#### org.texi644 KB History Raw

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 \input texinfo @c %**start of header @setfilename ../../info/org @settitle The Org Manual @set VERSION 7.7 @set DATE July 2011 @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2 @set txicodequoteundirected @set txicodequotebacktick @c Version and Contact Info @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage} @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org} @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer} @c %**end of header @finalout @c ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- @c Macro definitions for commands and keys @c ======================================= @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown. @set cmdnames @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables: @c orgkey{key} A key item @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name @c xorgcmd{key,cmmand} Key with command name as @itemx @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or" @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but @c different functions, so format as @itemx @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short" @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands @c a key but no command @c Inserts: @item key @macro orgkey{key} @kindex \key\ @item @kbd{\key\} @end macro @macro xorgkey{key} @kindex \key\ @itemx @kbd{\key\} @end macro @c one key with a command @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND @macro orgcmd{key,command} @ifset cmdnames @kindex \key\ @findex \command\ @iftex @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\} @end iftex @ifnottex @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\}) @end ifnottex @end ifset @ifclear cmdnames @kindex \key\ @item @kbd{\key\} @end ifclear @end macro @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND @macro xorgcmd{key,command} @ifset cmdnames @kindex \key\ @findex \command\ @iftex @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\} @end iftex @ifnottex @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\}) @end ifnottex @end ifset @ifclear cmdnames @kindex \key\ @itemx @kbd{\key\} @end ifclear @end macro @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND @macro orgcmdnki{key,command} @ifset cmdnames @findex \command\ @iftex @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\} @end iftex @ifnottex @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\}) @end ifnottex @end ifset @ifclear cmdnames @item @kbd{\key\} @end ifclear @end macro @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command} @ifset cmdnames @kindex \key\ @findex \command\ @iftex @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\} @end iftex @ifnottex @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\}) @end ifnottex @end ifset @ifclear cmdnames @kindex \key\ @item @kbd{\text\} @end ifclear @end macro @c two keys with one command @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command} @ifset cmdnames @kindex \key1\ @kindex \key2\ @findex \command\ @iftex @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\} @end iftex @ifnottex @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\}) @end ifnottex @end ifset @ifclear cmdnames @kindex \key1\ @kindex \key2\ @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @end ifclear @end macro @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as @c @itemx @c Inserts: @item KEY1 @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command} @ifset cmdnames @kindex \key1\ @kindex \key2\ @findex \command\ @iftex @item @kbd{\key1\} @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\} @end iftex @ifnottex @item @kbd{\key1\} @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\}) @end ifnottex @end ifset @ifclear cmdnames @kindex \key1\ @kindex \key2\ @item @kbd{\key1\} @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @end ifclear @end macro @c Same as previous, but use "or short" @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command} @ifset cmdnames @kindex \key1\ @kindex \key2\ @findex \command\ @iftex @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\} @end iftex @ifnottex @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\}) @end ifnottex @end ifset @ifclear cmdnames @kindex \key1\ @kindex \key2\ @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @end ifclear @end macro @c Same as previous, but use @itemx @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command} @ifset cmdnames @kindex \key1\ @kindex \key2\ @findex \command\ @iftex @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\} @end iftex @ifnottex @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\}) @end ifnottex @end ifset @ifclear cmdnames @kindex \key1\ @kindex \key2\ @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @end ifclear @end macro @c two keys with two commands @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1 @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2 @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2} @ifset cmdnames @kindex \key1\ @kindex \key2\ @findex \command1\ @findex \command2\ @iftex @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\} @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\} @end iftex @ifnottex @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\}) @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\}) @end ifnottex @end ifset @ifclear cmdnames @kindex \key1\ @kindex \key2\ @item @kbd{\key1\} @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @end ifclear @end macro @c ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- @iftex @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed} @end iftex @c Subheadings inside a table. @macro tsubheading{text} @ifinfo @subsubheading \text\ @end ifinfo @ifnotinfo @item @b{\text\} @end ifnotinfo @end macro @copying This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}. Copyright @copyright{} 2004-2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc. @quotation Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being A GNU Manual,'' and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License.'' (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: You have the freedom to copy and modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in developing GNU and promoting software freedom.'' This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license. @end quotation @end copying @dircategory Emacs @direntry * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer @end direntry @titlepage @title The Org Manual @subtitle Release @value{VERSION} @author by Carsten Dominik with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, and Thomas Dye @c The following two commands start the copyright page. @page @vskip 0pt plus 1filll @insertcopying @end titlepage @c Output the table of contents at the beginning. @contents @ifnottex @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir) @top Org Mode Manual @insertcopying @end ifnottex @menu * Introduction:: Getting started * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere * Hacking:: How to hack your way around * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual @detailmenu --- The Detailed Node Listing --- Introduction * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual Document structure * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away * Blocks:: Folding blocks * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org Tables * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables The spreadsheet * References:: How to refer to another field or range * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc Hyperlinks * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file * External links:: URL-like links to the world * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code? * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links * Search options:: Linking to a specific location * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough Internal links * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text TODO items * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists Extended use of TODO keywords * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others Progress logging * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE? * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change? * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been? Tags * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags Properties and columns * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features * Property searches:: Matching property values * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers Column view * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property * Using column view:: How to create and use column view * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view Defining columns * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid? * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column Dates and times * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task Creating timestamps * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time * Custom time format:: Making dates look different Deadlines and scheduling * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again Clocking work time * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock * The clock table:: Detailed reports * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle Capture - Refile - Archive * Capture:: Capturing new stuff * Attachments:: Add files to tasks * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects Capture * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types Capture templates * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context Archiving * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file Agenda views * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box? * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries The built-in agenda views * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review Presentation and sorting * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things Custom agenda views * Storing searches:: Type once, use often * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer * Setting Options:: Changing the rules Markup for rich export * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting * Include files:: Include additional files into a document * Index entries:: Making an index * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output * Embedded LaTeX:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents Structural markup elements * Document title:: Where the title is taken from * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents * Initial text:: Text before the first heading? * Lists:: Lists * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs * Footnote markup:: Footnotes * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported Embedded @LaTeX{} * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text * LaTeX fragments:: Complex formulas made easy * Previewing LaTeX fragments:: What will this snippet look like? * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas Exporting * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees * Export options:: Per-file export settings * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML * LaTeX and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook * OpenDocumentText export:: Exporting to OpenDocumentText * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format HTML export * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org-mode * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser @LaTeX{} and PDF export * LaTeX/PDF export commands:: Which key invokes which commands * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure * Quoting LaTeX code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code * Tables in LaTeX export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{} * Images in LaTeX export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation DocBook export * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output * Special characters:: How to handle special characters OpenDocument export * OpenDocumentText export commands:: How to invoke OpenDocumentText export * Applying Custom Styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output * Converting to Other formats:: How to convert to formats like doc, docx etc * Links in OpenDocumentText export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted * Tables in OpenDocumentText export:: How Tables are handled * Images in OpenDocumentText export:: How to insert figures * Additional Documentation:: How to handle special characters Publishing * Configuration:: Defining projects * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server * Sample configuration:: Example projects * Triggering publication:: Publication commands Configuration * Project alist:: The central configuration variable * Sources and destinations:: From here to there * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project? * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing? * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages Sample configuration * Simple example:: One-component publishing * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example Working with source code * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org-mode buffer * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks * Languages:: List of supported code block languages * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org-mode * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line Header arguments * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments Using header arguments * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer * Header arguments in Org-mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level Specific header arguments * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will be collected and handled * file:: Specify a path for file output * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote) directory for code block execution * exports:: Export code and/or results * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target files during tangling * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled code files * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled code files * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb expansion during tangling * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables * colnames:: Handle column names in tables * rownames:: Handle row names in tables * shebang:: Make tangled files executable * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks Miscellaneous * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files Interaction with other packages * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts Hacking * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals * Add-on packages:: Available extensions * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks * Special agenda views:: Customized views * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables * A LaTeX example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial * Translator functions:: Copy and modify * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists MobileOrg * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items @end detailmenu @end menu @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top @chapter Introduction @cindex introduction @menu * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual @end menu @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction @section Summary @cindex summary Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines, timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails, Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of linked web pages. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and create dynamic @i{agenda views}. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation, documentation, and literate programming techniques. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with the minor Orgstruct mode. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different ends, for example: @example @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing} @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes} @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor} @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling} @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system} @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export} @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages} @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming} @end example @cindex FAQ There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at @uref{http://orgmode.org}. @cindex print edition The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network Theory Ltd.} @page @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction @section Installation @cindex installation @cindex XEmacs @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly to @ref{Activation}. To see what version of Org (if any) is part of your Emacs distribution, type @kbd{M-x load-library RET org} and then @kbd{M-x org-version}.} If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip} or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}: @example (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path)) @end example @noindent If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar step for this directory: @example (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path)) @end example @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command: @example make @end example @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as administrator) @example make install @end example Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the @file{install-info} program. The following should correctly install the Info files on most systems, please send a bug report if not@footnote{The output from install-info (if any) is also system dependent. In particular Debian and its derivatives use two different versions of install-info and you may see the message: @example This is not dpkg install-info anymore, but GNU install-info See the man page for ginstall-info for command line arguments @end example @noindent which can be safely ignored.}. @example make install-info @end example Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded when Org-mode starts. @lisp (require 'org-install) @end lisp Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section. @page @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction @section Activation @cindex activation @cindex autoload @cindex global key bindings @cindex key bindings, global To make sure files with extension @file{.org} use Org mode, add the following line to your @file{.emacs} file. @lisp (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode)) @end lisp @noindent Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on - this is the default in Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture}, @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through global keys (i.e.@: anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own liking. @lisp (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link) (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture) (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda) (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb) @end lisp @cindex Org-mode, turning on With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put into Org-mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look like this: @example MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*- @end example @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file @noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what the file's name is. See also the variable @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode} (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default, in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with @lisp (transient-mark-mode 1) @end lisp @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction @section Feedback @cindex feedback @cindex bug reports @cindex maintainer @cindex author If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list moderators have to do.}. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists, prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command @example @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report} @end example @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information about: @enumerate @item What exactly did you do? @item What did you expect to happen? @item What happened instead? @end enumerate @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace @cindex backtrace of an error If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace: @enumerate @item Reload uncompiled versions of all Org-mode Lisp files. The backtrace contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code. To do this, use @example C-u M-x org-reload RET @end example @noindent or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the menu. @item Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error} (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu). @item Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to document the steps you take. @item When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and attach it to your bug report. @end enumerate @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property names. In this manual we use the following conventions: @table @code @item TODO @itemx WAITING TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are user-defined. @item boss @itemx ARCHIVE User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special meaning are written with all capitals. @item Release @itemx PRIORITY User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with special meaning are written with all capitals. @end table The manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for accessing functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it will be listed to call org-table-move-column-right. If you prefer, you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top @chapter Document structure @cindex document structure @cindex structure of document Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to edit the structure of the document. @menu * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away * Blocks:: Folding blocks * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org @end menu @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure @section Outlines @cindex outlines @cindex Outline mode Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the document to show only the general document structure and the parts currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure @section Headlines @cindex headlines @cindex outline tree @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e @vindex org-special-ctrl-k @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a}, @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.}. For example: @example * Top level headline ** Second level *** 3rd level some text *** 3rd level more text * Another top level headline @end example @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure @section Visibility cycling @cindex cycling, visibility @cindex visibility cycling @cindex trees, visibility @cindex show hidden text @cindex hide text Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer. @cindex subtree visibility states @cindex subtree cycling @cindex folded, subtree visibility state @cindex children, subtree visibility state @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state @table @asis @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle} @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states @example ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --. '-----------------------------------' @end example @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however, the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked. @cindex global visibility states @cindex global cycling @cindex overview, global visibility state @cindex contents, global visibility state @cindex show all, global visibility state @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle} @itemx C-u @key{TAB} @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states @example ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --. '--------------------------------------' @end example When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field. @cindex show all, command @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all} Show all, including drawers. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal} Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each level, all sibling headings. With double prefix arg, also show the entire subtree of the parent. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches} Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer} Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect buffer @ifinfo (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual}) @end ifinfo @ifnotinfo (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers) @end ifnotinfo will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer, but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove the previously used indirect buffer. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible} Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring. @end table @vindex org-startup-folded @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the buffer: @example #+STARTUP: overview #+STARTUP: content #+STARTUP: showall #+STARTUP: showeverything @end example @cindex property, VISIBILITY @noindent Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and @code{all}. @table @asis @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility} Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.@: whatever is requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual entries. @end table @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure @section Motion @cindex motion, between headlines @cindex jumping, to headlines @cindex headline navigation The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer. @table @asis @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading} Next heading. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading} Previous heading. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level} Next heading same level. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level} Previous heading same level. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading} Backward to higher level heading. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto} Jump to a different place without changing the current outline visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where you can use the following keys to find your destination: @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch @example @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.} @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.} @key{RET} @r{Select this location.} @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search} @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}} n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.} f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.} u @r{One level up.} 0-9 @r{Digit argument.} q @r{Quit} @end example @vindex org-goto-interface @noindent See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}. @end table @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure @section Structure editing @cindex structure editing @cindex headline, promotion and demotion @cindex promotion, of subtrees @cindex demotion, of subtrees @cindex subtree, cut and paste @cindex pasting, of subtrees @cindex cutting, of subtrees @cindex copying, of subtrees @cindex sorting, of subtrees @cindex subtrees, cut and paste @table @asis @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading} @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.@: behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content} Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before it. This command works from anywhere in the entry. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading} @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content} Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current subtree. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle} In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent, and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back to the initial level. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote} Promote current heading by one level. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote} Demote current heading by one level. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree} Promote the current subtree by one level. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree} Demote the current subtree by one level. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up} Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same level). @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down} Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level). @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree} Kill subtree, i.e.@: remove it from buffer but save in kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree} Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N sequential subtrees. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree} Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a headline marker like @samp{****}. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank} @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place, but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and folding. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift} Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example, to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For more details, see the docstring of the command @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile} Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort-entries-or-items} Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred, creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, sorting will be case-sensitive. With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, duplicate entries will also be removed. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree} Narrow buffer to current subtree. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block} Narrow buffer to current block. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen} Widen buffer to remove narrowing. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading} Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region. @end table @cindex region, active @cindex active region @cindex transient mark mode When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different functionality. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure @section Sparse trees @cindex sparse trees @cindex trees, sparse @cindex folding, sparse trees @cindex occur, command @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above @vindex org-show-following-heading @vindex org-show-siblings @vindex org-show-entry-below An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading}, @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out and you will see immediately how it works. Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these commands can be accessed through a dispatcher: @table @asis @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree} This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur} @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an editing command@footnote{This depends on the option @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept, so several calls to this command can be stacked. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error} Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error} Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer. @end table @noindent @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}). For example: @lisp (setq org-agenda-custom-commands '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME"))) @end lisp @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords, tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual. @kindex C-c C-e v @cindex printing sparse trees @cindex visible text, printing To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible part of the document and print the resulting file. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure @section Plain lists @cindex plain lists @cindex lists, plain @cindex lists, ordered @cindex ordered lists Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists. @itemize @bullet @item @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*} is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as bullets. @item @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator @vindex org-alphabetical-lists @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a list to start with a different value (e.g.@: 20), start the text of the item with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering. @item @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the description. @end itemize Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented than its bullet/number. @vindex org-list-ending-method @vindex org-list-end-regexp @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists Two methods@footnote{To disable either of them, configure @code{org-list-ending-method}.} are provided to terminate lists. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In that case, all items are closed. For finer control, you can end lists with any pattern set in @code{org-list-end-regexp}. Here is an example: @example @group ** Lord of the Rings My favorite scenes are (in this order) 1. The attack of the Rohirrim 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king + this was already my favorite scene in the book + I really like Miranda Otto. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas - on DVD only He makes a really funny face when it happens. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole. Important actors in this film are: - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}. @end group @end example Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on, put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...} blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet @vindex org-list-indent-offset If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize @code{org-list-indent-offset}. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules} to disable them individually. @table @asis @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle} @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the hierarchies remain completely separated. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading} @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line @vindex org-list-automatic-rules Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current one. @kindex M-S-@key{RET} @item M-S-@key{RET} Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}). @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle} In a new item with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list and eventually get it back to its initial position. @kindex S-@key{down} @item S-@key{up} @itemx S-@key{down} @cindex shift-selection-mode @vindex org-support-shift-select @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to cycle around items that way, you may customize @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite similar effect. @kindex M-@key{up} @kindex M-@key{down} @item M-@key{up} @itemx M-@key{down} Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See @code{org-liste-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering is automatic. @kindex M-@key{left} @kindex M-@key{right} @item M-@key{left} @itemx M-@key{right} Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone. @kindex M-S-@key{left} @kindex M-S-@key{right} @item M-S-@key{left} @itemx M-S-@key{right} Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor motion or so. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no influence on the text @emph{after} the list. @kindex C-c C-c @item C-c C-c If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation consistency in the whole list. @kindex C-c - @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator @vindex org-list-automatic-rules @item C-c - Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them, depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list, and its position@footnote{See @code{bullet} rule in @code{org-list-automatic-rules} for more information.}. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, selected text will be changed into an item. With a prefix argument, all lines will be converted to list items. If the first line already was a list item, any item marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be converted into a list item. @kindex C-c * @item C-c * Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation. @kindex C-c C-* @item C-c C-* Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked (resp. checked). @kindex S-@key{left} @kindex S-@key{right} @item S-@key{left}/@key{right} @vindex org-support-shift-select This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or anywhere in an item line, details depending on @code{org-support-shift-select}. @kindex C-c ^ @item C-c ^ Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method: numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function. @end table @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure @section Drawers @cindex drawers @cindex #+DRAWERS @cindex visibility cycling, drawers @vindex org-drawers Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you normally don't want to see it. For this, Org-mode has @emph{drawers}. Drawers need to be configured with the variable @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}. Drawers look like this: @example ** This is a headline Still outside the drawer :DRAWERNAME: This is inside the drawer. :END: After the drawer. @end example Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and press @key{TAB} there. Org-mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-z @item C-c C-z Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer. @end table @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure @section Blocks @vindex org-hide-block-startup @cindex blocks, folding Org-mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup} or on a per-file basis by using @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword @example #+STARTUP: hideblocks #+STARTUP: nohideblocks @end example @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure @section Footnotes @cindex footnotes Org-mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the @file{footnote.el} package, Org-mode's footnotes are designed for work on a larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e.@: a footnote is defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example: @example The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to. ... [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org @end example Org-mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded LaTeX}). Here are the valid references: @table @code @item [1] A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code snippet. @item [fn:name] A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for simplicity of automatic creation, a number. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote] A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the reference point. @item [fn:name: a definition] An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references. @end table @vindex org-footnote-auto-label Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable for details. @noindent The following command handles footnotes: @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-x f @item C-c C-x f The footnote action command. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline @vindex org-footnote-section @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or separately into the location determined by the variable @code{org-footnote-section}. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional options is offered: @example s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,} @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular} @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will} @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic} @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the} @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.} r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering} @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable} @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.} S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.} n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including} @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them} @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is} @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g.@: sending} @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could} @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.} d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references} @r{to it.} @end example Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.}, renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or deletion. @kindex C-c C-c @item C-c C-c If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}. @kindex C-c C-o @kindex mouse-1 @kindex mouse-2 @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2 Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and you can use the usual commands to follow these links. @end table @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure @section The Orgstruct minor mode @cindex Orgstruct mode @cindex minor mode for structure editing If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode structure editing and list formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of: @lisp (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct) (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++) @end lisp When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an item. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top @chapter Tables @cindex tables @cindex editing tables Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package @ifinfo (@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}). @end ifinfo @ifnotinfo (see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs calculator). @end ifnotinfo @menu * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables @end menu @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables @section The built-in table editor @cindex table editor, built-in Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|} as the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|} is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table might look like this: @example | Name | Phone | Age | |-------+-------+-----| | Peter | 1234 | 17 | | Anna | 4321 | 25 | @end example A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to create the above table, you would only type @example |Name|Phone|Age| |- @end example @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}. @vindex org-enable-table-editor @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL}, @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too unpredictable for you, configure the variables @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}. @table @kbd @tsubheading{Creation and conversion} @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region} Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator. @* If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org table. But it is easier just to start typing, like @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion} @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align} Re-align the table without moving the cursor. @c @orgcmd{,org-table-next-field} Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if necessary. @c @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field} Re-align, move to previous field. @c @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row} Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table. @c @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field} Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field} Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field. @tsubheading{Column and row editing} @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right} Move the current column left/right. @c @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column} Kill the current column. @c @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column} Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position. @c @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down} Move the current row up/down. @c @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row} Kill the current row or horizontal line. @c @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row} Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is created below the current one. @c @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline} Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line is created above the current line. @c @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move} Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row below that line. @c @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines} Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive. @tsubheading{Regions} @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region} Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region, copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines. @c @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region} Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the cut'' operation. @c @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle} Paste a rectangular region into a table. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table, the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator lines. @c @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region} Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument, the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field above. @tsubheading{Calculations} @cindex formula, in tables @cindex calculations, in tables @cindex region, active @cindex active region @cindex transient mark mode @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum} Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can be inserted with @kbd{C-y}. @c @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down} @vindex org-table-copy-increment When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}). @tsubheading{Miscellaneous} @orgcmd{C-c ,org-table-edit-field} Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table, or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c }. @c @item M-x org-table-import Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data from a database, because these programs generally can write TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the separator. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region} Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}). @c @item M-x org-table-export @findex org-table-export @vindex org-table-export-default-format Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format used to export the file can be configured in the variable @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a detailed description. @end table If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn it off with @lisp (setq org-enable-table-editor nil) @end lisp @noindent Then the only table command that still works is @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables @section Column width and alignment @cindex narrow columns in tables @cindex alignment in tables The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction of number-like versus non-number fields in the column. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere in the column may contain just the string @samp{} where @samp{N} is an integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align will then set the width of this column to this value. @example @group |---+------------------------------| |---+--------| | | | | | <6> | | 1 | one | | 1 | one | | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two | | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> | | 4 | four | | 4 | four | |---+------------------------------| |---+--------| @end group @end example @noindent Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command @kbd{C-c } (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c C-c}. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option on a per-file basis with: @example #+STARTUP: align #+STARTUP: noalign @end example If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{}, @samp{c}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{} in a similar fashion. You may also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{}. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed automatically when exporting the document. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables @section Column groups @cindex grouping columns in tables When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group, @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} to make a column a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be marked with vertical lines. Here is an example: @example | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) | |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------| | / | < | | > | < | > | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 | | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 | |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------| #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1))) @end example It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after every vertical line you would like to have: @example | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) | |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------| | / | < | | | < | | @end example @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables @section The Orgtbl minor mode @cindex Orgtbl mode @cindex minor mode for tables If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, use @lisp (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl) @end lisp Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables @section The spreadsheet @cindex calculations, in tables @cindex spreadsheet capabilities @cindex @file{calc} package The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the formula, moving these references by arrow keys @menu * References:: How to refer to another field or range * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc @end menu @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet @subsection References @cindex references To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid. @subsubheading Field references @cindex field references @cindex references, to fields Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general representation that looks like this: @example @@@var{row}$@var{column} @end example Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1}, @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e.@: the column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third column from the right. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc@. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line after the third hline in the table. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively, i.e. to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is implied. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two different fields, the same field will be referenced each time. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating references because the same reference operator can reference different fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula. Here are a few examples: @example @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})} $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})} @@2 @r{current column, row 2} @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left} @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2} @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5} @end example @subsubheading Range references @cindex range references @cindex references, to ranges You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column} format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples: @example$1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}$P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}$<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last} @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})} @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row} @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}} @end example @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields, @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas @cindex field coordinates @cindex coordinates, of field @cindex row, of field coordinates @cindex column, of field coordinates For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline} and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples: @example if(@@# % 2,$#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only} $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into} @r{column 3 of the current table} @end example @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large number of rows. @subsubheading Named references @cindex named references @cindex references, named @cindex name, of column or field @cindex constants, in calculations @cindex #+CONSTANTS @vindex org-table-formula-constants @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a line like @example #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6 @end example @noindent @vindex constants-unit-system @pindex constants.el Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants, including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI} and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and numbers. @subsubheading Remote references @cindex remote references @cindex references, remote @cindex references, to a different table @cindex name, of column or field @cindex constants, in calculations @cindex #+TBLNAME You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table, either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is @example remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF) @end example @noindent where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the referenced table. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet @subsection Formula syntax for Calc @cindex formula syntax, Calc @cindex syntax, of formulas A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from Your Programs,calc-eval,Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs,Calc,GNU Emacs Calc Manual}), @c FIXME: The link to the Calc manual in HTML does not work. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above. @cindex vectors, in table calculations The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}. @cindex format specifier @cindex mode, for @file{calc} @vindex org-calc-default-modes A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable @code{org-calc-default-modes}. @example p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits} n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed} @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.} @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as} @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.} D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians} F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes} N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers} E @r{keep empty fields in ranges} L @r{literal} @end example @noindent Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64 bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}. A few examples: @example $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field} $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals} exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used} $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal} ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion} $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}} tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1} sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display} vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function} vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0} taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree} @end example Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example @example if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{"teen" if age $1 less than 20, else empty} @end example Note that you can also use two org-specific flags @code{T} and @code{t} for durations computations @ref{Durations and time values}. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is not enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes and a printf format after a semicolon. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp: @example @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1} '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring$1 0 1) (substring $1 2)) @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}} '(+$1 $2);N @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}} '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N @end example @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet @subsection Durations and time values @cindex Duration, computing @cindex Time, computing @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc formulas or Elisp formulas: @example @group | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total | |---------+----------+----------| | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 | | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 | #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t @end group @end example Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed as @code{[HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag, computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the variable @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the example above). Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be considered as seconds in addition and subtraction. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet @subsection Field and range formulas @cindex field formula @cindex range formula @cindex formula, for individual table field @cindex formula, for range of fields To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field, preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field, the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the current field will be replaced with the result. @cindex #+TBLFM Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands, @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does of cause not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing commands---then you must fix the equations yourself. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following command @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula} Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies it to the current field, and stores it. @end table The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line directly. @table @code @item $2= Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}. @item @@3= Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means the last row. @item @@1$2..@@4$3= Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row. @item$name= Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}. @end table @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet @subsection Column formulas @cindex column formula @cindex formula, for table column When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator hlines, everything before the first such line is considered part of the table @emph{header} and will not be modified by column formulas. (ii) Fields that already get a value from a field/range formula will be left alone by column formulas. These conditions make column formulas very easy to use. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field, the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be the numeric column reference or @code{$>}. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following command: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula} Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g.@: @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column. @end table @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet @subsection Editing and debugging formulas @cindex formula editing @cindex editing, of table formulas @vindex org-table-use-standard-references You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&}) if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like @code{@@3$2} or @code{4}), configure the variable @code{org-table-use-standard-references}. @table @kbd @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula} Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula} Re-insert the active formula (either a field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info} While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s) referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula. @kindex C-c @} @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays @item C-c @} Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}. @kindex C-c @{ @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger @item C-c @{ Toggle the formula debugger on and off (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas} Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit, remove and add formulas, and use the following commands: @table @kbd @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish} Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort} Exit the formula editor without installing changes. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type} Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@32}). @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent} Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol} Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode. @kindex S-@key{up} @kindex S-@key{down} @kindex S-@key{left} @kindex S-@key{right} @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right} Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}. This also works for relative references and for hline references. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down} Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and down. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up} Scroll the window displaying the table. @kindex C-c @} @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays @item C-c @} Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off. @end table @end table Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM} line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line. @kindex C-c C-c You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal recalculation commands in the table. @subsubheading Debugging formulas @cindex formula debugging @cindex debugging, of table formulas When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug, turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a field. Detailed information will be displayed. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet @subsection Updating the table @cindex recomputing table fields @cindex updating, table Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make recalculation at least semi-automatic. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the following commands: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate} Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row. @c @kindex C-u C-c * @item C-u C-c * @kindex C-u C-c C-c @itemx C-u C-c C-c Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header. @c @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate} Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables Recompute all tables in the current buffer. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table dependencies. @end table @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet @subsection Advanced features If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for special marking characters. @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks} Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ }, @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region, change all marks in the region. @end table Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and makes use of these features: @example @group |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note | |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | | | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 | | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | | |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 | | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 | |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | | Average | | | | 29.7 | | | ^ | | | | | at | | |$ | max=50 | | | | | | |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f @end group @end example @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables, recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with empty first field. @cindex marking characters, tables The marking characters have the following meaning: @table @samp @item ! The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}. @item ^ This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it will be stored as @samp{$name=...}. @item _ Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row @emph{below}. @item$ Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on a per-table basis. @item # Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked lines will be left alone by this command. @item * Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic recalculation slows down editing too much. @item Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#} or @samp{*}. @item / Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing @samp{} markers or column group markers. @end table Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of functions. @example @group |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------| | | Func | n | x | Result | |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------| | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x | | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 | | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 | | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 | | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 | | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 | |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------| #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3 @end group @end example @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables @section Org-Plot @cindex graph, in tables @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot @cindex #+PLOT Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode} @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table. @example @group #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]" | Sede | Max cites | H-index | |-----------+-----------+---------| | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 | | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 | | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 | | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 | | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 | @end group @end example Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples see the Org-plot tutorial at @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}. @subsubheading Plot Options @table @code @item set Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing. @item title Specify the title of the plot. @item ind Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis. @item deps Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind} column). @item type Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}. @item with Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted (e.g.@: @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...). Defaults to @code{lines}. @item file If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}. @item labels List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers if they exist). @item line Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script. @item map When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope. @item timefmt Specify format of Org-mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}. @item script If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every instance of @code{datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of the data file. @end table @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top @chapter Hyperlinks @cindex hyperlinks Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more. @menu * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file * External links:: URL-like links to the world * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code? * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links * Search options:: Linking to a specific location * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough @end menu @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks @section Link format @cindex link format @cindex format, of links Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this: @example [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]] @end example @noindent Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link}, which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link} part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the cursor on the link. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the internal structure of all links, use the menu entry @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks @section Internal links @cindex internal links @cindex links, internal @cindex targets, for links @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the current file. The most important case is a link like @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique in a file. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]} lead to a text search in the current file. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link, or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a comment line. For example @example # <> @end example @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the first headline.}. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded earlier. @menu * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text @end menu @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links @subsection Radio targets @cindex radio targets @cindex targets, radio @cindex links, radio targets Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor on or at a target. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks @section External links @cindex links, external @cindex external links @cindex links, external @cindex Gnus links @cindex BBDB links @cindex IRC links @cindex URL links @cindex file links @cindex VM links @cindex RMAIL links @cindex WANDERLUST links @cindex MH-E links @cindex USENET links @cindex SHELL links @cindex Info links @cindex Elisp links Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type. @example http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web} doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource} file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path} /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above} file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path} ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above} file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine} /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above} file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file with line number to jump to} file:projects.org @r{another Org file} file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{ The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of the variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create}, then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user will be queried to create it.} file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file} docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open file in doc-view mode at page NNN} id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID} news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link} mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link} vm:folder @r{VM folder link} vm:folder#id @r{VM message link} vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine} wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link} wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link} mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link} mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link} rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link} rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link} gnus:group @r{Gnus group link} gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link} bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)} irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link} info:org#External links @r{Info node link} shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command} elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command} elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate} @end example For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link format}), for example: @example [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]] @end example @noindent If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an image, that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file. @cindex square brackets, around links @cindex plain text external links Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks @section Handling links @cindex links, handling Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link. @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link} @cindex storing links Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current buffer: @b{Org-mode buffers}@* For Org files, if there is a @samp{<>} at the cursor, the link points to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be removed from the link and result in a wrong link -- you should avoid putting timestamp in the headline.}. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID @cindex property, ID If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one to use. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@* Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is constructed from the author and the subject. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@* Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@* Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry. @b{Chat: IRC}@* @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to the user/channel/server under the point will be stored. @b{Other files}@* For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}. @b{Agenda view}@* When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the entry referenced by the current line. @c @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link} @cindex link completion @cindex completion, of links @cindex inserting links @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text becomes the default description. @b{Inserting stored links}@* All links stored during the current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}). @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb @key{RET}} you can complete contact names. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l @cindex file name completion @cindex completion, of file names When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes. @c @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)} When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the link and description parts of the link. @c @cindex following links @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point} @vindex org-file-apps @vindex org-link-frame-setup Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@* If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}. @orgkey @key{RET} @vindex org-return-follows-link When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow the link at point. @c @kindex mouse-2 @kindex mouse-1 @item mouse-2 @itemx mouse-1 On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o} would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link. @c @kindex mouse-3 @item mouse-3 @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}. @c @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images} @cindex inlining images @cindex images, inlining @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline images that have no description part in the link, i.e.@: images that will also be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be displayed at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push} @cindex mark ring Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically. @c @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto} @cindex links, returning to Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of previously recorded positions. @c @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link} @cindex links, finding next/previous Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p} @lisp (add-hook 'org-load-hook (lambda () (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link) (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link))) @end lisp @end table @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks @section Using links outside Org You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys yourself): @lisp (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global) (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global) @end lisp @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks @section Link abbreviations @cindex link abbreviations @cindex abbreviation, links Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An abbreviated link looks like this @example [[linkword:tag][description]] @end example @noindent @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist where the tag is optional. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist} that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example: @smalllisp @group (setq org-link-abbrev-alist '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=") ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=") ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s") ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1") ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST"))) @end group @end smalllisp If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you can define them in the file with @cindex #+LINK @example #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id= #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s @end example @noindent In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g.@: completion) support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks @section Search options in file links @cindex search option in file links @cindex file links, searching File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search string that can be used to find this line back later when following the link with @kbd{C-c C-o}. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file link, together with an explanation: @example [[file:~/code/main.c::255]] [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]] [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]] [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]] [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]] @end example @table @code @item 255 Jump to line 255. @item My Target Search for a link target @samp{<>}, or do a text search for @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in the linked file. @item *My Target In an Org file, restrict search to headlines. @item #my-custom-id Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @item /regexp/ Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the target file is in Org-mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a sparse tree with the matches. @c If the target file is a directory, @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory. @end table As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as @samp{[[find me]]} would. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks @section Custom Searches @cindex custom search strings @cindex search strings, custom The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings, because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the citation key. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need to be added to the hook variables @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top @chapter TODO items @cindex TODO items Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items, but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way, information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO item emerged is always present. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them throughout your notes file. Org-mode compensates for this by providing methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do. @menu * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists @end menu @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items @section Basic TODO functionality Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word @samp{TODO}, for example: @example *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune @end example @noindent The most important commands to work with TODO entries are: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo} @cindex cycling, of TODO states Rotate the TODO state of the current item among @example ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --. '--------------------------------' @end example The same rotation can also be done remotely'' from the timeline and agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}). @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t} Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up) the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for more information. @kindex S-@key{right} @kindex S-@key{left} @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left} @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-key} @cindex sparse tree, for TODO @vindex org-todo-keywords View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states, both un-done and done. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list} Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states) from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}). @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading} Insert a new TODO entry below the current one. @end table @noindent @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items @section Extended use of TODO keywords @cindex extended TODO keywords @vindex org-todo-keywords By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and DONE. Org-mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different files. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}). @menu * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others @end menu @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states @cindex TODO workflow @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org-mode in a buffer.}: @lisp (setq org-todo-keywords '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED"))) @end lisp The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE state. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions @subsection TODO keywords as types @cindex TODO types @cindex names as TODO keywords @cindex types as TODO keywords The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate that items are for work'' or home''. Or, when you work with several people on a single project, you might want to assign action items directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would be set up like this: @lisp (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE"))) @end lisp In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a person, and later to mark it DONE. Org-mode supports this style by adapting the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file @cindex TODO keyword sets Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look like this: @lisp (setq org-todo-keywords '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE") (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED") (sequence "|" "CANCELED"))) @end lisp The keywords should all be different, this helps Org-mode to keep track of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup, @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands: @table @kbd @kindex C-S-@key{right} @kindex C-S-@key{left} @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t @item C-u C-u C-c C-t @itemx C-S-@key{right} @itemx C-S-@key{left} These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example, @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}). @kindex S-@key{right} @kindex S-@key{left} @item S-@key{right} @itemx S-@key{left} @kbd{S-@key{}} and @kbd{S-@key{}} and walk through @emph{all} keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{}} would switch from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with @code{shift-selection-mode}. @end table @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions @subsection Fast access to TODO states If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example: @lisp (setq org-todo-keywords '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)") (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)") (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)"))) @end lisp @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with unique keys across both sets of keywords.} @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files @cindex keyword options @cindex per-file keywords @cindex #+TODO @cindex #+TYP_TODO @cindex #+SEQ_TODO It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the file: @example #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED @end example @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or @example #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE @end example A setup for using several sets in parallel would be: @example #+TODO: TODO | DONE #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED #+TODO: | CANCELED @end example @cindex completion, of option keywords @kindex M-@key{TAB} @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode parses these lines only when Org-mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org-mode for the current buffer.}. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions @subsection Faces for TODO keywords @cindex faces, for TODO keywords @vindex org-todo @r{(face)} @vindex org-done @r{(face)} @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces Org-mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo} for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example: @lisp @group (setq org-todo-keyword-faces '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow") ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold)))) @end group @end lisp While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should} work, this does not aways seem to be the case. If necessary, define a special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a foreground or a background color. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions @subsection TODO dependencies @cindex TODO dependencies @cindex dependencies, of TODO states @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies @cindex property, ORDERED The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an example: @example * TODO Blocked until (two) is done ** DONE one ** TODO two * Parent :PROPERTIES: :ORDERED: t :END: ** TODO a ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a) ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b) @end example @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property} @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag @cindex property, ORDERED Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t} Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking. @end table @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}). @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed module @file{org-depend.el}. @page @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items @section Progress logging @cindex progress logging @cindex logging, of progress Org-mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking work time}. @menu * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE? * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change? * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been? @end menu @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging @subsection Closing items The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}} @lisp (setq org-log-done 'time) @end lisp @noindent Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}} @lisp (setq org-log-done 'note) @end lisp @noindent You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day, giving you an overview of what has been done. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging @subsection Tracking TODO state changes @cindex drawer, for state change recording @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed @vindex org-log-into-drawer @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}). Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}. You can also overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org-mode expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) and @samp{@@} (for a note) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the setting @lisp (setq org-todo-keywords '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)"))) @end lisp @noindent @vindex org-log-done you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org-mode will record two timestamps when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging configured. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local to a buffer: @example #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@) @end example @cindex property, LOGGING In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example @example * TODO Log each state with only a time :PROPERTIES: :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!) :END: * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating :PROPERTIES: :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat :END: * TODO No logging at all :PROPERTIES: :LOGGING: nil :END: @end example @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging @subsection Tracking your habits @cindex habits Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs, called habits''. A habit has the following properties: @enumerate @item You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable @code{org-modules}. @item The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state. @item The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}. @item The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports. @item The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every three days, but at most every two days. @item You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless. @end enumerate To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an actual habit with some history: @example ** TODO Shave SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d> - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu] - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon] - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat] - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun] - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri] - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue] - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri] - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat] - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed] - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat] :PROPERTIES: :STYLE: habit :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36] :END: @end example What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17, after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19, after four days have elapsed. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are: @table @code @item Blue If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day. @item Green If the task could have been done on that day. @item Yellow If the task was going to be overdue the next day. @item Red If the task was overdue on that day. @end table In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where the current day falls in the graph. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way habits are displayed in the agenda. @table @code @item org-habit-graph-column The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits' titles brief and to the point. @item org-habit-preceding-days The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs. @item org-habit-following-days The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by default. @end table Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits which should only be done in certain contexts, for example. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items @section Priorities @cindex priorities If you use Org-mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this @example *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune @end example @noindent @vindex org-priority-faces By default, Org-mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they have no inherent meaning to Org-mode. The cookies can be highlighted with special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO items. @table @kbd @item @kbd{C-c ,} @kindex @kbd{C-c ,} @findex org-priority Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the headline. The priorities can also be changed remotely'' from the timeline and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}). @c @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down} @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with @code{shift-selection-mode}. @end table @vindex org-highest-priority @vindex org-lowest-priority @vindex org-default-priority You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest priority): @cindex #+PRIORITIES @example #+PRIORITIES: A C B @end example @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks @cindex tasks, breaking down @cindex statistics, for TODO items @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item, with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example: @example * Organize Party [33%] ** TODO Call people [1/2] *** TODO Peter *** DONE Sarah ** TODO Buy food ** DONE Talk to neighbor @end example @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree, include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA} property. @example * Parent capturing statistics [2/20] :PROPERTIES: :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive :END: @end example If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE when all children are done, you can use the following setup: @example (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done) "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise." (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO")))) (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo) @end example Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}). @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items @section Checkboxes @cindex checkboxes @vindex org-list-automatic-rules Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules} accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's @file{org-mouse.el}). Here is an example of a checkbox list. @example * TODO Organize party [2/4] - [-] call people [1/3] - [ ] Peter - [X] Sarah - [ ] Sam - [X] order food - [ ] think about what music to play - [X] talk to the neighbors @end example Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are checked. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes @cindex checkbox statistics @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off, and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m} result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes @cindex checkbox blocking @cindex property, ORDERED If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox} Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an intermediate state. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox} Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an intermediate state. @itemize @minus @item If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region. @item If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree). @item If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point. @end itemize @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading} Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}). @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property} @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag @cindex property, ORDERED Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies} Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by hand, use this command to get things back into sync. @end table @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top @chapter Tags @cindex tags @cindex headline tagging @cindex matching, tags @cindex sparse tree, tag based An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org-mode has extensive support for tags. @vindex org-tag-faces Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g., @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}). @menu * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags @end menu @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags @section Tag inheritance @cindex tag inheritance @cindex inheritance, of tags @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as well. For example, in the list @example * Meeting with the French group :work: ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes: *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action: @end example @noindent the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:}, @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any changes in the line.}: @cindex #+FILETAGS @example #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret: @end example @noindent @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags match in a subtree, configure the variable @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended). @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags @section Setting tags @cindex setting tags @cindex tags, setting @kindex M-@key{TAB} Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is also a special command for inserting tags: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command} @cindex completion, of tags @vindex org-tags-column Enter new tags for the current headline. Org-mode will either offer completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion, demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}). @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command} When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}. @end table @vindex org-tag-alist Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set the default tags for a given file with lines like @cindex #+TAGS @example #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat @end example If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file: @example #+TAGS: @end example @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file, in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then you may specify a list of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis by adding a STARTUP option line to that file: @example #+STARTUP: noptag @end example By default Org-mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something like: @lisp (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l))) @end lisp @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you can instead set the TAGS option line as: @example #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p) @end example @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert @samp{\n} into the tag list @example #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p) @end example @noindent or write them in two lines: @example #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p) @end example @noindent You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using braces, as in: @example #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p) @end example @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home}, and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of these lines to activate any changes. @noindent To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist}, you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line break. The previous example would be set globally by the following configuration: @lisp (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil) ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("@@tennisclub" . ?t) (:endgroup . nil) ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p))) @end lisp If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags, the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following keys: @table @kbd @item a-z... Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group. @kindex @key{TAB} @item @key{TAB} Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma. @kindex @key{SPC} @item @key{SPC} Clear all tags for this line. @kindex @key{RET} @item @key{RET} Accept the modified set. @item C-g Abort without installing changes. @item q If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}. @item ! Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an exception) assign several tags from such a group. @item C-c Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below). If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the selection window. @end table @noindent This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home}, @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h @key{RET} @key{RET}}. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to modify your list of tags, set the variable @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags @section Tag searches @cindex tag searches @cindex searching for tags Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related information into special lists. @table @kbd @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree} Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view} Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files. @xref{Matching tags and properties}. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view} @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}). @end table These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see @ref{Matching tags and properties}. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top @chapter Properties and columns @cindex properties Properties are a set of key-value pairs associated with an entry. There are two main applications for properties in Org-mode. First, properties are like tags, but with a value. Second, you can use properties to implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. For an example of the first application, imagine maintaining a file where you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, one can use a property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. For an example of the second application of properties, imagine keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view (@pxref{Column view}). @menu * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features * Property searches:: Matching property values * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers @end menu @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns @section Property syntax @cindex property syntax @cindex drawer, for properties Properties are key-value pairs. They need to be inserted into a special drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons) first, and the value after it. Here is an example: @example * CD collection ** Classic *** Goldberg Variations :PROPERTIES: :Title: Goldberg Variations :Composer: J.S. Bach :Artist: Glen Gould :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon :NDisks: 1 :END: @end example You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:} by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine publishers and the number of disks in a box like this: @example * CD collection :PROPERTIES: :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4 :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI :END: @end example If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a file, use a line like @cindex property, _ALL @cindex #+PROPERTY @example #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4 @end example @vindex org-global-properties Property values set with the global variable @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all Org files. @noindent The following commands help to work with properties: @table @kbd @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete} After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used in the current file will be offered as possible completions. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property} Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If necessary, the property drawer is created as well. @item M-x org-insert-property-drawer @findex org-insert-property-drawer Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning information like deadlines. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action} With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property} Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value can be inserted using completion. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value} Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property} Remove a property from the current entry. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally} Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point} Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the nearest column format definition. @end table @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns @section Special properties @cindex properties, special Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org-mode features, like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be used as keys in the properties drawer: @cindex property, special, TODO @cindex property, special, TAGS @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS @cindex property, special, CATEGORY @cindex property, special, PRIORITY @cindex property, special, DEADLINE @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED @cindex property, special, CLOSED @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM @cindex property, special, BLOCKED @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted? @cindex property, special, ITEM @cindex property, special, FILE @example TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.} TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.} ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.} CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.} PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.} DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.} SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.} CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?} TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.} TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.} CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}} @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.} BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings} ITEM @r{The content of the entry.} FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.} @end example @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns @section Property searches @cindex properties, searching @cindex searching, of properties To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties, the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}). @table @kbd @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \,org-match-sparse-tree} Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view} Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files. @xref{Matching tags and properties}. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view} @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}). @end table The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and properties}. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a single property: @table @kbd @orgkey{C-c / p} Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree is created with all entries that define this property with the given value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as a regular expression and matched against the property values. @end table @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns @section Property Inheritance @cindex properties, inheritance @cindex inheritance, of properties @vindex org-use-property-inheritance The outline structure of Org-mode documents lends itself to an inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain property, the children can inherit this property. Org-mode does not turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}. Org-mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at least for the special applications for which they are used: @cindex property, COLUMNS @table @code @item COLUMNS The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting point for a column view table, independently of the location in the subtree from where columns view is turned on. @item CATEGORY @cindex property, CATEGORY For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property applies to the entire subtree. @item ARCHIVE @cindex property, ARCHIVE For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}). @item LOGGING @cindex property, LOGGING The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}). @end table @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns @section Column view A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the entries. Org-mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files. @menu * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property * Using column view:: How to create and use column view * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view @end menu @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view @subsection Defining columns @cindex column view, for properties @cindex properties, column view Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is done by defining a column format line. @menu * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid? * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column @end menu @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns @subsubsection Scope of column definitions To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like @cindex #+COLUMNS @example #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO @end example To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example: @example ** Top node for columns view :PROPERTIES: :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO :END: @end example If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document, you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a deeper part of the tree. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns @subsubsection Column attributes A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general definition looks like this: @example %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}] @end example @noindent Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are optional. The individual parts have the following meaning: @example @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.} @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.} @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.} @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here} @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})} @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property} @r{name is used.} @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for} @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.} @r{Supported summary types are:} @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.} @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.} @{@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.} @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.} @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.} @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.} @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.} @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.} @{max@} @r{Largest number.} @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.} @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.} @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.} @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.} @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).} @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).} @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).} @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.} @end example @noindent Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the same summary information. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the full job more realistically, at 10-15 days. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed values. @example :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.} %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" "" :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]" @end example @noindent The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the item itself, i.e.@: of the headline. You probably always should start the column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%} character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view @subsection Using column view @table @kbd @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off} @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns} @vindex org-columns-default-format Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file, column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS} definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:} property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format}, and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo} Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo} Same as @kbd{r}. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit} Exit column view. @tsubheading{Editing values} @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down} Move through the column view from field to field. @kindex S-@key{left} @kindex S-@key{right} @item S-@key{left}/@key{right} Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you have to have specified allowed values for a property. @item 1..9,0 Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value} Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value} Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion or fast selection interface will pop up. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle} When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value} View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of the column is smaller than that of the value. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed} Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the current column view. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure} @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen} Make the column narrower/wider by one character. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new} Insert a new column, to the left of the current column. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete} Delete the current column. @end table @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view @subsection Capturing column view Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame of this block looks like this: @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview @example * The column view #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label" #+END: @end example @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters: @table @code @item :id This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to capture, you can use 4 values: @cindex property, ID @example local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located} global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file} "file:@var{path-to-file}" @r{run column view at the top of this file} "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}} @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use} @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for} @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.} @end example @item :hlines When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}. @item :vlines When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines. @item :maxlevel When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level. @item :skip-empty-rows When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the column view is @code{ITEM}. @end table @noindent The following commands insert or update the dynamic block: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock} Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted for the scope or ID of the view. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update} Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks} Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic blocks in a buffer. @end table You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will actually be recalculated automatically after an update. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns @section The Property API @cindex properties, API @cindex API, for properties There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the property API}. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top @chapter Dates and times @cindex dates @cindex times @cindex timestamp @cindex date stamp To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org-mode. This may be a little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when something was created or last changed. However, in Org-mode this term is used in a much wider sense. @menu * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task @end menu @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling @cindex timestamps @cindex ranges, time @cindex date stamps @cindex deadlines @cindex scheduling A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601 date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish: @table @var @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment @cindex timestamp @cindex appointment A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date. @example * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15> * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00> @end example @item Timestamp with repeater interval @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday: @example * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w> @end example @item Diary-style sexp entries For more complex date specifications, Org-mode supports using the special sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org-mode users can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-} functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For example @example * The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month <%%(org-float t 4 2)> @end example @item Time/Date range @cindex timerange @cindex date range Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example: @example ** Meeting in Amsterdam <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu> @end example @item Inactive timestamp @cindex timestamp, inactive @cindex inactive timestamp Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda. @example * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed] @end example @end table @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times @section Creating timestamps @cindex creating timestamps @cindex timestamps, creating For Org-mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct format. @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp} Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in succession, a time range is inserted. @c @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive} Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause an agenda entry. @c @kindex C-u C-c . @kindex C-u C-c ! @item C-u C-c . @itemx C-u C-c ! @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5 minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}. @c @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar} Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar. @c @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar} Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date instead. @c @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point} Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). @c @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day} Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}). @c @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down} Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second, shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}). @c @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range} @cindex evaluate time range Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into the following column). @end table @menu * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time * Custom time format:: Making dates look different @end menu @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps @subsection The date/time prompt @cindex date, reading in minibuffer @cindex time, reading in minibuffer @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string copied from an email message. Org-mode will find whatever information is in there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in information, Org-mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).} For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org-mode are in @b{bold}. @example 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05 Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later) sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15 feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15 sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34 w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006} 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above @end example Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be the Nth such day, e.g.@: @example +0 @result{} today . @result{} today +4d @result{} four days from today +4 @result{} same as above +2w @result{} two weeks from today ++5 @result{} five days from default date +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now. @end example @vindex parse-time-months @vindex parse-time-weekdays The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range, read the docstring of the variable @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter case, e.g.@: @example 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above @end example @cindex calendar, for selecting date @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully from the minibuffer: @kindex < @kindex > @kindex M-v @kindex C-v @kindex mouse-1 @kindex S-@key{right} @kindex S-@key{left} @kindex S-@key{down} @kindex S-@key{up} @kindex M-S-@key{right} @kindex M-S-@key{left} @kindex @key{RET} @example @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.} mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.} S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.} S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.} M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.} > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.} M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.} @end example @vindex org-read-date-display-live The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps @subsection Custom time format @cindex custom date/time format @cindex time format, custom @cindex date format, custom @vindex org-display-custom-times @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats Org-mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}. @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays} Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times. @end table @noindent Org-mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the following consequences: @itemize @bullet @item You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or after. @item The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day, just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the time will be changed by one minute. @item If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were. @item When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed. @item If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom format is shorter, things do work as expected. @end itemize @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times @section Deadlines and scheduling A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning: @table @var @item DEADLINE @cindex DEADLINE keyword Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed to be finished on that date. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the approaching or missed deadline, starting @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing until the entry is marked DONE. An example: @example *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]] DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun> @end example You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}. @item SCHEDULED @cindex SCHEDULED keyword Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given date. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.@: the task will automatically be forwarded until completed. @example *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat> @end example @noindent @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org-mode should @i{not} be understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by Org users. In Org-mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you want to start working on an action item. @end table You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline entries. Org-mode will issue early and late warnings based on the assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like @c @code{<%%(org-float t 42)>} @c in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org-mode does not know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the sexp entry matches. @menu * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again @end menu @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule an item: @table @kbd @c @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline} Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline}, and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing deadline. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule} Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling date from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing scheduling time. @c @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action} @kindex k a @kindex k s Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to schedule the marked item. @c @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines} @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines @vindex org-deadline-warning-days Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows all deadlines due tomorrow. @c @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date} Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date. @c @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date} Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date. @end table Note that @code{org-schedule} and @code{org-deadline} supports setting the date by indicating a relative time: e.g. +1d will set the date to the next day after today, and --1w will set the date to the previous week before any current timestamp. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling @subsection Repeated tasks @cindex tasks, repeated @cindex repeated tasks Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org-mode helps to organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED, or plain timestamp. In the following example @example ** TODO Pay the rent DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m> @end example @noindent the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last: @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the repeated entry will not be active. Org-mode deals with this in the following way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually switch the date like this: @example ** TODO Pay the rent DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m> @end example @vindex org-log-repeat A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat}, @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances will be visible. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org-mode has special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example: @example ** TODO Call Father DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w> Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week, but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called and marked it done on Saturday. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m> Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after today. @end example You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times @section Clocking work time @cindex clocking time @cindex time clocking Org-mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock. When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project. And it remembers a history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly between a number of tasks absorbing your time. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use @lisp (setq org-clock-persist 'history) (org-clock-persistence-insinuate) @end lisp When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.} will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about what to do with it. @menu * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock * The clock table:: Detailed reports * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle @end menu @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time @subsection Clocking commands @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in} @vindex org-clock-into-drawer @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task, with letter @kbd{d}.@* @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT @vindex org-clock-modeline-total While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate on the fly'', hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property} will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options. @c @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out} @vindex org-log-note-clock-out Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=> HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate} Update the effort estimate for the current clock task. @kindex C-c C-y @kindex C-c C-c @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range} Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{up/down},org-clock-timestamps-up/down} On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease both timestamps at the same time so that duration keeps the same. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo} Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock if it is running in this same item. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-cancel} Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by mistake, or if you ended up working on something else. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto} Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display} @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press @kbd{C-c C-c}. @end table The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been worked on or closed during a day. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time @subsection The clock table @cindex clocktable, dynamic block @cindex report, of clocked time Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is formatted as one or several Org tables. @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report} Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock report as an Org-mode table into the current file. When the cursor is at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and update it. The clock table always includes also trees with @code{:ARCHIVE:} tag. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update} Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u} Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if you have several clock table blocks in a buffer. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift} Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc. @end table Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command: @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable @example #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file #+END: clocktable @end example @noindent @vindex org-clocktable-defaults The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope, structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to be selected: @example :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.} @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.} :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:} nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region} file @r{the full current buffer} subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located} tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}} tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree} agenda @r{all agenda files} ("file"..) @r{scan these files} file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives} agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives} :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either} @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of} @r{these formats:} 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007} 2007-12 @r{December 2007} 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007} 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007} 2007 @r{the year 2007} today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day} thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week} thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month} thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year} @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.} :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.} :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.} :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.} @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.} :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.} :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.} :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See} @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.} @end example Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default}, but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter. @example :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.} :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".} :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.} :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in} @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the} @r{headline will also be shortened in export.} :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.} :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller} @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.} :level @r{Should a level number column be included?} :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}} @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}} :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,} @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.} :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each} @r{property will get its own column.} :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.} :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.} @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.} @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula} @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.} :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.} @end example To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current day, you could write @example #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t #+END: clocktable @end example @noindent and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here only to fit it into the manual.} @example #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>" :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>" #+END: clocktable @end example A summary of the current subtree with % times would be @example #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula % #+END: clocktable @end example A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week would be @example #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t #+END: clocktable @end example @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time @subsection Resolving idle time @cindex resolve idle time @cindex idle, resolve, dangling If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to resolve'' the time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or applying it to another one. @vindex org-clock-idle-time By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X, idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of choices to correct the discrepancy: @table @kbd @item k To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all, effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes. @item K If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task. @item s To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned. @item S To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time, use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose. @item C To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the log with an empty entry. @end table What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time on the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to the next task you clock in on. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org mode changes, including your last clock in. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period, Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times @section Effort estimates @cindex effort estimates @cindex property, Effort @vindex org-effort-property If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort for an entry with the following commands: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort} Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate} Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked. @end table Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific buffer you can use @example #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM @end example @noindent @vindex org-global-properties @vindex org-columns-default-format or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global setup may be advised. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will then also be added to the load estimate of the day. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times @section Taking notes with a relative timer @cindex relative timer When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes. @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer} Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is restarted. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item} Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix argument, first reset the timer to 0. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading} Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert new timer items. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :( @kindex C-c C-x , @item C-c C-x , Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}). @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item @kindex C-u C-c C-x , @item C-u C-c C-x , Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start} Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was not started at exactly the right moment. @end table @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times @section Countdown timer @cindex Countdown timer @kindex C-c C-x ; @kindex ; Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org-mode buffer runs a countdown timer. Use @kbd{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everwhere else. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this default value. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive @cindex capture An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast. @menu * Capture:: Capturing new stuff * Attachments:: Add files to tasks * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects @end menu @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive @section Capture @cindex capture Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org-mode for backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command @example @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}} @end example @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the customization. You can then use both remember and capture until you are familiar with the new mechanism. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org does enhance it with templates and more. @menu * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types @end menu @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture @subsection Setting up capture The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a suggestion.} for capturing new material. @vindex org-default-notes-file @example (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org")) (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture) @end example @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture @subsection Using capture @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c c,org-capture} Call the command @code{org-capture}. Note that this keybinding is global and not active by default - you need to install it. If you have templates @cindex date tree defined @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for selection or use a new Org outline node as the default template. It will insert the template into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer narrowed to this new node. You may then insert the information you want. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-capture-finalize} Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer, @kbd{C-c C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture process, so that you can resume your work without further distraction. When called with a prefix arg, finalize and then jump to the captured item. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-capture-refile} Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to a different place. Please realize that this is a normal refiling command that will be executed---so the cursor position at the moment you run this command is important. If you have inserted a tree with a parent and children, first move the cursor back to the parent. Any prefix argument given to this command will be passed on to the @code{org-refile} command. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,org-capture-kill} Abort the capture process and return to the previous state. @end table You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda, rather than to the current date. To find the locations of the last stored capture, use @code{org-capture} with prefix commands: @table @kbd @orgkey{C-u C-c c} Visit the target location of a capture template. You get to select the template in the usual way. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-c c} Visit the last stored capture item in its buffer. @end table @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture @subsection Capture templates @cindex templates, for Capture You can use templates for different types of capture items, and for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is through the customize interface. @table @kbd @orgkey{C-c c C} Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}. @end table Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration would look like: @example (setq org-capture-templates '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks") "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a") ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org") "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a"))) @end example @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template for you like this: @example * TODO [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]] @end example @noindent During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to the location from where you called the capture command. This can be extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same place where you started the capture process. To define special keys to capture to a particular template without going through the interactive template selection, you can create your key binding like this: @lisp (define-key global-map "\C-cx" (lambda () (interactive) (org-capture nil "x"))) @end lisp @menu * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context @end menu @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates @subsubsection Template elements Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items: @table @var @item keys The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the prefix key, for example @example ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy") @end example @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable. @item description A short string describing the template, which will be shown during selection. @item type The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are: @table @code @item entry An Org-mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the target entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org-mode file. @item item A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target location. Again the target file should be an Org file. @item checkitem A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the default template. @item table-line a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and @code{:table-line-pos} (see below). @item plain Text to be inserted as it is. @end table @item target @vindex org-default-notes-file Specification of where the captured item should be placed. In Org-mode files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become children of this node. Other types will be added to the table or list in the body of this node. Most target specifications contain a file name. If that file name is the empty string, it defaults to @code{org-default-notes-file}. A file can also be given as a variable, function, or Emacs Lisp form. Valid values are: @table @code @item (file "path/to/file") Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file. @item (id "id of existing org entry") Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline") Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...) For non-unique headings, the full path is safer. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location") Use a regular expression to position the cursor. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file") Will create a heading in a date tree for today's date. @item (file+datetree+prompt "path/to/file") Will create a heading in a date tree, but will prompt for the date. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location) A function to find the right location in the file. @item (clock) File to the entry that is currently being clocked. @item (function function-finding-location) Most general way, write your own function to find both file and location. @end table @item template The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file, using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for more details. @item properties The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options. Recognized properties are: @table @code @item :prepend Normally new captured information will be appended at the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...). Setting this property will change that. @item :immediate-finish When set, do not offer to edit the information, just file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs information that can be added automatically. @item :empty-lines Set this to the number of lines to insert before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1. @item :clock-in Start the clock in this item. @item :clock-keep Keep the clock running when filing the captured entry. @item :clock-resume If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished with the capture. Note that @code{:clock-keep} has precedence over @code{:clock-resume}. When setting both to @code{t}, the current clock will run and the previous one will not be resumed. @item :unnarrowed Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to narrow it so that you only see the new material. @item :table-line-pos Specification of the location in the table where the new line should be inserted. It should be a string like @code{"II-3"} meaning that the new line should become the third line before the second horizontal separator line. @item :kill-buffer If the target file was not yet visited when capture was invoked, kill the buffer again after capture is completed. @end table @end table @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates @subsubsection Template expansion In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow dynamic insertion of content. The templates are expanded in the order given here: @smallexample %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}.} %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result.} %<...> @r{the result of format-time-string on the ... format specification.} %t @r{timestamp, date only.} %T @r{timestamp with date and time.} %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps.} %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}.} %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the} @r{region is active.} @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.} %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part.} %c @r{Current kill ring head.} %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.} %k @r{title of the currently clocked task.} %K @r{link to the currently clocked task.} %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name}).} %f @r{file visited by current buffer when org-capture was called.} %F @r{full path of the file or directory visited by current buffer.} %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below.} %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.} %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.} %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}.} @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}.} %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.} %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.} %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}.} %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.} @r{You may specify a default value and a completion table with} @r{%^@{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...@}.} @r{The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history.} @end smallexample @noindent For specific link types, the following keywords will be defined@footnote{If you define your own link types (@pxref{Adding hyperlink types}), any property you store with @code{org-store-link-props} can be accessed in capture templates in a similar way.}: @vindex org-from-is-user-regexp @smallexample Link type | Available keywords ------------------------+---------------------------------------------- bbdb | %:name %:company irc | %:server %:port %:nick vm, wl, mh, mew, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress | %:to %:toname %:toaddress | %:date @r{(message date header field)} | %:date-timestamp @r{(date as active timestamp)} | %:date-timestamp-inactive @r{(date as inactive timestamp)} | %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}} gnus | %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields} w3, w3m | %:url info | %:file %:node calendar | %:date @end smallexample @noindent To place the cursor after template expansion use: @smallexample %? @r{After completing the template, position cursor here.} @end smallexample @node Attachments, RSS Feeds, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive @section Attachments @cindex attachments @vindex org-attach-directory It is often useful to associate reference material with an outline node/task. Small chunks of plain text can simply be stored in the subtree of a project. Hyperlinks (@pxref{Hyperlinks}) can establish associations with files that live elsewhere on your computer or in the cloud, like emails or source code files belonging to a project. Another method is @i{attachments}, which are files located in a directory belonging to an outline node. Org uses directories named by the unique ID of each entry. These directories are located in the @file{data} directory which lives in the same directory where your Org file lives@footnote{If you move entries or Org files from one directory to another, you may want to configure @code{org-attach-directory} to contain an absolute path.}. If you initialize this directory with @code{git init}, Org will automatically commit changes when it sees them. The attachment system has been contributed to Org by John Wiegley. In cases where it seems better to do so, you can also attach a directory of your choice to an entry. You can also make children inherit the attachment directory from a parent, so that an entire subtree uses the same attached directory. @noindent The following commands deal with attachments: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-a,org-attach} The dispatcher for commands related to the attachment system. After these keys, a list of commands is displayed and you must press an additional key to select a command: @table @kbd @orgcmdtkc{a,C-c C-a a,org-attach-attach} @vindex org-attach-method Select a file and move it into the task's attachment directory. The file will be copied, moved, or linked, depending on @code{org-attach-method}. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems. @kindex C-c C-a c @kindex C-c C-a m @kindex C-c C-a l @item c/m/l Attach a file using the copy/move/link method. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems. @orgcmdtkc{n,C-c C-a n,org-attach-new} Create a new attachment as an Emacs buffer. @orgcmdtkc{z,C-c C-a z,org-attach-sync} Synchronize the current task with its attachment directory, in case you added attachments yourself. @orgcmdtkc{o,C-c C-a o,org-attach-open} @vindex org-file-apps Open current task's attachment. If there is more than one, prompt for a file name first. Opening will follow the rules set by @code{org-file-apps}. For more details, see the information on following hyperlinks (@pxref{Handling links}). @orgcmdtkc{O,C-c C-a O,org-attach-open-in-emacs} Also open the attachment, but force opening the file in Emacs. @orgcmdtkc{f,C-c C-a f,org-attach-reveal} Open the current task's attachment directory. @orgcmdtkc{F,C-c C-a F,org-attach-reveal-in-emacs} Also open the directory, but force using @command{dired} in Emacs. @orgcmdtkc{d,C-c C-a d,org-attach-delete-one} Select and delete a single attachment. @orgcmdtkc{D,C-c C-a D,org-attach-delete-all} Delete all of a task's attachments. A safer way is to open the directory in @command{dired} and delete from there. @orgcmdtkc{s,C-c C-a s,org-attach-set-directory} @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR Set a specific directory as the entry's attachment directory. This works by putting the directory path into the @code{ATTACH_DIR} property. @orgcmdtkc{i,C-c C-a i,org-attach-set-inherit} @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT Set the @code{ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT} property, so that children will use the same directory for attachments as the parent does. @end table @end table @node RSS Feeds, Protocols, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive @section RSS feeds @cindex RSS feeds @cindex Atom feeds Org can add and change entries based on information found in RSS feeds and Atom feeds. You could use this to make a task out of each new podcast in a podcast feed. Or you could use a phone-based note-creating service on the web to import tasks into Org. To access feeds, configure the variable @code{org-feed-alist}. The docstring of this variable has detailed information. Here is just an example: @example (setq org-feed-alist '(("Slashdot" "http://rss.slashdot.org/Slashdot/slashdot" "~/txt/org/feeds.org" "Slashdot Entries"))) @end example @noindent will configure that new items from the feed provided by @code{rss.slashdot.org} will result in new entries in the file @file{~/org/feeds.org} under the heading @samp{Slashdot Entries}, whenever the following command is used: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-x g,org-feed-update-all} @item C-c C-x g Collect items from the feeds configured in @code{org-feed-alist} and act upon them. @orgcmd{C-c C-x G,org-feed-goto-inbox} Prompt for a feed name and go to the inbox configured for this feed. @end table Under the same headline, Org will create a drawer @samp{FEEDSTATUS} in which it will store information about the status of items in the feed, to avoid adding the same item several times. You should add @samp{FEEDSTATUS} to the list of drawers in that file: @example #+DRAWERS: LOGBOOK PROPERTIES FEEDSTATUS @end example For more information, including how to read atom feeds, see @file{org-feed.el} and the docstring of @code{org-feed-alist}. @node Protocols, Refiling notes, RSS Feeds, Capture - Refile - Archive @section Protocols for external access @cindex protocols, for external access @cindex emacsserver You can set up Org for handling protocol calls from outside applications that are passed to Emacs through the @file{emacsserver}. For example, you can configure bookmarks in your web browser to send a link to the current page to Org and create a note from it using capture (@pxref{Capture}). Or you could create a bookmark that will tell Emacs to open the local source file of a remote website you are looking at with the browser. See @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/org-protocol.php} for detailed documentation and setup instructions. @node Refiling notes, Archiving, Protocols, Capture - Refile - Archive @section Refiling notes @cindex refiling notes When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile some of the entries into a different list, for example into a project. Cutting, finding the right location, and then pasting the note is cumbersome. To simplify this process, you can use the following special command: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile} @vindex org-reverse-note-order @vindex org-refile-targets @vindex org-refile-use-outline-path @vindex org-outline-path-complete-in-steps @vindex org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes @vindex org-log-refile @vindex org-refile-use-cache Refile the entry or region at point. This command offers possible locations for refiling the entry and lets you select one with completion. The item (or all items in the region) is filed below the target heading as a subitem. Depending on @code{org-reverse-note-order}, it will be either the first or last subitem.@* By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are considered to be targets, but you can have more complex definitions across a number of files. See the variable @code{org-refile-targets} for details. If you would like to select a location via a file-path-like completion along the outline path, see the variables @code{org-refile-use-outline-path} and @code{org-outline-path-complete-in-steps}. If you would like to be able to create new nodes as new parents for refiling on the fly, check the variable @code{org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes}. When the variable @code{org-log-refile}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logrefile}, @code{lognoterefile}, and @code{nologrefile}} is set, a timestamp or a note will be recorded when an entry has been refiled. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-w} Use the refile interface to jump to a heading. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c C-w,org-refile-goto-last-stored} Jump to the location where @code{org-refile} last moved a tree to. @item C-2 C-c C-w Refile as the child of the item currently being clocked. @item C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w @orgcmdtkc{C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w,C-0 C-c C-w,org-refile-cache-clear} Clear the target cache. Caching of refile targets can be turned on by setting @code{org-refile-use-cache}. To make the command see new possible targets, you have to clear the cache with this command. @end table @node Archiving, , Refiling notes, Capture - Refile - Archive @section Archiving @cindex archiving When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the agenda. Archiving is important to keep your working files compact and global searches like the construction of agenda views fast. @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-a,org-archive-subtree-default} @vindex org-archive-default-command Archive the current entry using the command specified in the variable @code{org-archive-default-command}. @end table @menu * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file @end menu @node Moving subtrees, Internal archiving, Archiving, Archiving @subsection Moving a tree to the archive file @cindex external archiving The most common archiving action is to move a project tree to another file, the archive file. @table @kbd @orgcmdkskc{C-c C-x C-s,C-c \$,org-archive-subtree} @vindex org-archive-location Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location given by @code{org-archive-location}. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-s} Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to the archive. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries. If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive location. If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked. @end table @cindex archive locations The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the current file name. For information and examples on how to change this, see the documentation string of the variable @code{org-archive-location}. There is also an in-buffer option for setting this variable, for example@footnote{For backward compatibility, the following also works: If there are several such lines in a file, each specifies the archive location for the text below it. The first such line also applies to any text before its definition. However, using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is incompatible with the outline structure of the document. The correct method for setting multiple archive locations in a buffer is using properties.}: @cindex #+ARCHIVE @example #+ARCHIVE: %s_done:: @end example @cindex property, ARCHIVE @noindent If you would like to have a special ARCHIVE location for a single entry or a (sub)tree, give the entry an @code{:ARCHIVE:} property with the location as the value (@pxref{Properties and Columns}). @vindex org-archive-save-context-info When a subtree is moved, it receives a number of special properties that record context information like the file from where the entry came, its outline path the archiving time etc. Configure the variable @code{org-archive-save-context-info} to adjust the amount of information added. @node Internal archiving, , Moving subtrees, Archiving @subsection Internal archiving If you want to just switch off (for agenda views) certain subtrees without moving them to a different file, you can use the @code{ARCHIVE tag}. A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way: @itemize @minus @item @vindex org-cycle-open-archived-trees It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}). You can force cycling archived subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option @code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}. Also normal outline commands like @code{show-all} will open archived subtrees. @item @vindex org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option @code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}. @item @vindex org-agenda-skip-archived-trees During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda Views}), the content of archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option @code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}, in which case these trees will always be included. In the agenda you can press @kbd{v a} to get archives temporarily included. @item @vindex org-export-with-archived-trees Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline is. Configure the details using the variable @code{org-export-with-archived-trees}. @item @vindex org-columns-skip-archived-trees Archived trees are excluded from column view unless the variable @code{org-columns-skip-archived-trees} is configured to @code{nil}. @end itemize The following commands help manage the ARCHIVE tag: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-x a,org-toggle-archive-tag} Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline. When the tag is set, the headline changes to a shadowed face, and the subtree below it is hidden. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x a} Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries. If none are found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child. If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked. @orgcmd{C-@kbd{TAB},org-force-cycle-archived} Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE. @orgcmd{C-c C-x A,org-archive-to-archive-sibling} Move the current entry to the @emph{Archive Sibling}. This is a sibling of the entry with the heading @samp{Archive} and the tag @samp{ARCHIVE}. The entry becomes a child of that sibling and in this way retains a lot of its original context, including inherited tags and approximate position in the outline. @end table @node Agenda Views, Markup, Capture - Refile - Archive, Top @chapter Agenda views @cindex agenda views Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and tagged headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of files. To get an overview of open action items, or of events that are important for a particular date, this information must be collected, sorted and displayed in an organized way. Org can select items based on various criteria and display them in a separate buffer. Seven different view types are provided: @itemize @bullet @item an @emph{agenda} that is like a calendar and shows information for specific dates, @item a @emph{TODO list} that covers all unfinished action items, @item a @emph{match view}, showings headlines based on the tags, properties, and TODO state associated with them, @item a @emph{timeline view} that shows all events in a single Org file, in time-sorted view, @item a @emph{text search view} that shows all entries from multiple files that contain specified keywords, @item a @emph{stuck projects view} showing projects that currently don't move along, and @item @emph{custom views} that are special searches and combinations of different views. @end itemize @noindent The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda buffer}. This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the corresponding locations in the original Org files, and even to edit these files remotely. @vindex org-agenda-window-setup @vindex org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit Two variables control how the agenda buffer is displayed and whether the window configuration is restored when the agenda exits: @code{org-agenda-window-setup} and @code{org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit}. @menu * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box? * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries @end menu @node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views, Agenda Views @section Agenda files @cindex agenda files @cindex files for agenda @vindex org-agenda-files The information to be shown is normally collected from all @emph{agenda files}, the files listed in the variable @code{org-agenda-files}@footnote{If the value of that variable is not a list, but a single file name, then the list of agenda files will be maintained in that external file.}. If a directory is part of this list, all files with the extension @file{.org} in this directory will be part of the list. Thus, even if you only work with a single Org file, that file should be put into the list@footnote{When using the dispatcher, pressing @kbd{<} before selecting a command will actually limit the command to the current file, and ignore @code{org-agenda-files} until the next dispatcher command.}. You can customize @code{org-agenda-files}, but the easiest way to maintain it is through the following commands @cindex files, adding to agenda list @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c [,org-agenda-file-to-front} Add current file to the list of agenda files. The file is added to the front of the list. If it was already in the list, it is moved to the front. With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the end. @orgcmd{C-c ],org-remove-file} Remove current file from the list of agenda files. @kindex C-, @orgcmd{C-',org-cycle-agenda-files} @itemx C-, Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other. @kindex M-x org-iswitchb @item M-x org-iswitchb Command to use an @code{iswitchb}-like interface to switch to and between Org buffers. @end table @noindent The Org menu contains the current list of files and can be used to visit any of them. If you would like to focus the agenda temporarily on a file not in this list, or on just one file in the list, or even on only a subtree in a file, then this can be done in different ways. For a single agenda command, you may press @kbd{<} once or several times in the dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}). To restrict the agenda scope for an extended period, use the following commands: @table @kbd @orgcmd{C-c C-x <,org-agenda-set-restriction-lock} Permanently restrict the agenda to the current subtree. When with a prefix argument, or with the cursor before the first headline in a file, the agenda scope is set to the entire file. This restriction remains in effect until removed with @kbd{C-c C-x >}, or by typing either @kbd{<} or @kbd{>} in the agenda dispatcher. If there is a window displaying an agenda view, the new restriction takes effect immediately. @orgcmd{C-c C-x >,org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock} Remove the permanent restriction created by @kbd{C-c C-x <}. @end table @noindent When working with @file{speedbar.el}, you can use the following commands in the Speedbar frame: @table @kbd @orgcmdtkc{< @r{in the speedbar frame},<,org-speedbar-set-agenda-restriction} Permanently restrict the agenda to the item---either an Org file or a subtree in such a file---at the cursor in the Speedbar frame. If there is a window displaying an agenda view, the new restriction takes effect immediately. @orgcmdtkc{> @r{in the speedbar frame},>,org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock} Lift the restriction. @end table @node Agenda dispatcher, Built-in agenda views, Agenda files, Agenda Views @section The agenda dispatcher @cindex agenda dispatcher @cindex dispatching agenda commands The views are created through a dispatcher, which should be bound to a global key---for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Activation}). In the following we will assume that @kbd{C-c a} is indeed how the dispatcher is accessed and list keyboard access to commands accordingly. After pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a command. The dispatcher offers the following default commands: @table @kbd @item a Create the calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). @item t @r{/} T Create a list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}). @item m @r{/} M Create a list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching tags and properties}). @item L Create the timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}). @item s Create a list of entries selected by a boolean expression of keywords and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in the entry. @item / @vindex org-agenda-text-search-extra-files Search for a regular expression in all agenda files and additionally in the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}`