\
  235. @end ifinfo
  236. @ifnotinfo
  237. @item @b{\text\}
  238. @end ifnotinfo
  239. @end macro
  240. @copying
  241. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  242. Copyright @copyright{} 2004-2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  243. @quotation
  244. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  245. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  246. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  247. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  248. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  249. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  250. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  251. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  252. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  253. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  254. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  255. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  256. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  257. @end quotation
  258. @end copying
  259. @dircategory Emacs
  260. @direntry
  261. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  262. @end direntry
  263. @titlepage
  264. @title The Org Manual
  265. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  266. @author by Carsten Dominik
  267. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, Thomas Dye and Jambunathan K.
  268. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  269. @page
  270. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  271. @insertcopying
  272. @end titlepage
  273. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  274. @contents
  275. @ifnottex
  276. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  277. @top Org Mode Manual
  278. @insertcopying
  279. @end ifnottex
  280. @menu
  281. * Introduction:: Getting started
  282. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  283. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  284. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  285. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  286. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  287. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  288. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  289. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  290. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  291. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  292. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  293. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  294. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  295. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  296. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  297. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  298. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  299. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  300. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  301. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  302. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  303. @detailmenu
  304. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  305. Introduction
  306. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  307. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  308. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  309. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  310. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  311. Document structure
  312. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  313. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  314. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  315. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  316. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  317. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  318. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  319. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  320. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  321. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  322. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  323. Tables
  324. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  325. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  326. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  327. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  328. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  329. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  330. The spreadsheet
  331. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  332. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  333. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  334. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  335. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  336. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  337. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  338. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  339. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  340. Hyperlinks
  341. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  342. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  343. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  344. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  345. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  346. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  347. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  348. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  349. Internal links
  350. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  351. TODO items
  352. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  353. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  354. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  355. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  356. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  357. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  358. Extended use of TODO keywords
  359. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  360. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  361. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  362. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  363. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  364. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  365. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  366. Progress logging
  367. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  368. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  369. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  370. Tags
  371. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  372. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  373. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  374. Properties and columns
  375. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  376. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  377. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  378. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  379. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  380. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  381. Column view
  382. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  383. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  384. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  385. Defining columns
  386. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  387. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  388. Dates and times
  389. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  390. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  391. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  392. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  393. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  394. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  395. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  396. Creating timestamps
  397. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  398. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  399. Deadlines and scheduling
  400. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  401. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  402. Clocking work time
  403. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  404. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  405. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  406. Capture - Refile - Archive
  407. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  408. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  409. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  410. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  411. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  412. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  413. Capture
  414. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  415. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  416. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  417. Capture templates
  418. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  419. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  420. Archiving
  421. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  422. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  423. Agenda views
  424. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  425. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  426. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  427. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  428. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  429. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  430. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  431. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  432. The built-in agenda views
  433. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  434. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  435. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  436. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  437. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  438. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  439. Presentation and sorting
  440. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  441. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  442. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  443. Custom agenda views
  444. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  445. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  446. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  447. Markup for rich export
  448. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  449. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  450. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  451. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  452. * Index entries:: Making an index
  453. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  454. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  455. Structural markup elements
  456. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  457. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  458. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  459. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  460. * Lists:: Lists
  461. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  462. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  463. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  464. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  465. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  466. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  467. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  468. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  469. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  470. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  471. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  472. Exporting
  473. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  474. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  475. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  476. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  477. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  478. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  479. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  480. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  481. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  482. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  483. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  484. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  485. HTML export
  486. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  487. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  488. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org mode
  489. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  490. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  491. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  492. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  493. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  494. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  495. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  496. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  497. * @LaTeX{}/PDF export commands::
  498. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  499. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  500. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  501. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  502. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  503. DocBook export
  504. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  505. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  506. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  507. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  508. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  509. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  510. OpenDocument Text export
  511. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: What packages ODT exporter relies on
  512. * ODT export commands:: How to invoke ODT export
  513. * Extending ODT export:: How to produce @samp{doc}, @samp{pdf} files
  514. * Applying custom styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  515. * Links in ODT export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  516. * Tables in ODT export:: How Tables are exported
  517. * Images in ODT export:: How to insert images
  518. * Math formatting in ODT export:: How @LaTeX{} fragments are formatted
  519. * Literal examples in ODT export:: How source and example blocks are formatted
  520. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: Read this if you are a power user
  521. Math formatting in ODT export
  522. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: How to embed @LaTeX{} math fragments
  523. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: How to embed equations in native format
  524. Advanced topics in ODT export
  525. * Configuring a document converter:: How to register a document converter
  526. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Explore the internals
  527. * Creating one-off styles:: How to produce custom highlighting etc
  528. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: How to define and use Table templates
  529. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: How to debug corrupt OpenDocument files
  530. Publishing
  531. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  532. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  533. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  534. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  535. Configuration
  536. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  537. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  538. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  539. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  540. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  541. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  542. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  543. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  544. Sample configuration
  545. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  546. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  547. Working with source code
  548. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  549. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  550. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  551. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  552. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  553. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  554. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  555. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  556. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  557. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  558. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  559. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  560. Header arguments
  561. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  562. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  563. Using header arguments
  564. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  565. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  566. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  567. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  568. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  569. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  570. Specific header arguments
  571. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  572. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  573. be collected and handled
  574. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  575. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  576. directory for code block execution
  577. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  578. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  579. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  580. files during tangling
  581. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  582. code files
  583. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  584. code files
  585. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  586. expansion during tangling
  587. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  588. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  589. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  590. * noweb-sep:: String used to separate noweb references
  591. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  592. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  593. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  594. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  595. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  596. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  597. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  598. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  599. Miscellaneous
  600. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  601. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  602. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  603. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  604. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  605. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  606. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  607. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  608. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  609. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  610. * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files
  611. Interaction with other packages
  612. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  613. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  614. Hacking
  615. * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals
  616. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  617. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  618. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  619. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  620. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  621. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  622. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  623. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  624. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  625. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  626. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  627. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  628. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  629. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  630. MobileOrg
  631. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  632. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  633. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  634. @end detailmenu
  635. @end menu
  636. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  637. @chapter Introduction
  638. @cindex introduction
  639. @menu
  640. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  641. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  642. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  643. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  644. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  645. @end menu
  646. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  647. @section Summary
  648. @cindex summary
  649. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  650. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  651. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  652. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  653. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  654. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  655. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  656. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  657. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  658. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  659. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  660. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  661. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  662. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  663. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  664. linked web pages.
  665. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  666. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  667. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  668. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  669. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  670. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  671. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  672. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  673. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  674. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  675. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  676. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  677. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  678. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  679. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  680. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  681. ends, for example:
  682. @example
  683. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  684. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  685. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  686. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  687. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  688. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  689. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  690. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  691. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  692. @end example
  693. @cindex FAQ
  694. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  695. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  696. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  697. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  698. @cindex print edition
  699. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  700. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  701. Theory Ltd.}
  702. @page
  703. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  704. @section Installation
  705. @cindex installation
  706. @cindex XEmacs
  707. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  708. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  709. to @ref{Activation}. To see what version of Org (if any) is part of your
  710. Emacs distribution, type @kbd{M-x load-library RET org} and then @kbd{M-x
  711. org-version}.}
  712. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  713. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
  714. to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
  715. top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs
  716. binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
  717. directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have
  718. access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
  719. the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
  720. Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  721. @example
  722. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  723. @end example
  724. @noindent
  725. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  726. step for this directory:
  727. @example
  728. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  729. @end example
  730. @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
  731. @example
  732. make
  733. @end example
  734. @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
  735. all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
  736. administrator)
  737. @example
  738. make install
  739. @end example
  740. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  741. @file{install-info} program. The following should correctly install the Info
  742. files on most systems, please send a bug report if not@footnote{The output
  743. from install-info (if any) is also system dependent. In particular Debian
  744. and its derivatives use two different versions of install-info and you may
  745. see the message:
  746. @example
  747. This is not dpkg install-info anymore, but GNU install-info
  748. See the man page for ginstall-info for command line arguments
  749. @end example
  750. @noindent which can be safely ignored.}.
  751. @example
  752. make install-info
  753. @end example
  754. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  755. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  756. when Org mode starts.
  757. @lisp
  758. (require 'org-install)
  759. @end lisp
  760. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  761. @page
  762. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  763. @section Activation
  764. @cindex activation
  765. @cindex autoload
  766. @cindex global key bindings
  767. @cindex key bindings, global
  768. To make sure files with extension @file{.org} use Org mode, add the following
  769. line to your @file{.emacs} file.
  770. @lisp
  771. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  772. @end lisp
  773. @noindent Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on - this is the
  774. default in Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in
  775. Org buffer with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  776. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  777. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  778. global keys (i.e.@: anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  779. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  780. liking.
  781. @lisp
  782. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  783. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  784. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  785. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  786. @end lisp
  787. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  788. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  789. into Org mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  790. like this:
  791. @example
  792. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  793. @end example
  794. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  795. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  796. the file's name is. See also the variable
  797. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  798. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  799. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  800. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  801. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  802. @lisp
  803. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  804. @end lisp
  805. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  806. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  807. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  808. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  809. @section Feedback
  810. @cindex feedback
  811. @cindex bug reports
  812. @cindex maintainer
  813. @cindex author
  814. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  815. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  816. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  817. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  818. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  819. moderators have to do.}.
  820. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  821. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  822. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  823. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  824. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  825. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  826. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  827. @example
  828. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  829. @end example
  830. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  831. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  832. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  833. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  834. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  835. customisations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  836. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  837. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  838. @example
  839. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  840. @end example
  841. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  842. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as @code{emacs
  843. -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as shown below.
  844. @example
  845. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'
  846. ;; activate debugging
  847. (setq debug-on-error t
  848. debug-on-signal nil
  849. debug-on-quit nil)
  850. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  851. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  852. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp"))
  853. ;; activate org
  854. (require 'org-install)
  855. @end example
  856. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  857. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  858. about:
  859. @enumerate
  860. @item What exactly did you do?
  861. @item What did you expect to happen?
  862. @item What happened instead?
  863. @end enumerate
  864. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  865. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  866. @cindex backtrace of an error
  867. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  868. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  869. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  870. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  871. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  872. @enumerate
  873. @item
  874. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  875. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  876. To do this, use
  877. @example
  878. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  879. @end example
  880. @noindent
  881. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  882. menu.
  883. @item
  884. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  885. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  886. @item
  887. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  888. document the steps you take.
  889. @item
  890. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  891. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  892. attach it to your bug report.
  893. @end enumerate
  894. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  895. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  896. Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  897. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  898. @table @code
  899. @item TODO
  900. @itemx WAITING
  901. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  902. user-defined.
  903. @item boss
  904. @itemx ARCHIVE
  905. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  906. meaning are written with all capitals.
  907. @item Release
  908. @itemx PRIORITY
  909. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  910. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  911. @end table
  912. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  913. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_HTML} to start a @code{HTML}
  914. environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to enhance its
  915. readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org files@footnote{Easy
  916. templates insert lowercase keywords and Babel dynamically inserts
  917. @code{#+results}.}
  918. The manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for accessing a
  919. functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different functions,
  920. depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has a generic
  921. name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever possible,
  922. give the function that is internally called by the generic command. For
  923. example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will be
  924. listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it will
  925. be listed to call org-table-move-column-right.
  926. If you prefer, you can compile the manual without the command names by
  927. unsetting the flag @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  928. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  929. @chapter Document structure
  930. @cindex document structure
  931. @cindex structure of document
  932. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  933. edit the structure of the document.
  934. @menu
  935. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  936. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  937. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  938. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  939. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  940. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  941. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  942. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  943. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  944. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  945. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  946. @end menu
  947. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  948. @section Outlines
  949. @cindex outlines
  950. @cindex Outline mode
  951. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  952. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  953. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  954. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  955. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  956. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  957. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  958. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  959. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  960. @section Headlines
  961. @cindex headlines
  962. @cindex outline tree
  963. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  964. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  965. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  966. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  967. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  968. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  969. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  970. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  971. headings indented less then 30 stars.}. For example:
  972. @example
  973. * Top level headline
  974. ** Second level
  975. *** 3rd level
  976. some text
  977. *** 3rd level
  978. more text
  979. * Another top level headline
  980. @end example
  981. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  982. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  983. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  984. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  985. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  986. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  987. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  988. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  989. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  990. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  991. @section Visibility cycling
  992. @cindex cycling, visibility
  993. @cindex visibility cycling
  994. @cindex trees, visibility
  995. @cindex show hidden text
  996. @cindex hide text
  997. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  998. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  999. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1000. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1001. @cindex subtree cycling
  1002. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1003. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1004. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1005. @table @asis
  1006. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1007. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1008. @example
  1009. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1010. '-----------------------------------'
  1011. @end example
  1012. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1013. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1014. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1015. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1016. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1017. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1018. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1019. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1020. @cindex global visibility states
  1021. @cindex global cycling
  1022. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1023. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1024. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1025. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1026. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1027. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1028. @example
  1029. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1030. '--------------------------------------'
  1031. @end example
  1032. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1033. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1034. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1035. @cindex show all, command
  1036. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  1037. Show all, including drawers.
  1038. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1039. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1040. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1041. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1042. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1043. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1044. entire subtree of the parent.
  1045. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1046. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1047. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1048. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1049. buffer
  1050. @ifinfo
  1051. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1052. @end ifinfo
  1053. @ifnotinfo
  1054. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1055. @end ifnotinfo
  1056. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1057. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1058. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1059. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1060. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1061. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1062. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1063. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1064. @end table
  1065. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1066. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1067. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1068. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1069. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1070. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1071. OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1072. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1073. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1074. buffer:
  1075. @example
  1076. #+STARTUP: overview
  1077. #+STARTUP: content
  1078. #+STARTUP: showall
  1079. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1080. @end example
  1081. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1082. @noindent
  1083. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1084. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1085. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1086. @code{all}.
  1087. @table @asis
  1088. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1089. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.@: whatever is
  1090. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1091. entries.
  1092. @end table
  1093. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1094. @section Motion
  1095. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1096. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1097. @cindex headline navigation
  1098. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1099. @table @asis
  1100. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1101. Next heading.
  1102. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1103. Previous heading.
  1104. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1105. Next heading same level.
  1106. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1107. Previous heading same level.
  1108. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1109. Backward to higher level heading.
  1110. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1111. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1112. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1113. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1114. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1115. @example
  1116. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1117. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1118. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1119. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1120. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1121. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1122. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1123. u @r{One level up.}
  1124. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1125. q @r{Quit}
  1126. @end example
  1127. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1128. @noindent
  1129. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1130. @end table
  1131. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1132. @section Structure editing
  1133. @cindex structure editing
  1134. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1135. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1136. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1137. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1138. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1139. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1140. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1141. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1142. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1143. @table @asis
  1144. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1145. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1146. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1147. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1148. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1149. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1150. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1151. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1152. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1153. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1154. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.@:
  1155. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1156. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1157. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1158. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1159. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1160. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1161. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1162. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1163. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1164. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1165. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1166. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1167. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1168. subtree.
  1169. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1170. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1171. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1172. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1173. to the initial level.
  1174. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1175. Promote current heading by one level.
  1176. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1177. Demote current heading by one level.
  1178. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1179. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1180. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1181. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1182. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1183. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1184. level).
  1185. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1186. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1187. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1188. Kill subtree, i.e.@: remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1189. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1190. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1191. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1192. sequential subtrees.
  1193. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1194. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1195. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1196. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1197. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1198. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1199. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1200. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1201. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1202. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1203. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1204. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1205. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1206. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1207. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1208. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1209. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1210. folding.
  1211. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1212. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1213. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1214. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1215. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1216. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1217. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1218. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1219. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  1220. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1221. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1222. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1223. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1224. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1225. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1226. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1227. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1228. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1229. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1230. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1231. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1232. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1233. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1234. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1235. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1236. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1237. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1238. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1239. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1240. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1241. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1242. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1243. @end table
  1244. @cindex region, active
  1245. @cindex active region
  1246. @cindex transient mark mode
  1247. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1248. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1249. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1250. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1251. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1252. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1253. functionality.
  1254. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1255. @section Sparse trees
  1256. @cindex sparse trees
  1257. @cindex trees, sparse
  1258. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1259. @cindex occur, command
  1260. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1261. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1262. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1263. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1264. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1265. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1266. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1267. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1268. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1269. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1270. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1271. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1272. Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1273. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1274. @table @asis
  1275. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1276. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1277. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1278. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1279. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1280. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1281. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1282. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1283. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1284. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1285. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1286. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1287. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1288. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1289. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1290. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1291. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1292. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1293. @end table
  1294. @noindent
  1295. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1296. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1297. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1298. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1299. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1300. For example:
  1301. @lisp
  1302. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1303. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1304. @end lisp
  1305. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1306. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1307. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1308. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1309. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1310. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1311. @cindex visible text, printing
  1312. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1313. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1314. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1315. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1316. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1317. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1318. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1319. @section Plain lists
  1320. @cindex plain lists
  1321. @cindex lists, plain
  1322. @cindex lists, ordered
  1323. @cindex ordered lists
  1324. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1325. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1326. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1327. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1328. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1329. @itemize @bullet
  1330. @item
  1331. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1332. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1333. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1334. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1335. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1336. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1337. bullets.
  1338. @item
  1339. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1340. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1341. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1342. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1343. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1344. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1345. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1346. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1347. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1348. list to start with a different value (e.g.@: 20), start the text of the item
  1349. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1350. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1351. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1352. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1353. @item
  1354. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1355. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1356. description.
  1357. @end itemize
  1358. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1359. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1360. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1361. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1362. than its bullet/number.
  1363. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1364. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1365. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1366. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1367. that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1368. @example
  1369. @group
  1370. ** Lord of the Rings
  1371. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1372. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1373. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1374. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1375. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1376. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1377. - on DVD only
  1378. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1379. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1380. Important actors in this film are:
  1381. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1382. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1383. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1384. @end group
  1385. @end example
  1386. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1387. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1388. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1389. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1390. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1391. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1392. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1393. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1394. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1395. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1396. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1397. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1398. indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1399. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1400. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1401. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1402. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1403. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1404. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1405. to disable them individually.
  1406. @table @asis
  1407. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1408. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1409. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1410. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1411. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1412. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1413. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1414. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1415. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1416. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1417. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1418. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1419. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1420. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1421. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1422. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1423. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1424. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1425. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1426. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1427. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1428. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1429. one.
  1430. @end table
  1431. @table @kbd
  1432. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1433. @item M-S-RET
  1434. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1435. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1436. @item S-up
  1437. @itemx S-down
  1438. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1439. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1440. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1441. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1442. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1443. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1444. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1445. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1446. similar effect.
  1447. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1448. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1449. @item M-up
  1450. @itemx M-down
  1451. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1452. @code{org-liste-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1453. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1454. is automatic.
  1455. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1456. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1457. @item M-left
  1458. @itemx M-right
  1459. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1460. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1461. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1462. @item M-S-left
  1463. @itemx M-S-right
  1464. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1465. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1466. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1467. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1468. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1469. motion or so.
  1470. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1471. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1472. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1473. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1474. @kindex C-c C-c
  1475. @item C-c C-c
  1476. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1477. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1478. consistency in the whole list.
  1479. @kindex C-c -
  1480. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1481. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1482. @item C-c -
  1483. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1484. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1485. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1486. and its position@footnote{See @code{bullet} rule in
  1487. @code{org-list-automatic-rules} for more information.}. With a numeric
  1488. prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an
  1489. active region when calling this, selected text will be changed into an item.
  1490. With a prefix argument, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1491. first line already was a list item, any item marker will be removed from the
  1492. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1493. converted into a list item.
  1494. @kindex C-c *
  1495. @item C-c *
  1496. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1497. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1498. @kindex C-c C-*
  1499. @item C-c C-*
  1500. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1501. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1502. (resp. checked).
  1503. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1504. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1505. @item S-left/right
  1506. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1507. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1508. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1509. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1510. @kindex C-c ^
  1511. @item C-c ^
  1512. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1513. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1514. @end table
  1515. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1516. @section Drawers
  1517. @cindex drawers
  1518. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1519. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1520. @vindex org-drawers
  1521. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  1522. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1523. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1524. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1525. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1526. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define additional drawers on a
  1527. per-file basis with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN STATE}}. Drawers
  1528. look like this:
  1529. @example
  1530. ** This is a headline
  1531. Still outside the drawer
  1532. :DRAWERNAME:
  1533. This is inside the drawer.
  1534. :END:
  1535. After the drawer.
  1536. @end example
  1537. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1538. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1539. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1540. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add a
  1541. property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1542. keywords is also possible using @key{M-TAB}.
  1543. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1544. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1545. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1546. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1547. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1548. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1549. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1550. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1551. @table @kbd
  1552. @kindex C-c C-z
  1553. @item C-c C-z
  1554. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1555. @end table
  1556. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1557. @section Blocks
  1558. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1559. @cindex blocks, folding
  1560. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1561. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1562. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1563. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1564. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1565. or on a per-file basis by using
  1566. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1567. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1568. @example
  1569. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1570. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1571. @end example
  1572. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1573. @section Footnotes
  1574. @cindex footnotes
  1575. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1576. @file{footnote.el} package, Org mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1577. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1578. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e.@: a footnote is
  1579. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1580. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1581. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1582. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1583. @example
  1584. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1585. ...
  1586. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1587. @end example
  1588. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1589. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1590. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1591. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1592. @LaTeX{}}). Here are the valid references:
  1593. @table @code
  1594. @item [1]
  1595. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1596. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1597. snippet.
  1598. @item [fn:name]
  1599. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1600. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1601. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1602. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1603. reference point.
  1604. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1605. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1606. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1607. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1608. @end table
  1609. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1610. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1611. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1612. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1613. for details.
  1614. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1615. @table @kbd
  1616. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1617. @item C-c C-x f
  1618. The footnote action command.
  1619. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1620. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1621. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1622. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1623. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1624. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1625. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1626. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1627. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1628. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1629. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1630. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1631. options is offered:
  1632. @example
  1633. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1634. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1635. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1636. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1637. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1638. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1639. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1640. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1641. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1642. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1643. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1644. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1645. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1646. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g.@: sending}
  1647. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1648. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1649. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1650. @r{to it.}
  1651. @end example
  1652. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1653. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1654. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1655. deletion.
  1656. @kindex C-c C-c
  1657. @item C-c C-c
  1658. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1659. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1660. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1661. @kindex C-c C-o
  1662. @kindex mouse-1
  1663. @kindex mouse-2
  1664. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1665. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1666. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1667. @end table
  1668. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1669. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1670. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1671. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1672. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1673. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1674. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1675. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1676. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1677. @lisp
  1678. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1679. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1680. @end lisp
  1681. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1682. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1683. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1684. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1685. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1686. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1687. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1688. item.
  1689. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1690. @chapter Tables
  1691. @cindex tables
  1692. @cindex editing tables
  1693. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1694. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1695. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1696. @menu
  1697. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1698. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1699. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1700. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1701. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1702. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1703. @end menu
  1704. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1705. @section The built-in table editor
  1706. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1707. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1708. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1709. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1710. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1711. might look like this:
  1712. @example
  1713. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1714. |-------+-------+-----|
  1715. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1716. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1717. @end example
  1718. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1719. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1720. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1721. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1722. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1723. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1724. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1725. create the above table, you would only type
  1726. @example
  1727. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1728. |-
  1729. @end example
  1730. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1731. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1732. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1733. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1734. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1735. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1736. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1737. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1738. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1739. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1740. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1741. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1742. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1743. @table @kbd
  1744. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1745. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1746. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1747. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1748. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1749. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1750. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1751. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1752. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1753. @*
  1754. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1755. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1756. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1757. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1758. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1759. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1760. @c
  1761. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1762. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1763. necessary.
  1764. @c
  1765. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1766. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1767. @c
  1768. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1769. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1770. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1771. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1772. @c
  1773. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1774. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1775. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1776. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1777. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1778. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1779. Move the current column left/right.
  1780. @c
  1781. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1782. Kill the current column.
  1783. @c
  1784. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1785. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1786. @c
  1787. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1788. Move the current row up/down.
  1789. @c
  1790. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1791. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1792. @c
  1793. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1794. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1795. created below the current one.
  1796. @c
  1797. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1798. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1799. is created above the current line.
  1800. @c
  1801. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1802. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1803. below that line.
  1804. @c
  1805. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1806. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1807. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1808. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1809. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1810. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1811. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1812. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1813. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1814. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1815. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1816. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1817. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1818. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1819. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1820. @c
  1821. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1822. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1823. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1824. @c
  1825. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1826. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1827. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1828. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1829. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1830. lines.
  1831. @c
  1832. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1833. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1834. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1835. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1836. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1837. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1838. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1839. above.
  1840. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1841. @cindex formula, in tables
  1842. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1843. @cindex region, active
  1844. @cindex active region
  1845. @cindex transient mark mode
  1846. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1847. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1848. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1849. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1850. @c
  1851. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1852. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1853. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1854. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1855. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1856. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1857. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1858. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1859. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1860. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1861. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1862. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1863. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1864. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1865. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1866. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1867. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1868. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1869. @c
  1870. @item M-x org-table-import
  1871. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1872. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1873. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1874. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1875. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1876. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1877. separator.
  1878. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1879. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1880. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1881. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1882. @c
  1883. @item M-x org-table-export
  1884. @findex org-table-export
  1885. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1886. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1887. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1888. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1889. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1890. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1891. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1892. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1893. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1894. detailed description.
  1895. @end table
  1896. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1897. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1898. it off with
  1899. @lisp
  1900. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1901. @end lisp
  1902. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1903. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1904. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1905. @section Column width and alignment
  1906. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1907. @cindex alignment in tables
  1908. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1909. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1910. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1911. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1912. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1913. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1914. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1915. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1916. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1917. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1918. @example
  1919. @group
  1920. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1921. | | | | | <6> |
  1922. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1923. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1924. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1925. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1926. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1927. @end group
  1928. @end example
  1929. @noindent
  1930. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1931. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1932. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1933. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1934. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1935. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1936. C-c}.
  1937. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1938. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1939. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1940. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1941. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1942. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1943. on a per-file basis with:
  1944. @example
  1945. #+STARTUP: align
  1946. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1947. @end example
  1948. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1949. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  1950. @samp{c}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1951. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  1952. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1953. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1954. automatically when exporting the document.
  1955. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1956. @section Column groups
  1957. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1958. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1959. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1960. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1961. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1962. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1963. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1964. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1965. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} to make a column
  1966. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1967. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1968. @example
  1969. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1970. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1971. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1972. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1973. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1974. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1975. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1976. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1977. @end example
  1978. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1979. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1980. @example
  1981. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1982. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1983. | / | < | | | < | |
  1984. @end example
  1985. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  1986. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  1987. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1988. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1989. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  1990. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  1991. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  1992. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1993. example in Message mode, use
  1994. @lisp
  1995. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1996. @end lisp
  1997. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  1998. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  1999. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2000. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2001. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2002. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  2003. @section The spreadsheet
  2004. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2005. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2006. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2007. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2008. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2009. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2010. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2011. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2012. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2013. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2014. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2015. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2016. @menu
  2017. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2018. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2019. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2020. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2021. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2022. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2023. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2024. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2025. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2026. @end menu
  2027. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  2028. @subsection References
  2029. @cindex references
  2030. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2031. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2032. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2033. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2034. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2035. @subsubheading Field references
  2036. @cindex field references
  2037. @cindex references, to fields
  2038. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2039. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2040. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2041. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2042. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2043. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2044. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  2045. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2046. representation that looks like this:
  2047. @example
  2048. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2049. @end example
  2050. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2051. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e.@: the
  2052. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2053. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2054. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2055. column from the right.
  2056. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2057. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2058. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2059. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2060. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2061. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2062. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2063. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2064. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2065. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2066. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc@. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2067. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2068. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2069. after the third hline in the table.
  2070. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2071. i.e. to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2072. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2073. implied.
  2074. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2075. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2076. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2077. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2078. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2079. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2080. Here are a few examples:
  2081. @example
  2082. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2083. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2084. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2085. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2086. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2087. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2088. @end example
  2089. @subsubheading Range references
  2090. @cindex range references
  2091. @cindex references, to ranges
  2092. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2093. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2094. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2095. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2096. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2097. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2098. @example
  2099. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2100. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2101. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2102. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2103. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2104. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2105. @end example
  2106. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2107. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2108. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2109. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2110. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2111. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2112. @cindex field coordinates
  2113. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2114. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2115. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2116. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2117. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2118. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2119. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2120. @example
  2121. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2122. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2123. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2124. @end example
  2125. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2126. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2127. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2128. number of rows.
  2129. @subsubheading Named references
  2130. @cindex named references
  2131. @cindex references, named
  2132. @cindex name, of column or field
  2133. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2134. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2135. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2136. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2137. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2138. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2139. line like
  2140. @example
  2141. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2142. @end example
  2143. @noindent
  2144. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2145. @pindex constants.el
  2146. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2147. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2148. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2149. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2150. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2151. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2152. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2153. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2154. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2155. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2156. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2157. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2158. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2159. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2160. numbers.
  2161. @subsubheading Remote references
  2162. @cindex remote references
  2163. @cindex references, remote
  2164. @cindex references, to a different table
  2165. @cindex name, of column or field
  2166. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2167. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2168. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2169. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2170. @example
  2171. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2172. @end example
  2173. @noindent
  2174. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2175. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2176. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2177. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2178. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2179. referenced table.
  2180. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2181. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2182. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2183. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2184. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2185. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2186. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2187. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2188. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2189. Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc, GNU
  2190. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2191. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2192. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2193. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2194. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2195. @cindex format specifier
  2196. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2197. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2198. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2199. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2200. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2201. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2202. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2203. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2204. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2205. @example
  2206. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2207. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2208. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2209. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2210. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2211. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2212. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2213. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  2214. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  2215. L @r{literal}
  2216. @end example
  2217. @noindent
  2218. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2219. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2220. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2221. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2222. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2223. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2224. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2225. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2226. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2227. A few examples:
  2228. @example
  2229. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2230. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2231. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2232. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2233. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2234. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2235. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2236. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2237. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  2238. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2239. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2240. @end example
  2241. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2242. @example
  2243. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{"teen" if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  2244. @end example
  2245. Note that you can also use two org-specific flags @code{T} and @code{t} for
  2246. durations computations @ref{Durations and time values}.
  2247. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2248. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2249. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2250. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful for
  2251. string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is not
  2252. enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening
  2253. parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should
  2254. return either a string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you
  2255. can specify modes and a printf format after a semicolon. With Emacs Lisp
  2256. forms, you need to be conscious about the way field references are
  2257. interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be interpolated as
  2258. a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If you provide the
  2259. @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers (non-number
  2260. fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If
  2261. you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally,
  2262. without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string
  2263. by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes,
  2264. like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  2265. embed them in list or vector syntax. Here are a few examples---note how the
  2266. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp:
  2267. @example
  2268. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2269. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2270. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2271. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2272. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2273. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2274. @end example
  2275. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2276. @subsection Durations and time values
  2277. @cindex Duration, computing
  2278. @cindex Time, computing
  2279. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2280. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2281. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2282. @example
  2283. @group
  2284. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2285. |---------+----------+----------|
  2286. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2287. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2288. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2289. @end group
  2290. @end example
  2291. Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2292. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2293. as @code{[HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2294. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the variable
  2295. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2296. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2297. example above).
  2298. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2299. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2300. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2301. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2302. @cindex field formula
  2303. @cindex range formula
  2304. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2305. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2306. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2307. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2308. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2309. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2310. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2311. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2312. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2313. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2314. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2315. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2316. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2317. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2318. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2319. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2320. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2321. of cause not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2322. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2323. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2324. command
  2325. @table @kbd
  2326. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2327. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2328. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2329. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2330. @end table
  2331. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2332. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2333. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2334. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2335. directly.
  2336. @table @code
  2337. @item $2=
  2338. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2339. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2340. @item @@3=
  2341. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2342. the last row.
  2343. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2344. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2345. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2346. @item $name=
  2347. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2348. @end table
  2349. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2350. @subsection Column formulas
  2351. @cindex column formula
  2352. @cindex formula, for table column
  2353. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2354. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2355. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2356. hlines, everything before the first such line is considered part of the table
  2357. @emph{header} and will not be modified by column formulas. (ii) Fields that
  2358. already get a value from a field/range formula will be left alone by column
  2359. formulas. These conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2360. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2361. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2362. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2363. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2364. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2365. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2366. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2367. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2368. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2369. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2370. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2371. following command:
  2372. @table @kbd
  2373. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2374. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2375. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2376. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2377. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g.@: @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2378. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2379. @end table
  2380. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2381. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2382. @cindex formula editing
  2383. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2384. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2385. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2386. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2387. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2388. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2389. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2390. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2391. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2392. @table @kbd
  2393. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2394. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2395. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2396. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2397. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2398. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2399. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2400. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2401. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2402. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2403. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2404. @kindex C-c @}
  2405. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2406. @item C-c @}
  2407. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2408. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2409. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2410. @kindex C-c @{
  2411. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2412. @item C-c @{
  2413. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2414. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2415. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2416. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2417. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2418. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2419. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2420. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2421. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2422. @table @kbd
  2423. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2424. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2425. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2426. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2427. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2428. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2429. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2430. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2431. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2432. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2433. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2434. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2435. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2436. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2437. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2438. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2439. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2440. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2441. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2442. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2443. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2444. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2445. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2446. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2447. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2448. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2449. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2450. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2451. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2452. down.
  2453. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2454. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2455. @kindex C-c @}
  2456. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2457. @item C-c @}
  2458. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2459. @end table
  2460. @end table
  2461. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2462. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2463. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2464. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2465. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2466. @kindex C-c C-c
  2467. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2468. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2469. recalculation commands in the table.
  2470. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2471. @cindex formula debugging
  2472. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2473. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2474. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2475. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2476. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2477. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2478. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2479. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2480. @subsection Updating the table
  2481. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2482. @cindex updating, table
  2483. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2484. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2485. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2486. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2487. following commands:
  2488. @table @kbd
  2489. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2490. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2491. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2492. @c
  2493. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2494. @item C-u C-c *
  2495. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2496. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2497. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2498. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2499. @c
  2500. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2501. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2502. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2503. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2504. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2505. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2506. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2507. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2508. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2509. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2510. dependencies.
  2511. @end table
  2512. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2513. @subsection Advanced features
  2514. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2515. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2516. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2517. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2518. special marking characters.
  2519. @table @kbd
  2520. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2521. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2522. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2523. change all marks in the region.
  2524. @end table
  2525. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2526. makes use of these features:
  2527. @example
  2528. @group
  2529. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2530. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2531. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2532. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2533. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2534. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2535. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2536. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2537. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2538. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2539. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2540. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2541. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2542. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2543. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2544. @end group
  2545. @end example
  2546. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2547. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2548. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2549. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2550. empty first field.
  2551. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2552. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2553. @table @samp
  2554. @item !
  2555. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2556. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2557. @item ^
  2558. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2559. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2560. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2561. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2562. @item _
  2563. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2564. @emph{below}.
  2565. @item $
  2566. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2567. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2568. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2569. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2570. a per-table basis.
  2571. @item #
  2572. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2573. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2574. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2575. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2576. @item *
  2577. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2578. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2579. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2580. @item
  2581. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2582. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2583. or @samp{*}.
  2584. @item /
  2585. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2586. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2587. @end table
  2588. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2589. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2590. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2591. functions.
  2592. @example
  2593. @group
  2594. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2595. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2596. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2597. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2598. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2599. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2600. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2601. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2602. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2603. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2604. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2605. @end group
  2606. @end example
  2607. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2608. @section Org-Plot
  2609. @cindex graph, in tables
  2610. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2611. @cindex #+PLOT
  2612. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2613. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2614. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2615. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2616. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2617. @example
  2618. @group
  2619. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2620. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2621. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2622. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2623. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2624. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2625. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2626. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2627. @end group
  2628. @end example
  2629. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2630. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2631. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2632. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2633. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2634. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2635. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2636. @table @code
  2637. @item set
  2638. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2639. @item title
  2640. Specify the title of the plot.
  2641. @item ind
  2642. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2643. @item deps
  2644. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2645. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2646. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2647. column).
  2648. @item type
  2649. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2650. @item with
  2651. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2652. (e.g.@: @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2653. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2654. @item file
  2655. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2656. @item labels
  2657. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2658. if they exist).
  2659. @item line
  2660. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2661. @item map
  2662. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2663. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2664. @item timefmt
  2665. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2666. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2667. @item script
  2668. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2669. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2670. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2671. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2672. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2673. the data file.
  2674. @end table
  2675. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2676. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2677. @cindex hyperlinks
  2678. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2679. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2680. @menu
  2681. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2682. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2683. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2684. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2685. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2686. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2687. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2688. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2689. @end menu
  2690. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2691. @section Link format
  2692. @cindex link format
  2693. @cindex format, of links
  2694. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2695. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2696. @example
  2697. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2698. @end example
  2699. @noindent
  2700. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2701. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2702. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2703. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2704. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2705. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2706. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2707. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2708. cursor on the link.
  2709. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2710. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2711. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2712. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2713. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2714. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2715. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2716. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2717. @section Internal links
  2718. @cindex internal links
  2719. @cindex links, internal
  2720. @cindex targets, for links
  2721. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2722. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2723. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2724. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2725. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2726. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2727. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2728. in a file.
  2729. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2730. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2731. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2732. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2733. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2734. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2735. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2736. comment line. For example
  2737. @example
  2738. # <<My Target>>
  2739. @end example
  2740. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2741. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2742. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2743. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2744. first headline.}.
  2745. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2746. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2747. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2748. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2749. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2750. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2751. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2752. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2753. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2754. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2755. earlier.
  2756. @menu
  2757. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2758. @end menu
  2759. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2760. @subsection Radio targets
  2761. @cindex radio targets
  2762. @cindex targets, radio
  2763. @cindex links, radio targets
  2764. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2765. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2766. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2767. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2768. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2769. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2770. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2771. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2772. cursor on or at a target.
  2773. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2774. @section External links
  2775. @cindex links, external
  2776. @cindex external links
  2777. @cindex links, external
  2778. @cindex Gnus links
  2779. @cindex BBDB links
  2780. @cindex IRC links
  2781. @cindex URL links
  2782. @cindex file links
  2783. @cindex VM links
  2784. @cindex RMAIL links
  2785. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2786. @cindex MH-E links
  2787. @cindex USENET links
  2788. @cindex SHELL links
  2789. @cindex Info links
  2790. @cindex Elisp links
  2791. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2792. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2793. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2794. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2795. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2796. @example
  2797. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2798. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2799. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2800. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2801. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2802. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2803. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2804. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2805. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  2806. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2807. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  2808. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  2809. the variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  2810. is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  2811. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  2812. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  2813. will be queried to create it.}
  2814. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2815. file+sys:/path/to/file @r{open via OS, like double-click}
  2816. file+emacs:/path/to/file @r{force opening by Emacs}
  2817. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  2818. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2819. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2820. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2821. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2822. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2823. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2824. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  2825. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  2826. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2827. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2828. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2829. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2830. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2831. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2832. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2833. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2834. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2835. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2836. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  2837. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2838. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2839. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2840. @end example
  2841. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2842. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2843. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2844. format}), for example:
  2845. @example
  2846. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2847. @end example
  2848. @noindent
  2849. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2850. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2851. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2852. image,
  2853. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2854. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2855. @cindex plain text external links
  2856. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2857. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2858. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2859. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2860. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2861. @section Handling links
  2862. @cindex links, handling
  2863. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2864. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2865. @table @kbd
  2866. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2867. @cindex storing links
  2868. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2869. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2870. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2871. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2872. buffer:
  2873. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  2874. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2875. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2876. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  2877. removed from the link and result in a wrong link -- you should avoid putting
  2878. timestamp in the headline.}.
  2879. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2880. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2881. @cindex property, ID
  2882. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2883. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2884. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2885. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2886. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2887. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2888. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2889. to use.
  2890. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2891. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2892. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2893. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2894. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2895. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2896. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2897. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2898. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2899. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2900. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2901. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2902. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2903. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2904. @b{Other files}@*
  2905. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2906. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2907. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2908. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2909. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2910. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2911. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2912. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2913. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2914. entry referenced by the current line.
  2915. @c
  2916. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  2917. @cindex link completion
  2918. @cindex completion, of links
  2919. @cindex inserting links
  2920. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2921. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2922. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2923. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2924. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2925. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2926. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2927. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2928. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2929. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2930. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2931. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2932. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2933. becomes the default description.
  2934. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2935. All links stored during the
  2936. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2937. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2938. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2939. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2940. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2941. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2942. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2943. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2944. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2945. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2946. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2947. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  2948. @cindex file name completion
  2949. @cindex completion, of file names
  2950. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2951. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2952. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2953. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2954. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2955. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2956. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2957. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2958. @c
  2959. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2960. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2961. link and description parts of the link.
  2962. @c
  2963. @cindex following links
  2964. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  2965. @vindex org-file-apps
  2966. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  2967. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2968. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2969. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2970. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2971. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2972. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2973. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2974. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2975. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  2976. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  2977. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  2978. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  2979. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  2980. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  2981. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  2982. @orgkey @key{RET}
  2983. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  2984. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  2985. the link at point.
  2986. @c
  2987. @kindex mouse-2
  2988. @kindex mouse-1
  2989. @item mouse-2
  2990. @itemx mouse-1
  2991. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  2992. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  2993. @c
  2994. @kindex mouse-3
  2995. @item mouse-3
  2996. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  2997. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  2998. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  2999. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3000. @c
  3001. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3002. @cindex inlining images
  3003. @cindex images, inlining
  3004. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3005. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3006. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3007. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3008. images that have no description part in the link, i.e.@: images that will also
  3009. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3010. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3011. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3012. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3013. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  3014. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3015. @cindex mark ring
  3016. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3017. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3018. @c
  3019. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3020. @cindex links, returning to
  3021. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3022. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3023. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3024. previously recorded positions.
  3025. @c
  3026. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3027. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3028. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3029. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3030. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3031. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3032. @lisp
  3033. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3034. (lambda ()
  3035. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3036. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3037. @end lisp
  3038. @end table
  3039. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  3040. @section Using links outside Org
  3041. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3042. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3043. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3044. yourself):
  3045. @lisp
  3046. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3047. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3048. @end lisp
  3049. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  3050. @section Link abbreviations
  3051. @cindex link abbreviations
  3052. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3053. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3054. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3055. abbreviated link looks like this
  3056. @example
  3057. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3058. @end example
  3059. @noindent
  3060. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3061. where the tag is optional.
  3062. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3063. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3064. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3065. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3066. @smalllisp
  3067. @group
  3068. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3069. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3070. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3071. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3072. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3073. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3074. @end group
  3075. @end smalllisp
  3076. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3077. replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
  3078. in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will
  3079. be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3080. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3081. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3082. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3083. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3084. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3085. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3086. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3087. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3088. can define them in the file with
  3089. @cindex #+LINK
  3090. @example
  3091. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3092. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3093. @end example
  3094. @noindent
  3095. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3096. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3097. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g.@: completion)
  3098. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3099. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3100. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3101. @section Search options in file links
  3102. @cindex search option in file links
  3103. @cindex file links, searching
  3104. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3105. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3106. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3107. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3108. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3109. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3110. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3111. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3112. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3113. link, together with an explanation:
  3114. @example
  3115. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3116. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3117. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3118. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3119. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3120. @end example
  3121. @table @code
  3122. @item 255
  3123. Jump to line 255.
  3124. @item My Target
  3125. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3126. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3127. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3128. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3129. the linked file.
  3130. @item *My Target
  3131. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3132. @item #my-custom-id
  3133. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3134. @item /regexp/
  3135. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3136. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3137. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3138. sparse tree with the matches.
  3139. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3140. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3141. @end table
  3142. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3143. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3144. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3145. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3146. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3147. @section Custom Searches
  3148. @cindex custom search strings
  3149. @cindex search strings, custom
  3150. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3151. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3152. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3153. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3154. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3155. citation key.
  3156. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3157. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3158. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3159. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3160. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3161. to be added to the hook variables
  3162. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3163. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3164. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3165. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3166. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3167. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3168. @chapter TODO items
  3169. @cindex TODO items
  3170. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3171. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3172. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3173. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3174. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3175. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3176. item emerged is always present.
  3177. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3178. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3179. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3180. @menu
  3181. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3182. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3183. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3184. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3185. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3186. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3187. @end menu
  3188. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3189. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3190. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3191. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3192. @example
  3193. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3194. @end example
  3195. @noindent
  3196. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3197. @table @kbd
  3198. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3199. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3200. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3201. @example
  3202. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3203. '--------------------------------'
  3204. @end example
  3205. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3206. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3207. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3208. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  3209. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  3210. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  3211. more information.
  3212. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3213. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3214. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3215. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3216. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3217. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3218. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3219. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3220. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3221. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-key}
  3222. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3223. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3224. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3225. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3226. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3227. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3228. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3229. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3230. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3231. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3232. both un-done and done.
  3233. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3234. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3235. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3236. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3237. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3238. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3239. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3240. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3241. @end table
  3242. @noindent
  3243. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3244. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3245. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3246. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3247. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3248. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3249. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3250. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3251. DONE. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3252. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3253. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3254. files.
  3255. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3256. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3257. @menu
  3258. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3259. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3260. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3261. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3262. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3263. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3264. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3265. @end menu
  3266. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3267. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3268. @cindex TODO workflow
  3269. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3270. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3271. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3272. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3273. buffer.}:
  3274. @lisp
  3275. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3276. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3277. @end lisp
  3278. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3279. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3280. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3281. state.
  3282. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3283. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3284. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  3285. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3286. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  3287. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3288. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3289. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3290. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3291. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3292. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3293. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3294. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3295. @cindex TODO types
  3296. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3297. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3298. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3299. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3300. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3301. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3302. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3303. be set up like this:
  3304. @lisp
  3305. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3306. @end lisp
  3307. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3308. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3309. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org mode supports this style by adapting
  3310. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3311. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3312. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3313. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3314. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3315. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3316. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3317. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3318. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3319. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3320. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3321. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3322. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3323. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3324. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3325. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3326. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3327. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3328. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3329. like this:
  3330. @lisp
  3331. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3332. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3333. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3334. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3335. @end lisp
  3336. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3337. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3338. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3339. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3340. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3341. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3342. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3343. @table @kbd
  3344. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3345. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3346. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3347. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3348. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3349. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3350. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3351. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3352. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3353. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3354. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3355. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3356. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3357. @item S-@key{right}
  3358. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3359. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3360. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3361. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3362. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3363. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3364. @end table
  3365. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3366. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3367. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3368. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3369. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section
  3370. key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3371. @lisp
  3372. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3373. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3374. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3375. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3376. @end lisp
  3377. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3378. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3379. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3380. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3381. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3382. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3383. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3384. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3385. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3386. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3387. @cindex keyword options
  3388. @cindex per-file keywords
  3389. @cindex #+TODO
  3390. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3391. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3392. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3393. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3394. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3395. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3396. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3397. file:
  3398. @example
  3399. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3400. @end example
  3401. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3402. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3403. @example
  3404. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3405. @end example
  3406. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3407. @example
  3408. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3409. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3410. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3411. @end example
  3412. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3413. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3414. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3415. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3416. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3417. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3418. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3419. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3420. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3421. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3422. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3423. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3424. for the current buffer.}.
  3425. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3426. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3427. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3428. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3429. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3430. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3431. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3432. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3433. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3434. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3435. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3436. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3437. @lisp
  3438. @group
  3439. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3440. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3441. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3442. @end group
  3443. @end lisp
  3444. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3445. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3446. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3447. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3448. foreground or a background color.
  3449. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3450. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3451. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3452. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3453. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3454. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3455. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3456. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3457. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3458. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3459. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3460. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3461. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3462. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3463. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3464. example:
  3465. @example
  3466. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3467. ** DONE one
  3468. ** TODO two
  3469. * Parent
  3470. :PROPERTIES:
  3471. :ORDERED: t
  3472. :END:
  3473. ** TODO a
  3474. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3475. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3476. @end example
  3477. @table @kbd
  3478. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3479. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3480. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3481. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3482. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3483. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3484. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3485. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3486. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3487. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3488. @end table
  3489. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3490. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3491. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3492. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3493. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3494. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3495. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3496. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3497. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3498. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3499. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3500. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3501. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3502. @page
  3503. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3504. @section Progress logging
  3505. @cindex progress logging
  3506. @cindex logging, of progress
  3507. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3508. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3509. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3510. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3511. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3512. work time}.
  3513. @menu
  3514. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3515. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3516. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3517. @end menu
  3518. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3519. @subsection Closing items
  3520. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3521. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3522. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3523. @lisp
  3524. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3525. @end lisp
  3526. @noindent
  3527. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3528. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3529. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3530. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3531. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3532. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3533. @lisp
  3534. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3535. @end lisp
  3536. @noindent
  3537. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3538. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3539. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3540. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3541. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3542. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3543. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3544. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3545. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3546. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3547. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3548. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3549. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3550. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3551. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3552. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3553. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3554. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3555. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3556. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the
  3557. recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3558. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3559. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3560. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3561. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3562. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3563. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3564. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3565. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3566. setting
  3567. @lisp
  3568. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3569. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3570. @end lisp
  3571. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3572. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3573. @noindent
  3574. @vindex org-log-done
  3575. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3576. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3577. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3578. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3579. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3580. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3581. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3582. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3583. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3584. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3585. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3586. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3587. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3588. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3589. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3590. configured.
  3591. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3592. to a buffer:
  3593. @example
  3594. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3595. @end example
  3596. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3597. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3598. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3599. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3600. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3601. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3602. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3603. @example
  3604. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3605. :PROPERTIES:
  3606. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3607. :END:
  3608. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3609. :PROPERTIES:
  3610. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3611. :END:
  3612. * TODO No logging at all
  3613. :PROPERTIES:
  3614. :LOGGING: nil
  3615. :END:
  3616. @end example
  3617. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3618. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3619. @cindex habits
  3620. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3621. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3622. @enumerate
  3623. @item
  3624. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3625. @code{org-modules}.
  3626. @item
  3627. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3628. @item
  3629. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3630. @item
  3631. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3632. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3633. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3634. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3635. @item
  3636. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3637. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3638. three days, but at most every two days.
  3639. @item
  3640. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3641. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it is not
  3642. enabled it is not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3643. meaningless.
  3644. @end enumerate
  3645. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3646. actual habit with some history:
  3647. @example
  3648. ** TODO Shave
  3649. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3650. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3651. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3652. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3653. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3654. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3655. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3656. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3657. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3658. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3659. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3660. :PROPERTIES:
  3661. :STYLE: habit
  3662. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3663. :END:
  3664. @end example
  3665. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3666. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3667. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3668. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3669. after four days have elapsed.
  3670. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3671. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3672. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3673. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3674. @table @code
  3675. @item Blue
  3676. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3677. @item Green
  3678. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3679. @item Yellow
  3680. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3681. @item Red
  3682. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3683. @end table
  3684. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3685. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3686. the current day falls in the graph.
  3687. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3688. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3689. @table @code
  3690. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3691. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3692. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3693. titles brief and to the point.
  3694. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3695. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3696. @item org-habit-following-days
  3697. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3698. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3699. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3700. default.
  3701. @end table
  3702. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3703. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3704. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3705. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3706. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3707. @section Priorities
  3708. @cindex priorities
  3709. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3710. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3711. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3712. @example
  3713. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3714. @end example
  3715. @noindent
  3716. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3717. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3718. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3719. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3720. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3721. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3722. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3723. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3724. items.
  3725. @table @kbd
  3726. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3727. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3728. @findex org-priority
  3729. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3730. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3731. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3732. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3733. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3734. @c
  3735. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3736. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3737. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3738. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3739. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3740. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3741. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3742. @end table
  3743. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3744. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3745. @vindex org-default-priority
  3746. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3747. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3748. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3749. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3750. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3751. priority):
  3752. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3753. @example
  3754. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3755. @end example
  3756. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3757. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3758. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3759. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3760. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3761. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3762. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3763. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3764. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3765. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3766. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3767. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3768. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3769. @example
  3770. * Organize Party [33%]
  3771. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3772. *** TODO Peter
  3773. *** DONE Sarah
  3774. ** TODO Buy food
  3775. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3776. @end example
  3777. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3778. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3779. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3780. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3781. this issue.
  3782. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3783. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3784. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3785. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3786. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3787. property.
  3788. @example
  3789. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3790. :PROPERTIES:
  3791. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3792. :END:
  3793. @end example
  3794. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3795. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3796. @example
  3797. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3798. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3799. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3800. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3801. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3802. @end example
  3803. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3804. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3805. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3806. @section Checkboxes
  3807. @cindex checkboxes
  3808. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3809. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3810. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3811. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3812. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3813. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3814. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3815. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3816. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3817. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3818. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3819. @example
  3820. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3821. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3822. - [ ] Peter
  3823. - [X] Sarah
  3824. - [ ] Sam
  3825. - [X] order food
  3826. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3827. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3828. @end example
  3829. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3830. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3831. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3832. checked.
  3833. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3834. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3835. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3836. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3837. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3838. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3839. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3840. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3841. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3842. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3843. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3844. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3845. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3846. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3847. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3848. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3849. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3850. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3851. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3852. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3853. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3854. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3855. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3856. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3857. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3858. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3859. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3860. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3861. @table @kbd
  3862. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3863. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
  3864. With a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  3865. one@footnote{`C-u C-c C-c' on the @emph{first} item of a list with no checkbox
  3866. will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is
  3867. considered to be an intermediate state.
  3868. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3869. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3870. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3871. intermediate state.
  3872. @itemize @minus
  3873. @item
  3874. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3875. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3876. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3877. @item
  3878. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3879. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3880. @item
  3881. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3882. @end itemize
  3883. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3884. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  3885. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3886. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3887. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3888. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3889. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3890. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3891. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3892. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3893. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3894. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3895. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  3896. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3897. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3898. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3899. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3900. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3901. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  3902. @end table
  3903. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3904. @chapter Tags
  3905. @cindex tags
  3906. @cindex headline tagging
  3907. @cindex matching, tags
  3908. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3909. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3910. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  3911. support for tags.
  3912. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3913. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3914. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3915. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3916. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3917. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3918. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3919. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3920. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3921. @menu
  3922. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3923. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3924. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3925. @end menu
  3926. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3927. @section Tag inheritance
  3928. @cindex tag inheritance
  3929. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3930. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3931. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3932. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3933. well. For example, in the list
  3934. @example
  3935. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3936. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3937. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3938. @end example
  3939. @noindent
  3940. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3941. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3942. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3943. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3944. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3945. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3946. changes in the line.}:
  3947. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3948. @example
  3949. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3950. @end example
  3951. @noindent
  3952. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3953. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3954. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  3955. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  3956. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3957. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3958. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3959. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3960. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3961. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3962. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3963. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3964. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  3965. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  3966. @section Setting tags
  3967. @cindex setting tags
  3968. @cindex tags, setting
  3969. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3970. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  3971. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  3972. also a special command for inserting tags:
  3973. @table @kbd
  3974. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  3975. @cindex completion, of tags
  3976. @vindex org-tags-column
  3977. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  3978. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  3979. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  3980. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  3981. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  3982. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  3983. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  3984. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  3985. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  3986. @end table
  3987. @vindex org-tag-alist
  3988. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  3989. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  3990. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  3991. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  3992. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  3993. @cindex #+TAGS
  3994. @example
  3995. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  3996. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  3997. @end example
  3998. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  3999. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4000. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4001. @example
  4002. #+TAGS:
  4003. @end example
  4004. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4005. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4006. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4007. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4008. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4009. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4010. @example
  4011. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4012. @end example
  4013. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4014. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4015. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4016. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4017. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  4018. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  4019. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  4020. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4021. like:
  4022. @lisp
  4023. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4024. @end lisp
  4025. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4026. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4027. @example
  4028. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4029. @end example
  4030. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4031. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4032. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4033. @example
  4034. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4035. @end example
  4036. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4037. @example
  4038. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4039. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4040. @end example
  4041. @noindent
  4042. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4043. braces, as in:
  4044. @example
  4045. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4046. @end example
  4047. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4048. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4049. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4050. these lines to activate any changes.
  4051. @noindent
  4052. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  4053. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4054. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4055. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4056. configuration:
  4057. @lisp
  4058. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4059. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4060. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4061. (:endgroup . nil)
  4062. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4063. @end lisp
  4064. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4065. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4066. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4067. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4068. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4069. keys:
  4070. @table @kbd
  4071. @item a-z...
  4072. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4073. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4074. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4075. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4076. @item @key{TAB}
  4077. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4078. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4079. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4080. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4081. @item @key{SPC}
  4082. Clear all tags for this line.
  4083. @kindex @key{RET}
  4084. @item @key{RET}
  4085. Accept the modified set.
  4086. @item C-g
  4087. Abort without installing changes.
  4088. @item q
  4089. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4090. @item !
  4091. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4092. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4093. @item C-c
  4094. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4095. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4096. selection window.
  4097. @end table
  4098. @noindent
  4099. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4100. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4101. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4102. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4103. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4104. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4105. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4106. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4107. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4108. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4109. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  4110. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  4111. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  4112. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  4113. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  4114. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  4115. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  4116. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  4117. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4118. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4119. @section Tag searches
  4120. @cindex tag searches
  4121. @cindex searching for tags
  4122. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4123. information into special lists.
  4124. @table @kbd
  4125. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4126. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4127. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4128. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4129. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4130. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4131. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4132. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4133. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4134. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4135. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4136. @end table
  4137. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4138. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4139. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4140. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4141. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4142. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4143. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4144. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4145. @chapter Properties and columns
  4146. @cindex properties
  4147. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4148. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4149. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4150. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4151. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4152. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4153. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4154. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4155. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4156. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4157. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4158. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4159. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4160. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4161. @menu
  4162. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4163. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4164. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4165. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4166. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4167. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4168. @end menu
  4169. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4170. @section Property syntax
  4171. @cindex property syntax
  4172. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4173. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4174. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special
  4175. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4176. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4177. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4178. @example
  4179. * CD collection
  4180. ** Classic
  4181. *** Goldberg Variations
  4182. :PROPERTIES:
  4183. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4184. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4185. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4186. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4187. :NDisks: 1
  4188. :END:
  4189. @end example
  4190. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4191. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the sub-tree
  4192. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4193. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4194. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4195. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4196. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4197. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4198. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4199. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4200. @example
  4201. * CD collection
  4202. :PROPERTIES:
  4203. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4204. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4205. :END:
  4206. @end example
  4207. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4208. file, use a line like
  4209. @cindex property, _ALL
  4210. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4211. @example
  4212. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4213. @end example
  4214. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4215. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4216. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4217. @cindex property, +
  4218. @example
  4219. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4220. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4221. @end example
  4222. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4223. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4224. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4225. @cindex property, +
  4226. @example
  4227. * CD collection
  4228. ** Classic
  4229. :PROPERTIES:
  4230. :GENRES: Classic
  4231. :END:
  4232. *** Goldberg Variations
  4233. :PROPERTIES:
  4234. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4235. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4236. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4237. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4238. :NDisks: 1
  4239. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4240. :END:
  4241. @end example
  4242. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4243. @vindex org-global-properties
  4244. Property values set with the global variable
  4245. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4246. Org files.
  4247. @noindent
  4248. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4249. @table @kbd
  4250. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4251. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4252. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4253. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4254. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4255. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4256. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer
  4257. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  4258. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4259. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4260. information like deadlines.
  4261. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4262. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4263. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4264. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4265. can be inserted using completion.
  4266. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4267. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4268. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4269. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4270. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4271. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4272. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4273. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4274. nearest column format definition.
  4275. @end table
  4276. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4277. @section Special properties
  4278. @cindex properties, special
  4279. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4280. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4281. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4282. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4283. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4284. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4285. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4286. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4287. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4288. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4289. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4290. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4291. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4292. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4293. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4294. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4295. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4296. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4297. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4298. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4299. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4300. @example
  4301. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4302. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4303. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4304. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4305. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4306. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4307. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4308. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4309. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4310. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4311. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4312. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4313. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4314. ITEM @r{The content of the entry.}
  4315. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4316. @end example
  4317. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4318. @section Property searches
  4319. @cindex properties, searching
  4320. @cindex searching, of properties
  4321. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4322. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4323. @table @kbd
  4324. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4325. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4326. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4327. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4328. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4329. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4330. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4331. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4332. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4333. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4334. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4335. @end table
  4336. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4337. properties}.
  4338. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4339. single property:
  4340. @table @kbd
  4341. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4342. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4343. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4344. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4345. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4346. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4347. @end table
  4348. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4349. @section Property Inheritance
  4350. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4351. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4352. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4353. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4354. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4355. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4356. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4357. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4358. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4359. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4360. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4361. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4362. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4363. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4364. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4365. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4366. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4367. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4368. @table @code
  4369. @item COLUMNS
  4370. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4371. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4372. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4373. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4374. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4375. @item CATEGORY
  4376. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4377. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4378. applies to the entire subtree.
  4379. @item ARCHIVE
  4380. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4381. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4382. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4383. @item LOGGING
  4384. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4385. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4386. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4387. @end table
  4388. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4389. @section Column view
  4390. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4391. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4392. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4393. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4394. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4395. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4396. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4397. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4398. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4399. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4400. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4401. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4402. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4403. @menu
  4404. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4405. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4406. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4407. @end menu
  4408. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4409. @subsection Defining columns
  4410. @cindex column view, for properties
  4411. @cindex properties, column view
  4412. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4413. done by defining a column format line.
  4414. @menu
  4415. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4416. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4417. @end menu
  4418. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4419. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4420. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4421. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4422. @example
  4423. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4424. @end example
  4425. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4426. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4427. @example
  4428. ** Top node for columns view
  4429. :PROPERTIES:
  4430. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4431. :END:
  4432. @end example
  4433. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4434. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4435. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4436. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4437. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4438. deeper part of the tree.
  4439. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4440. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4441. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4442. definition looks like this:
  4443. @example
  4444. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4445. @end example
  4446. @noindent
  4447. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4448. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4449. @example
  4450. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4451. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4452. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4453. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4454. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4455. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4456. @r{name is used.}
  4457. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4458. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4459. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4460. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4461. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4462. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4463. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4464. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4465. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4466. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4467. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4468. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4469. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4470. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4471. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4472. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4473. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4474. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4475. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4476. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4477. @end example
  4478. @noindent
  4479. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4480. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4481. same summary information.
  4482. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4483. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4484. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4485. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4486. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4487. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4488. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4489. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4490. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4491. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4492. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4493. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4494. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4495. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4496. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4497. values.
  4498. @example
  4499. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4500. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4501. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4502. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4503. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4504. @end example
  4505. @noindent
  4506. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4507. item itself, i.e.@: of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4508. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4509. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4510. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4511. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4512. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4513. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4514. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4515. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4516. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4517. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4518. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4519. in the subtree.
  4520. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4521. @subsection Using column view
  4522. @table @kbd
  4523. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4524. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4525. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4526. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4527. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4528. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4529. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4530. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4531. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4532. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4533. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4534. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4535. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4536. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4537. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4538. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4539. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4540. Exit column view.
  4541. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4542. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4543. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4544. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4545. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4546. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4547. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4548. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4549. @item 1..9,0
  4550. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4551. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4552. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4553. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4554. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4555. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4556. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4557. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4558. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4559. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4560. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4561. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4562. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4563. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4564. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4565. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4566. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4567. current column view.
  4568. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4569. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4570. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4571. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4572. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4573. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4574. Delete the current column.
  4575. @end table
  4576. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4577. @subsection Capturing column view
  4578. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4579. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4580. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4581. of this block looks like this:
  4582. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4583. @example
  4584. * The column view
  4585. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4586. #+END:
  4587. @end example
  4588. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4589. @table @code
  4590. @item :id
  4591. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4592. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4593. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4594. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4595. @cindex property, ID
  4596. @example
  4597. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4598. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4599. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4600. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4601. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4602. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4603. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4604. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4605. @end example
  4606. @item :hlines
  4607. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4608. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4609. @item :vlines
  4610. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4611. @item :maxlevel
  4612. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4613. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4614. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4615. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4616. @end table
  4617. @noindent
  4618. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4619. @table @kbd
  4620. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4621. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4622. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4623. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4624. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4625. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4626. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4627. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4628. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4629. blocks in a buffer.
  4630. @end table
  4631. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4632. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4633. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4634. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4635. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4636. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4637. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4638. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4639. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4640. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4641. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4642. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4643. @section The Property API
  4644. @cindex properties, API
  4645. @cindex API, for properties
  4646. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4647. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4648. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4649. property API}.
  4650. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4651. @chapter Dates and times
  4652. @cindex dates
  4653. @cindex times
  4654. @cindex timestamp
  4655. @cindex date stamp
  4656. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4657. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4658. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode. This may be a
  4659. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4660. something was created or last changed. However, in Org mode this term
  4661. is used in a much wider sense.
  4662. @menu
  4663. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4664. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4665. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4666. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4667. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4668. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4669. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4670. @end menu
  4671. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4672. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4673. @cindex timestamps
  4674. @cindex ranges, time
  4675. @cindex date stamps
  4676. @cindex deadlines
  4677. @cindex scheduling
  4678. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4679. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>}@footnote{In this
  4680. simplest form, the day name is optional when you type the date yourself.
  4681. However, any dates inserted or modified by Org will add that day name, for
  4682. reading convenience.} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
  4683. Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601
  4684. date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time
  4685. format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org
  4686. tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the
  4687. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4688. @table @var
  4689. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4690. @cindex timestamp
  4691. @cindex appointment
  4692. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4693. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4694. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4695. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4696. @example
  4697. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4698. * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4699. @end example
  4700. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4701. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4702. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4703. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4704. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4705. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4706. @example
  4707. * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4708. @end example
  4709. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4710. For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the special
  4711. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4712. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  4713. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  4714. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  4715. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  4716. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  4717. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  4718. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org mode users
  4719. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  4720. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  4721. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  4722. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For
  4723. example with optional time
  4724. @example
  4725. * 22:00-23:00 The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4726. <%%(org-float t 4 2)>
  4727. @end example
  4728. @item Time/Date range
  4729. @cindex timerange
  4730. @cindex date range
  4731. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4732. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4733. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4734. @example
  4735. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4736. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4737. @end example
  4738. @item Inactive timestamp
  4739. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4740. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4741. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4742. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4743. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4744. @example
  4745. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4746. @end example
  4747. @end table
  4748. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4749. @section Creating timestamps
  4750. @cindex creating timestamps
  4751. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4752. For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4753. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4754. format.
  4755. @table @kbd
  4756. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4757. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4758. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4759. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4760. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4761. @c
  4762. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4763. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4764. an agenda entry.
  4765. @c
  4766. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4767. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4768. @item C-u C-c .
  4769. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4770. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4771. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4772. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4773. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4774. @c
  4775. @orgkey{C-c C-c}
  4776. Normalize timestamp, insert/fix day name if missing or wrong.
  4777. @c
  4778. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4779. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4780. @c
  4781. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4782. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4783. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4784. instead.
  4785. @c
  4786. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4787. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4788. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4789. @c
  4790. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4791. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4792. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4793. @c
  4794. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4795. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4796. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4797. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4798. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4799. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4800. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4801. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4802. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4803. @c
  4804. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4805. @cindex evaluate time range
  4806. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4807. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4808. the following column).
  4809. @end table
  4810. @menu
  4811. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  4812. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4813. @end menu
  4814. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4815. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4816. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4817. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4818. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4819. When Org mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4820. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4821. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4822. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4823. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4824. copied from an email message. Org mode will find whatever information is in
  4825. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4826. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4827. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4828. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4829. information, Org mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4830. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4831. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4832. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4833. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4834. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4835. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4836. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4837. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org mode are
  4838. in @b{bold}.
  4839. @example
  4840. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4841. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4842. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4843. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4844. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4845. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4846. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4847. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4848. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4849. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4850. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4851. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4852. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4853. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4854. @end example
  4855. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4856. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4857. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4858. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4859. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4860. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4861. the Nth such day, e.g.@:
  4862. @example
  4863. +0 @result{} today
  4864. . @result{} today
  4865. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4866. +4 @result{} same as above
  4867. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4868. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4869. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4870. @end example
  4871. @vindex parse-time-months
  4872. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4873. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4874. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4875. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4876. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  4877. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  4878. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  4879. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  4880. read the docstring of the variable
  4881. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  4882. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4883. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  4884. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  4885. case, e.g.@:
  4886. @example
  4887. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  4888. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  4889. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  4890. @end example
  4891. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4892. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4893. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4894. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4895. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4896. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4897. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4898. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4899. from the minibuffer:
  4900. @kindex <
  4901. @kindex >
  4902. @kindex M-v
  4903. @kindex C-v
  4904. @kindex mouse-1
  4905. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4906. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4907. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4908. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4909. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4910. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4911. @kindex @key{RET}
  4912. @example
  4913. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4914. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4915. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4916. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4917. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4918. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4919. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4920. @end example
  4921. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4922. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4923. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4924. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4925. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4926. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4927. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4928. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4929. @subsection Custom time format
  4930. @cindex custom date/time format
  4931. @cindex time format, custom
  4932. @cindex date format, custom
  4933. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4934. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4935. Org mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4936. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4937. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4938. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4939. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4940. @table @kbd
  4941. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  4942. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4943. @end table
  4944. @noindent
  4945. Org mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  4946. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  4947. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  4948. following consequences:
  4949. @itemize @bullet
  4950. @item
  4951. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  4952. after.
  4953. @item
  4954. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  4955. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  4956. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  4957. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  4958. time will be changed by one minute.
  4959. @item
  4960. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  4961. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  4962. @item
  4963. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  4964. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  4965. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  4966. @item
  4967. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  4968. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  4969. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  4970. @end itemize
  4971. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  4972. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  4973. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  4974. @table @var
  4975. @item DEADLINE
  4976. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  4977. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  4978. to be finished on that date.
  4979. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4980. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  4981. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  4982. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  4983. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  4984. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  4985. @example
  4986. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  4987. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  4988. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  4989. @end example
  4990. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  4991. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  4992. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  4993. @item SCHEDULED
  4994. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  4995. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  4996. date.
  4997. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  4998. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  4999. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  5000. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  5001. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  5002. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.@:
  5003. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  5004. @example
  5005. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  5006. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  5007. @end example
  5008. @noindent
  5009. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org mode should @i{not} be
  5010. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  5011. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  5012. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  5013. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  5014. Org users. In Org mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  5015. want to start working on an action item.
  5016. @end table
  5017. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  5018. entries. Org mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  5019. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  5020. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  5021. @c
  5022. @code{<%%(org-float t 42)>}
  5023. @c
  5024. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org mode does not
  5025. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  5026. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  5027. sexp entry matches.
  5028. @menu
  5029. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  5030. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  5031. @end menu
  5032. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  5033. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  5034. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  5035. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  5036. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  5037. an item:
  5038. @table @kbd
  5039. @c
  5040. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  5041. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  5042. in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be
  5043. removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed
  5044. from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  5045. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  5046. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5047. deadline.
  5048. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  5049. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  5050. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  5051. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  5052. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  5053. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  5054. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  5055. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5056. scheduling time.
  5057. @c
  5058. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  5059. @kindex k a
  5060. @kindex k s
  5061. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  5062. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  5063. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  5064. schedule the marked item.
  5065. @c
  5066. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  5067. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  5068. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5069. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  5070. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  5071. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  5072. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  5073. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  5074. @c
  5075. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  5076. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  5077. @c
  5078. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  5079. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  5080. @end table
  5081. Note that @code{org-schedule} and @code{org-deadline} supports
  5082. setting the date by indicating a relative time: e.g. +1d will set
  5083. the date to the next day after today, and --1w will set the date
  5084. to the previous week before any current timestamp.
  5085. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  5086. @subsection Repeated tasks
  5087. @cindex tasks, repeated
  5088. @cindex repeated tasks
  5089. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org mode helps to
  5090. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  5091. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  5092. @example
  5093. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5094. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  5095. @end example
  5096. @noindent
  5097. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  5098. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  5099. from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in
  5100. a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last:
  5101. @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  5102. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  5103. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  5104. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  5105. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  5106. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  5107. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  5108. repeated entry will not be active. Org mode deals with this in the following
  5109. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  5110. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  5111. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  5112. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  5113. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  5114. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  5115. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  5116. switch the date like this:
  5117. @example
  5118. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5119. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  5120. @end example
  5121. @vindex org-log-repeat
  5122. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  5123. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  5124. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  5125. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  5126. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  5127. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  5128. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  5129. will be visible.
  5130. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  5131. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  5132. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  5133. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  5134. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  5135. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  5136. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  5137. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org mode has
  5138. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  5139. @example
  5140. ** TODO Call Father
  5141. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  5142. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  5143. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  5144. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  5145. and marked it done on Saturday.
  5146. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  5147. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  5148. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  5149. today.
  5150. @end example
  5151. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  5152. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  5153. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  5154. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  5155. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  5156. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  5157. @section Clocking work time
  5158. @cindex clocking time
  5159. @cindex time clocking
  5160. Org mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  5161. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock. When
  5162. you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the clock is
  5163. stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It also computes
  5164. the total time spent on each subtree@footnote{Clocking only works if all
  5165. headings are indented with less than 30 stars. This is a hardcoded
  5166. limitation of `lmax' in `org-clock-sum'.} of a project. And it remembers a
  5167. history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly between a
  5168. number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5169. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5170. @lisp
  5171. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5172. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5173. @end lisp
  5174. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5175. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5176. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5177. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5178. what to do with it.
  5179. @menu
  5180. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5181. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5182. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5183. @end menu
  5184. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5185. @subsection Clocking commands
  5186. @table @kbd
  5187. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5188. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5189. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  5190. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5191. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5192. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5193. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5194. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule
  5195. the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  5196. @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  5197. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5198. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5199. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task.
  5200. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task,
  5201. with letter @kbd{d}.@*
  5202. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5203. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5204. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5205. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5206. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5207. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5208. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5209. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5210. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5211. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5212. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5213. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5214. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5215. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5216. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5217. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5218. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5219. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5220. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5221. @c
  5222. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5223. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5224. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5225. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5226. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5227. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5228. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5229. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5230. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5231. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5232. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5233. @kindex C-c C-y
  5234. @kindex C-c C-c
  5235. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5236. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5237. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5238. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5239. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{up/down},org-clock-timestamps-up/down}
  5240. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease both timestamps at the same
  5241. time so that duration keeps the same.
  5242. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5243. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5244. if it is running in this same item.
  5245. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-cancel}
  5246. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5247. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5248. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5249. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5250. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5251. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5252. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5253. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts
  5254. overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under
  5255. that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility
  5256. cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the
  5257. buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press
  5258. @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5259. @end table
  5260. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5261. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5262. worked on or closed during a day.
  5263. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5264. @subsection The clock table
  5265. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5266. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5267. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5268. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5269. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5270. @table @kbd
  5271. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5272. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5273. report as an Org mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5274. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5275. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5276. update it. The clock table always includes also trees with
  5277. @code{:ARCHIVE:} tag.
  5278. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5279. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5280. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5281. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5282. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5283. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5284. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5285. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5286. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5287. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5288. @end table
  5289. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5290. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5291. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5292. @example
  5293. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5294. #+END: clocktable
  5295. @end example
  5296. @noindent
  5297. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5298. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5299. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5300. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5301. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5302. be selected:
  5303. @example
  5304. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5305. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5306. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5307. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5308. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5309. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5310. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5311. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5312. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5313. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5314. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5315. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5316. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5317. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5318. @r{these formats:}
  5319. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5320. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5321. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5322. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5323. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5324. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5325. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5326. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5327. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5328. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5329. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5330. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5331. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5332. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5333. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5334. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5335. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5336. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5337. @end example
  5338. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5339. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5340. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5341. @example
  5342. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5343. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5344. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5345. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5346. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5347. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5348. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5349. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5350. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5351. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5352. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5353. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5354. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5355. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5356. :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each}
  5357. @r{property will get its own column.}
  5358. :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.}
  5359. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5360. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5361. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5362. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5363. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5364. @end example
  5365. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5366. day, you could write
  5367. @example
  5368. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5369. #+END: clocktable
  5370. @end example
  5371. @noindent
  5372. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5373. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5374. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5375. @example
  5376. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5377. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5378. #+END: clocktable
  5379. @end example
  5380. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5381. @example
  5382. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5383. #+END: clocktable
  5384. @end example
  5385. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5386. would be
  5387. @example
  5388. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5389. #+END: clocktable
  5390. @end example
  5391. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5392. @subsection Resolving idle time
  5393. @cindex resolve idle time
  5394. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5395. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5396. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5397. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5398. applying it to another one.
  5399. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5400. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5401. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5402. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5403. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5404. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5405. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5406. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5407. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5408. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5409. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5410. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5411. @table @kbd
  5412. @item k
  5413. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5414. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5415. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5416. @item K
  5417. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5418. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5419. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5420. @item s
  5421. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5422. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5423. @item S
  5424. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5425. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5426. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5427. @item C
  5428. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5429. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5430. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5431. log with an empty entry.
  5432. @end table
  5433. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5434. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5435. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5436. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5437. the next task you clock in on.
  5438. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5439. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5440. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5441. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5442. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5443. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5444. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5445. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5446. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5447. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due
  5448. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5449. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5450. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5451. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5452. @section Effort estimates
  5453. @cindex effort estimates
  5454. @cindex property, Effort
  5455. @vindex org-effort-property
  5456. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5457. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5458. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5459. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5460. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5461. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5462. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5463. for an entry with the following commands:
  5464. @table @kbd
  5465. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5466. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5467. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5468. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5469. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5470. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5471. @end table
  5472. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5473. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5474. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5475. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5476. buffer you can use
  5477. @example
  5478. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
  5479. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5480. @end example
  5481. @noindent
  5482. @vindex org-global-properties
  5483. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5484. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5485. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5486. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5487. setup may be advised.
  5488. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5489. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5490. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5491. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5492. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5493. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5494. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5495. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5496. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5497. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5498. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5499. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5500. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5501. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5502. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5503. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5504. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5505. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5506. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5507. @cindex relative timer
  5508. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5509. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5510. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5511. @table @kbd
  5512. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5513. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5514. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5515. restarted.
  5516. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5517. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5518. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5519. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5520. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5521. new timer items.
  5522. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5523. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5524. @item C-c C-x ,
  5525. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5526. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5527. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5528. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5529. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5530. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5531. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5532. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5533. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5534. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5535. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5536. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5537. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5538. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5539. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5540. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5541. @end table
  5542. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5543. @section Countdown timer
  5544. @cindex Countdown timer
  5545. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5546. @kindex ;
  5547. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org mode buffer runs a countdown
  5548. timer. Use @kbd{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everywhere else.
  5549. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5550. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5551. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5552. default value.
  5553. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5554. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5555. @cindex capture
  5556. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5557. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5558. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5559. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5560. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5561. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5562. @menu
  5563. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5564. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5565. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5566. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5567. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5568. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5569. @end menu
  5570. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5571. @section Capture
  5572. @cindex capture
  5573. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5574. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5575. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org mode for
  5576. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5577. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5578. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5579. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5580. @example
  5581. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5582. @end example
  5583. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5584. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5585. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5586. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5587. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5588. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5589. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5590. @menu
  5591. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5592. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5593. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5594. @end menu
  5595. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5596. @subsection Setting up capture
  5597. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5598. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5599. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5600. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5601. @example
  5602. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5603. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5604. @end example
  5605. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5606. @subsection Using capture
  5607. @table @kbd
  5608. @orgcmd{C-c c,org-capture}
  5609. Call the command @code{org-capture}. Note that this keybinding is global and
  5610. not active by default - you need to install it. If you have templates
  5611. @cindex date tree
  5612. defined @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for
  5613. selection or use a new Org outline node as the default template. It will
  5614. insert the template into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer
  5615. narrowed to this new node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5616. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-capture-finalize}
  5617. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer, @kbd{C-c
  5618. C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture process,
  5619. so that you can resume your work without further distraction. When called
  5620. with a prefix arg, finalize and then jump to the captured item.
  5621. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-capture-refile}
  5622. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5623. a different place. Please realize that this is a normal refiling command
  5624. that will be executed---so the cursor position at the moment you run this
  5625. command is important. If you have inserted a tree with a parent and
  5626. children, first move the cursor back to the parent. Any prefix argument
  5627. given to this command will be passed on to the @code{org-refile} command.
  5628. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,org-capture-kill}
  5629. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5630. @end table
  5631. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5632. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5633. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5634. rather than to the current date.
  5635. To find the locations of the last stored capture, use @code{org-capture} with
  5636. prefix commands:
  5637. @table @kbd
  5638. @orgkey{C-u C-c c}
  5639. Visit the target location of a capture template. You get to select the
  5640. template in the usual way.
  5641. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-c c}
  5642. Visit the last stored capture item in its buffer.
  5643. @end table
  5644. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5645. @subsection Capture templates
  5646. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5647. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5648. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5649. through the customize interface.
  5650. @table @kbd
  5651. @orgkey{C-c c C}
  5652. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5653. @end table
  5654. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5655. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5656. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5657. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5658. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5659. would look like:
  5660. @example
  5661. (setq org-capture-templates
  5662. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5663. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5664. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5665. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5666. @end example
  5667. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5668. for you like this:
  5669. @example
  5670. * TODO
  5671. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5672. @end example
  5673. @noindent
  5674. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5675. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5676. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5677. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same
  5678. place where you started the capture process.
  5679. To define special keys to capture to a particular template without going
  5680. through the interactive template selection, you can create your key binding
  5681. like this:
  5682. @lisp
  5683. (define-key global-map "\C-cx"
  5684. (lambda () (interactive) (org-capture nil "x")))
  5685. @end lisp
  5686. @menu
  5687. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  5688. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  5689. @end menu
  5690. @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates
  5691. @subsubsection Template elements
  5692. Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in
  5693. @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items:
  5694. @table @var
  5695. @item keys
  5696. The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters
  5697. only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a
  5698. single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using
  5699. several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential
  5700. in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the
  5701. prefix key, for example
  5702. @example
  5703. ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy")
  5704. @end example
  5705. @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will
  5706. be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable.
  5707. @item description
  5708. A short string describing the template, which will be shown during
  5709. selection.
  5710. @item type
  5711. The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are:
  5712. @table @code
  5713. @item entry
  5714. An Org mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the target
  5715. entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org mode file.
  5716. @item item
  5717. A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target
  5718. location. Again the target file should be an Org file.
  5719. @item checkitem
  5720. A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the
  5721. default template.
  5722. @item table-line
  5723. a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the
  5724. line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and
  5725. @code{:table-line-pos} (see below).
  5726. @item plain
  5727. Text to be inserted as it is.
  5728. @end table
  5729. @item target
  5730. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5731. Specification of where the captured item should be placed. In Org mode
  5732. files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become children of this
  5733. node. Other types will be added to the table or list in the body of this
  5734. node. Most target specifications contain a file name. If that file name is
  5735. the empty string, it defaults to @code{org-default-notes-file}. A file can
  5736. also be given as a variable, function, or Emacs Lisp form.
  5737. Valid values are:
  5738. @table @code
  5739. @item (file "path/to/file")
  5740. Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file.
  5741. @item (id "id of existing org entry")
  5742. Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry.
  5743. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline")
  5744. Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file.
  5745. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...)
  5746. For non-unique headings, the full path is safer.
  5747. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location")
  5748. Use a regular expression to position the cursor.
  5749. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file")
  5750. Will create a heading in a date tree for today's date.
  5751. @item (file+datetree+prompt "path/to/file")
  5752. Will create a heading in a date tree, but will prompt for the date.
  5753. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location)
  5754. A function to find the right location in the file.
  5755. @item (clock)
  5756. File to the entry that is currently being clocked.
  5757. @item (function function-finding-location)
  5758. Most general way, write your own function to find both
  5759. file and location.
  5760. @end table
  5761. @item template
  5762. The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an
  5763. appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with
  5764. escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the
  5765. capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file,
  5766. using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for
  5767. more details.
  5768. @item properties
  5769. The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options.
  5770. Recognized properties are:
  5771. @table @code
  5772. @item :prepend
  5773. Normally new captured information will be appended at
  5774. the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...).
  5775. Setting this property will change that.
  5776. @item :immediate-finish
  5777. When set, do not offer to edit the information, just
  5778. file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs
  5779. information that can be added automatically.
  5780. @item :empty-lines
  5781. Set this to the number of lines to insert
  5782. before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1.
  5783. @item :clock-in
  5784. Start the clock in this item.
  5785. @item :clock-keep
  5786. Keep the clock running when filing the captured entry.
  5787. @item :clock-resume
  5788. If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished
  5789. with the capture. Note that @code{:clock-keep} has precedence over
  5790. @code{:clock-resume}. When setting both to @code{t}, the current clock will
  5791. run and the previous one will not be resumed.
  5792. @item :unnarrowed
  5793. Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to
  5794. narrow it so that you only see the new material.
  5795. @item :table-line-pos
  5796. Specification of the location in the table where the new line should be
  5797. inserted. It should be a string like @code{"II-3"} meaning that the new
  5798. line should become the third line before the second horizontal separator
  5799. line.
  5800. @item :kill-buffer
  5801. If the target file was not yet visited when capture was invoked, kill the
  5802. buffer again after capture is completed.
  5803. @end table
  5804. @end table
  5805. @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates
  5806. @subsubsection Template expansion
  5807. In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of
  5808. these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow
  5809. dynamic insertion of content. The templates are expanded in the order given here:
  5810. @smallexample
  5811. %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}.}
  5812. %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result.}
  5813. %<...> @r{the result of format-time-string on the ... format specification.}
  5814. %t @r{timestamp, date only.}
  5815. %T @r{timestamp with date and time.}
  5816. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps.}
  5817. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}.}
  5818. %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the}
  5819. @r{region is active.}
  5820. @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
  5821. %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part.}
  5822. %c @r{Current kill ring head.}
  5823. %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.}
  5824. %k @r{title of the currently clocked task.}
  5825. %K @r{link to the currently clocked task.}
  5826. %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name}).}
  5827. %f @r{file visited by current buffer when org-capture was called.}
  5828. %F @r{full path of the file or directory visited by current buffer.}
  5829. %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below.}
  5830. %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.}
  5831. %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.}
  5832. %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}.}
  5833. @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}.}
  5834. %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.}
  5835. %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.}
  5836. %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}.}
  5837. %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
  5838. @r{You may specify a default