org.texi 680 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @set VERSION 7.8.11
  6. @set DATE May 2012
  7. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  8. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  9. @set txicodequoteundirected
  10. @set txicodequotebacktick
  11. @c Version and Contact Info
  12. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  13. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  15. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  16. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  20. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  21. @c =======================================
  22. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  23. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  24. @set cmdnames
  25. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  26. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  27. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  28. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  29. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  30. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  31. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  32. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  33. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  34. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  35. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  36. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  37. @c a key but no command
  38. @c Inserts: @item key
  39. @macro orgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @item @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @macro xorgkey{key}
  44. @kindex \key\
  45. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  46. @end macro
  47. @c one key with a command
  48. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  49. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  50. @ifset cmdnames
  51. @kindex \key\
  52. @findex \command\
  53. @iftex
  54. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  55. @end iftex
  56. @ifnottex
  57. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  58. @end ifnottex
  59. @end ifset
  60. @ifclear cmdnames
  61. @kindex \key\
  62. @item @kbd{\key\}
  63. @end ifclear
  64. @end macro
  65. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  66. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  67. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  68. @ifset cmdnames
  69. @kindex \key\
  70. @findex \command\
  71. @iftex
  72. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  73. @end iftex
  74. @ifnottex
  75. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  76. @end ifnottex
  77. @end ifset
  78. @ifclear cmdnames
  79. @kindex \key\
  80. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  81. @end ifclear
  82. @end macro
  83. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  84. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  85. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  86. @ifset cmdnames
  87. @findex \command\
  88. @iftex
  89. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  90. @end iftex
  91. @ifnottex
  92. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  93. @end ifnottex
  94. @end ifset
  95. @ifclear cmdnames
  96. @item @kbd{\key\}
  97. @end ifclear
  98. @end macro
  99. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  100. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  101. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  102. @ifset cmdnames
  103. @kindex \key\
  104. @findex \command\
  105. @iftex
  106. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  107. @end iftex
  108. @ifnottex
  109. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  110. @end ifnottex
  111. @end ifset
  112. @ifclear cmdnames
  113. @kindex \key\
  114. @item @kbd{\text\}
  115. @end ifclear
  116. @end macro
  117. @c two keys with one command
  118. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  119. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  120. @ifset cmdnames
  121. @kindex \key1\
  122. @kindex \key2\
  123. @findex \command\
  124. @iftex
  125. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  126. @end iftex
  127. @ifnottex
  128. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  129. @end ifnottex
  130. @end ifset
  131. @ifclear cmdnames
  132. @kindex \key1\
  133. @kindex \key2\
  134. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  135. @end ifclear
  136. @end macro
  137. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  138. @c @itemx
  139. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  140. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  141. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  142. @ifset cmdnames
  143. @kindex \key1\
  144. @kindex \key2\
  145. @findex \command\
  146. @iftex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  149. @end iftex
  150. @ifnottex
  151. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  152. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  153. @end ifnottex
  154. @end ifset
  155. @ifclear cmdnames
  156. @kindex \key1\
  157. @kindex \key2\
  158. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  159. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  160. @end ifclear
  161. @end macro
  162. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  163. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  164. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  165. @ifset cmdnames
  166. @kindex \key1\
  167. @kindex \key2\
  168. @findex \command\
  169. @iftex
  170. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  171. @end iftex
  172. @ifnottex
  173. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  174. @end ifnottex
  175. @end ifset
  176. @ifclear cmdnames
  177. @kindex \key1\
  178. @kindex \key2\
  179. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  180. @end ifclear
  181. @end macro
  182. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  183. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  184. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  185. @ifset cmdnames
  186. @kindex \key1\
  187. @kindex \key2\
  188. @findex \command\
  189. @iftex
  190. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  191. @end iftex
  192. @ifnottex
  193. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  194. @end ifnottex
  195. @end ifset
  196. @ifclear cmdnames
  197. @kindex \key1\
  198. @kindex \key2\
  199. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  200. @end ifclear
  201. @end macro
  202. @c two keys with two commands
  203. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  204. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  205. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  206. @ifset cmdnames
  207. @kindex \key1\
  208. @kindex \key2\
  209. @findex \command1\
  210. @findex \command2\
  211. @iftex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  214. @end iftex
  215. @ifnottex
  216. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  217. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  218. @end ifnottex
  219. @end ifset
  220. @ifclear cmdnames
  221. @kindex \key1\
  222. @kindex \key2\
  223. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  224. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  225. @end ifclear
  226. @end macro
  227. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  228. @iftex
  229. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  230. @end iftex
  231. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  232. @macro tsubheading{text}
  233. @ifinfo
  234. @subsubheading \text\
  235. @end ifinfo
  236. @ifnotinfo
  237. @item @b{\text\}
  238. @end ifnotinfo
  239. @end macro
  240. @copying
  241. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  242. Copyright @copyright{} 2004-2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  243. @quotation
  244. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  245. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  246. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  247. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  248. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  249. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  250. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  251. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  252. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  253. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  254. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  255. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  256. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  257. @end quotation
  258. @end copying
  259. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  260. @direntry
  261. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  262. @end direntry
  263. @titlepage
  264. @title The Org Manual
  265. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  266. @author by Carsten Dominik
  267. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, Thomas Dye and Jambunathan K.
  268. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  269. @page
  270. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  271. @insertcopying
  272. @end titlepage
  273. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  274. @contents
  275. @ifnottex
  276. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  277. @top Org Mode Manual
  278. @insertcopying
  279. @end ifnottex
  280. @menu
  281. * Introduction:: Getting started
  282. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  283. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  284. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  285. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  286. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  287. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  288. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  289. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  290. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  291. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  292. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  293. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  294. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  295. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  296. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  297. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  298. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  299. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  300. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  301. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  302. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  303. @detailmenu
  304. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  305. Introduction
  306. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  307. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  308. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  309. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  310. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  311. Document structure
  312. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  313. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  314. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  315. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  316. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  317. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  318. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  319. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  320. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  321. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  322. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  323. Tables
  324. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  325. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  326. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  327. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  328. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  329. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  330. The spreadsheet
  331. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  332. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  333. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  334. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  335. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  336. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  337. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  338. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  339. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  340. Hyperlinks
  341. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  342. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  343. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  344. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  345. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  346. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  347. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  348. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  349. Internal links
  350. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  351. TODO items
  352. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  353. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  354. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  355. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  356. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  357. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  358. Extended use of TODO keywords
  359. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  360. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  361. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  362. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  363. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  364. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  365. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  366. Progress logging
  367. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  368. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  369. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  370. Tags
  371. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  372. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  373. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  374. Properties and columns
  375. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  376. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  377. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  378. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  379. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  380. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  381. Column view
  382. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  383. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  384. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  385. Defining columns
  386. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  387. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  388. Dates and times
  389. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  390. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  391. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  392. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  393. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  394. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  395. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  396. Creating timestamps
  397. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  398. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  399. Deadlines and scheduling
  400. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  401. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  402. Clocking work time
  403. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  404. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  405. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  406. Capture - Refile - Archive
  407. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  408. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  409. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  410. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  411. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  412. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  413. Capture
  414. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  415. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  416. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  417. Capture templates
  418. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  419. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  420. Archiving
  421. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  422. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  423. Agenda views
  424. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  425. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  426. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  427. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  428. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  429. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  430. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  431. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  432. The built-in agenda views
  433. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  434. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  435. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  436. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  437. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  438. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  439. Presentation and sorting
  440. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  441. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  442. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  443. Custom agenda views
  444. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  445. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  446. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  447. Markup for rich export
  448. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  449. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  450. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  451. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  452. * Index entries:: Making an index
  453. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  454. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  455. Structural markup elements
  456. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  457. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  458. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  459. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  460. * Lists:: Lists
  461. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  462. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  463. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  464. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  465. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  466. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  467. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  468. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  469. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  470. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  471. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  472. Exporting
  473. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  474. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  475. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  476. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  477. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  478. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  479. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  480. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  481. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  482. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  483. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  484. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  485. HTML export
  486. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  487. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  488. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org mode
  489. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  490. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  491. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  492. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  493. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  494. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  495. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  496. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  497. * @LaTeX{}/PDF export commands::
  498. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  499. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  500. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  501. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  502. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  503. DocBook export
  504. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  505. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  506. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  507. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  508. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  509. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  510. OpenDocument Text export
  511. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: What packages ODT exporter relies on
  512. * ODT export commands:: How to invoke ODT export
  513. * Extending ODT export:: How to produce @samp{doc}, @samp{pdf} files
  514. * Applying custom styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  515. * Links in ODT export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  516. * Tables in ODT export:: How Tables are exported
  517. * Images in ODT export:: How to insert images
  518. * Math formatting in ODT export:: How @LaTeX{} fragments are formatted
  519. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: How captions are rendered
  520. * Literal examples in ODT export:: How source and example blocks are formatted
  521. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: Read this if you are a power user
  522. Math formatting in ODT export
  523. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: How to embed @LaTeX{} math fragments
  524. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: How to embed equations in native format
  525. Advanced topics in ODT export
  526. * Configuring a document converter:: How to register a document converter
  527. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Explore the internals
  528. * Creating one-off styles:: How to produce custom highlighting etc
  529. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: How to define and use Table templates
  530. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: How to debug corrupt OpenDocument files
  531. Publishing
  532. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  533. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  534. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  535. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  536. Configuration
  537. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  538. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  539. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  540. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  541. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  542. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  543. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  544. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  545. Sample configuration
  546. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  547. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  548. Working with source code
  549. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  550. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  551. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  552. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  553. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  554. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  555. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  556. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  557. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  558. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  559. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  560. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  561. Header arguments
  562. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  563. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  564. Using header arguments
  565. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  566. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  567. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  568. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  569. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  570. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  571. Specific header arguments
  572. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  573. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  574. be collected and handled
  575. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  576. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  577. directory for code block execution
  578. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  579. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  580. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  581. files during tangling
  582. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  583. code files
  584. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  585. code files
  586. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  587. expansion during tangling
  588. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  589. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  590. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  591. * noweb-sep:: String used to separate noweb references
  592. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  593. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  594. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  595. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  596. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  597. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  598. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  599. Miscellaneous
  600. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  601. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  602. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  603. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  604. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  605. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  606. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  607. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  608. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  609. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  610. * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files
  611. Interaction with other packages
  612. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  613. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  614. Hacking
  615. * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals
  616. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  617. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  618. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  619. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  620. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  621. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  622. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  623. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  624. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  625. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  626. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  627. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  628. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  629. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  630. MobileOrg
  631. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  632. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  633. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  634. @end detailmenu
  635. @end menu
  636. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  637. @chapter Introduction
  638. @cindex introduction
  639. @menu
  640. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  641. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  642. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  643. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  644. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  645. @end menu
  646. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  647. @section Summary
  648. @cindex summary
  649. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  650. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  651. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  652. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  653. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  654. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  655. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  656. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  657. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  658. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  659. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  660. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  661. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  662. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  663. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  664. linked web pages.
  665. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  666. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  667. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  668. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  669. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  670. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  671. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  672. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  673. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  674. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  675. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  676. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  677. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  678. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  679. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  680. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  681. ends, for example:
  682. @example
  683. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  684. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  685. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  686. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  687. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  688. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  689. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  690. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  691. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  692. @end example
  693. @cindex FAQ
  694. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  695. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  696. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  697. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  698. @cindex print edition
  699. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  700. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  701. Theory Ltd.}
  702. @page
  703. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  704. @section Installation
  705. @cindex installation
  706. @cindex XEmacs
  707. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  708. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  709. to @ref{Activation}. To see what version of Org (if any) is part of your
  710. Emacs distribution, type @kbd{M-x load-library RET org} and then @kbd{M-x
  711. org-version}.}
  712. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  713. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
  714. to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
  715. top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs
  716. binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
  717. directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have
  718. access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
  719. the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
  720. Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  721. @example
  722. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  723. @end example
  724. @noindent
  725. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  726. step for this directory:
  727. @example
  728. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  729. @end example
  730. @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
  731. @example
  732. make
  733. @end example
  734. @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
  735. all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
  736. administrator)
  737. @example
  738. make install
  739. @end example
  740. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  741. @file{install-info} program. The following should correctly install the Info
  742. files on most systems, please send a bug report if not@footnote{The output
  743. from install-info (if any) is also system dependent. In particular Debian
  744. and its derivatives use two different versions of install-info and you may
  745. see the message:
  746. @example
  747. This is not dpkg install-info anymore, but GNU install-info
  748. See the man page for ginstall-info for command line arguments
  749. @end example
  750. @noindent which can be safely ignored.}.
  751. @example
  752. make install-info
  753. @end example
  754. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  755. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  756. when Org mode starts.
  757. @lisp
  758. (require 'org-install)
  759. @end lisp
  760. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  761. @page
  762. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  763. @section Activation
  764. @cindex activation
  765. @cindex autoload
  766. @cindex global key bindings
  767. @cindex key bindings, global
  768. To make sure files with extension @file{.org} use Org mode, add the following
  769. line to your @file{.emacs} file.
  770. @lisp
  771. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  772. @end lisp
  773. @noindent Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on - this is the
  774. default in Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in
  775. Org buffer with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  776. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  777. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  778. global keys (i.e.@: anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  779. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  780. liking.
  781. @lisp
  782. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  783. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  784. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  785. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  786. @end lisp
  787. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  788. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  789. into Org mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  790. like this:
  791. @example
  792. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  793. @end example
  794. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  795. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  796. the file's name is. See also the variable
  797. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  798. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  799. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  800. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  801. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  802. @lisp
  803. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  804. @end lisp
  805. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  806. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  807. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  808. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  809. @section Feedback
  810. @cindex feedback
  811. @cindex bug reports
  812. @cindex maintainer
  813. @cindex author
  814. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  815. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  816. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  817. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  818. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  819. moderators have to do.}.
  820. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  821. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  822. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  823. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  824. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  825. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  826. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  827. @example
  828. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  829. @end example
  830. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  831. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  832. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  833. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  834. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  835. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  836. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  837. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  838. @example
  839. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  840. @end example
  841. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  842. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as @code{emacs
  843. -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as shown below.
  844. @example
  845. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'
  846. ;; activate debugging
  847. (setq debug-on-error t
  848. debug-on-signal nil
  849. debug-on-quit nil)
  850. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  851. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  852. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp"))
  853. ;; activate org
  854. (require 'org-install)
  855. @end example
  856. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  857. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  858. about:
  859. @enumerate
  860. @item What exactly did you do?
  861. @item What did you expect to happen?
  862. @item What happened instead?
  863. @end enumerate
  864. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  865. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  866. @cindex backtrace of an error
  867. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  868. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  869. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  870. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  871. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  872. @enumerate
  873. @item
  874. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  875. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  876. To do this, use
  877. @example
  878. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  879. @end example
  880. @noindent
  881. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  882. menu.
  883. @item
  884. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  885. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  886. @item
  887. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  888. document the steps you take.
  889. @item
  890. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  891. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  892. attach it to your bug report.
  893. @end enumerate
  894. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  895. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  896. Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
  897. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  898. @table @code
  899. @item TODO
  900. @itemx WAITING
  901. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  902. user-defined.
  903. @item boss
  904. @itemx ARCHIVE
  905. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  906. meaning are written with all capitals.
  907. @item Release
  908. @itemx PRIORITY
  909. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  910. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  911. @end table
  912. The manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for accessing
  913. functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different functions,
  914. depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has a generic
  915. name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever possible,
  916. give the function that is internally called by the generic command. For
  917. example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will be
  918. listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it will
  919. be listed to call org-table-move-column-right.
  920. If you prefer, you can compile the manual without the command names by
  921. unsetting the flag @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  922. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  923. @chapter Document structure
  924. @cindex document structure
  925. @cindex structure of document
  926. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  927. edit the structure of the document.
  928. @menu
  929. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  930. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  931. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  932. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  933. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  934. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  935. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  936. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  937. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  938. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  939. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  940. @end menu
  941. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  942. @section Outlines
  943. @cindex outlines
  944. @cindex Outline mode
  945. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  946. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  947. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  948. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  949. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  950. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  951. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  952. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  953. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  954. @section Headlines
  955. @cindex headlines
  956. @cindex outline tree
  957. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  958. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  959. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  960. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  961. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  962. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  963. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  964. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.}. For example:
  965. @example
  966. * Top level headline
  967. ** Second level
  968. *** 3rd level
  969. some text
  970. *** 3rd level
  971. more text
  972. * Another top level headline
  973. @end example
  974. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  975. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  976. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  977. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  978. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  979. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  980. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  981. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  982. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  983. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  984. @section Visibility cycling
  985. @cindex cycling, visibility
  986. @cindex visibility cycling
  987. @cindex trees, visibility
  988. @cindex show hidden text
  989. @cindex hide text
  990. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  991. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  992. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  993. @cindex subtree visibility states
  994. @cindex subtree cycling
  995. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  996. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  997. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  998. @table @asis
  999. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1000. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1001. @example
  1002. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1003. '-----------------------------------'
  1004. @end example
  1005. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1006. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1007. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1008. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1009. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1010. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1011. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1012. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1013. @cindex global visibility states
  1014. @cindex global cycling
  1015. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1016. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1017. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1018. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1019. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1020. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1021. @example
  1022. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1023. '--------------------------------------'
  1024. @end example
  1025. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1026. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1027. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1028. @cindex show all, command
  1029. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  1030. Show all, including drawers.
  1031. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1032. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1033. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1034. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1035. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1036. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1037. entire subtree of the parent.
  1038. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1039. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1040. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1041. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1042. buffer
  1043. @ifinfo
  1044. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1045. @end ifinfo
  1046. @ifnotinfo
  1047. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1048. @end ifnotinfo
  1049. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1050. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1051. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1052. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1053. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1054. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1055. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1056. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1057. @end table
  1058. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1059. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1060. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1061. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1062. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1063. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1064. OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1065. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1066. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1067. buffer:
  1068. @example
  1069. #+STARTUP: overview
  1070. #+STARTUP: content
  1071. #+STARTUP: showall
  1072. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1073. @end example
  1074. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1075. @noindent
  1076. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1077. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1078. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1079. @code{all}.
  1080. @table @asis
  1081. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1082. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.@: whatever is
  1083. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1084. entries.
  1085. @end table
  1086. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1087. @section Motion
  1088. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1089. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1090. @cindex headline navigation
  1091. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1092. @table @asis
  1093. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1094. Next heading.
  1095. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1096. Previous heading.
  1097. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1098. Next heading same level.
  1099. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1100. Previous heading same level.
  1101. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1102. Backward to higher level heading.
  1103. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1104. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1105. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1106. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1107. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1108. @example
  1109. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1110. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1111. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1112. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1113. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1114. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1115. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1116. u @r{One level up.}
  1117. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1118. q @r{Quit}
  1119. @end example
  1120. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1121. @noindent
  1122. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1123. @end table
  1124. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1125. @section Structure editing
  1126. @cindex structure editing
  1127. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1128. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1129. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1130. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1131. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1132. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1133. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1134. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1135. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1136. @table @asis
  1137. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1138. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1139. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1140. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1141. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1142. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1143. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1144. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1145. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1146. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1147. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.@:
  1148. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1149. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1150. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1151. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1152. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1153. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1154. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1155. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1156. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1157. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1158. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1159. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1160. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1161. subtree.
  1162. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1163. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1164. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1165. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1166. to the initial level.
  1167. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1168. Promote current heading by one level.
  1169. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1170. Demote current heading by one level.
  1171. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1172. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1173. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1174. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1175. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1176. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1177. level).
  1178. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1179. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1180. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1181. Kill subtree, i.e.@: remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1182. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1183. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1184. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1185. sequential subtrees.
  1186. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1187. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1188. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1189. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1190. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1191. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1192. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1193. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1194. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1195. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1196. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1197. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1198. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1199. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1200. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1201. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1202. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1203. folding.
  1204. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1205. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1206. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1207. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1208. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1209. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1210. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1211. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1212. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  1213. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort-entries-or-items}
  1214. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1215. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1216. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1217. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1218. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1219. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1220. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1221. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1222. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1223. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1224. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1225. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1226. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1227. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1228. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1229. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1230. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1231. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1232. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1233. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1234. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1235. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1236. @end table
  1237. @cindex region, active
  1238. @cindex active region
  1239. @cindex transient mark mode
  1240. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1241. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1242. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1243. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1244. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1245. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1246. functionality.
  1247. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1248. @section Sparse trees
  1249. @cindex sparse trees
  1250. @cindex trees, sparse
  1251. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1252. @cindex occur, command
  1253. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1254. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1255. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1256. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1257. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1258. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1259. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1260. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1261. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1262. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1263. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1264. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1265. Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1266. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1267. @table @asis
  1268. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1269. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1270. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1271. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1272. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1273. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1274. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1275. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1276. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1277. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1278. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1279. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1280. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1281. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1282. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1283. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1284. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1285. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1286. @end table
  1287. @noindent
  1288. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1289. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1290. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1291. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1292. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1293. For example:
  1294. @lisp
  1295. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1296. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1297. @end lisp
  1298. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1299. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1300. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1301. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1302. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1303. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1304. @cindex visible text, printing
  1305. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1306. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1307. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1308. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1309. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1310. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1311. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1312. @section Plain lists
  1313. @cindex plain lists
  1314. @cindex lists, plain
  1315. @cindex lists, ordered
  1316. @cindex ordered lists
  1317. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1318. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1319. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1320. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1321. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1322. @itemize @bullet
  1323. @item
  1324. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1325. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1326. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1327. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1328. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1329. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1330. bullets.
  1331. @item
  1332. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1333. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1334. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1335. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1336. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1337. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1338. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1339. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1340. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1341. list to start with a different value (e.g.@: 20), start the text of the item
  1342. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1343. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1344. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1345. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1346. @item
  1347. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1348. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1349. description.
  1350. @end itemize
  1351. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1352. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1353. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1354. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1355. than its bullet/number.
  1356. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1357. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1358. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1359. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1360. that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1361. @example
  1362. @group
  1363. ** Lord of the Rings
  1364. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1365. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1366. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1367. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1368. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1369. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1370. - on DVD only
  1371. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1372. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1373. Important actors in this film are:
  1374. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1375. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1376. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1377. @end group
  1378. @end example
  1379. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1380. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1381. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1382. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1383. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1384. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1385. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1386. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1387. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1388. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1389. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1390. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1391. indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1392. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1393. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1394. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1395. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1396. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1397. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1398. to disable them individually.
  1399. @table @asis
  1400. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1401. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1402. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1403. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1404. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1405. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1406. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1407. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1408. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1409. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1410. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1411. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1412. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1413. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1414. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1415. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1416. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1417. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1418. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1419. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1420. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1421. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1422. one.
  1423. @end table
  1424. @table @kbd
  1425. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1426. @item M-S-RET
  1427. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1428. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1429. @item S-up
  1430. @itemx S-down
  1431. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1432. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1433. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1434. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1435. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1436. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1437. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1438. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1439. similar effect.
  1440. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1441. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1442. @item M-up
  1443. @itemx M-down
  1444. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1445. @code{org-liste-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1446. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1447. is automatic.
  1448. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1449. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1450. @item M-left
  1451. @itemx M-right
  1452. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1453. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1454. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1455. @item M-S-left
  1456. @itemx M-S-right
  1457. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1458. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1459. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1460. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1461. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1462. motion or so.
  1463. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1464. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1465. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1466. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1467. @kindex C-c C-c
  1468. @item C-c C-c
  1469. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1470. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1471. consistency in the whole list.
  1472. @kindex C-c -
  1473. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1474. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1475. @item C-c -
  1476. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1477. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1478. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1479. and its position@footnote{See @code{bullet} rule in
  1480. @code{org-list-automatic-rules} for more information.}. With a numeric
  1481. prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an
  1482. active region when calling this, selected text will be changed into an item.
  1483. With a prefix argument, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1484. first line already was a list item, any item marker will be removed from the
  1485. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1486. converted into a list item.
  1487. @kindex C-c *
  1488. @item C-c *
  1489. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1490. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1491. @kindex C-c C-*
  1492. @item C-c C-*
  1493. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1494. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1495. (resp. checked).
  1496. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1497. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1498. @item S-left/right
  1499. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1500. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1501. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1502. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1503. @kindex C-c ^
  1504. @item C-c ^
  1505. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1506. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1507. @end table
  1508. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1509. @section Drawers
  1510. @cindex drawers
  1511. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1512. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1513. @vindex org-drawers
  1514. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1515. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1516. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1517. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
  1518. with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}. Drawers
  1519. look like this:
  1520. @example
  1521. ** This is a headline
  1522. Still outside the drawer
  1523. :DRAWERNAME:
  1524. This is inside the drawer.
  1525. :END:
  1526. After the drawer.
  1527. @end example
  1528. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1529. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1530. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1531. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1532. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1533. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1534. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1535. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1536. @table @kbd
  1537. @kindex C-c C-z
  1538. @item C-c C-z
  1539. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1540. @end table
  1541. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1542. @section Blocks
  1543. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1544. @cindex blocks, folding
  1545. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1546. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1547. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1548. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1549. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1550. or on a per-file basis by using
  1551. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1552. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1553. @example
  1554. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1555. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1556. @end example
  1557. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1558. @section Footnotes
  1559. @cindex footnotes
  1560. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1561. @file{footnote.el} package, Org mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1562. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1563. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e.@: a footnote is
  1564. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1565. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1566. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1567. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1568. @example
  1569. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1570. ...
  1571. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1572. @end example
  1573. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1574. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1575. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1576. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1577. @LaTeX{}}). Here are the valid references:
  1578. @table @code
  1579. @item [1]
  1580. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1581. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1582. snippet.
  1583. @item [fn:name]
  1584. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1585. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1586. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1587. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1588. reference point.
  1589. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1590. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1591. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1592. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1593. @end table
  1594. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1595. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1596. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1597. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1598. for details.
  1599. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1600. @table @kbd
  1601. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1602. @item C-c C-x f
  1603. The footnote action command.
  1604. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1605. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1606. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1607. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1608. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1609. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1610. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1611. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1612. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1613. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1614. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1615. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1616. options is offered:
  1617. @example
  1618. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1619. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1620. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1621. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1622. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1623. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1624. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1625. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1626. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1627. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1628. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1629. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1630. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1631. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g.@: sending}
  1632. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1633. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1634. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1635. @r{to it.}
  1636. @end example
  1637. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1638. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1639. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1640. deletion.
  1641. @kindex C-c C-c
  1642. @item C-c C-c
  1643. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1644. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1645. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1646. @kindex C-c C-o
  1647. @kindex mouse-1
  1648. @kindex mouse-2
  1649. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1650. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1651. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1652. @end table
  1653. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1654. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1655. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1656. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1657. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1658. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1659. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1660. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1661. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1662. @lisp
  1663. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1664. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1665. @end lisp
  1666. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1667. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1668. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1669. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1670. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1671. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1672. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1673. item.
  1674. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1675. @chapter Tables
  1676. @cindex tables
  1677. @cindex editing tables
  1678. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1679. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1680. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1681. @menu
  1682. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1683. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1684. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1685. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1686. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1687. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1688. @end menu
  1689. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1690. @section The built-in table editor
  1691. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1692. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1693. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1694. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1695. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1696. might look like this:
  1697. @example
  1698. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1699. |-------+-------+-----|
  1700. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1701. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1702. @end example
  1703. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1704. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1705. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1706. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1707. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1708. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1709. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1710. create the above table, you would only type
  1711. @example
  1712. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1713. |-
  1714. @end example
  1715. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1716. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1717. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1718. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1719. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1720. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1721. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1722. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1723. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1724. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1725. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1726. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1727. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1728. @table @kbd
  1729. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1730. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1731. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1732. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1733. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1734. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1735. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1736. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1737. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1738. @*
  1739. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1740. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1741. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1742. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1743. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1744. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1745. @c
  1746. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1747. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1748. necessary.
  1749. @c
  1750. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1751. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1752. @c
  1753. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1754. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1755. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1756. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1757. @c
  1758. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1759. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1760. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1761. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1762. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1763. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1764. Move the current column left/right.
  1765. @c
  1766. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1767. Kill the current column.
  1768. @c
  1769. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1770. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1771. @c
  1772. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1773. Move the current row up/down.
  1774. @c
  1775. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1776. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1777. @c
  1778. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1779. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1780. created below the current one.
  1781. @c
  1782. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1783. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1784. is created above the current line.
  1785. @c
  1786. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1787. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1788. below that line.
  1789. @c
  1790. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1791. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1792. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1793. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1794. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1795. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1796. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1797. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1798. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1799. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1800. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1801. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1802. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1803. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1804. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1805. @c
  1806. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1807. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1808. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1809. @c
  1810. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1811. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1812. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1813. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1814. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1815. lines.
  1816. @c
  1817. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1818. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1819. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1820. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1821. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1822. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1823. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1824. above.
  1825. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1826. @cindex formula, in tables
  1827. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1828. @cindex region, active
  1829. @cindex active region
  1830. @cindex transient mark mode
  1831. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1832. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1833. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1834. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1835. @c
  1836. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1837. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1838. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1839. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1840. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1841. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1842. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1843. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1844. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1845. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1846. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1847. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1848. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1849. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1850. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1851. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1852. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1853. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1854. @c
  1855. @item M-x org-table-import
  1856. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1857. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1858. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1859. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1860. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1861. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1862. separator.
  1863. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1864. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1865. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1866. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1867. @c
  1868. @item M-x org-table-export
  1869. @findex org-table-export
  1870. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1871. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1872. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1873. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1874. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1875. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1876. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1877. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1878. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1879. detailed description.
  1880. @end table
  1881. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1882. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1883. it off with
  1884. @lisp
  1885. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1886. @end lisp
  1887. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1888. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1889. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1890. @section Column width and alignment
  1891. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1892. @cindex alignment in tables
  1893. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1894. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1895. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1896. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1897. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1898. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1899. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1900. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1901. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1902. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1903. @example
  1904. @group
  1905. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1906. | | | | | <6> |
  1907. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1908. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1909. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1910. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1911. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1912. @end group
  1913. @end example
  1914. @noindent
  1915. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1916. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1917. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1918. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1919. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1920. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1921. C-c}.
  1922. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1923. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1924. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1925. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1926. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1927. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1928. on a per-file basis with:
  1929. @example
  1930. #+STARTUP: align
  1931. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1932. @end example
  1933. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1934. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  1935. @samp{c}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1936. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  1937. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1938. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1939. automatically when exporting the document.
  1940. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1941. @section Column groups
  1942. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1943. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1944. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1945. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1946. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1947. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1948. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1949. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1950. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<}
  1951. and @samp{>}) to make a column
  1952. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1953. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1954. @example
  1955. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1956. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1957. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1958. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1959. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1960. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1961. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1962. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1963. @end example
  1964. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1965. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1966. @example
  1967. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1968. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1969. | / | < | | | < | |
  1970. @end example
  1971. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  1972. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  1973. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1974. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1975. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  1976. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  1977. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  1978. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1979. example in Message mode, use
  1980. @lisp
  1981. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1982. @end lisp
  1983. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  1984. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  1985. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  1986. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  1987. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  1988. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  1989. @section The spreadsheet
  1990. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1991. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  1992. @cindex @file{calc} package
  1993. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  1994. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  1995. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  1996. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  1997. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  1998. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  1999. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2000. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2001. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2002. @menu
  2003. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2004. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2005. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2006. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2007. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2008. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2009. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2010. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2011. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2012. @end menu
  2013. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  2014. @subsection References
  2015. @cindex references
  2016. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2017. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2018. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2019. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2020. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2021. @subsubheading Field references
  2022. @cindex field references
  2023. @cindex references, to fields
  2024. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2025. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2026. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2027. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2028. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2029. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2030. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  2031. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2032. representation that looks like this:
  2033. @example
  2034. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2035. @end example
  2036. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2037. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e.@: the
  2038. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2039. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2040. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2041. column from the right.
  2042. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2043. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2044. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2045. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2046. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2047. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2048. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2049. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2050. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2051. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2052. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc@. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2053. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2054. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2055. after the third hline in the table.
  2056. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2057. i.e. to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2058. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2059. implied.
  2060. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2061. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2062. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2063. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2064. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2065. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2066. Here are a few examples:
  2067. @example
  2068. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2069. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2070. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2071. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2072. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2073. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2074. @end example
  2075. @subsubheading Range references
  2076. @cindex range references
  2077. @cindex references, to ranges
  2078. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2079. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2080. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2081. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2082. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2083. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2084. @example
  2085. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2086. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2087. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2088. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2089. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2090. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2091. @end example
  2092. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2093. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2094. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2095. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2096. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2097. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2098. @cindex field coordinates
  2099. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2100. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2101. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2102. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2103. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2104. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2105. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2106. @example
  2107. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2108. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2109. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2110. @end example
  2111. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2112. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2113. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2114. number of rows.
  2115. @subsubheading Named references
  2116. @cindex named references
  2117. @cindex references, named
  2118. @cindex name, of column or field
  2119. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2120. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2121. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2122. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2123. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2124. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2125. line like
  2126. @example
  2127. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2128. @end example
  2129. @noindent
  2130. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2131. @pindex constants.el
  2132. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2133. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2134. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2135. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2136. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2137. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2138. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2139. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2140. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2141. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2142. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2143. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2144. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2145. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2146. numbers.
  2147. @subsubheading Remote references
  2148. @cindex remote references
  2149. @cindex references, remote
  2150. @cindex references, to a different table
  2151. @cindex name, of column or field
  2152. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2153. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2154. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2155. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2156. @example
  2157. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2158. @end example
  2159. @noindent
  2160. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2161. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2162. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2163. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2164. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2165. referenced table.
  2166. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2167. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2168. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2169. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2170. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2171. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2172. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2173. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2174. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2175. Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc, GNU
  2176. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2177. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2178. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2179. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2180. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2181. @cindex format specifier
  2182. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2183. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2184. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2185. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2186. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2187. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2188. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2189. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2190. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2191. @example
  2192. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2193. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2194. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2195. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2196. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2197. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2198. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2199. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  2200. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  2201. L @r{literal}
  2202. @end example
  2203. @noindent
  2204. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2205. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2206. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2207. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2208. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2209. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2210. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2211. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2212. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2213. A few examples:
  2214. @example
  2215. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2216. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2217. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2218. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2219. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2220. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2221. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2222. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2223. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  2224. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2225. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2226. @end example
  2227. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2228. @example
  2229. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{"teen" if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  2230. @end example
  2231. Note that you can also use two org-specific flags @code{T} and @code{t} for
  2232. durations computations @ref{Durations and time values}.
  2233. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2234. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2235. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2236. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful for
  2237. string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is not
  2238. enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening
  2239. parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should
  2240. return either a string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you
  2241. can specify modes and a printf format after a semicolon. With Emacs Lisp
  2242. forms, you need to be conscious about the way field references are
  2243. interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be interpolated as
  2244. a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If you provide the
  2245. @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers (non-number
  2246. fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If
  2247. you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally,
  2248. without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string
  2249. by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes,
  2250. like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  2251. embed them in list or vector syntax. Here are a few examples---note how the
  2252. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp:
  2253. @example
  2254. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2255. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2256. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2257. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2258. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2259. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2260. @end example
  2261. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2262. @subsection Durations and time values
  2263. @cindex Duration, computing
  2264. @cindex Time, computing
  2265. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2266. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2267. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2268. @example
  2269. @group
  2270. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2271. |---------+----------+----------|
  2272. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2273. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2274. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2275. @end group
  2276. @end example
  2277. Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2278. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2279. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2280. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the variable
  2281. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2282. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2283. example above).
  2284. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2285. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2286. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2287. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2288. @cindex field formula
  2289. @cindex range formula
  2290. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2291. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2292. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2293. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2294. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2295. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2296. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2297. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2298. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2299. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2300. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2301. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2302. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2303. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2304. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2305. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2306. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2307. of cause not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2308. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2309. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2310. command
  2311. @table @kbd
  2312. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2313. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2314. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2315. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2316. @end table
  2317. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2318. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2319. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2320. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2321. directly.
  2322. @table @code
  2323. @item $2=
  2324. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2325. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2326. @item @@3=
  2327. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2328. the last row.
  2329. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2330. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2331. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2332. @item $name=
  2333. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2334. @end table
  2335. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2336. @subsection Column formulas
  2337. @cindex column formula
  2338. @cindex formula, for table column
  2339. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2340. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2341. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2342. hlines, everything before the first such line is considered part of the table
  2343. @emph{header} and will not be modified by column formulas. (ii) Fields that
  2344. already get a value from a field/range formula will be left alone by column
  2345. formulas. These conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2346. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2347. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2348. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2349. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2350. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2351. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2352. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2353. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2354. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2355. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2356. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2357. following command:
  2358. @table @kbd
  2359. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2360. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2361. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2362. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2363. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g.@: @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2364. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2365. @end table
  2366. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2367. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2368. @cindex formula editing
  2369. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2370. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2371. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2372. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2373. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2374. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2375. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2376. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2377. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2378. @table @kbd
  2379. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2380. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2381. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2382. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2383. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2384. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2385. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2386. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2387. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2388. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2389. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2390. @kindex C-c @}
  2391. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2392. @item C-c @}
  2393. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2394. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2395. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2396. @kindex C-c @{
  2397. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2398. @item C-c @{
  2399. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2400. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2401. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2402. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2403. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2404. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2405. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2406. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2407. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2408. @table @kbd
  2409. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2410. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2411. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2412. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2413. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2414. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2415. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2416. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2417. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2418. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2419. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2420. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2421. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2422. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2423. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2424. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2425. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2426. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2427. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2428. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2429. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2430. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2431. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2432. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2433. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2434. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2435. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2436. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2437. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2438. down.
  2439. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2440. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2441. @kindex C-c @}
  2442. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2443. @item C-c @}
  2444. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2445. @end table
  2446. @end table
  2447. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2448. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2449. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2450. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2451. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2452. @kindex C-c C-c
  2453. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2454. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2455. recalculation commands in the table.
  2456. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2457. @cindex formula debugging
  2458. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2459. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2460. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2461. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2462. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2463. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2464. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2465. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2466. @subsection Updating the table
  2467. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2468. @cindex updating, table
  2469. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2470. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2471. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2472. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2473. following commands:
  2474. @table @kbd
  2475. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2476. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2477. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2478. @c
  2479. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2480. @item C-u C-c *
  2481. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2482. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2483. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2484. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2485. @c
  2486. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2487. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2488. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2489. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2490. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2491. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2492. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2493. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2494. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2495. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2496. dependencies.
  2497. @end table
  2498. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2499. @subsection Advanced features
  2500. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2501. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2502. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2503. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2504. special marking characters.
  2505. @table @kbd
  2506. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2507. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2508. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2509. change all marks in the region.
  2510. @end table
  2511. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2512. makes use of these features:
  2513. @example
  2514. @group
  2515. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2516. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2517. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2518. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2519. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2520. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2521. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2522. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2523. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2524. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2525. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2526. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2527. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2528. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2529. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2530. @end group
  2531. @end example
  2532. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2533. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2534. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2535. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2536. empty first field.
  2537. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2538. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2539. @table @samp
  2540. @item !
  2541. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2542. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2543. @item ^
  2544. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2545. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2546. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2547. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2548. @item _
  2549. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2550. @emph{below}.
  2551. @item $
  2552. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2553. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2554. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2555. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2556. a per-table basis.
  2557. @item #
  2558. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2559. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2560. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2561. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2562. @item *
  2563. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2564. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2565. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2566. @item
  2567. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2568. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2569. or @samp{*}.
  2570. @item /
  2571. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2572. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2573. @end table
  2574. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2575. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2576. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2577. functions.
  2578. @example
  2579. @group
  2580. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2581. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2582. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2583. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2584. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2585. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2586. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2587. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2588. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2589. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2590. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2591. @end group
  2592. @end example
  2593. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2594. @section Org-Plot
  2595. @cindex graph, in tables
  2596. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2597. @cindex #+PLOT
  2598. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2599. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2600. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2601. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2602. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2603. @example
  2604. @group
  2605. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2606. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2607. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2608. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2609. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2610. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2611. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2612. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2613. @end group
  2614. @end example
  2615. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2616. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2617. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2618. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2619. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2620. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2621. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2622. @table @code
  2623. @item set
  2624. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2625. @item title
  2626. Specify the title of the plot.
  2627. @item ind
  2628. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2629. @item deps
  2630. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2631. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2632. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2633. column).
  2634. @item type
  2635. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2636. @item with
  2637. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2638. (e.g.@: @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2639. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2640. @item file
  2641. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2642. @item labels
  2643. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2644. if they exist).
  2645. @item line
  2646. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2647. @item map
  2648. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2649. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2650. @item timefmt
  2651. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2652. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2653. @item script
  2654. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2655. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2656. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2657. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2658. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2659. the data file.
  2660. @end table
  2661. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2662. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2663. @cindex hyperlinks
  2664. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2665. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2666. @menu
  2667. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2668. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2669. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2670. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2671. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2672. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2673. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2674. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2675. @end menu
  2676. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2677. @section Link format
  2678. @cindex link format
  2679. @cindex format, of links
  2680. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2681. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2682. @example
  2683. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2684. @end example
  2685. @noindent
  2686. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2687. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2688. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2689. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2690. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2691. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2692. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2693. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2694. cursor on the link.
  2695. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2696. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2697. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2698. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2699. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2700. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2701. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2702. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2703. @section Internal links
  2704. @cindex internal links
  2705. @cindex links, internal
  2706. @cindex targets, for links
  2707. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2708. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2709. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2710. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2711. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2712. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2713. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2714. in a file.
  2715. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2716. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2717. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2718. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2719. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2720. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2721. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2722. comment line. For example
  2723. @example
  2724. # <<My Target>>
  2725. @end example
  2726. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2727. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2728. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2729. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2730. first headline.}.
  2731. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2732. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2733. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2734. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2735. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2736. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2737. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2738. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2739. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2740. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2741. earlier.
  2742. @menu
  2743. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2744. @end menu
  2745. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2746. @subsection Radio targets
  2747. @cindex radio targets
  2748. @cindex targets, radio
  2749. @cindex links, radio targets
  2750. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2751. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2752. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2753. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2754. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2755. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2756. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2757. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2758. cursor on or at a target.
  2759. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2760. @section External links
  2761. @cindex links, external
  2762. @cindex external links
  2763. @cindex links, external
  2764. @cindex Gnus links
  2765. @cindex BBDB links
  2766. @cindex IRC links
  2767. @cindex URL links
  2768. @cindex file links
  2769. @cindex VM links
  2770. @cindex RMAIL links
  2771. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2772. @cindex MH-E links
  2773. @cindex USENET links
  2774. @cindex SHELL links
  2775. @cindex Info links
  2776. @cindex Elisp links
  2777. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2778. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2779. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2780. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2781. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2782. @example
  2783. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2784. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2785. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2786. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2787. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2788. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2789. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2790. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2791. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  2792. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2793. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  2794. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  2795. the variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  2796. is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  2797. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  2798. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  2799. will be queried to create it.}
  2800. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2801. file+sys:/path/to/file @r{open via OS, like double-click}
  2802. file+emacs:/path/to/file @r{force opening by Emacs}
  2803. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  2804. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2805. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2806. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2807. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2808. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2809. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2810. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2811. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2812. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2813. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2814. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2815. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2816. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2817. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2818. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2819. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2820. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  2821. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2822. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2823. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2824. @end example
  2825. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2826. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2827. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2828. format}), for example:
  2829. @example
  2830. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2831. @end example
  2832. @noindent
  2833. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2834. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2835. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2836. image,
  2837. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2838. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2839. @cindex plain text external links
  2840. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2841. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2842. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2843. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2844. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2845. @section Handling links
  2846. @cindex links, handling
  2847. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2848. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2849. @table @kbd
  2850. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2851. @cindex storing links
  2852. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2853. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2854. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2855. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2856. buffer:
  2857. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  2858. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2859. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2860. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  2861. removed from the link and result in a wrong link -- you should avoid putting
  2862. timestamp in the headline.}.
  2863. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2864. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2865. @cindex property, ID
  2866. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2867. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2868. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2869. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2870. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2871. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2872. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2873. to use.
  2874. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2875. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2876. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2877. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2878. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2879. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2880. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2881. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2882. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2883. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2884. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2885. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2886. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2887. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2888. @b{Other files}@*
  2889. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2890. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2891. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2892. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2893. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2894. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2895. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2896. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2897. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2898. entry referenced by the current line.
  2899. @c
  2900. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  2901. @cindex link completion
  2902. @cindex completion, of links
  2903. @cindex inserting links
  2904. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2905. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2906. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2907. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2908. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2909. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2910. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2911. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2912. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2913. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2914. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2915. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2916. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2917. becomes the default description.
  2918. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2919. All links stored during the
  2920. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2921. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2922. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2923. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2924. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2925. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2926. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2927. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2928. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2929. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2930. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2931. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  2932. @cindex file name completion
  2933. @cindex completion, of file names
  2934. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2935. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2936. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2937. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2938. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2939. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2940. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2941. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2942. @c
  2943. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2944. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2945. link and description parts of the link.
  2946. @c
  2947. @cindex following links
  2948. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  2949. @vindex org-file-apps
  2950. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  2951. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2952. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2953. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2954. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2955. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2956. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2957. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2958. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2959. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  2960. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  2961. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  2962. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  2963. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  2964. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  2965. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  2966. @orgkey @key{RET}
  2967. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  2968. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  2969. the link at point.
  2970. @c
  2971. @kindex mouse-2
  2972. @kindex mouse-1
  2973. @item mouse-2
  2974. @itemx mouse-1
  2975. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  2976. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  2977. @c
  2978. @kindex mouse-3
  2979. @item mouse-3
  2980. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  2981. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  2982. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  2983. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  2984. @c
  2985. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  2986. @cindex inlining images
  2987. @cindex images, inlining
  2988. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  2989. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2990. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2991. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  2992. images that have no description part in the link, i.e.@: images that will also
  2993. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  2994. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  2995. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  2996. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  2997. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  2998. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  2999. @cindex mark ring
  3000. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3001. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3002. @c
  3003. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3004. @cindex links, returning to
  3005. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3006. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3007. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3008. previously recorded positions.
  3009. @c
  3010. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3011. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3012. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3013. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3014. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3015. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3016. @lisp
  3017. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3018. (lambda ()
  3019. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3020. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3021. @end lisp
  3022. @end table
  3023. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  3024. @section Using links outside Org
  3025. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3026. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3027. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3028. yourself):
  3029. @lisp
  3030. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3031. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3032. @end lisp
  3033. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  3034. @section Link abbreviations
  3035. @cindex link abbreviations
  3036. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3037. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3038. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3039. abbreviated link looks like this
  3040. @example
  3041. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3042. @end example
  3043. @noindent
  3044. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3045. where the tag is optional.
  3046. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3047. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3048. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3049. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3050. @smalllisp
  3051. @group
  3052. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3053. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3054. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3055. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3056. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3057. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3058. @end group
  3059. @end smalllisp
  3060. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3061. replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
  3062. in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will
  3063. be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3064. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3065. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3066. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3067. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3068. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3069. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3070. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3071. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3072. can define them in the file with
  3073. @cindex #+LINK
  3074. @example
  3075. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3076. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3077. @end example
  3078. @noindent
  3079. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3080. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3081. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g.@: completion)
  3082. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3083. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3084. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3085. @section Search options in file links
  3086. @cindex search option in file links
  3087. @cindex file links, searching
  3088. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3089. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3090. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3091. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3092. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3093. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3094. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3095. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3096. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3097. link, together with an explanation:
  3098. @example
  3099. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3100. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3101. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3102. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3103. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3104. @end example
  3105. @table @code
  3106. @item 255
  3107. Jump to line 255.
  3108. @item My Target
  3109. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3110. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3111. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3112. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3113. the linked file.
  3114. @item *My Target
  3115. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3116. @item #my-custom-id
  3117. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3118. @item /regexp/
  3119. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3120. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3121. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3122. sparse tree with the matches.
  3123. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3124. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3125. @end table
  3126. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3127. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3128. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3129. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3130. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3131. @section Custom Searches
  3132. @cindex custom search strings
  3133. @cindex search strings, custom
  3134. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3135. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3136. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3137. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3138. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3139. citation key.
  3140. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3141. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3142. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3143. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3144. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3145. to be added to the hook variables
  3146. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3147. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3148. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3149. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3150. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3151. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3152. @chapter TODO items
  3153. @cindex TODO items
  3154. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3155. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3156. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3157. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3158. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3159. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3160. item emerged is always present.
  3161. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3162. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3163. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3164. @menu
  3165. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3166. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3167. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3168. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3169. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3170. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3171. @end menu
  3172. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3173. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3174. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3175. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3176. @example
  3177. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3178. @end example
  3179. @noindent
  3180. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3181. @table @kbd
  3182. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3183. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3184. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3185. @example
  3186. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3187. '--------------------------------'
  3188. @end example
  3189. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3190. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3191. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3192. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  3193. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  3194. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  3195. more information.
  3196. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3197. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3198. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3199. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3200. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3201. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3202. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3203. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3204. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3205. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-key}
  3206. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3207. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3208. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3209. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3210. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3211. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3212. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3213. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3214. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3215. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3216. both un-done and done.
  3217. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3218. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3219. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3220. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3221. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3222. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3223. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3224. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3225. @end table
  3226. @noindent
  3227. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3228. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3229. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3230. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3231. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3232. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3233. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3234. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3235. DONE. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3236. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3237. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3238. files.
  3239. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3240. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3241. @menu
  3242. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3243. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3244. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3245. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3246. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3247. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3248. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3249. @end menu
  3250. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3251. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3252. @cindex TODO workflow
  3253. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3254. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3255. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3256. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3257. buffer.}:
  3258. @lisp
  3259. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3260. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3261. @end lisp
  3262. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3263. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3264. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3265. state.
  3266. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3267. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3268. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  3269. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3270. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  3271. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3272. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3273. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3274. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3275. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3276. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3277. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3278. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3279. @cindex TODO types
  3280. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3281. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3282. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3283. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3284. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3285. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3286. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3287. be set up like this:
  3288. @lisp
  3289. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3290. @end lisp
  3291. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3292. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3293. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org mode supports this style by adapting
  3294. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3295. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3296. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3297. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3298. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3299. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3300. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3301. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3302. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3303. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3304. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3305. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3306. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3307. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3308. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3309. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3310. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3311. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3312. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3313. like this:
  3314. @lisp
  3315. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3316. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3317. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3318. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3319. @end lisp
  3320. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3321. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3322. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3323. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3324. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3325. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3326. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3327. @table @kbd
  3328. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3329. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3330. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3331. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3332. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3333. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3334. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3335. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3336. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3337. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3338. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3339. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3340. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3341. @item S-@key{right}
  3342. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3343. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3344. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3345. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3346. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3347. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3348. @end table
  3349. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3350. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3351. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3352. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3353. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section
  3354. key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3355. @lisp
  3356. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3357. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3358. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3359. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3360. @end lisp
  3361. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3362. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3363. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3364. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3365. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3366. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3367. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3368. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3369. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3370. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3371. @cindex keyword options
  3372. @cindex per-file keywords
  3373. @cindex #+TODO
  3374. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3375. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3376. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3377. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3378. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3379. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3380. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3381. file:
  3382. @example
  3383. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3384. @end example
  3385. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3386. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3387. @example
  3388. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3389. @end example
  3390. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3391. @example
  3392. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3393. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3394. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3395. @end example
  3396. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3397. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3398. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3399. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3400. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3401. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3402. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3403. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3404. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3405. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3406. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3407. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3408. for the current buffer.}.
  3409. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3410. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3411. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3412. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3413. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3414. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3415. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3416. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3417. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3418. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3419. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3420. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3421. @lisp
  3422. @group
  3423. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3424. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3425. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3426. @end group
  3427. @end lisp
  3428. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3429. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3430. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3431. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3432. foreground or a background color.
  3433. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3434. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3435. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3436. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3437. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3438. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3439. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3440. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3441. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3442. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3443. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3444. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3445. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3446. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3447. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3448. example:
  3449. @example
  3450. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3451. ** DONE one
  3452. ** TODO two
  3453. * Parent
  3454. :PROPERTIES:
  3455. :ORDERED: t
  3456. :END:
  3457. ** TODO a
  3458. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3459. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3460. @end example
  3461. @table @kbd
  3462. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3463. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3464. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3465. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3466. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3467. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3468. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3469. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3470. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3471. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3472. @end table
  3473. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3474. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3475. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3476. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3477. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3478. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3479. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3480. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3481. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3482. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3483. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3484. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3485. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3486. @page
  3487. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3488. @section Progress logging
  3489. @cindex progress logging
  3490. @cindex logging, of progress
  3491. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3492. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3493. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3494. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3495. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3496. work time}.
  3497. @menu
  3498. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3499. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3500. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3501. @end menu
  3502. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3503. @subsection Closing items
  3504. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3505. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3506. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3507. @lisp
  3508. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3509. @end lisp
  3510. @noindent
  3511. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3512. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3513. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3514. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3515. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3516. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3517. @lisp
  3518. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3519. @end lisp
  3520. @noindent
  3521. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3522. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3523. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3524. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3525. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3526. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3527. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3528. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3529. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3530. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3531. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3532. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3533. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3534. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3535. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3536. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3537. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3538. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3539. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3540. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this
  3541. behavior---the recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}. You can
  3542. also overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3543. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3544. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3545. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3546. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3547. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3548. setting
  3549. @lisp
  3550. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3551. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3552. @end lisp
  3553. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3554. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3555. @noindent
  3556. @vindex org-log-done
  3557. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3558. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3559. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3560. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3561. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3562. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3563. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3564. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3565. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3566. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3567. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3568. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3569. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3570. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3571. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3572. configured.
  3573. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3574. to a buffer:
  3575. @example
  3576. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3577. @end example
  3578. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3579. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3580. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3581. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3582. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3583. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3584. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3585. @example
  3586. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3587. :PROPERTIES:
  3588. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3589. :END:
  3590. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3591. :PROPERTIES:
  3592. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3593. :END:
  3594. * TODO No logging at all
  3595. :PROPERTIES:
  3596. :LOGGING: nil
  3597. :END:
  3598. @end example
  3599. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3600. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3601. @cindex habits
  3602. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3603. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3604. @enumerate
  3605. @item
  3606. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3607. @code{org-modules}.
  3608. @item
  3609. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3610. @item
  3611. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3612. @item
  3613. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3614. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3615. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3616. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3617. @item
  3618. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3619. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3620. three days, but at most every two days.
  3621. @item
  3622. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3623. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it is not
  3624. enabled it is not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3625. meaningless.
  3626. @end enumerate
  3627. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3628. actual habit with some history:
  3629. @example
  3630. ** TODO Shave
  3631. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3632. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3633. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3634. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3635. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3636. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3637. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3638. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3639. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3640. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3641. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3642. :PROPERTIES:
  3643. :STYLE: habit
  3644. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3645. :END:
  3646. @end example
  3647. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3648. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3649. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3650. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3651. after four days have elapsed.
  3652. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3653. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3654. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3655. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3656. @table @code
  3657. @item Blue
  3658. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3659. @item Green
  3660. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3661. @item Yellow
  3662. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3663. @item Red
  3664. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3665. @end table
  3666. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3667. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3668. the current day falls in the graph.
  3669. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3670. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3671. @table @code
  3672. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3673. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3674. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3675. titles brief and to the point.
  3676. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3677. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3678. @item org-habit-following-days
  3679. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3680. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3681. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3682. default.
  3683. @end table
  3684. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3685. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3686. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3687. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3688. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3689. @section Priorities
  3690. @cindex priorities
  3691. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3692. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3693. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3694. @example
  3695. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3696. @end example
  3697. @noindent
  3698. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3699. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3700. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3701. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3702. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3703. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3704. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3705. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3706. items.
  3707. @table @kbd
  3708. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3709. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3710. @findex org-priority
  3711. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3712. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3713. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3714. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3715. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3716. @c
  3717. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3718. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3719. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3720. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3721. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3722. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3723. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3724. @end table
  3725. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3726. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3727. @vindex org-default-priority
  3728. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3729. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3730. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3731. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3732. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3733. priority):
  3734. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3735. @example
  3736. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3737. @end example
  3738. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3739. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3740. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3741. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3742. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3743. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3744. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3745. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3746. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3747. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3748. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3749. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3750. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3751. @example
  3752. * Organize Party [33%]
  3753. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3754. *** TODO Peter
  3755. *** DONE Sarah
  3756. ** TODO Buy food
  3757. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3758. @end example
  3759. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3760. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3761. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3762. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3763. this issue.
  3764. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3765. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3766. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3767. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3768. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3769. property.
  3770. @example
  3771. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3772. :PROPERTIES:
  3773. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3774. :END:
  3775. @end example
  3776. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3777. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3778. @example
  3779. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3780. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3781. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3782. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3783. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3784. @end example
  3785. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3786. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3787. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3788. @section Checkboxes
  3789. @cindex checkboxes
  3790. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3791. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3792. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3793. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3794. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3795. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3796. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3797. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3798. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3799. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3800. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3801. @example
  3802. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3803. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3804. - [ ] Peter
  3805. - [X] Sarah
  3806. - [ ] Sam
  3807. - [X] order food
  3808. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3809. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3810. @end example
  3811. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3812. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3813. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3814. checked.
  3815. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3816. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3817. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3818. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3819. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3820. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3821. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3822. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3823. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3824. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3825. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3826. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3827. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3828. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3829. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3830. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3831. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3832. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3833. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3834. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3835. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3836. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3837. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3838. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3839. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3840. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3841. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3842. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3843. @table @kbd
  3844. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3845. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
  3846. With a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  3847. one@footnote{`C-u C-c C-c' on the @emph{first} item of a list with no checkbox
  3848. will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is
  3849. considered to be an intermediate state.
  3850. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3851. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3852. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3853. intermediate state.
  3854. @itemize @minus
  3855. @item
  3856. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3857. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3858. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3859. @item
  3860. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3861. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3862. @item
  3863. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3864. @end itemize
  3865. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3866. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  3867. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3868. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3869. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3870. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3871. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3872. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3873. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3874. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3875. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3876. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3877. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  3878. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3879. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3880. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3881. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3882. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3883. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  3884. @end table
  3885. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3886. @chapter Tags
  3887. @cindex tags
  3888. @cindex headline tagging
  3889. @cindex matching, tags
  3890. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3891. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3892. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  3893. support for tags.
  3894. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3895. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3896. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3897. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3898. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3899. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3900. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3901. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3902. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3903. @menu
  3904. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3905. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3906. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3907. @end menu
  3908. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3909. @section Tag inheritance
  3910. @cindex tag inheritance
  3911. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3912. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3913. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3914. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3915. well. For example, in the list
  3916. @example
  3917. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3918. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3919. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3920. @end example
  3921. @noindent
  3922. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3923. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3924. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3925. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3926. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3927. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3928. changes in the line.}:
  3929. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3930. @example
  3931. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3932. @end example
  3933. @noindent
  3934. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3935. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3936. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  3937. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  3938. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3939. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3940. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3941. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3942. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3943. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3944. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3945. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3946. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  3947. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  3948. @section Setting tags
  3949. @cindex setting tags
  3950. @cindex tags, setting
  3951. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3952. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  3953. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  3954. also a special command for inserting tags:
  3955. @table @kbd
  3956. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  3957. @cindex completion, of tags
  3958. @vindex org-tags-column
  3959. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  3960. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  3961. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  3962. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  3963. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  3964. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  3965. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  3966. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  3967. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  3968. @end table
  3969. @vindex org-tag-alist
  3970. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  3971. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  3972. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  3973. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  3974. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  3975. @cindex #+TAGS
  3976. @example
  3977. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  3978. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  3979. @end example
  3980. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  3981. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  3982. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  3983. @example
  3984. #+TAGS:
  3985. @end example
  3986. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  3987. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  3988. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  3989. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  3990. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  3991. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  3992. @example
  3993. #+STARTUP: noptag
  3994. @end example
  3995. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  3996. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  3997. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  3998. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  3999. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  4000. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  4001. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  4002. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4003. like:
  4004. @lisp
  4005. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4006. @end lisp
  4007. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4008. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4009. @example
  4010. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4011. @end example
  4012. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4013. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4014. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4015. @example
  4016. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4017. @end example
  4018. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4019. @example
  4020. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4021. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4022. @end example
  4023. @noindent
  4024. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4025. braces, as in:
  4026. @example
  4027. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4028. @end example
  4029. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4030. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4031. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4032. these lines to activate any changes.
  4033. @noindent
  4034. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  4035. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4036. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4037. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4038. configuration:
  4039. @lisp
  4040. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4041. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4042. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4043. (:endgroup . nil)
  4044. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4045. @end lisp
  4046. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4047. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4048. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4049. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4050. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4051. keys:
  4052. @table @kbd
  4053. @item a-z...
  4054. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4055. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4056. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4057. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4058. @item @key{TAB}
  4059. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4060. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4061. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4062. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4063. @item @key{SPC}
  4064. Clear all tags for this line.
  4065. @kindex @key{RET}
  4066. @item @key{RET}
  4067. Accept the modified set.
  4068. @item C-g
  4069. Abort without installing changes.
  4070. @item q
  4071. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4072. @item !
  4073. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4074. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4075. @item C-c
  4076. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4077. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4078. selection window.
  4079. @end table
  4080. @noindent
  4081. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4082. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4083. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4084. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4085. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4086. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4087. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4088. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4089. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4090. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4091. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  4092. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  4093. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  4094. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  4095. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  4096. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  4097. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  4098. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  4099. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4100. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4101. @section Tag searches
  4102. @cindex tag searches
  4103. @cindex searching for tags
  4104. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4105. information into special lists.
  4106. @table @kbd
  4107. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4108. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4109. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4110. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4111. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4112. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4113. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4114. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4115. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4116. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4117. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4118. @end table
  4119. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4120. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4121. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4122. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4123. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4124. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4125. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4126. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4127. @chapter Properties and columns
  4128. @cindex properties
  4129. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4130. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4131. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4132. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4133. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4134. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4135. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4136. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4137. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4138. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4139. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4140. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4141. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4142. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4143. @menu
  4144. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4145. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4146. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4147. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4148. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4149. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4150. @end menu
  4151. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4152. @section Property syntax
  4153. @cindex property syntax
  4154. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4155. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4156. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special
  4157. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4158. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4159. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4160. @example
  4161. * CD collection
  4162. ** Classic
  4163. *** Goldberg Variations
  4164. :PROPERTIES:
  4165. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4166. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4167. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4168. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4169. :NDisks: 1
  4170. :END:
  4171. @end example
  4172. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4173. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the sub-tree
  4174. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4175. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4176. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4177. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4178. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4179. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4180. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4181. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4182. @example
  4183. * CD collection
  4184. :PROPERTIES:
  4185. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4186. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4187. :END:
  4188. @end example
  4189. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4190. file, use a line like
  4191. @cindex property, _ALL
  4192. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4193. @example
  4194. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4195. @end example
  4196. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4197. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4198. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4199. @cindex property, +
  4200. @example
  4201. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4202. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4203. @end example
  4204. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4205. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4206. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4207. @cindex property, +
  4208. @example
  4209. * CD collection
  4210. ** Classic
  4211. :PROPERTIES:
  4212. :GENRES: Classic
  4213. :END:
  4214. *** Goldberg Variations
  4215. :PROPERTIES:
  4216. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4217. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4218. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4219. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4220. :NDisks: 1
  4221. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4222. :END:
  4223. @end example
  4224. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4225. @vindex org-global-properties
  4226. Property values set with the global variable
  4227. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4228. Org files.
  4229. @noindent
  4230. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4231. @table @kbd
  4232. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4233. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4234. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4235. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4236. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4237. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4238. @item M-x org-insert-property-drawer
  4239. @findex org-insert-property-drawer
  4240. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4241. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4242. information like deadlines.
  4243. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4244. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4245. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4246. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4247. can be inserted using completion.
  4248. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4249. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4250. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4251. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4252. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4253. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4254. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4255. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4256. nearest column format definition.
  4257. @end table
  4258. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4259. @section Special properties
  4260. @cindex properties, special
  4261. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4262. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4263. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4264. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4265. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4266. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4267. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4268. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4269. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4270. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4271. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4272. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4273. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4274. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4275. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4276. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4277. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4278. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4279. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4280. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4281. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4282. @example
  4283. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4284. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4285. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4286. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4287. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4288. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4289. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4290. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4291. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4292. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4293. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4294. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4295. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4296. ITEM @r{The content of the entry.}
  4297. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4298. @end example
  4299. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4300. @section Property searches
  4301. @cindex properties, searching
  4302. @cindex searching, of properties
  4303. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4304. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4305. @table @kbd
  4306. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4307. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4308. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4309. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4310. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4311. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4312. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4313. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4314. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4315. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4316. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4317. @end table
  4318. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4319. properties}.
  4320. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4321. single property:
  4322. @table @kbd
  4323. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4324. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4325. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4326. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4327. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4328. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4329. @end table
  4330. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4331. @section Property Inheritance
  4332. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4333. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4334. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4335. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4336. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4337. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4338. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4339. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4340. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4341. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4342. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4343. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4344. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4345. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4346. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4347. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4348. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4349. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4350. @table @code
  4351. @item COLUMNS
  4352. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4353. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4354. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4355. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4356. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4357. @item CATEGORY
  4358. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4359. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4360. applies to the entire subtree.
  4361. @item ARCHIVE
  4362. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4363. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4364. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4365. @item LOGGING
  4366. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4367. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4368. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4369. @end table
  4370. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4371. @section Column view
  4372. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4373. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4374. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4375. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4376. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4377. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4378. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4379. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4380. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4381. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4382. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4383. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4384. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4385. @menu
  4386. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4387. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4388. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4389. @end menu
  4390. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4391. @subsection Defining columns
  4392. @cindex column view, for properties
  4393. @cindex properties, column view
  4394. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4395. done by defining a column format line.
  4396. @menu
  4397. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4398. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4399. @end menu
  4400. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4401. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4402. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4403. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4404. @example
  4405. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4406. @end example
  4407. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4408. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4409. @example
  4410. ** Top node for columns view
  4411. :PROPERTIES:
  4412. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4413. :END:
  4414. @end example
  4415. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4416. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4417. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4418. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4419. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4420. deeper part of the tree.
  4421. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4422. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4423. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4424. definition looks like this:
  4425. @example
  4426. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4427. @end example
  4428. @noindent
  4429. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4430. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4431. @example
  4432. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4433. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4434. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4435. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4436. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4437. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4438. @r{name is used.}
  4439. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4440. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4441. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4442. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4443. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4444. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4445. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4446. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4447. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4448. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4449. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4450. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4451. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4452. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4453. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4454. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4455. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4456. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4457. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4458. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4459. @end example
  4460. @noindent
  4461. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4462. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4463. same summary information.
  4464. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4465. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4466. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4467. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4468. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4469. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4470. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4471. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4472. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4473. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4474. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4475. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4476. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4477. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4478. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4479. values.
  4480. @example
  4481. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4482. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4483. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4484. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4485. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4486. @end example
  4487. @noindent
  4488. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4489. item itself, i.e.@: of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4490. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4491. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4492. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4493. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4494. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4495. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4496. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4497. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4498. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4499. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4500. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4501. in the subtree.
  4502. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4503. @subsection Using column view
  4504. @table @kbd
  4505. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4506. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4507. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4508. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4509. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4510. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4511. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4512. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4513. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4514. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4515. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4516. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4517. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4518. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4519. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4520. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4521. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4522. Exit column view.
  4523. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4524. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4525. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4526. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4527. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4528. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4529. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4530. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4531. @item 1..9,0
  4532. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4533. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4534. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4535. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4536. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4537. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4538. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4539. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4540. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4541. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4542. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4543. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4544. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4545. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4546. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4547. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4548. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4549. current column view.
  4550. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4551. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4552. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4553. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4554. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4555. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4556. Delete the current column.
  4557. @end table
  4558. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4559. @subsection Capturing column view
  4560. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4561. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4562. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4563. of this block looks like this:
  4564. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4565. @example
  4566. * The column view
  4567. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4568. #+END:
  4569. @end example
  4570. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4571. @table @code
  4572. @item :id
  4573. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4574. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4575. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4576. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4577. @cindex property, ID
  4578. @example
  4579. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4580. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4581. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4582. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4583. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4584. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4585. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4586. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4587. @end example
  4588. @item :hlines
  4589. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4590. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4591. @item :vlines
  4592. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4593. @item :maxlevel
  4594. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4595. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4596. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4597. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4598. @end table
  4599. @noindent
  4600. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4601. @table @kbd
  4602. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4603. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4604. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4605. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4606. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4607. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4608. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4609. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4610. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4611. blocks in a buffer.
  4612. @end table
  4613. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4614. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4615. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4616. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4617. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4618. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4619. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4620. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4621. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4622. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4623. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4624. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4625. @section The Property API
  4626. @cindex properties, API
  4627. @cindex API, for properties
  4628. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4629. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4630. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4631. property API}.
  4632. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4633. @chapter Dates and times
  4634. @cindex dates
  4635. @cindex times
  4636. @cindex timestamp
  4637. @cindex date stamp
  4638. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4639. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4640. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode. This may be a
  4641. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4642. something was created or last changed. However, in Org mode this term
  4643. is used in a much wider sense.
  4644. @menu
  4645. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4646. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4647. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4648. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4649. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4650. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4651. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4652. @end menu
  4653. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4654. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4655. @cindex timestamps
  4656. @cindex ranges, time
  4657. @cindex date stamps
  4658. @cindex deadlines
  4659. @cindex scheduling
  4660. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4661. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>}@footnote{In this
  4662. simplest form, the day name is optional when you type the date yourself.
  4663. However, any dates inserted or modified by Org will add that day name, for
  4664. reading convenience.} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
  4665. Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601
  4666. date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time
  4667. format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org
  4668. tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the
  4669. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4670. @table @var
  4671. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4672. @cindex timestamp
  4673. @cindex appointment
  4674. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4675. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4676. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4677. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4678. @example
  4679. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4680. * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4681. @end example
  4682. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4683. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4684. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4685. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4686. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4687. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4688. @example
  4689. * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4690. @end example
  4691. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4692. For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the special
  4693. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4694. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  4695. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  4696. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  4697. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  4698. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  4699. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  4700. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org mode users
  4701. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  4702. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  4703. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  4704. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For
  4705. example with optional time
  4706. @example
  4707. * 22:00-23:00 The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4708. <%%(org-float t 4 2)>
  4709. @end example
  4710. @item Time/Date range
  4711. @cindex timerange
  4712. @cindex date range
  4713. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4714. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4715. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4716. @example
  4717. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4718. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4719. @end example
  4720. @item Inactive timestamp
  4721. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4722. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4723. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4724. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4725. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4726. @example
  4727. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4728. @end example
  4729. @end table
  4730. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4731. @section Creating timestamps
  4732. @cindex creating timestamps
  4733. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4734. For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4735. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4736. format.
  4737. @table @kbd
  4738. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4739. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4740. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4741. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4742. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4743. @c
  4744. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4745. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4746. an agenda entry.
  4747. @c
  4748. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4749. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4750. @item C-u C-c .
  4751. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4752. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4753. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4754. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4755. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4756. @c
  4757. @orgkey{C-c C-c}
  4758. Normalize timestamp, insert/fix day name if missing or wrong.
  4759. @c
  4760. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4761. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4762. @c
  4763. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4764. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4765. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4766. instead.
  4767. @c
  4768. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4769. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4770. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4771. @c
  4772. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4773. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4774. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4775. @c
  4776. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4777. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4778. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4779. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4780. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4781. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4782. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4783. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4784. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4785. @c
  4786. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4787. @cindex evaluate time range
  4788. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4789. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4790. the following column).
  4791. @end table
  4792. @menu
  4793. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  4794. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4795. @end menu
  4796. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4797. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4798. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4799. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4800. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4801. When Org mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4802. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4803. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4804. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4805. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4806. copied from an email message. Org mode will find whatever information is in
  4807. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4808. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4809. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4810. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4811. information, Org mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4812. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4813. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4814. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4815. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4816. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4817. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4818. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4819. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org mode are
  4820. in @b{bold}.
  4821. @example
  4822. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4823. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4824. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4825. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4826. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4827. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4828. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4829. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4830. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4831. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4832. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4833. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4834. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4835. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4836. @end example
  4837. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4838. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4839. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4840. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4841. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4842. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4843. the Nth such day, e.g.@:
  4844. @example
  4845. +0 @result{} today
  4846. . @result{} today
  4847. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4848. +4 @result{} same as above
  4849. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4850. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4851. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4852. @end example
  4853. @vindex parse-time-months
  4854. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4855. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4856. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4857. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4858. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  4859. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  4860. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  4861. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  4862. read the docstring of the variable
  4863. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  4864. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4865. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  4866. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  4867. case, e.g.@:
  4868. @example
  4869. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  4870. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  4871. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  4872. @end example
  4873. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4874. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4875. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4876. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4877. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4878. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4879. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4880. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4881. from the minibuffer:
  4882. @kindex <
  4883. @kindex >
  4884. @kindex M-v
  4885. @kindex C-v
  4886. @kindex mouse-1
  4887. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4888. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4889. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4890. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4891. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4892. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4893. @kindex @key{RET}
  4894. @example
  4895. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4896. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4897. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4898. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4899. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4900. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4901. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4902. @end example
  4903. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4904. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4905. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4906. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4907. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4908. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4909. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4910. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4911. @subsection Custom time format
  4912. @cindex custom date/time format
  4913. @cindex time format, custom
  4914. @cindex date format, custom
  4915. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4916. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4917. Org mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4918. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4919. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4920. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4921. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4922. @table @kbd
  4923. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  4924. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4925. @end table
  4926. @noindent
  4927. Org mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  4928. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  4929. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  4930. following consequences:
  4931. @itemize @bullet
  4932. @item
  4933. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  4934. after.
  4935. @item
  4936. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  4937. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  4938. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  4939. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  4940. time will be changed by one minute.
  4941. @item
  4942. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  4943. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  4944. @item
  4945. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  4946. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  4947. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  4948. @item
  4949. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  4950. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  4951. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  4952. @end itemize
  4953. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  4954. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  4955. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  4956. @table @var
  4957. @item DEADLINE
  4958. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  4959. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  4960. to be finished on that date.
  4961. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4962. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  4963. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  4964. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  4965. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  4966. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  4967. @example
  4968. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  4969. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  4970. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  4971. @end example
  4972. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  4973. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  4974. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  4975. @item SCHEDULED
  4976. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  4977. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  4978. date.
  4979. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  4980. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  4981. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  4982. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  4983. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  4984. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.@:
  4985. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  4986. @example
  4987. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  4988. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  4989. @end example
  4990. @noindent
  4991. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org mode should @i{not} be
  4992. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  4993. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  4994. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  4995. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  4996. Org users. In Org mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  4997. want to start working on an action item.
  4998. @end table
  4999. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  5000. entries. Org mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  5001. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  5002. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  5003. @c
  5004. @code{<%%(org-float t 42)>}
  5005. @c
  5006. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org mode does not
  5007. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  5008. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  5009. sexp entry matches.
  5010. @menu
  5011. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  5012. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  5013. @end menu
  5014. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  5015. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  5016. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  5017. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  5018. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  5019. an item:
  5020. @table @kbd
  5021. @c
  5022. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  5023. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  5024. in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be
  5025. removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed
  5026. from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  5027. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  5028. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5029. deadline.
  5030. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  5031. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  5032. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  5033. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  5034. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  5035. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  5036. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  5037. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5038. scheduling time.
  5039. @c
  5040. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  5041. @kindex k a
  5042. @kindex k s
  5043. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  5044. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  5045. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  5046. schedule the marked item.
  5047. @c
  5048. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  5049. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  5050. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5051. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  5052. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  5053. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  5054. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  5055. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  5056. @c
  5057. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  5058. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  5059. @c
  5060. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  5061. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  5062. @end table
  5063. Note that @code{org-schedule} and @code{org-deadline} supports
  5064. setting the date by indicating a relative time: e.g. +1d will set
  5065. the date to the next day after today, and --1w will set the date
  5066. to the previous week before any current timestamp.
  5067. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  5068. @subsection Repeated tasks
  5069. @cindex tasks, repeated
  5070. @cindex repeated tasks
  5071. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org mode helps to
  5072. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  5073. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  5074. @example
  5075. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5076. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  5077. @end example
  5078. @noindent
  5079. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  5080. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  5081. from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in
  5082. a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last:
  5083. @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  5084. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  5085. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  5086. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  5087. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  5088. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  5089. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  5090. repeated entry will not be active. Org mode deals with this in the following
  5091. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  5092. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  5093. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  5094. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  5095. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  5096. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  5097. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  5098. switch the date like this:
  5099. @example
  5100. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5101. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  5102. @end example
  5103. @vindex org-log-repeat
  5104. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  5105. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  5106. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  5107. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  5108. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  5109. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  5110. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  5111. will be visible.
  5112. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  5113. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  5114. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  5115. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  5116. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  5117. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  5118. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  5119. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org mode has
  5120. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  5121. @example
  5122. ** TODO Call Father
  5123. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  5124. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  5125. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  5126. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  5127. and marked it done on Saturday.
  5128. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  5129. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  5130. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  5131. today.
  5132. @end example
  5133. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  5134. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  5135. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  5136. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  5137. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  5138. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  5139. @section Clocking work time
  5140. @cindex clocking time
  5141. @cindex time clocking
  5142. Org mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  5143. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock.
  5144. When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the
  5145. clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It
  5146. also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project. And it
  5147. remembers a history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly
  5148. between a number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5149. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5150. @lisp
  5151. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5152. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5153. @end lisp
  5154. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5155. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5156. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5157. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5158. what to do with it.
  5159. @menu
  5160. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5161. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5162. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5163. @end menu
  5164. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5165. @subsection Clocking commands
  5166. @table @kbd
  5167. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5168. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5169. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  5170. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5171. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5172. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5173. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5174. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule
  5175. the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  5176. @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  5177. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5178. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5179. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task.
  5180. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task,
  5181. with letter @kbd{d}.@*
  5182. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5183. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5184. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5185. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5186. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5187. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5188. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5189. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5190. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5191. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5192. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5193. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5194. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5195. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5196. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5197. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5198. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5199. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5200. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5201. @c
  5202. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5203. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5204. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5205. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5206. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5207. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5208. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5209. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5210. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5211. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5212. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5213. @kindex C-c C-y
  5214. @kindex C-c C-c
  5215. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5216. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5217. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5218. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5219. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{up/down},org-clock-timestamps-up/down}
  5220. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease both timestamps at the same
  5221. time so that duration keeps the same.
  5222. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5223. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5224. if it is running in this same item.
  5225. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-cancel}
  5226. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5227. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5228. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5229. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5230. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5231. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5232. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5233. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts
  5234. overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under
  5235. that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility
  5236. cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the
  5237. buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press
  5238. @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5239. @end table
  5240. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5241. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5242. worked on or closed during a day.
  5243. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5244. @subsection The clock table
  5245. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5246. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5247. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5248. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5249. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5250. @table @kbd
  5251. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5252. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5253. report as an Org mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5254. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5255. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5256. update it. The clock table always includes also trees with
  5257. @code{:ARCHIVE:} tag.
  5258. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5259. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5260. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5261. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5262. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5263. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5264. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5265. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5266. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5267. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5268. @end table
  5269. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5270. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5271. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5272. @example
  5273. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5274. #+END: clocktable
  5275. @end example
  5276. @noindent
  5277. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5278. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5279. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5280. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5281. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5282. be selected:
  5283. @example
  5284. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5285. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5286. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5287. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5288. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5289. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5290. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5291. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5292. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5293. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5294. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5295. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5296. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5297. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5298. @r{these formats:}
  5299. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5300. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5301. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5302. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5303. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5304. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5305. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5306. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5307. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5308. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5309. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5310. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5311. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5312. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5313. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5314. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5315. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5316. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5317. @end example
  5318. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5319. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5320. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5321. @example
  5322. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5323. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5324. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5325. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5326. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5327. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5328. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5329. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5330. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5331. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5332. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5333. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5334. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5335. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5336. :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each}
  5337. @r{property will get its own column.}
  5338. :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.}
  5339. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5340. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5341. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5342. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5343. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5344. @end example
  5345. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5346. day, you could write
  5347. @example
  5348. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5349. #+END: clocktable
  5350. @end example
  5351. @noindent
  5352. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5353. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5354. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5355. @example
  5356. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5357. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5358. #+END: clocktable
  5359. @end example
  5360. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5361. @example
  5362. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5363. #+END: clocktable
  5364. @end example
  5365. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5366. would be
  5367. @example
  5368. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5369. #+END: clocktable
  5370. @end example
  5371. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5372. @subsection Resolving idle time
  5373. @cindex resolve idle time
  5374. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5375. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5376. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5377. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5378. applying it to another one.
  5379. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5380. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5381. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5382. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5383. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5384. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5385. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5386. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5387. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5388. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5389. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5390. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5391. @table @kbd
  5392. @item k
  5393. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5394. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5395. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5396. @item K
  5397. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5398. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5399. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5400. @item s
  5401. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5402. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5403. @item S
  5404. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5405. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5406. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5407. @item C
  5408. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5409. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5410. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5411. log with an empty entry.
  5412. @end table
  5413. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5414. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5415. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5416. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5417. the next task you clock in on.
  5418. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5419. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5420. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5421. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5422. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5423. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5424. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5425. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5426. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5427. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due
  5428. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5429. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5430. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5431. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5432. @section Effort estimates
  5433. @cindex effort estimates
  5434. @cindex property, Effort
  5435. @vindex org-effort-property
  5436. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5437. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5438. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5439. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5440. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5441. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5442. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5443. for an entry with the following commands:
  5444. @table @kbd
  5445. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5446. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5447. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5448. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5449. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5450. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5451. @end table
  5452. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5453. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5454. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5455. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5456. buffer you can use
  5457. @example
  5458. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
  5459. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5460. @end example
  5461. @noindent
  5462. @vindex org-global-properties
  5463. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5464. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5465. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5466. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5467. setup may be advised.
  5468. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5469. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5470. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5471. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5472. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5473. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5474. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5475. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5476. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5477. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5478. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5479. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5480. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5481. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5482. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5483. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5484. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5485. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5486. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5487. @cindex relative timer
  5488. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5489. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5490. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5491. @table @kbd
  5492. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5493. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5494. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5495. restarted.
  5496. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5497. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5498. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5499. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5500. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5501. new timer items.
  5502. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5503. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5504. @item C-c C-x ,
  5505. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5506. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5507. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5508. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5509. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5510. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5511. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5512. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5513. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5514. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5515. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5516. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5517. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5518. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5519. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5520. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5521. @end table
  5522. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5523. @section Countdown timer
  5524. @cindex Countdown timer
  5525. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5526. @kindex ;
  5527. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org mode buffer runs a countdown
  5528. timer. Use @kbd{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everywhere else.
  5529. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5530. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5531. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5532. default value.
  5533. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5534. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5535. @cindex capture
  5536. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5537. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5538. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5539. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5540. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5541. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5542. @menu
  5543. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5544. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5545. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5546. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5547. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5548. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5549. @end menu
  5550. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5551. @section Capture
  5552. @cindex capture
  5553. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5554. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5555. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org mode for
  5556. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5557. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5558. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5559. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5560. @example
  5561. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5562. @end example
  5563. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5564. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5565. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5566. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5567. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5568. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5569. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5570. @menu
  5571. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5572. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5573. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5574. @end menu
  5575. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5576. @subsection Setting up capture
  5577. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5578. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5579. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5580. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5581. @example
  5582. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5583. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5584. @end example
  5585. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5586. @subsection Using capture
  5587. @table @kbd
  5588. @orgcmd{C-c c,org-capture}
  5589. Call the command @code{org-capture}. Note that this keybinding is global and
  5590. not active by default - you need to install it. If you have templates
  5591. @cindex date tree
  5592. defined @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for
  5593. selection or use a new Org outline node as the default template. It will
  5594. insert the template into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer
  5595. narrowed to this new node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5596. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-capture-finalize}
  5597. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer, @kbd{C-c
  5598. C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture process,
  5599. so that you can resume your work without further distraction. When called
  5600. with a prefix arg, finalize and then jump to the captured item.
  5601. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-capture-refile}
  5602. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5603. a different place. Please realize that this is a normal refiling command
  5604. that will be executed---so the cursor position at the moment you run this
  5605. command is important. If you have inserted a tree with a parent and
  5606. children, first move the cursor back to the parent. Any prefix argument
  5607. given to this command will be passed on to the @code{org-refile} command.
  5608. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,org-capture-kill}
  5609. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5610. @end table
  5611. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5612. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5613. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5614. rather than to the current date.
  5615. To find the locations of the last stored capture, use @code{org-capture} with
  5616. prefix commands:
  5617. @table @kbd
  5618. @orgkey{C-u C-c c}
  5619. Visit the target location of a capture template. You get to select the
  5620. template in the usual way.
  5621. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-c c}
  5622. Visit the last stored capture item in its buffer.
  5623. @end table
  5624. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5625. @subsection Capture templates
  5626. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5627. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5628. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5629. through the customize interface.
  5630. @table @kbd
  5631. @orgkey{C-c c C}
  5632. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5633. @end table
  5634. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5635. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5636. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5637. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5638. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5639. would look like:
  5640. @example
  5641. (setq org-capture-templates
  5642. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5643. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5644. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5645. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5646. @end example
  5647. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5648. for you like this:
  5649. @example
  5650. * TODO
  5651. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5652. @end example
  5653. @noindent
  5654. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5655. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5656. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5657. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same
  5658. place where you started the capture process.
  5659. To define special keys to capture to a particular template without going
  5660. through the interactive template selection, you can create your key binding
  5661. like this:
  5662. @lisp
  5663. (define-key global-map "\C-cx"
  5664. (lambda () (interactive) (org-capture nil "x")))
  5665. @end lisp
  5666. @menu
  5667. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  5668. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  5669. @end menu
  5670. @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates
  5671. @subsubsection Template elements
  5672. Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in
  5673. @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items:
  5674. @table @var
  5675. @item keys
  5676. The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters
  5677. only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a
  5678. single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using
  5679. several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential
  5680. in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the
  5681. prefix key, for example
  5682. @example
  5683. ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy")
  5684. @end example
  5685. @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will
  5686. be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable.
  5687. @item description
  5688. A short string describing the template, which will be shown during
  5689. selection.
  5690. @item type
  5691. The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are:
  5692. @table @code
  5693. @item entry
  5694. An Org mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the target
  5695. entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org mode file.
  5696. @item item
  5697. A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target
  5698. location. Again the target file should be an Org file.
  5699. @item checkitem
  5700. A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the
  5701. default template.
  5702. @item table-line
  5703. a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the
  5704. line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and
  5705. @code{:table-line-pos} (see below).
  5706. @item plain
  5707. Text to be inserted as it is.
  5708. @end table
  5709. @item target
  5710. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5711. Specification of where the captured item should be placed. In Org mode
  5712. files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become children of this
  5713. node. Other types will be added to the table or list in the body of this
  5714. node. Most target specifications contain a file name. If that file name is
  5715. the empty string, it defaults to @code{org-default-notes-file}. A file can
  5716. also be given as a variable, function, or Emacs Lisp form.
  5717. Valid values are:
  5718. @table @code
  5719. @item (file "path/to/file")
  5720. Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file.
  5721. @item (id "id of existing org entry")
  5722. Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry.
  5723. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline")
  5724. Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file.
  5725. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...)
  5726. For non-unique headings, the full path is safer.
  5727. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location")
  5728. Use a regular expression to position the cursor.
  5729. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file")
  5730. Will create a heading in a date tree for today's date.
  5731. @item (file+datetree+prompt "path/to/file")
  5732. Will create a heading in a date tree, but will prompt for the date.
  5733. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location)
  5734. A function to find the right location in the file.
  5735. @item (clock)
  5736. File to the entry that is currently being clocked.
  5737. @item (function function-finding-location)
  5738. Most general way, write your own function to find both
  5739. file and location.
  5740. @end table
  5741. @item template
  5742. The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an
  5743. appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with
  5744. escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the
  5745. capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file,
  5746. using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for
  5747. more details.
  5748. @item properties
  5749. The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options.
  5750. Recognized properties are:
  5751. @table @code
  5752. @item :prepend
  5753. Normally new captured information will be appended at
  5754. the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...).
  5755. Setting this property will change that.
  5756. @item :immediate-finish
  5757. When set, do not offer to edit the information, just
  5758. file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs
  5759. information that can be added automatically.
  5760. @item :empty-lines
  5761. Set this to the number of lines to insert
  5762. before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1.
  5763. @item :clock-in
  5764. Start the clock in this item.
  5765. @item :clock-keep
  5766. Keep the clock running when filing the captured entry.
  5767. @item :clock-resume
  5768. If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished
  5769. with the capture. Note that @code{:clock-keep} has precedence over
  5770. @code{:clock-resume}. When setting both to @code{t}, the current clock will
  5771. run and the previous one will not be resumed.
  5772. @item :unnarrowed
  5773. Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to
  5774. narrow it so that you only see the new material.
  5775. @item :table-line-pos
  5776. Specification of the location in the table where the new line should be
  5777. inserted. It should be a string like @code{"II-3"} meaning that the new
  5778. line should become the third line before the second horizontal separator
  5779. line.
  5780. @item :kill-buffer
  5781. If the target file was not yet visited when capture was invoked, kill the
  5782. buffer again after capture is completed.
  5783. @end table
  5784. @end table
  5785. @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates
  5786. @subsubsection Template expansion
  5787. In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of
  5788. these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow
  5789. dynamic insertion of content. The templates are expanded in the order given here:
  5790. @smallexample
  5791. %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}.}
  5792. %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result.}
  5793. %<...> @r{the result of format-time-string on the ... format specification.}
  5794. %t @r{timestamp, date only.}
  5795. %T @r{timestamp with date and time.}
  5796. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps.}
  5797. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}.}
  5798. %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the}
  5799. @r{region is active.}
  5800. @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
  5801. %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part.}
  5802. %c @r{Current kill ring head.}
  5803. %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.}
  5804. %k @r{title of the currently clocked task.}
  5805. %K @r{link to the currently clocked task.}
  5806. %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name}).}
  5807. %f @r{file visited by current buffer when org-capture was called.}
  5808. %F @r{full path of the file or directory visited by current buffer.}
  5809. %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below.}
  5810. %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.}
  5811. %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.}
  5812. %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}.}
  5813. @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}.}
  5814. %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.}
  5815. %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.}
  5816. %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}.}
  5817. %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
  5818. @r{You may specify a default value and a completion table with}
  5819. @r{%^@{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...@}.}
  5820. @r{The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history.}
  5821. @end smallexample
  5822. @noindent
  5823. For specific link types, the following keywords will be
  5824. defined@footnote{If you define your own link types (@pxref{Adding
  5825. hyperlink types}), any property you store with
  5826. @code{org-store-link-props} can be accessed in capture templates in a
  5827. similar way.}:
  5828. @vindex org-from-is-user-regexp
  5829. @smallexample
  5830. Link type | Available keywords
  5831. ------------------------+----------------------------------------------
  5832. bbdb | %:name %:company
  5833. irc | %:server %:port %:nick
  5834. vm, wl, mh, mew, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id
  5835. | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress
  5836. | %:to %:toname %:toaddress
  5837. | %:date @r{(message date header field)}
  5838. | %:date-timestamp @r{(date as active timestamp)}
  5839. | %:date-timestamp-inactive @r{(date as inactive timestamp)}
  5840. | %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}}
  5841. gnus | %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields}
  5842. w3, w3m | %:url
  5843. info | %:file %:node
  5844. calendar | %:date
  5845. @end smallexample