org.texi 699 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include org-version.inc
  6. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  7. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  8. @set txicodequoteundirected
  9. @set txicodequotebacktick
  10. @c Version and Contact Info
  11. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  12. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  13. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  15. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  16. @c %**end of header
  17. @finalout
  18. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  19. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  20. @c =======================================
  21. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  22. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  23. @set cmdnames
  24. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  25. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  26. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  27. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  28. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  29. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  30. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  31. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  32. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  33. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  34. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  35. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  36. @c a key but no command
  37. @c Inserts: @item key
  38. @macro orgkey{key}
  39. @kindex \key\
  40. @item @kbd{\key\}
  41. @end macro
  42. @macro xorgkey{key}
  43. @kindex \key\
  44. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  45. @end macro
  46. @c one key with a command
  47. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  48. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  49. @ifset cmdnames
  50. @kindex \key\
  51. @findex \command\
  52. @iftex
  53. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  54. @end iftex
  55. @ifnottex
  56. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  57. @end ifnottex
  58. @end ifset
  59. @ifclear cmdnames
  60. @kindex \key\
  61. @item @kbd{\key\}
  62. @end ifclear
  63. @end macro
  64. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  65. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  66. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  67. @ifset cmdnames
  68. @kindex \key\
  69. @findex \command\
  70. @iftex
  71. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  72. @end iftex
  73. @ifnottex
  74. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  75. @end ifnottex
  76. @end ifset
  77. @ifclear cmdnames
  78. @kindex \key\
  79. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  80. @end ifclear
  81. @end macro
  82. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  83. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  84. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  85. @ifset cmdnames
  86. @findex \command\
  87. @iftex
  88. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  89. @end iftex
  90. @ifnottex
  91. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  92. @end ifnottex
  93. @end ifset
  94. @ifclear cmdnames
  95. @item @kbd{\key\}
  96. @end ifclear
  97. @end macro
  98. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  99. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  100. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  101. @ifset cmdnames
  102. @kindex \key\
  103. @findex \command\
  104. @iftex
  105. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  106. @end iftex
  107. @ifnottex
  108. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  109. @end ifnottex
  110. @end ifset
  111. @ifclear cmdnames
  112. @kindex \key\
  113. @item @kbd{\text\}
  114. @end ifclear
  115. @end macro
  116. @c two keys with one command
  117. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  118. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  119. @ifset cmdnames
  120. @kindex \key1\
  121. @kindex \key2\
  122. @findex \command\
  123. @iftex
  124. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  125. @end iftex
  126. @ifnottex
  127. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  128. @end ifnottex
  129. @end ifset
  130. @ifclear cmdnames
  131. @kindex \key1\
  132. @kindex \key2\
  133. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  134. @end ifclear
  135. @end macro
  136. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  137. @c @itemx
  138. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  139. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  140. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  141. @ifset cmdnames
  142. @kindex \key1\
  143. @kindex \key2\
  144. @findex \command\
  145. @iftex
  146. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  147. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  148. @end iftex
  149. @ifnottex
  150. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  151. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  152. @end ifnottex
  153. @end ifset
  154. @ifclear cmdnames
  155. @kindex \key1\
  156. @kindex \key2\
  157. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  158. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  159. @end ifclear
  160. @end macro
  161. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  162. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  163. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  164. @ifset cmdnames
  165. @kindex \key1\
  166. @kindex \key2\
  167. @findex \command\
  168. @iftex
  169. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  170. @end iftex
  171. @ifnottex
  172. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  173. @end ifnottex
  174. @end ifset
  175. @ifclear cmdnames
  176. @kindex \key1\
  177. @kindex \key2\
  178. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  179. @end ifclear
  180. @end macro
  181. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  182. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  183. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  184. @ifset cmdnames
  185. @kindex \key1\
  186. @kindex \key2\
  187. @findex \command\
  188. @iftex
  189. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  190. @end iftex
  191. @ifnottex
  192. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  193. @end ifnottex
  194. @end ifset
  195. @ifclear cmdnames
  196. @kindex \key1\
  197. @kindex \key2\
  198. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  199. @end ifclear
  200. @end macro
  201. @c two keys with two commands
  202. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  203. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  204. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  205. @ifset cmdnames
  206. @kindex \key1\
  207. @kindex \key2\
  208. @findex \command1\
  209. @findex \command2\
  210. @iftex
  211. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  212. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  213. @end iftex
  214. @ifnottex
  215. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  216. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  217. @end ifnottex
  218. @end ifset
  219. @ifclear cmdnames
  220. @kindex \key1\
  221. @kindex \key2\
  222. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  223. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  224. @end ifclear
  225. @end macro
  226. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  227. @iftex
  228. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  229. @end iftex
  230. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  231. @macro tsubheading{text}
  232. @ifinfo
  233. @subsubheading \text\
  234. @end ifinfo
  235. @ifnotinfo
  236. @item @b{\text\}
  237. @end ifnotinfo
  238. @end macro
  239. @copying
  240. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  241. Copyright @copyright{} 2004-2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  242. @quotation
  243. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  244. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  245. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  246. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  247. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  248. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  249. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  250. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  251. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  252. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  253. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  254. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  255. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  256. @end quotation
  257. @end copying
  258. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  259. @direntry
  260. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  261. @end direntry
  262. @titlepage
  263. @title The Org Manual
  264. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  265. @author by Carsten Dominik
  266. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, Thomas Dye and Jambunathan K.
  267. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  268. @page
  269. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  270. @insertcopying
  271. @end titlepage
  272. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  273. @contents
  274. @ifnottex
  275. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  276. @top Org Mode Manual
  277. @insertcopying
  278. @end ifnottex
  279. @menu
  280. * Introduction:: Getting started
  281. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  282. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  283. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  284. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  285. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  286. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  287. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  288. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  289. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  290. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  291. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  292. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  293. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  294. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  295. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  296. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  297. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  298. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  299. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  300. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  301. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  302. @detailmenu
  303. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  304. Introduction
  305. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  306. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  307. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  308. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  309. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  310. Document structure
  311. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  312. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  313. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  314. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  315. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  316. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  317. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  318. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  319. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  320. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  321. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  322. Tables
  323. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  324. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  325. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  326. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  327. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  328. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  329. The spreadsheet
  330. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  331. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  332. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  333. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  334. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  335. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  336. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  337. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  338. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  339. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  340. Hyperlinks
  341. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  342. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  343. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  344. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  345. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  346. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  347. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  348. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  349. Internal links
  350. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  351. TODO items
  352. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  353. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  354. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  355. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  356. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  357. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  358. Extended use of TODO keywords
  359. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  360. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  361. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  362. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  363. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  364. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  365. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  366. Progress logging
  367. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  368. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  369. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  370. Tags
  371. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  372. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  373. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  374. Properties and columns
  375. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  376. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  377. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  378. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  379. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  380. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  381. Column view
  382. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  383. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  384. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  385. Defining columns
  386. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  387. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  388. Dates and times
  389. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  390. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  391. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  392. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  393. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  394. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  395. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  396. Creating timestamps
  397. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  398. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  399. Deadlines and scheduling
  400. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  401. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  402. Clocking work time
  403. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  404. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  405. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  406. Capture - Refile - Archive
  407. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  408. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  409. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  410. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  411. * Refile and copy:: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another
  412. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  413. Capture
  414. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  415. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  416. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  417. Capture templates
  418. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  419. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  420. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context
  421. Archiving
  422. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  423. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  424. Agenda views
  425. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  426. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  427. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  428. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  429. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  430. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  431. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  432. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  433. The built-in agenda views
  434. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  435. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  436. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  437. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  438. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  439. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  440. Presentation and sorting
  441. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  442. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  443. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  444. Custom agenda views
  445. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  446. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  447. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  448. Markup for rich export
  449. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  450. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  451. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  452. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  453. * Index entries:: Making an index
  454. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  455. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  456. Structural markup elements
  457. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  458. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  459. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  460. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  461. * Lists:: Lists
  462. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  463. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  464. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  465. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  466. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  467. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  468. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  469. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  470. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  471. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  472. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  473. Exporting
  474. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  475. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  476. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  477. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  478. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  479. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  480. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  481. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  482. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  483. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  484. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  485. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  486. HTML export
  487. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  488. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  489. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org mode
  490. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  491. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  492. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  493. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  494. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  495. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  496. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  497. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  498. * @LaTeX{}/PDF export commands::
  499. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  500. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  501. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  502. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  503. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  504. DocBook export
  505. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  506. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  507. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  508. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  509. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  510. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  511. OpenDocument Text export
  512. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: What packages ODT exporter relies on
  513. * ODT export commands:: How to invoke ODT export
  514. * Extending ODT export:: How to produce @samp{doc}, @samp{pdf} files
  515. * Applying custom styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  516. * Links in ODT export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  517. * Tables in ODT export:: How Tables are exported
  518. * Images in ODT export:: How to insert images
  519. * Math formatting in ODT export:: How @LaTeX{} fragments are formatted
  520. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: How captions are rendered
  521. * Literal examples in ODT export:: How source and example blocks are formatted
  522. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: Read this if you are a power user
  523. Math formatting in ODT export
  524. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: How to embed @LaTeX{} math fragments
  525. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: How to embed equations in native format
  526. Advanced topics in ODT export
  527. * Configuring a document converter:: How to register a document converter
  528. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Explore the internals
  529. * Creating one-off styles:: How to produce custom highlighting etc
  530. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: How to define and use Table templates
  531. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: How to debug corrupt OpenDocument files
  532. Publishing
  533. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  534. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  535. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  536. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  537. Configuration
  538. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  539. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  540. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  541. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  542. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  543. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  544. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  545. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  546. Sample configuration
  547. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  548. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  549. Working with source code
  550. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  551. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  552. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  553. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  554. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  555. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  556. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  557. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  558. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  559. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  560. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  561. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  562. Header arguments
  563. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  564. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  565. Using header arguments
  566. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  567. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  568. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  569. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  570. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  571. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  572. Specific header arguments
  573. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  574. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  575. be collected and handled
  576. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  577. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  578. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  579. directory for code block execution
  580. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  581. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  582. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  583. files during tangling
  584. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  585. code files
  586. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  587. code files
  588. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  589. expansion during tangling
  590. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  591. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  592. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  593. * noweb-sep:: String used to separate noweb references
  594. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  595. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  596. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  597. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  598. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  599. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  600. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  601. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  602. Miscellaneous
  603. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  604. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  605. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  606. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  607. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  608. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  609. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  610. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  611. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  612. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  613. * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files
  614. Interaction with other packages
  615. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  616. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  617. Hacking
  618. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  619. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  620. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  621. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  622. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  623. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  624. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  625. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  626. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  627. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  628. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  629. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  630. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  631. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  632. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  633. MobileOrg
  634. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  635. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  636. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  637. @end detailmenu
  638. @end menu
  639. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  640. @chapter Introduction
  641. @cindex introduction
  642. @menu
  643. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  644. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  645. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  646. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  647. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  648. @end menu
  649. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  650. @section Summary
  651. @cindex summary
  652. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  653. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  654. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  655. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  656. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  657. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  658. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  659. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  660. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  661. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  662. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  663. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  664. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  665. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  666. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  667. linked web pages.
  668. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  669. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  670. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  671. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  672. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  673. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  674. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  675. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  676. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  677. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  678. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  679. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  680. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  681. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  682. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  683. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  684. ends, for example:
  685. @example
  686. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  687. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  688. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  689. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  690. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  691. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  692. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  693. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  694. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  695. @end example
  696. @cindex FAQ
  697. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  698. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  699. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  700. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  701. @cindex print edition
  702. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  703. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  704. Theory Ltd.}
  705. @page
  706. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  707. @section Installation
  708. @cindex installation
  709. @cindex XEmacs
  710. @b{Important:} @i{If you the version of Org that comes with Emacs or as a
  711. XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly to @ref{Activation}.
  712. If you downloaded Org as an ELPA package, please read the instructions on the
  713. @uref{http://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}. To see what version of Org
  714. (if any) is part of your Emacs distribution, type @kbd{M-x org-version} (if
  715. your Emacs distribution does not come with Org, this function will not be
  716. defined).}
  717. Installation of Org mode uses a build system, which is described in more
  718. detail on @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html, Worg}.
  719. If you have downloaded Org from the Web as a distribution @file{.zip} or
  720. @file{.tar.gz} archive, take the following steps to install it:
  721. @itemize @bullet
  722. @item Unpack the distribution archive.
  723. @item Change into (@code{cd}) the Org directory.
  724. @item Run @code{make help config}
  725. and then check and edit the file @file{local.mk} if the default configuration
  726. does not match your system. Set the name of the Emacs binary (likely either
  727. @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the directories where local
  728. Lisp and Info files will be installed. If the Emacs binary is not in your
  729. path, give the full path to the executable. Avoid spaces in any path names.
  730. @item Run @code{make config}
  731. again to check the configuration.
  732. @item Run @code{make install} or @code{sudo make install}
  733. to build and install Org mode on your system.
  734. @end itemize
  735. If you use a cloned Git repository, then the procedure is slightly different.
  736. The following description assumes that you are using the @code{master} branch
  737. (where the development is done). You could also use the @code{maint} branch
  738. instead, where the release versions are published, just replace @code{master}
  739. with @code{maint} in the description below.
  740. @itemize @bullet
  741. @item Change into (@code{cd}) the Org repository.
  742. @item Run @code{git checkout master}
  743. to switch to the @code{master} branch of the Org repository.
  744. @item Run @code{make help}
  745. and then check and edit the file @file{local.mk}. You must set the name of
  746. the Emacs binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths
  747. to the directories where local Lisp and Info files will be installed. If the
  748. Emacs binary is not in your path, you must give the full path to the
  749. executable. Avoid spaces in any path names.
  750. @item Run @code{make config}
  751. to check the configuration.
  752. @item Optionally run @code{make test}
  753. to build Org mode and then run the full testsuite.
  754. @item Run @code{make update2} or @code{make up2}
  755. to update the Git repository and build and install Org mode. The latter
  756. invocation runs the complete test suite before installation and installs only
  757. if the build passes all tests.
  758. @end itemize
  759. If you don't have access to the system-wide directories and you don't want to
  760. install somewhere into your home directory, you can run Org directly from the
  761. distribution directory or Org repository by compiling Org mode in place:
  762. @itemize @bullet
  763. @item Change into (@code{cd}) the Org repository.
  764. @item Run @code{git checkout master}
  765. to switch to the @code{master} branch of the Org repository.
  766. @item Run @code{make compile}
  767. @end itemize
  768. Last but not least you can also run Org mode directly from an Org repository
  769. without any compilation. Simply replace the last step in the recipe above
  770. with @code{make uncompiled}.
  771. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  772. @example
  773. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  774. @end example
  775. @noindent
  776. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory without
  777. compiling them, do a similar step for this directory:
  778. @example
  779. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  780. @end example
  781. If you want to include those files with the build and install, please
  782. customize the variable @code{ORG_ADD_CONTRIB} instead in your @code{local.mk}
  783. file, for more details please see this
  784. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html#sec-4-1-2,
  785. description on Worg}.
  786. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  787. @file{install-info} program. The Info documentation is installed together
  788. with the rest of Org mode. If you don't install Org mode, it is possible to
  789. install the Info documentation seperately (you need to have
  790. install-info@footnote{The output from install-info (if any) is system
  791. dependent. In particular Debian and its derivatives use two different
  792. versions of install-info and you may see the message:
  793. @example
  794. This is not dpkg install-info anymore, but GNU install-info
  795. See the man page for ginstall-info for command line arguments
  796. @end example
  797. @noindent which can be safely ignored.}
  798. on your system).
  799. @example
  800. make install-info
  801. @end example
  802. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  803. @page
  804. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  805. @section Activation
  806. @cindex activation
  807. @cindex autoload
  808. @cindex ELPA
  809. @cindex global key bindings
  810. @cindex key bindings, global
  811. @findex org-agenda
  812. @findex org-capture
  813. @findex org-store-link
  814. @findex org-iswitchb
  815. Since Emacs 22.2, files with the @file{.org} extension use Org mode by
  816. default. If you are using an earlier version of Emacs, add this line to your
  817. @file{.emacs} file:
  818. @lisp
  819. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  820. @end lisp
  821. Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on - this is the default in
  822. Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer
  823. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  824. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  825. packages, please take the time to check the list (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  826. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  827. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  828. global keys (i.e.@: anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  829. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  830. liking.
  831. @lisp
  832. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  833. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  834. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  835. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  836. @end lisp
  837. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  838. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  839. into Org mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  840. like this:
  841. @example
  842. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  843. @end example
  844. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  845. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  846. the file's name is. See also the variable
  847. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  848. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  849. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  850. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  851. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  852. @lisp
  853. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  854. @end lisp
  855. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  856. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  857. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  858. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  859. @section Feedback
  860. @cindex feedback
  861. @cindex bug reports
  862. @cindex maintainer
  863. @cindex author
  864. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  865. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  866. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  867. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  868. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  869. moderators have to do.}.
  870. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  871. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  872. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  873. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  874. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  875. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  876. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  877. @example
  878. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  879. @end example
  880. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  881. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  882. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  883. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  884. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  885. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  886. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  887. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  888. @example
  889. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  890. @end example
  891. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  892. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as
  893. @code{emacs -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  894. shown below.
  895. @example
  896. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'
  897. ;; activate debugging
  898. (setq debug-on-error t
  899. debug-on-signal nil
  900. debug-on-quit nil)
  901. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  902. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  903. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t))
  904. @end example
  905. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  906. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  907. about:
  908. @enumerate
  909. @item What exactly did you do?
  910. @item What did you expect to happen?
  911. @item What happened instead?
  912. @end enumerate
  913. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  914. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  915. @cindex backtrace of an error
  916. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  917. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  918. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  919. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  920. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  921. @enumerate
  922. @item
  923. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  924. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  925. To do this, use
  926. @example
  927. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  928. @end example
  929. @noindent
  930. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  931. menu.
  932. @item
  933. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  934. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  935. @item
  936. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  937. document the steps you take.
  938. @item
  939. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  940. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  941. attach it to your bug report.
  942. @end enumerate
  943. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  944. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  945. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  946. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  947. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  948. @table @code
  949. @item TODO
  950. @itemx WAITING
  951. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  952. user-defined.
  953. @item boss
  954. @itemx ARCHIVE
  955. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  956. meaning are written with all capitals.
  957. @item Release
  958. @itemx PRIORITY
  959. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  960. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  961. @end table
  962. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  963. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_HTML} to start a @code{HTML}
  964. environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to enhance its
  965. readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org files@footnote{Easy
  966. templates insert lowercase keywords and Babel dynamically inserts
  967. @code{#+results}.}
  968. @subsubheading Keybindings and commands
  969. @kindex C-c a
  970. @findex org-agenda
  971. @kindex C-c c
  972. @findex org-capture
  973. The manual suggests two global keybindings: @kbd{C-c a} for @code{org-agenda}
  974. and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only suggestions, but the
  975. rest of the manual assumes that you are using these keybindings.
  976. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  977. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  978. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  979. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  980. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  981. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will
  982. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  983. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  984. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  985. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  986. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  987. @chapter Document structure
  988. @cindex document structure
  989. @cindex structure of document
  990. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  991. edit the structure of the document.
  992. @menu
  993. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  994. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  995. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  996. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  997. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  998. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  999. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  1000. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  1001. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  1002. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  1003. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  1004. @end menu
  1005. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  1006. @section Outlines
  1007. @cindex outlines
  1008. @cindex Outline mode
  1009. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  1010. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  1011. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  1012. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  1013. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  1014. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  1015. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  1016. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  1017. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  1018. @section Headlines
  1019. @cindex headlines
  1020. @cindex outline tree
  1021. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  1022. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  1023. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  1024. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  1025. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  1026. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  1027. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  1028. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  1029. headings indented less then 30 stars.}. For example:
  1030. @example
  1031. * Top level headline
  1032. ** Second level
  1033. *** 3rd level
  1034. some text
  1035. *** 3rd level
  1036. more text
  1037. * Another top level headline
  1038. @end example
  1039. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  1040. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  1041. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  1042. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  1043. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  1044. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  1045. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  1046. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  1047. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  1048. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  1049. @section Visibility cycling
  1050. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1051. @cindex visibility cycling
  1052. @cindex trees, visibility
  1053. @cindex show hidden text
  1054. @cindex hide text
  1055. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1056. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1057. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1058. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1059. @cindex subtree cycling
  1060. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1061. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1062. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1063. @table @asis
  1064. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1065. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1066. @example
  1067. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1068. '-----------------------------------'
  1069. @end example
  1070. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1071. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1072. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1073. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1074. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1075. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1076. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1077. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1078. @cindex global visibility states
  1079. @cindex global cycling
  1080. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1081. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1082. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1083. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1084. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1085. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1086. @example
  1087. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1088. '--------------------------------------'
  1089. @end example
  1090. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1091. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1092. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1093. @cindex show all, command
  1094. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  1095. Show all, including drawers.
  1096. @cindex revealing context
  1097. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1098. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1099. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1100. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1101. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1102. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1103. entire subtree of the parent.
  1104. @cindex show branches, command
  1105. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1106. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1107. @cindex show children, command
  1108. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},show-children}
  1109. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1110. expose all children down to level N.
  1111. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1112. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1113. buffer
  1114. @ifinfo
  1115. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1116. @end ifinfo
  1117. @ifnotinfo
  1118. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1119. @end ifnotinfo
  1120. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1121. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1122. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1123. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1124. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1125. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1126. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1127. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1128. @end table
  1129. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1130. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1131. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1132. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1133. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1134. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1135. OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1136. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1137. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1138. buffer:
  1139. @example
  1140. #+STARTUP: overview
  1141. #+STARTUP: content
  1142. #+STARTUP: showall
  1143. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1144. @end example
  1145. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1146. @noindent
  1147. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1148. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1149. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1150. @code{all}.
  1151. @table @asis
  1152. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1153. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.@: whatever is
  1154. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1155. entries.
  1156. @end table
  1157. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1158. @section Motion
  1159. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1160. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1161. @cindex headline navigation
  1162. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1163. @table @asis
  1164. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1165. Next heading.
  1166. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1167. Previous heading.
  1168. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1169. Next heading same level.
  1170. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1171. Previous heading same level.
  1172. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1173. Backward to higher level heading.
  1174. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1175. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1176. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1177. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1178. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1179. @example
  1180. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1181. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1182. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1183. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1184. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1185. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1186. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1187. u @r{One level up.}
  1188. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1189. q @r{Quit}
  1190. @end example
  1191. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1192. @noindent
  1193. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1194. @end table
  1195. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1196. @section Structure editing
  1197. @cindex structure editing
  1198. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1199. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1200. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1201. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1202. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1203. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1204. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1205. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1206. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1207. @table @asis
  1208. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1209. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1210. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1211. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1212. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1213. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1214. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1215. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1216. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1217. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1218. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.@:
  1219. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1220. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1221. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1222. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1223. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1224. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1225. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1226. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1227. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1228. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1229. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1230. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1231. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1232. subtree.
  1233. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1234. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1235. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1236. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1237. to the initial level.
  1238. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1239. Promote current heading by one level.
  1240. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1241. Demote current heading by one level.
  1242. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1243. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1244. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1245. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1246. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1247. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1248. level).
  1249. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1250. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1251. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1252. Kill subtree, i.e.@: remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1253. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1254. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1255. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1256. sequential subtrees.
  1257. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1258. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1259. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1260. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1261. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1262. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1263. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1264. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1265. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1266. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1267. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1268. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1269. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1270. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1271. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1272. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1273. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1274. folding.
  1275. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1276. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1277. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1278. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1279. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1280. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1281. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1282. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1283. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refile and copy}.
  1284. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1285. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1286. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1287. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1288. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1289. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1290. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1291. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1292. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1293. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1294. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1295. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1296. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1297. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1298. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1299. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1300. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1301. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1302. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1303. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1304. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1305. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1306. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1307. @end table
  1308. @cindex region, active
  1309. @cindex active region
  1310. @cindex transient mark mode
  1311. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1312. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1313. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1314. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1315. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1316. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1317. functionality.
  1318. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1319. @section Sparse trees
  1320. @cindex sparse trees
  1321. @cindex trees, sparse
  1322. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1323. @cindex occur, command
  1324. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1325. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1326. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1327. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1328. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1329. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1330. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1331. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1332. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1333. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1334. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1335. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1336. Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1337. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1338. @table @asis
  1339. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1340. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1341. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1342. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1343. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1344. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1345. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1346. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1347. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1348. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1349. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1350. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1351. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1352. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1353. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1354. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1355. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1356. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1357. @end table
  1358. @noindent
  1359. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1360. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1361. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1362. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1363. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1364. For example:
  1365. @lisp
  1366. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1367. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1368. @end lisp
  1369. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1370. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1371. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1372. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1373. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1374. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1375. @cindex visible text, printing
  1376. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1377. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1378. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1379. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1380. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1381. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1382. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1383. @section Plain lists
  1384. @cindex plain lists
  1385. @cindex lists, plain
  1386. @cindex lists, ordered
  1387. @cindex ordered lists
  1388. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1389. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1390. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1391. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1392. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1393. @itemize @bullet
  1394. @item
  1395. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1396. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1397. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1398. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1399. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1400. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1401. bullets.
  1402. @item
  1403. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1404. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1405. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1406. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1407. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1408. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1409. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1410. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1411. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1412. list to start with a different value (e.g.@: 20), start the text of the item
  1413. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1414. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1415. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1416. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1417. @item
  1418. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1419. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1420. description.
  1421. @end itemize
  1422. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1423. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1424. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1425. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1426. than its bullet/number.
  1427. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1428. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1429. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1430. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1431. that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1432. @example
  1433. @group
  1434. ** Lord of the Rings
  1435. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1436. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1437. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1438. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1439. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1440. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1441. - on DVD only
  1442. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1443. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1444. Important actors in this film are:
  1445. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1446. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1447. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1448. @end group
  1449. @end example
  1450. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1451. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1452. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1453. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1454. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1455. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1456. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1457. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1458. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1459. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1460. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1461. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1462. indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1463. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1464. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1465. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1466. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1467. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1468. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1469. to disable them individually.
  1470. @table @asis
  1471. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1472. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1473. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1474. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1475. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1476. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1477. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1478. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1479. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1480. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1481. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1482. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1483. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1484. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1485. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1486. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1487. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1488. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1489. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1490. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1491. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1492. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1493. one.
  1494. @end table
  1495. @table @kbd
  1496. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1497. @item M-S-RET
  1498. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1499. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1500. @item S-up
  1501. @itemx S-down
  1502. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1503. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1504. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1505. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1506. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1507. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1508. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1509. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1510. similar effect.
  1511. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1512. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1513. @item M-up
  1514. @itemx M-down
  1515. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1516. @code{org-liste-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1517. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1518. is automatic.
  1519. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1520. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1521. @item M-left
  1522. @itemx M-right
  1523. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1524. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1525. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1526. @item M-S-left
  1527. @itemx M-S-right
  1528. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1529. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1530. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1531. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1532. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1533. motion or so.
  1534. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1535. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1536. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1537. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1538. @kindex C-c C-c
  1539. @item C-c C-c
  1540. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1541. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1542. consistency in the whole list.
  1543. @kindex C-c -
  1544. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1545. @item C-c -
  1546. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1547. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1548. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1549. and its indentation. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet
  1550. from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, selected
  1551. text will be changed into an item. With a prefix argument, all lines will be
  1552. converted to list items. If the first line already was a list item, any item
  1553. marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1554. region, a normal line will be converted into a list item.
  1555. @kindex C-c *
  1556. @item C-c *
  1557. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1558. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1559. @kindex C-c C-*
  1560. @item C-c C-*
  1561. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1562. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1563. (resp. checked).
  1564. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1565. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1566. @item S-left/right
  1567. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1568. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1569. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1570. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1571. @kindex C-c ^
  1572. @item C-c ^
  1573. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1574. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1575. @end table
  1576. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1577. @section Drawers
  1578. @cindex drawers
  1579. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1580. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1581. @vindex org-drawers
  1582. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  1583. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1584. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1585. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1586. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1587. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define additional drawers on a
  1588. per-file basis with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN STATE}}. Drawers
  1589. look like this:
  1590. @example
  1591. ** This is a headline
  1592. Still outside the drawer
  1593. :DRAWERNAME:
  1594. This is inside the drawer.
  1595. :END:
  1596. After the drawer.
  1597. @end example
  1598. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1599. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1600. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1601. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add a
  1602. property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1603. keywords is also possible using @key{M-TAB}.
  1604. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1605. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1606. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1607. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1608. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1609. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1610. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1611. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1612. @table @kbd
  1613. @kindex C-c C-z
  1614. @item C-c C-z
  1615. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1616. @end table
  1617. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1618. @section Blocks
  1619. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1620. @cindex blocks, folding
  1621. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1622. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1623. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1624. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1625. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1626. or on a per-file basis by using
  1627. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1628. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1629. @example
  1630. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1631. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1632. @end example
  1633. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1634. @section Footnotes
  1635. @cindex footnotes
  1636. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1637. @file{footnote.el} package, Org mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1638. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1639. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e.@: a footnote is
  1640. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1641. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1642. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1643. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1644. @example
  1645. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1646. ...
  1647. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1648. @end example
  1649. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1650. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1651. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1652. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1653. @LaTeX{}}). Here are the valid references:
  1654. @table @code
  1655. @item [1]
  1656. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1657. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1658. snippet.
  1659. @item [fn:name]
  1660. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1661. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1662. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1663. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1664. reference point.
  1665. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1666. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1667. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1668. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1669. @end table
  1670. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1671. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1672. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1673. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1674. for details.
  1675. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1676. @table @kbd
  1677. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1678. @item C-c C-x f
  1679. The footnote action command.
  1680. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1681. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1682. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1683. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1684. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1685. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1686. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1687. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1688. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1689. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1690. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1691. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1692. options is offered:
  1693. @example
  1694. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1695. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1696. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1697. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1698. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1699. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1700. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1701. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1702. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1703. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1704. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1705. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1706. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1707. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g.@: sending}
  1708. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1709. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1710. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1711. @r{to it.}
  1712. @end example
  1713. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1714. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1715. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1716. deletion.
  1717. @kindex C-c C-c
  1718. @item C-c C-c
  1719. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1720. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1721. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1722. @kindex C-c C-o
  1723. @kindex mouse-1
  1724. @kindex mouse-2
  1725. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1726. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1727. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1728. @end table
  1729. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1730. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1731. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1732. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1733. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1734. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1735. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1736. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1737. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1738. @lisp
  1739. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1740. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1741. @end lisp
  1742. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1743. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1744. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1745. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1746. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1747. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1748. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1749. item.
  1750. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1751. @chapter Tables
  1752. @cindex tables
  1753. @cindex editing tables
  1754. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1755. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1756. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1757. @menu
  1758. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1759. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1760. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1761. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1762. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1763. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1764. @end menu
  1765. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1766. @section The built-in table editor
  1767. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1768. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1769. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1770. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1771. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1772. might look like this:
  1773. @example
  1774. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1775. |-------+-------+-----|
  1776. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1777. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1778. @end example
  1779. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1780. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1781. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1782. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1783. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1784. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1785. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1786. create the above table, you would only type
  1787. @example
  1788. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1789. |-
  1790. @end example
  1791. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1792. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1793. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1794. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1795. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1796. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1797. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1798. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1799. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1800. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1801. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1802. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1803. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1804. @table @kbd
  1805. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1806. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1807. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1808. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1809. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1810. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1811. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1812. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1813. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1814. @*
  1815. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1816. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1817. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1818. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1819. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1820. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1821. @c
  1822. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1823. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1824. necessary.
  1825. @c
  1826. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1827. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1828. @c
  1829. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1830. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1831. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1832. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1833. @c
  1834. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1835. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1836. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1837. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1838. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1839. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1840. Move the current column left/right.
  1841. @c
  1842. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1843. Kill the current column.
  1844. @c
  1845. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1846. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1847. @c
  1848. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1849. Move the current row up/down.
  1850. @c
  1851. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1852. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1853. @c
  1854. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1855. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1856. created below the current one.
  1857. @c
  1858. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1859. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1860. is created above the current line.
  1861. @c
  1862. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1863. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1864. below that line.
  1865. @c
  1866. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1867. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1868. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1869. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1870. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1871. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1872. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1873. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1874. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1875. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1876. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1877. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1878. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1879. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1880. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1881. @c
  1882. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1883. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1884. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1885. @c
  1886. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1887. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1888. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1889. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1890. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1891. lines.
  1892. @c
  1893. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1894. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1895. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1896. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1897. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1898. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1899. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1900. above.
  1901. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1902. @cindex formula, in tables
  1903. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1904. @cindex region, active
  1905. @cindex active region
  1906. @cindex transient mark mode
  1907. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1908. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1909. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1910. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1911. @c
  1912. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1913. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1914. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1915. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1916. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1917. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1918. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1919. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1920. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1921. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1922. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1923. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1924. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1925. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1926. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1927. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1928. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1929. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1930. @c
  1931. @item M-x org-table-import
  1932. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1933. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1934. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1935. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1936. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1937. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1938. separator.
  1939. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1940. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1941. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1942. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1943. @c
  1944. @item M-x org-table-export
  1945. @findex org-table-export
  1946. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1947. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1948. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1949. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1950. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1951. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1952. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1953. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1954. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1955. detailed description.
  1956. @end table
  1957. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1958. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1959. it off with
  1960. @lisp
  1961. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1962. @end lisp
  1963. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1964. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1965. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1966. @section Column width and alignment
  1967. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1968. @cindex alignment in tables
  1969. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1970. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1971. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1972. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1973. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1974. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1975. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1976. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1977. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1978. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1979. @example
  1980. @group
  1981. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1982. | | | | | <6> |
  1983. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1984. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1985. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1986. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1987. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1988. @end group
  1989. @end example
  1990. @noindent
  1991. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1992. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1993. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1994. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1995. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1996. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1997. C-c}.
  1998. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1999. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  2000. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  2001. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  2002. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  2003. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  2004. on a per-file basis with:
  2005. @example
  2006. #+STARTUP: align
  2007. #+STARTUP: noalign
  2008. @end example
  2009. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  2010. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  2011. @samp{<c>}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  2012. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  2013. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  2014. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  2015. automatically when exporting the document.
  2016. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  2017. @section Column groups
  2018. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  2019. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  2020. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  2021. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  2022. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  2023. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  2024. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  2025. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  2026. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<}
  2027. and @samp{>}) to make a column
  2028. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  2029. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  2030. @example
  2031. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2032. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2033. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  2034. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  2035. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  2036. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  2037. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2038. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  2039. @end example
  2040. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  2041. every vertical line you would like to have:
  2042. @example
  2043. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2044. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2045. | / | < | | | < | |
  2046. @end example
  2047. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  2048. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2049. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2050. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2051. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  2052. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  2053. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  2054. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  2055. example in Message mode, use
  2056. @lisp
  2057. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2058. @end lisp
  2059. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2060. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2061. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2062. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2063. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2064. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  2065. @section The spreadsheet
  2066. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2067. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2068. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2069. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2070. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2071. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2072. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2073. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2074. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2075. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2076. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2077. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2078. @menu
  2079. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2080. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2081. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2082. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2083. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2084. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2085. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  2086. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2087. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2088. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2089. @end menu
  2090. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  2091. @subsection References
  2092. @cindex references
  2093. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2094. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2095. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2096. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2097. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2098. @subsubheading Field references
  2099. @cindex field references
  2100. @cindex references, to fields
  2101. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2102. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2103. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2104. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2105. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2106. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2107. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  2108. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2109. representation that looks like this:
  2110. @example
  2111. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2112. @end example
  2113. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2114. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e.@: the
  2115. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2116. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2117. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2118. column from the right.
  2119. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2120. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2121. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2122. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2123. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2124. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2125. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2126. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2127. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2128. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2129. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc@. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2130. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2131. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2132. after the third hline in the table.
  2133. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2134. i.e. to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2135. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2136. implied.
  2137. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2138. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2139. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2140. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2141. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2142. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2143. Here are a few examples:
  2144. @example
  2145. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2146. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2147. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2148. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2149. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2150. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2151. @end example
  2152. @subsubheading Range references
  2153. @cindex range references
  2154. @cindex references, to ranges
  2155. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2156. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2157. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2158. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2159. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2160. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2161. @example
  2162. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2163. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2164. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2165. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2166. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2167. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2168. @end example
  2169. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2170. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2171. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2172. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2173. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2174. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2175. @cindex field coordinates
  2176. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2177. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2178. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2179. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2180. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2181. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2182. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2183. @example
  2184. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2185. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2186. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2187. @end example
  2188. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2189. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2190. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2191. number of rows.
  2192. @subsubheading Named references
  2193. @cindex named references
  2194. @cindex references, named
  2195. @cindex name, of column or field
  2196. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2197. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2198. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2199. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2200. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2201. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2202. line like
  2203. @example
  2204. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2205. @end example
  2206. @noindent
  2207. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2208. @pindex constants.el
  2209. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2210. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2211. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2212. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2213. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2214. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2215. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2216. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2217. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2218. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2219. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2220. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2221. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2222. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2223. numbers.
  2224. @subsubheading Remote references
  2225. @cindex remote references
  2226. @cindex references, remote
  2227. @cindex references, to a different table
  2228. @cindex name, of column or field
  2229. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2230. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2231. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2232. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2233. @example
  2234. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2235. @end example
  2236. @noindent
  2237. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2238. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2239. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2240. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2241. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2242. referenced table.
  2243. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2244. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2245. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2246. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2247. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2248. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2249. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2250. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2251. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2252. Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc, GNU
  2253. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2254. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2255. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2256. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2257. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2258. @cindex format specifier
  2259. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2260. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2261. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2262. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2263. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2264. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2265. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2266. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2267. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2268. @example
  2269. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2270. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2271. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2272. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2273. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2274. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2275. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2276. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  2277. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  2278. L @r{literal}
  2279. @end example
  2280. @noindent
  2281. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2282. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2283. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2284. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2285. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2286. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2287. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2288. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2289. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2290. A few examples:
  2291. @example
  2292. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2293. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2294. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2295. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2296. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2297. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2298. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2299. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2300. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  2301. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2302. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2303. @end example
  2304. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2305. @example
  2306. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{"teen" if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  2307. @end example
  2308. Note that you can also use two org-specific flags @code{T} and @code{t} for
  2309. durations computations @ref{Durations and time values}.
  2310. You can add your own Calc functions defined in Emacs Lisp with @code{defmath}
  2311. and use them in formula syntax for Calc.
  2312. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2313. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2314. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2315. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be useful
  2316. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is
  2317. not enough.
  2318. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening parenthesis,
  2319. then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a
  2320. string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes
  2321. and a printf format after a semicolon.
  2322. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2323. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be
  2324. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If
  2325. you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers
  2326. (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without
  2327. quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated
  2328. literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted
  2329. as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in
  2330. double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated
  2331. fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax.
  2332. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2333. computations in Lisp:
  2334. @example
  2335. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2336. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2337. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2338. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2339. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2340. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2341. @end example
  2342. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2343. @subsection Durations and time values
  2344. @cindex Duration, computing
  2345. @cindex Time, computing
  2346. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2347. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2348. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2349. @example
  2350. @group
  2351. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2352. |---------+----------+----------|
  2353. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2354. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2355. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2356. @end group
  2357. @end example
  2358. Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2359. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2360. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2361. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the variable
  2362. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2363. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2364. example above).
  2365. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2366. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2367. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2368. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2369. @cindex field formula
  2370. @cindex range formula
  2371. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2372. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2373. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2374. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2375. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2376. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2377. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2378. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2379. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2380. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2381. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2382. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2383. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2384. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2385. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2386. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2387. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2388. of course not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2389. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2390. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2391. command
  2392. @table @kbd
  2393. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2394. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2395. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2396. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2397. @end table
  2398. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2399. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2400. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2401. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2402. directly.
  2403. @table @code
  2404. @item $2=
  2405. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2406. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2407. @item @@3=
  2408. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2409. the last row.
  2410. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2411. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2412. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2413. @item $name=
  2414. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2415. @end table
  2416. @node Column formulas, Lookup functions, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2417. @subsection Column formulas
  2418. @cindex column formula
  2419. @cindex formula, for table column
  2420. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2421. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2422. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2423. hlines with rows above and below, everything before the first such hline is
  2424. considered part of the table @emph{header} and will not be modified by column
  2425. formulas. Therefore a header is mandatory when you use column formulas and
  2426. want to add hlines to group rows, like for example to separate a total row at
  2427. the bottom from the summand rows above. (ii) Fields that already get a value
  2428. from a field/range formula will be left alone by column formulas. These
  2429. conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2430. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2431. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2432. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2433. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2434. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2435. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2436. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2437. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2438. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2439. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2440. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2441. following command:
  2442. @table @kbd
  2443. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2444. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2445. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2446. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2447. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g.@: @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2448. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2449. @end table
  2450. @node Lookup functions, Editing and debugging formulas, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2451. @subsection Lookup functions
  2452. @cindex lookup functions in tables
  2453. @cindex table lookup functions
  2454. Org has three predefined Emacs Lisp functions for lookups in tables.
  2455. @table @code
  2456. @item (org-lookup-first VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2457. @findex org-lookup-first
  2458. Searches for the first element @code{S} in list @code{S-LIST} for which
  2459. @lisp
  2460. (PREDICATE VAL S)
  2461. @end lisp
  2462. is @code{t}; returns the value from the corresponding position in list
  2463. @code{R-LIST}. The default @code{PREDICATE} is @code{equal}. Note that the
  2464. parameters @code{VAL} and @code{S} are passed to @code{PREDICATE} in the same
  2465. order as the correspoding parameters are in the call to
  2466. @code{org-lookup-first}, where @code{VAL} precedes @code{S-LIST}. If
  2467. @code{R-LIST} is @code{nil}, the matching element @code{S} of @code{S-LIST}
  2468. is returned.
  2469. @item (org-lookup-last VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2470. @findex org-lookup-last
  2471. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first} above, but searches for the @i{last}
  2472. element for which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}.
  2473. @item (org-lookup-all VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2474. @findex org-lookup-all
  2475. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first}, but searches for @i{all} elements for
  2476. which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}, and returns @i{all} corresponding
  2477. values. This function can not be used by itself in a formula, because it
  2478. returns a list of values. However, powerful lookups can be built when this
  2479. function is combined with other Emacs Lisp functions.
  2480. @end table
  2481. If the ranges used in these functions contain empty fields, the @code{E} mode
  2482. for the formula should usually be specified: otherwise empty fields will not be
  2483. included in @code{S-LIST} and/or @code{R-LIST} which can, for example, result
  2484. in an incorrect mapping from an element of @code{S-LIST} to the corresponding
  2485. element of @code{R-LIST}.
  2486. These three functions can be used to implement associative arrays, count
  2487. matching cells, rank results, group data etc. For practical examples
  2488. see @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-lookups.html, this
  2489. tutorial on Worg}.
  2490. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Lookup functions, The spreadsheet
  2491. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2492. @cindex formula editing
  2493. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2494. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2495. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2496. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2497. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2498. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2499. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2500. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2501. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2502. @table @kbd
  2503. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2504. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2505. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2506. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2507. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2508. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2509. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2510. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2511. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2512. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2513. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2514. @kindex C-c @}
  2515. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2516. @item C-c @}
  2517. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2518. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2519. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2520. @kindex C-c @{
  2521. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2522. @item C-c @{
  2523. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2524. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2525. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2526. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2527. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2528. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2529. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2530. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2531. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2532. @table @kbd
  2533. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2534. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2535. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2536. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2537. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2538. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2539. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2540. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2541. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2542. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2543. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2544. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2545. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2546. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2547. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2548. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2549. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2550. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2551. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2552. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2553. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2554. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2555. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2556. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2557. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2558. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2559. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2560. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2561. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2562. down.
  2563. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2564. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2565. @kindex C-c @}
  2566. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2567. @item C-c @}
  2568. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2569. @end table
  2570. @end table
  2571. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2572. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2573. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2574. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2575. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2576. @kindex C-c C-c
  2577. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2578. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2579. recalculation commands in the table.
  2580. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2581. @cindex formula debugging
  2582. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2583. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2584. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2585. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2586. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2587. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2588. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2589. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2590. @subsection Updating the table
  2591. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2592. @cindex updating, table
  2593. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2594. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2595. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2596. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2597. following commands:
  2598. @table @kbd
  2599. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2600. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2601. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2602. @c
  2603. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2604. @item C-u C-c *
  2605. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2606. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2607. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2608. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2609. @c
  2610. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2611. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2612. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2613. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2614. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2615. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2616. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2617. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2618. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2619. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2620. dependencies.
  2621. @end table
  2622. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2623. @subsection Advanced features
  2624. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2625. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2626. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2627. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2628. special marking characters.
  2629. @table @kbd
  2630. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2631. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2632. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2633. change all marks in the region.
  2634. @end table
  2635. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2636. makes use of these features:
  2637. @example
  2638. @group
  2639. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2640. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2641. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2642. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2643. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2644. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2645. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2646. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2647. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2648. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2649. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2650. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2651. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2652. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2653. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2654. @end group
  2655. @end example
  2656. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2657. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2658. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2659. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2660. empty first field.
  2661. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2662. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2663. @table @samp
  2664. @item !
  2665. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2666. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2667. @item ^
  2668. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2669. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2670. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2671. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2672. @item _
  2673. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2674. @emph{below}.
  2675. @item $
  2676. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2677. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2678. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2679. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2680. a per-table basis.
  2681. @item #
  2682. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2683. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2684. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2685. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2686. @item *
  2687. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2688. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2689. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2690. @item
  2691. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2692. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2693. or @samp{*}.
  2694. @item /
  2695. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2696. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2697. @end table
  2698. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2699. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2700. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2701. functions.
  2702. @example
  2703. @group
  2704. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2705. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2706. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2707. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2708. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2709. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2710. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2711. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2712. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2713. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2714. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2715. @end group
  2716. @end example
  2717. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2718. @section Org-Plot
  2719. @cindex graph, in tables
  2720. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2721. @cindex #+PLOT
  2722. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2723. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2724. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2725. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2726. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2727. @example
  2728. @group
  2729. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2730. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2731. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2732. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2733. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2734. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2735. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2736. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2737. @end group
  2738. @end example
  2739. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2740. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2741. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2742. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2743. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2744. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2745. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2746. @table @code
  2747. @item set
  2748. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2749. @item title
  2750. Specify the title of the plot.
  2751. @item ind
  2752. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2753. @item deps
  2754. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2755. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2756. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2757. column).
  2758. @item type
  2759. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2760. @item with
  2761. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2762. (e.g.@: @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2763. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2764. @item file
  2765. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2766. @item labels
  2767. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2768. if they exist).
  2769. @item line
  2770. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2771. @item map
  2772. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2773. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2774. @item timefmt
  2775. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2776. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2777. @item script
  2778. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2779. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2780. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2781. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2782. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2783. the data file.
  2784. @end table
  2785. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2786. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2787. @cindex hyperlinks
  2788. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2789. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2790. @menu
  2791. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2792. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2793. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2794. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2795. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2796. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2797. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2798. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2799. @end menu
  2800. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2801. @section Link format
  2802. @cindex link format
  2803. @cindex format, of links
  2804. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2805. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2806. @example
  2807. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2808. @end example
  2809. @noindent
  2810. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2811. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2812. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2813. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2814. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2815. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2816. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2817. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2818. cursor on the link.
  2819. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2820. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2821. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2822. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2823. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2824. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2825. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2826. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2827. @section Internal links
  2828. @cindex internal links
  2829. @cindex links, internal
  2830. @cindex targets, for links
  2831. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2832. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2833. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2834. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2835. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2836. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2837. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2838. in a file.
  2839. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2840. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2841. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2842. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2843. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2844. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2845. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2846. comment line. For example
  2847. @example
  2848. # <<My Target>>
  2849. @end example
  2850. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2851. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2852. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2853. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2854. first headline.}.
  2855. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2856. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2857. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2858. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2859. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2860. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2861. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2862. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2863. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2864. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2865. earlier.
  2866. @menu
  2867. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2868. @end menu
  2869. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2870. @subsection Radio targets
  2871. @cindex radio targets
  2872. @cindex targets, radio
  2873. @cindex links, radio targets
  2874. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2875. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2876. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2877. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2878. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2879. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2880. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2881. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2882. cursor on or at a target.
  2883. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2884. @section External links
  2885. @cindex links, external
  2886. @cindex external links
  2887. @cindex links, external
  2888. @cindex Gnus links
  2889. @cindex BBDB links
  2890. @cindex IRC links
  2891. @cindex URL links
  2892. @cindex file links
  2893. @cindex VM links
  2894. @cindex RMAIL links
  2895. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2896. @cindex MH-E links
  2897. @cindex USENET links
  2898. @cindex SHELL links
  2899. @cindex Info links
  2900. @cindex Elisp links
  2901. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2902. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2903. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2904. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2905. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2906. @example
  2907. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2908. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2909. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2910. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2911. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2912. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2913. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2914. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2915. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  2916. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2917. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  2918. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  2919. the variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  2920. is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  2921. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  2922. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  2923. will be queried to create it.}
  2924. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2925. file+sys:/path/to/file @r{open via OS, like double-click}
  2926. file+emacs:/path/to/file @r{force opening by Emacs}
  2927. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  2928. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2929. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2930. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2931. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2932. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2933. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2934. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  2935. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  2936. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2937. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2938. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2939. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2940. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2941. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2942. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2943. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2944. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2945. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2946. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  2947. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2948. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2949. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2950. @end example
  2951. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2952. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2953. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2954. format}), for example:
  2955. @example
  2956. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2957. @end example
  2958. @noindent
  2959. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2960. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2961. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2962. image,
  2963. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2964. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2965. @cindex plain text external links
  2966. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2967. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2968. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2969. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2970. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2971. @section Handling links
  2972. @cindex links, handling
  2973. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2974. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2975. @table @kbd
  2976. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2977. @cindex storing links
  2978. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2979. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2980. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2981. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2982. buffer:
  2983. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  2984. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2985. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2986. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  2987. removed from the link and result in a wrong link -- you should avoid putting
  2988. timestamp in the headline.}.
  2989. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2990. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2991. @cindex property, ID
  2992. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2993. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2994. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2995. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2996. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2997. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2998. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2999. to use.
  3000. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  3001. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  3002. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  3003. constructed from the author and the subject.
  3004. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  3005. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  3006. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  3007. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  3008. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  3009. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  3010. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  3011. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  3012. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  3013. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  3014. @b{Other files}@*
  3015. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  3016. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  3017. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  3018. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  3019. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  3020. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  3021. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  3022. @b{Agenda view}@*
  3023. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  3024. entry referenced by the current line.
  3025. @c
  3026. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  3027. @cindex link completion
  3028. @cindex completion, of links
  3029. @cindex inserting links
  3030. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  3031. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  3032. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  3033. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  3034. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  3035. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  3036. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  3037. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  3038. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  3039. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  3040. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  3041. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  3042. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  3043. becomes the default description.
  3044. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  3045. All links stored during the
  3046. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  3047. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  3048. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  3049. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  3050. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  3051. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  3052. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  3053. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  3054. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  3055. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  3056. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  3057. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  3058. @cindex file name completion
  3059. @cindex completion, of file names
  3060. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  3061. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  3062. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  3063. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  3064. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  3065. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  3066. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  3067. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3068. @c
  3069. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  3070. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  3071. link and description parts of the link.
  3072. @c
  3073. @cindex following links
  3074. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  3075. @vindex org-file-apps
  3076. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3077. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  3078. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  3079. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  3080. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  3081. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  3082. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  3083. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  3084. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3085. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3086. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3087. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3088. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3089. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3090. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3091. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3092. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3093. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3094. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3095. the link at point.
  3096. @c
  3097. @kindex mouse-2
  3098. @kindex mouse-1
  3099. @item mouse-2
  3100. @itemx mouse-1
  3101. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  3102. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  3103. @c
  3104. @kindex mouse-3
  3105. @item mouse-3
  3106. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3107. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3108. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3109. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3110. @c
  3111. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3112. @cindex inlining images
  3113. @cindex images, inlining
  3114. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3115. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3116. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3117. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3118. images that have no description part in the link, i.e.@: images that will also
  3119. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3120. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3121. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3122. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3123. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  3124. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3125. @cindex mark ring
  3126. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3127. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3128. @c
  3129. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3130. @cindex links, returning to
  3131. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3132. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3133. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3134. previously recorded positions.
  3135. @c
  3136. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3137. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3138. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3139. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3140. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3141. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3142. @lisp
  3143. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3144. (lambda ()
  3145. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3146. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3147. @end lisp
  3148. @end table
  3149. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  3150. @section Using links outside Org
  3151. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3152. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3153. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3154. yourself):
  3155. @lisp
  3156. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3157. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3158. @end lisp
  3159. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  3160. @section Link abbreviations
  3161. @cindex link abbreviations
  3162. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3163. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3164. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3165. abbreviated link looks like this
  3166. @example
  3167. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3168. @end example
  3169. @noindent
  3170. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3171. where the tag is optional.
  3172. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3173. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3174. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3175. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3176. @smalllisp
  3177. @group
  3178. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3179. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3180. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3181. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3182. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3183. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3184. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3185. @end group
  3186. @end smalllisp
  3187. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3188. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3189. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3190. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3191. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3192. If the replacement text don't contain any specifier, it will simply
  3193. be appended to the string in order to create the link.
  3194. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3195. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3196. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3197. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3198. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3199. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3200. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3201. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3202. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3203. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3204. can define them in the file with
  3205. @cindex #+LINK
  3206. @example
  3207. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3208. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3209. @end example
  3210. @noindent
  3211. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3212. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3213. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g.@: completion)
  3214. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3215. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3216. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3217. @section Search options in file links
  3218. @cindex search option in file links
  3219. @cindex file links, searching
  3220. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3221. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3222. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3223. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3224. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3225. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3226. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3227. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3228. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3229. link, together with an explanation:
  3230. @example
  3231. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3232. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3233. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3234. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3235. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3236. @end example
  3237. @table @code
  3238. @item 255
  3239. Jump to line 255.
  3240. @item My Target
  3241. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3242. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3243. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3244. link will become a HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3245. the linked file.
  3246. @item *My Target
  3247. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3248. @item #my-custom-id
  3249. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3250. @item /regexp/
  3251. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3252. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3253. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3254. sparse tree with the matches.
  3255. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3256. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3257. @end table
  3258. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3259. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3260. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3261. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3262. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3263. @section Custom Searches
  3264. @cindex custom search strings
  3265. @cindex search strings, custom
  3266. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3267. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3268. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3269. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3270. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3271. citation key.
  3272. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3273. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3274. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3275. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3276. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3277. to be added to the hook variables
  3278. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3279. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3280. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3281. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3282. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3283. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3284. @chapter TODO items
  3285. @cindex TODO items
  3286. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3287. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3288. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3289. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3290. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3291. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3292. item emerged is always present.
  3293. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3294. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3295. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3296. @menu
  3297. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3298. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3299. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3300. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3301. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3302. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3303. @end menu
  3304. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3305. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3306. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3307. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3308. @example
  3309. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3310. @end example
  3311. @noindent
  3312. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3313. @table @kbd
  3314. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3315. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3316. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3317. @example
  3318. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3319. '--------------------------------'
  3320. @end example
  3321. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3322. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3323. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3324. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  3325. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  3326. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  3327. more information.
  3328. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3329. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3330. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3331. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3332. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3333. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3334. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3335. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3336. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3337. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-tree}
  3338. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3339. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3340. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3341. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3342. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3343. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3344. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3345. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3346. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3347. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3348. both un-done and done.
  3349. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3350. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3351. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3352. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3353. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3354. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3355. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3356. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3357. @end table
  3358. @noindent
  3359. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3360. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3361. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3362. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3363. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3364. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3365. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3366. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3367. DONE. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3368. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3369. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3370. files.
  3371. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3372. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3373. @menu
  3374. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3375. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3376. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3377. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3378. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3379. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3380. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3381. @end menu
  3382. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3383. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3384. @cindex TODO workflow
  3385. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3386. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3387. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3388. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3389. buffer.}:
  3390. @lisp
  3391. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3392. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3393. @end lisp
  3394. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3395. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3396. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3397. state.
  3398. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3399. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3400. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  3401. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3402. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  3403. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3404. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3405. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3406. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3407. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3408. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3409. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3410. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3411. @cindex TODO types
  3412. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3413. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3414. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3415. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3416. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3417. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3418. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3419. be set up like this:
  3420. @lisp
  3421. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3422. @end lisp
  3423. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3424. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3425. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org mode supports this style by adapting
  3426. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3427. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3428. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3429. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3430. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3431. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3432. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3433. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3434. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3435. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3436. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3437. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3438. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3439. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3440. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3441. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3442. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3443. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3444. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3445. like this:
  3446. @lisp
  3447. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3448. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3449. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3450. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3451. @end lisp
  3452. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3453. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3454. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3455. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3456. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3457. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3458. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3459. @table @kbd
  3460. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3461. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3462. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3463. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3464. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3465. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3466. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3467. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3468. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3469. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3470. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3471. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3472. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3473. @item S-@key{right}
  3474. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3475. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3476. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3477. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3478. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3479. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3480. @end table
  3481. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3482. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3483. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3484. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3485. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection character after
  3486. each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except
  3487. @code{@@^!}, which have a special meaning here.}. For example:
  3488. @lisp
  3489. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3490. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3491. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3492. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3493. @end lisp
  3494. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3495. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3496. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3497. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3498. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3499. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3500. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3501. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3502. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3503. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3504. @cindex keyword options
  3505. @cindex per-file keywords
  3506. @cindex #+TODO
  3507. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3508. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3509. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3510. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3511. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3512. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3513. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3514. file:
  3515. @example
  3516. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3517. @end example
  3518. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3519. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3520. @example
  3521. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3522. @end example
  3523. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3524. @example
  3525. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3526. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3527. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3528. @end example
  3529. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3530. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3531. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3532. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3533. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3534. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3535. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3536. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3537. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3538. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3539. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3540. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3541. for the current buffer.}.
  3542. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3543. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3544. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3545. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3546. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3547. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3548. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3549. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3550. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3551. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3552. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3553. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3554. @lisp
  3555. @group
  3556. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3557. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3558. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3559. @end group
  3560. @end lisp
  3561. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3562. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3563. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3564. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3565. foreground or a background color.
  3566. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3567. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3568. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3569. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3570. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3571. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3572. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3573. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3574. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3575. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3576. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3577. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3578. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3579. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3580. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3581. example:
  3582. @example
  3583. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3584. ** DONE one
  3585. ** TODO two
  3586. * Parent
  3587. :PROPERTIES:
  3588. :ORDERED: t
  3589. :END:
  3590. ** TODO a
  3591. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3592. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3593. @end example
  3594. @table @kbd
  3595. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3596. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3597. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3598. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3599. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3600. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3601. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3602. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3603. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3604. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3605. @end table
  3606. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3607. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3608. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3609. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3610. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3611. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3612. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3613. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3614. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3615. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3616. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3617. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3618. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3619. @page
  3620. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3621. @section Progress logging
  3622. @cindex progress logging
  3623. @cindex logging, of progress
  3624. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3625. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3626. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3627. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3628. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3629. work time}.
  3630. @menu
  3631. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3632. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3633. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3634. @end menu
  3635. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3636. @subsection Closing items
  3637. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3638. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3639. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3640. @lisp
  3641. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3642. @end lisp
  3643. @noindent
  3644. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3645. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3646. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3647. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3648. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3649. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3650. @lisp
  3651. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3652. @end lisp
  3653. @noindent
  3654. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3655. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3656. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3657. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3658. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3659. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3660. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3661. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3662. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3663. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3664. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3665. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3666. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3667. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3668. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3669. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3670. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3671. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3672. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3673. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the
  3674. recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3675. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3676. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3677. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3678. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3679. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3680. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3681. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3682. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3683. setting
  3684. @lisp
  3685. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3686. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3687. @end lisp
  3688. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3689. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3690. @noindent
  3691. @vindex org-log-done
  3692. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3693. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3694. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3695. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3696. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3697. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3698. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3699. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3700. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3701. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3702. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3703. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3704. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3705. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3706. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3707. configured.
  3708. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3709. to a buffer:
  3710. @example
  3711. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3712. @end example
  3713. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3714. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3715. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3716. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3717. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3718. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3719. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3720. @example
  3721. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3722. :PROPERTIES:
  3723. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3724. :END:
  3725. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3726. :PROPERTIES:
  3727. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3728. :END:
  3729. * TODO No logging at all
  3730. :PROPERTIES:
  3731. :LOGGING: nil
  3732. :END:
  3733. @end example
  3734. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3735. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3736. @cindex habits
  3737. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3738. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3739. @enumerate
  3740. @item
  3741. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3742. @code{org-modules}.
  3743. @item
  3744. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3745. @item
  3746. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3747. @item
  3748. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3749. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3750. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3751. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3752. @item
  3753. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3754. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3755. three days, but at most every two days.
  3756. @item
  3757. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled
  3758. (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3759. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an
  3760. error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless.
  3761. @end enumerate
  3762. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3763. actual habit with some history:
  3764. @example
  3765. ** TODO Shave
  3766. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3767. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3768. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3769. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3770. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3771. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3772. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3773. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3774. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3775. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3776. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3777. :PROPERTIES:
  3778. :STYLE: habit
  3779. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3780. :END:
  3781. @end example
  3782. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3783. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3784. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3785. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3786. after four days have elapsed.
  3787. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3788. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3789. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3790. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3791. @table @code
  3792. @item Blue
  3793. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3794. @item Green
  3795. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3796. @item Yellow
  3797. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3798. @item Red
  3799. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3800. @end table
  3801. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3802. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3803. the current day falls in the graph.
  3804. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3805. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3806. @table @code
  3807. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3808. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3809. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3810. titles brief and to the point.
  3811. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3812. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3813. @item org-habit-following-days
  3814. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3815. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3816. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3817. default.
  3818. @end table
  3819. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3820. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3821. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3822. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3823. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3824. @section Priorities
  3825. @cindex priorities
  3826. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3827. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3828. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3829. @example
  3830. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3831. @end example
  3832. @noindent
  3833. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3834. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3835. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3836. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3837. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3838. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3839. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3840. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3841. items.
  3842. @table @kbd
  3843. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3844. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3845. @findex org-priority
  3846. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3847. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3848. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3849. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3850. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3851. @c
  3852. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3853. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3854. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3855. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3856. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3857. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3858. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3859. @end table
  3860. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3861. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3862. @vindex org-default-priority
  3863. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3864. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3865. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3866. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3867. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3868. priority):
  3869. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3870. @example
  3871. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3872. @end example
  3873. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3874. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3875. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3876. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3877. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3878. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3879. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3880. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3881. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3882. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3883. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3884. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3885. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3886. @example
  3887. * Organize Party [33%]
  3888. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3889. *** TODO Peter
  3890. *** DONE Sarah
  3891. ** TODO Buy food
  3892. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3893. @end example
  3894. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3895. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3896. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3897. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3898. this issue.
  3899. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3900. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3901. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3902. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3903. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3904. property.
  3905. @example
  3906. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3907. :PROPERTIES:
  3908. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3909. :END:
  3910. @end example
  3911. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3912. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3913. @example
  3914. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3915. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3916. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3917. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3918. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3919. @end example
  3920. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3921. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3922. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3923. @section Checkboxes
  3924. @cindex checkboxes
  3925. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3926. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3927. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3928. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3929. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3930. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3931. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3932. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3933. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3934. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3935. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3936. @example
  3937. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3938. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3939. - [ ] Peter
  3940. - [X] Sarah
  3941. - [ ] Sam
  3942. - [X] order food
  3943. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3944. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3945. @end example
  3946. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3947. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3948. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3949. checked.
  3950. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3951. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3952. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3953. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3954. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3955. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3956. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3957. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3958. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3959. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3960. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3961. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3962. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3963. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3964. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3965. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3966. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3967. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3968. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3969. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3970. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3971. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3972. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3973. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3974. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3975. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3976. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3977. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3978. @table @kbd
  3979. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3980. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
  3981. With a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  3982. one@footnote{`C-u C-c C-c' on the @emph{first} item of a list with no checkbox
  3983. will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is
  3984. considered to be an intermediate state.
  3985. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3986. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3987. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3988. intermediate state.
  3989. @itemize @minus
  3990. @item
  3991. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3992. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3993. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3994. @item
  3995. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3996. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3997. @item
  3998. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3999. @end itemize
  4000. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  4001. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  4002. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  4003. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  4004. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  4005. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4006. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  4007. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  4008. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  4009. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  4010. for better visibility, customize the variable
  4011. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  4012. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  4013. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  4014. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  4015. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  4016. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  4017. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  4018. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  4019. @end table
  4020. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  4021. @chapter Tags
  4022. @cindex tags
  4023. @cindex headline tagging
  4024. @cindex matching, tags
  4025. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  4026. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  4027. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  4028. support for tags.
  4029. @vindex org-tag-faces
  4030. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  4031. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  4032. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  4033. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  4034. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  4035. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  4036. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  4037. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  4038. @menu
  4039. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  4040. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  4041. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  4042. @end menu
  4043. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  4044. @section Tag inheritance
  4045. @cindex tag inheritance
  4046. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  4047. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  4048. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  4049. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  4050. well. For example, in the list
  4051. @example
  4052. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  4053. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  4054. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  4055. @end example
  4056. @noindent
  4057. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  4058. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  4059. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  4060. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  4061. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  4062. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  4063. changes in the line.}:
  4064. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  4065. @example
  4066. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  4067. @end example
  4068. @noindent
  4069. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  4070. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  4071. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  4072. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  4073. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  4074. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4075. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  4076. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  4077. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  4078. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  4079. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  4080. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  4081. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  4082. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  4083. @section Setting tags
  4084. @cindex setting tags
  4085. @cindex tags, setting
  4086. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  4087. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4088. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4089. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4090. @table @kbd
  4091. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4092. @cindex completion, of tags
  4093. @vindex org-tags-column
  4094. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4095. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4096. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4097. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4098. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4099. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4100. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4101. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4102. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4103. @end table
  4104. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4105. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4106. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4107. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4108. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4109. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4110. @cindex #+TAGS
  4111. @example
  4112. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4113. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4114. @end example
  4115. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4116. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4117. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4118. @example
  4119. #+TAGS:
  4120. @end example
  4121. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4122. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4123. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4124. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4125. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4126. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4127. @example
  4128. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4129. @end example
  4130. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4131. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4132. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4133. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4134. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  4135. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  4136. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  4137. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4138. like:
  4139. @lisp
  4140. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4141. @end lisp
  4142. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4143. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4144. @example
  4145. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4146. @end example
  4147. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4148. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4149. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4150. @example
  4151. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4152. @end example
  4153. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4154. @example
  4155. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4156. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4157. @end example
  4158. @noindent
  4159. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4160. braces, as in:
  4161. @example
  4162. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4163. @end example
  4164. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4165. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4166. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4167. these lines to activate any changes.
  4168. @noindent
  4169. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  4170. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4171. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4172. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4173. configuration:
  4174. @lisp
  4175. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4176. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4177. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4178. (:endgroup . nil)
  4179. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4180. @end lisp
  4181. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4182. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4183. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4184. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4185. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4186. keys:
  4187. @table @kbd
  4188. @item a-z...
  4189. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4190. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4191. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4192. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4193. @item @key{TAB}
  4194. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4195. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4196. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4197. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4198. @item @key{SPC}
  4199. Clear all tags for this line.
  4200. @kindex @key{RET}
  4201. @item @key{RET}
  4202. Accept the modified set.
  4203. @item C-g
  4204. Abort without installing changes.
  4205. @item q
  4206. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4207. @item !
  4208. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4209. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4210. @item C-c
  4211. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4212. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4213. selection window.
  4214. @end table
  4215. @noindent
  4216. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4217. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4218. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4219. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4220. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4221. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4222. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4223. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4224. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4225. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4226. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  4227. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  4228. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  4229. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  4230. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  4231. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  4232. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  4233. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  4234. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4235. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4236. @section Tag searches
  4237. @cindex tag searches
  4238. @cindex searching for tags
  4239. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4240. information into special lists.
  4241. @table @kbd
  4242. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4243. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4244. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4245. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4246. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4247. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4248. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4249. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4250. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4251. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4252. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4253. @end table
  4254. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4255. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4256. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4257. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4258. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4259. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4260. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4261. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4262. @chapter Properties and columns
  4263. @cindex properties
  4264. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4265. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4266. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4267. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4268. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4269. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4270. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4271. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4272. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4273. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4274. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4275. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4276. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4277. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4278. @menu
  4279. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4280. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4281. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4282. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4283. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4284. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4285. @end menu
  4286. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4287. @section Property syntax
  4288. @cindex property syntax
  4289. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4290. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4291. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special
  4292. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4293. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4294. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4295. @example
  4296. * CD collection
  4297. ** Classic
  4298. *** Goldberg Variations
  4299. :PROPERTIES:
  4300. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4301. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4302. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4303. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4304. :NDisks: 1
  4305. :END:
  4306. @end example
  4307. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4308. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the sub-tree
  4309. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4310. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4311. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4312. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4313. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4314. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4315. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4316. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4317. @example
  4318. * CD collection
  4319. :PROPERTIES:
  4320. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4321. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4322. :END:
  4323. @end example
  4324. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4325. file, use a line like
  4326. @cindex property, _ALL
  4327. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4328. @example
  4329. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4330. @end example
  4331. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4332. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4333. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4334. @cindex property, +
  4335. @example
  4336. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4337. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4338. @end example
  4339. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4340. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4341. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4342. @cindex property, +
  4343. @example
  4344. * CD collection
  4345. ** Classic
  4346. :PROPERTIES:
  4347. :GENRES: Classic
  4348. :END:
  4349. *** Goldberg Variations
  4350. :PROPERTIES:
  4351. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4352. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4353. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4354. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4355. :NDisks: 1
  4356. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4357. :END:
  4358. @end example
  4359. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4360. @vindex org-global-properties
  4361. Property values set with the global variable
  4362. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4363. Org files.
  4364. @noindent
  4365. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4366. @table @kbd
  4367. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4368. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4369. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4370. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4371. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4372. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4373. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer
  4374. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  4375. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4376. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4377. information like deadlines.
  4378. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4379. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4380. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4381. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4382. can be inserted using completion.
  4383. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4384. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4385. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4386. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4387. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4388. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4389. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4390. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4391. nearest column format definition.
  4392. @end table
  4393. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4394. @section Special properties
  4395. @cindex properties, special
  4396. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4397. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4398. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4399. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4400. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4401. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4402. @cindex property, special, ID
  4403. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4404. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4405. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4406. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4407. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4408. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4409. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4410. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4411. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4412. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4413. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4414. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM_T
  4415. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4416. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4417. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4418. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4419. @example
  4420. ID @r{A globally unique ID used for synchronization during}
  4421. @r{iCalendar or MobileOrg export.}
  4422. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4423. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4424. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4425. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4426. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4427. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4428. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4429. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4430. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4431. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4432. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4433. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4434. CLOCKSUM_T @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree for today.}
  4435. @r{@code{org-clock-sum-today} must be run first to compute the}
  4436. @r{values in the current buffer.}
  4437. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4438. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4439. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4440. @end example
  4441. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4442. @section Property searches
  4443. @cindex properties, searching
  4444. @cindex searching, of properties
  4445. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4446. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4447. @table @kbd
  4448. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4449. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4450. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4451. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4452. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4453. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4454. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4455. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4456. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4457. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4458. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4459. @end table
  4460. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4461. properties}.
  4462. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4463. single property:
  4464. @table @kbd
  4465. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4466. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4467. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4468. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4469. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4470. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4471. @end table
  4472. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4473. @section Property Inheritance
  4474. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4475. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4476. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4477. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4478. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4479. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4480. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4481. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4482. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4483. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4484. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4485. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4486. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4487. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4488. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4489. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4490. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4491. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4492. @table @code
  4493. @item COLUMNS
  4494. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4495. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4496. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4497. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4498. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4499. @item CATEGORY
  4500. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4501. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4502. applies to the entire subtree.
  4503. @item ARCHIVE
  4504. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4505. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4506. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4507. @item LOGGING
  4508. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4509. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4510. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4511. @end table
  4512. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4513. @section Column view
  4514. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4515. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4516. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4517. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4518. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4519. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4520. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4521. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4522. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4523. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4524. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4525. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4526. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4527. @menu
  4528. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4529. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4530. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4531. @end menu
  4532. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4533. @subsection Defining columns
  4534. @cindex column view, for properties
  4535. @cindex properties, column view
  4536. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4537. done by defining a column format line.
  4538. @menu
  4539. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4540. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4541. @end menu
  4542. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4543. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4544. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4545. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4546. @example
  4547. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4548. @end example
  4549. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4550. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4551. @example
  4552. ** Top node for columns view
  4553. :PROPERTIES:
  4554. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4555. :END:
  4556. @end example
  4557. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4558. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4559. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4560. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4561. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4562. deeper part of the tree.
  4563. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4564. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4565. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4566. definition looks like this:
  4567. @example
  4568. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4569. @end example
  4570. @noindent
  4571. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4572. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4573. @example
  4574. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4575. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4576. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4577. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4578. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4579. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4580. @r{name is used.}
  4581. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4582. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4583. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4584. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4585. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4586. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4587. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4588. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4589. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4590. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4591. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4592. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4593. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4594. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4595. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4596. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4597. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4598. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4599. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4600. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4601. @end example
  4602. @noindent
  4603. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4604. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4605. same summary information.
  4606. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4607. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4608. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4609. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4610. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4611. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4612. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4613. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4614. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4615. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4616. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4617. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4618. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4619. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4620. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4621. values.
  4622. @example
  4623. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4624. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM %CLOCKSUM_T
  4625. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4626. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4627. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4628. @end example
  4629. @noindent
  4630. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4631. item itself, i.e.@: of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4632. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4633. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4634. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4635. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4636. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4637. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4638. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4639. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4640. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4641. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4642. @samp{CLOCKSUM} and @samp{CLOCKSUM_T} columns are special, they lists the
  4643. sums of CLOCK intervals in the subtree, either for all clocks or just for
  4644. today.
  4645. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4646. @subsection Using column view
  4647. @table @kbd
  4648. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4649. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4650. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4651. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4652. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4653. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4654. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4655. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4656. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4657. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4658. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4659. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4660. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4661. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4662. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4663. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4664. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4665. Exit column view.
  4666. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4667. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4668. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4669. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4670. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4671. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4672. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4673. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4674. @item 1..9,0
  4675. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4676. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4677. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4678. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4679. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4680. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4681. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4682. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4683. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4684. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4685. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4686. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4687. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4688. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4689. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4690. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4691. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4692. current column view.
  4693. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4694. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4695. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4696. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4697. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4698. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4699. Delete the current column.
  4700. @end table
  4701. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4702. @subsection Capturing column view
  4703. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4704. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4705. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4706. of this block looks like this:
  4707. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4708. @example
  4709. * The column view
  4710. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4711. #+END:
  4712. @end example
  4713. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4714. @table @code
  4715. @item :id
  4716. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4717. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4718. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4719. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4720. @cindex property, ID
  4721. @example
  4722. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4723. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4724. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4725. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4726. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4727. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4728. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4729. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4730. @end example
  4731. @item :hlines
  4732. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4733. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4734. @item :vlines
  4735. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4736. @item :maxlevel
  4737. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4738. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4739. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4740. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4741. @end table
  4742. @noindent
  4743. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4744. @table @kbd
  4745. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4746. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4747. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4748. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4749. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4750. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4751. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4752. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4753. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4754. blocks in a buffer.
  4755. @end table
  4756. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4757. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4758. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4759. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4760. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4761. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4762. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4763. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4764. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4765. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4766. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4767. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4768. @section The Property API
  4769. @cindex properties, API
  4770. @cindex API, for properties
  4771. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4772. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4773. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4774. property API}.
  4775. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4776. @chapter Dates and times
  4777. @cindex dates
  4778. @cindex times
  4779. @cindex timestamp
  4780. @cindex date stamp
  4781. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4782. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4783. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode. This may be a
  4784. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4785. something was created or last changed. However, in Org mode this term
  4786. is used in a much wider sense.
  4787. @menu
  4788. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4789. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4790. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4791. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4792. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4793. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4794. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4795. @end menu
  4796. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4797. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4798. @cindex timestamps
  4799. @cindex ranges, time
  4800. @cindex date stamps
  4801. @cindex deadlines
  4802. @cindex scheduling
  4803. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4804. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>}@footnote{In this
  4805. simplest form, the day name is optional when you type the date yourself.
  4806. However, any dates inserted or modified by Org will add that day name, for
  4807. reading convenience.} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
  4808. Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601
  4809. date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time
  4810. format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org
  4811. tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the
  4812. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4813. @table @var
  4814. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4815. @cindex timestamp
  4816. @cindex appointment
  4817. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4818. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4819. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4820. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4821. @example
  4822. * Meet Peter at the movies
  4823. <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4824. * Discussion on climate change
  4825. <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4826. @end example
  4827. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4828. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4829. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4830. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4831. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4832. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4833. @example
  4834. * Pick up Sam at school
  4835. <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4836. @end example
  4837. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4838. For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the special
  4839. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4840. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  4841. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  4842. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  4843. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  4844. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  4845. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  4846. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org mode users
  4847. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  4848. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  4849. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  4850. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For
  4851. example with optional time
  4852. @example
  4853. * 22:00-23:00 The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4854. <%%(org-float t 4 2)>
  4855. @end example
  4856. @item Time/Date range
  4857. @cindex timerange
  4858. @cindex date range
  4859. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4860. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4861. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4862. @example
  4863. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4864. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4865. @end example
  4866. @item Inactive timestamp
  4867. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4868. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4869. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4870. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4871. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4872. @example
  4873. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time
  4874. [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4875. @end example
  4876. @end table
  4877. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4878. @section Creating timestamps
  4879. @cindex creating timestamps
  4880. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4881. For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4882. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4883. format.
  4884. @table @kbd
  4885. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4886. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4887. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4888. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4889. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4890. @c
  4891. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4892. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4893. an agenda entry.
  4894. @c
  4895. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4896. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4897. @item C-u C-c .
  4898. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4899. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4900. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4901. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4902. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4903. @c
  4904. @orgkey{C-c C-c}
  4905. Normalize timestamp, insert/fix day name if missing or wrong.
  4906. @c
  4907. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4908. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4909. @c
  4910. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4911. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4912. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4913. instead.
  4914. @c
  4915. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4916. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4917. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4918. @c
  4919. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4920. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4921. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4922. @c
  4923. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4924. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4925. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4926. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4927. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4928. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4929. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4930. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4931. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4932. @c
  4933. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4934. @cindex evaluate time range
  4935. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4936. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4937. the following column).
  4938. @end table
  4939. @menu
  4940. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  4941. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4942. @end menu
  4943. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4944. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4945. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4946. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4947. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4948. When Org mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4949. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4950. format. But it will in fact accept date/time information in a variety of
  4951. formats. Generally, the information should start at the beginning of the
  4952. string. Org mode will find whatever information is in
  4953. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4954. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4955. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4956. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4957. information, Org mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4958. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4959. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4960. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4961. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4962. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4963. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4964. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4965. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org mode are
  4966. in @b{bold}.
  4967. @example
  4968. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4969. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4970. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4971. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4972. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4973. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4974. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4975. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4976. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4977. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4978. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4979. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4980. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4981. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4982. @end example
  4983. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4984. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4985. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4986. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4987. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4988. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4989. the Nth such day, e.g.@:
  4990. @example
  4991. +0 @result{} today
  4992. . @result{} today
  4993. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4994. +4 @result{} same as above
  4995. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4996. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4997. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4998. @end example
  4999. @vindex parse-time-months
  5000. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  5001. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  5002. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  5003. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  5004. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  5005. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  5006. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  5007. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  5008. read the docstring of the variable
  5009. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  5010. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  5011. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  5012. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  5013. case, e.g.@:
  5014. @example
  5015. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  5016. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  5017. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  5018. @end example
  5019. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  5020. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  5021. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  5022. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  5023. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  5024. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  5025. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  5026. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  5027. from the minibuffer:
  5028. @kindex <
  5029. @kindex >
  5030. @kindex M-v
  5031. @kindex C-v
  5032. @kindex mouse-1
  5033. @kindex S-@key{right}
  5034. @kindex S-@key{left}
  5035. @kindex S-@key{down}
  5036. @kindex S-@key{up}
  5037. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  5038. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  5039. @kindex @key{RET}
  5040. @example
  5041. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  5042. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  5043. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  5044. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  5045. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  5046. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  5047. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  5048. @end example
  5049. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  5050. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  5051. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  5052. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  5053. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  5054. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  5055. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  5056. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  5057. @subsection Custom time format
  5058. @cindex custom date/time format
  5059. @cindex time format, custom
  5060. @cindex date format, custom
  5061. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  5062. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  5063. Org mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  5064. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  5065. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  5066. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  5067. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  5068. @table @kbd
  5069. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  5070. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  5071. @end table
  5072. @noindent
  5073. Org mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  5074. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  5075. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  5076. following consequences:
  5077. @itemize @bullet
  5078. @item
  5079. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  5080. after.
  5081. @item
  5082. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  5083. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  5084. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  5085. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  5086. time will be changed by one minute.
  5087. @item
  5088. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  5089. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  5090. @item
  5091. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  5092. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  5093. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  5094. @item
  5095. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  5096. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  5097. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  5098. @end itemize
  5099. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  5100. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  5101. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  5102. @table @var
  5103. @item DEADLINE
  5104. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  5105. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  5106. to be finished on that date.
  5107. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5108. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  5109. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  5110. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  5111. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  5112. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  5113. @example
  5114. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  5115. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  5116. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  5117. @end example
  5118. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  5119. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  5120. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  5121. @item SCHEDULED
  5122. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  5123. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  5124. date.
  5125. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  5126. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  5127. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  5128. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  5129. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  5130. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.@:
  5131. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  5132. @example
  5133. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  5134. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  5135. @end example
  5136. @noindent
  5137. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org mode should @i{not} be
  5138. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  5139. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  5140. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  5141. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  5142. Org users. In Org mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  5143. want to start working on an action item.
  5144. @end table
  5145. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  5146. entries. Org mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  5147. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  5148. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  5149. @c
  5150. @code{<%%(org-float t 42)>}
  5151. @c
  5152. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org mode does not
  5153. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  5154. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  5155. sexp entry matches.
  5156. @menu
  5157. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  5158. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  5159. @end menu
  5160. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  5161. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  5162. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  5163. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  5164. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  5165. an item:
  5166. @table @kbd
  5167. @c
  5168. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  5169. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  5170. in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be
  5171. removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed
  5172. from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  5173. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  5174. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5175. deadline.
  5176. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  5177. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  5178. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  5179. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  5180. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  5181. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  5182. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  5183. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5184. scheduling time.
  5185. @c
  5186. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  5187. @kindex k a
  5188. @kindex k s
  5189. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  5190. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  5191. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  5192. schedule the marked item.
  5193. @c
  5194. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  5195. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  5196. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5197. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  5198. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  5199. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  5200. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  5201. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  5202. @c
  5203. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  5204. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  5205. @c
  5206. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  5207. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  5208. @end table
  5209. Note that @code{org-schedule} and @code{org-deadline} supports
  5210. setting the date by indicating a relative time: e.g. +1d will set
  5211. the date to the next day after today, and --1w will set the date
  5212. to the previous week before any current timestamp.
  5213. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  5214. @subsection Repeated tasks
  5215. @cindex tasks, repeated
  5216. @cindex repeated tasks
  5217. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org mode helps to
  5218. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  5219. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  5220. @example
  5221. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5222. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  5223. @end example
  5224. @noindent
  5225. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  5226. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  5227. from that time. You can use yearly, monthly, weekly, daily and hourly repeat
  5228. cookies by using the @code{y/w/m/d/h} letters. If you need both a repeater
  5229. and a special warning period in a deadline entry, the repeater should come
  5230. first and the warning period last: @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  5231. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  5232. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  5233. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  5234. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  5235. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  5236. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  5237. repeated entry will not be active. Org mode deals with this in the following
  5238. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  5239. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  5240. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  5241. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  5242. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  5243. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  5244. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  5245. switch the date like this:
  5246. @example
  5247. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5248. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  5249. @end example
  5250. @vindex org-log-repeat
  5251. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  5252. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  5253. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  5254. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  5255. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  5256. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  5257. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  5258. will be visible.
  5259. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  5260. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  5261. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  5262. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  5263. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  5264. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  5265. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  5266. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org mode has
  5267. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  5268. @example
  5269. ** TODO Call Father
  5270. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  5271. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  5272. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  5273. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  5274. and marked it done on Saturday.
  5275. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  5276. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  5277. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  5278. today.
  5279. @end example
  5280. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  5281. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  5282. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  5283. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  5284. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  5285. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  5286. @section Clocking work time
  5287. @cindex clocking time
  5288. @cindex time clocking
  5289. Org mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  5290. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock. When
  5291. you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the clock is
  5292. stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It also computes
  5293. the total time spent on each subtree@footnote{Clocking only works if all
  5294. headings are indented with less than 30 stars. This is a hardcoded
  5295. limitation of `lmax' in `org-clock-sum'.} of a project. And it remembers a
  5296. history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly between a
  5297. number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5298. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5299. @lisp
  5300. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5301. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5302. @end lisp
  5303. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5304. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5305. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5306. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5307. what to do with it.
  5308. @menu
  5309. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5310. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5311. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5312. @end menu
  5313. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5314. @subsection Clocking commands
  5315. @table @kbd
  5316. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5317. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5318. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5319. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  5320. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5321. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5322. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5323. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5324. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule
  5325. the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  5326. @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  5327. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5328. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5329. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task;
  5330. the default task will then always be available with letter @kbd{d} when
  5331. selecting a clocking task. With three @kbd{C-u C-u C-u} prefixes, force
  5332. continuous clocking by starting the clock when the last clock stopped.@*
  5333. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5334. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5335. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5336. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5337. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5338. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5339. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5340. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5341. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5342. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5343. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5344. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5345. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5346. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5347. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5348. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5349. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5350. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5351. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5352. @c
  5353. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5354. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5355. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5356. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5357. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5358. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5359. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5360. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5361. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5362. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-in-last}
  5363. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5364. Reclock the last clocked task. With one @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5365. select the task from the clock history. With two @kbd{C-u} prefixes,
  5366. force continuous clocking by starting the clock when the last clock
  5367. stopped.
  5368. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5369. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5370. @kindex C-c C-y
  5371. @kindex C-c C-c
  5372. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5373. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5374. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5375. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5376. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{up/down},org-clock-timestamps-up/down}
  5377. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease both timestamps so that the
  5378. clock duration keeps the same.
  5379. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{up/down},org-timestamp-up/down}
  5380. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease the timestamp at point and
  5381. the one of the previous (or the next clock) timestamp by the same duration.
  5382. For example, if you hit @kbd{S-M-@key{up}} to increase a clocked-out timestamp
  5383. by five minutes, then the clocked-in timestamp of the next clock will be
  5384. increased by five minutes.
  5385. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5386. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5387. if it is running in this same item.
  5388. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-q,org-clock-cancel}
  5389. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5390. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5391. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5392. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5393. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5394. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5395. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5396. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts
  5397. overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under
  5398. that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility
  5399. cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the
  5400. buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press
  5401. @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5402. @end table
  5403. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5404. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5405. worked on or closed during a day.
  5406. @strong{Important:} note that both @code{org-clock-out} and
  5407. @code{org-clock-in-last} can have a global keybinding and will not
  5408. modify the window disposition.
  5409. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5410. @subsection The clock table
  5411. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5412. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5413. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5414. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5415. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5416. @table @kbd
  5417. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5418. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5419. report as an Org mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5420. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5421. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5422. update it. The clock table always includes also trees with
  5423. @code{:ARCHIVE:} tag.
  5424. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5425. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5426. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5427. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5428. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5429. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5430. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5431. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5432. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5433. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5434. @end table
  5435. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5436. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5437. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5438. @example
  5439. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5440. #+END: clocktable
  5441. @end example
  5442. @noindent
  5443. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5444. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5445. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5446. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5447. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5448. be selected:
  5449. @example
  5450. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5451. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5452. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5453. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5454. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5455. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5456. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5457. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5458. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5459. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5460. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5461. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5462. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5463. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5464. @r{these formats:}
  5465. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5466. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5467. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5468. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5469. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5470. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5471. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5472. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5473. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5474. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5475. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5476. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5477. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5478. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5479. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5480. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5481. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5482. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5483. @end example
  5484. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5485. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5486. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5487. @example
  5488. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5489. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5490. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5491. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5492. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5493. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5494. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5495. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5496. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5497. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5498. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5499. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5500. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5501. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5502. :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each}
  5503. @r{property will get its own column.}
  5504. :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.}
  5505. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5506. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5507. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5508. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5509. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5510. @end example
  5511. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5512. day, you could write
  5513. @example
  5514. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5515. #+END: clocktable
  5516. @end example
  5517. @noindent
  5518. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5519. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5520. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5521. @example
  5522. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5523. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5524. #+END: clocktable
  5525. @end example
  5526. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5527. @example
  5528. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5529. #+END: clocktable
  5530. @end example
  5531. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5532. would be
  5533. @example
  5534. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5535. #+END: clocktable
  5536. @end example
  5537. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5538. @subsection Resolving idle time and continuous clocking
  5539. @subsubheading Resolving idle time
  5540. @cindex resolve idle time
  5541. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5542. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5543. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5544. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5545. applying it to another one.
  5546. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5547. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5548. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5549. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5550. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5551. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5552. @code{contrib/scripts} directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same
  5553. general treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs
  5554. idle time only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will
  5555. be a question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle
  5556. time has passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a
  5557. set of choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5558. @table @kbd
  5559. @item k
  5560. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5561. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5562. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5563. @item K
  5564. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5565. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5566. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5567. @item s
  5568. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5569. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5570. @item S
  5571. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5572. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5573. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5574. @item C
  5575. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5576. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5577. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5578. log with an empty entry.
  5579. @end table
  5580. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5581. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5582. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5583. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5584. the next task you clock in on.
  5585. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5586. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5587. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5588. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5589. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5590. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5591. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5592. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5593. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5594. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due
  5595. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5596. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5597. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks RET} (or @kbd{C-c C-x C-z}).
  5598. @subsubheading Continuous clocking
  5599. @cindex continuous clocking
  5600. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5601. You may want to start clocking from the time when you clocked out the
  5602. previous task. To enable this systematically, set @code{org-clock-continuously}
  5603. to @code{t}. Each time you clock in, Org retrieves the clock-out time of the
  5604. last clocked entry for this session, and start the new clock from there.
  5605. If you only want this from time to time, use three universal prefix arguments
  5606. with @code{org-clock-in} and two @kbd{C-u C-u} with @code{org-clock-in-last}.
  5607. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5608. @section Effort estimates
  5609. @cindex effort estimates
  5610. @cindex property, Effort
  5611. @vindex org-effort-property
  5612. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5613. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5614. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5615. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5616. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5617. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5618. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5619. for an entry with the following commands:
  5620. @table @kbd
  5621. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5622. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5623. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5624. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5625. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5626. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5627. @end table
  5628. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5629. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5630. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5631. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5632. buffer you can use
  5633. @example
  5634. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
  5635. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5636. @end example
  5637. @noindent
  5638. @vindex org-global-properties
  5639. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5640. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5641. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5642. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5643. setup may be advised.
  5644. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5645. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5646. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5647. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5648. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5649. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5650. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5651. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5652. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5653. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5654. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5655. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5656. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5657. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5658. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5659. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5660. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5661. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5662. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5663. @cindex relative timer
  5664. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5665. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5666. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5667. @table @kbd
  5668. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5669. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5670. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5671. restarted.
  5672. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5673. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5674. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5675. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5676. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5677. new timer items.
  5678. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5679. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5680. @item C-c C-x ,
  5681. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5682. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5683. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5684. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5685. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5686. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5687. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5688. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5689. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5690. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5691. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5692. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5693. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5694. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5695. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5696. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5697. @end table
  5698. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5699. @section Countdown timer
  5700. @cindex Countdown timer
  5701. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5702. @kindex ;
  5703. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org mode buffer runs a countdown
  5704. timer. Use @kbd{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everywhere else.
  5705. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5706. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5707. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5708. default value.
  5709. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5710. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5711. @cindex capture
  5712. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5713. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5714. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5715. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5716. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5717. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5718. @menu
  5719. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5720. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5721. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5722. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs