org.texi 644 KB

12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576777879808182838485868788899091929394959697989910010110210310410510610710810911011111211311411511611711811912012112212312412512612712812913013113213313413513613713813914014114214314414514614714814915015115215315415515615715815916016116216316416516616716816917017117217317417517617717817918018118218318418518618718818919019119219319419519619719819920020120220320420520620720820921021121221321421521621721821922022122222322422522622722822923023123223323423523623723823924024124224324424524624724824925025125225325425525625725825926026126226326426526626726826927027127227327427527627727827928028128228328428528628728828929029129229329429529629729829930030130230330430530630730830931031131231331431531631731831932032132232332432532632732832933033133233333433533633733833934034134234334434534634734834935035135235335435535635735835936036136236336436536636736836937037137237337437537637737837938038138238338438538638738838939039139239339439539639739839940040140240340440540640740840941041141241341441541641741841942042142242342442542642742842943043143243343443543643743843944044144244344444544644744844945045145245345445545645745845946046146246346446546646746846947047147247347447547647747847948048148248348448548648748848949049149249349449549649749849950050150250350450550650750850951051151251351451551651751851952052152252352452552652752852953053153253353453553653753853954054154254354454554654754854955055155255355455555655755855956056156256356456556656756856957057157257357457557657757857958058158258358458558658758858959059159259359459559659759859960060160260360460560660760860961061161261361461561661761861962062162262362462562662762862963063163263363463563663763863964064164264364464564664764864965065165265365465565665765865966066166266366466566666766866967067167267367467567667767867968068168268368468568668768868969069169269369469569669769869970070170270370470570670770870971071171271371471571671771871972072172272372472572672772872973073173273373473573673773873974074174274374474574674774874975075175275375475575675775875976076176276376476576676776876977077177277377477577677777877978078178278378478578678778878979079179279379479579679779879980080180280380480580680780880981081181281381481581681781881982082182282382482582682782882983083183283383483583683783883984084184284384484584684784884985085185285385485585685785885986086186286386486586686786886987087187287387487587687787887988088188288388488588688788888989089189289389489589689789889990090190290390490590690790890991091191291391491591691791891992092192292392492592692792892993093193293393493593693793893994094194294394494594694794894995095195295395495595695795895996096196296396496596696796896997097197297397497597697797897998098198298398498598698798898999099199299399499599699799899910001001100210031004100510061007100810091010101110121013101410151016101710181019102010211022102310241025102610271028102910301031103210331034103510361037103810391040104110421043104410451046104710481049105010511052105310541055105610571058105910601061106210631064106510661067106810691070107110721073107410751076107710781079108010811082108310841085108610871088108910901091109210931094109510961097109810991100110111021103110411051106110711081109111011111112111311141115111611171118111911201121112211231124112511261127112811291130113111321133113411351136113711381139114011411142114311441145114611471148114911501151115211531154115511561157115811591160116111621163116411651166116711681169117011711172117311741175117611771178117911801181118211831184118511861187118811891190119111921193119411951196119711981199120012011202120312041205120612071208120912101211121212131214121512161217121812191220122112221223122412251226122712281229123012311232123312341235123612371238123912401241124212431244124512461247124812491250125112521253125412551256125712581259126012611262126312641265126612671268126912701271127212731274127512761277127812791280128112821283128412851286128712881289129012911292129312941295129612971298129913001301130213031304130513061307130813091310131113121313131413151316131713181319132013211322132313241325132613271328132913301331133213331334133513361337133813391340134113421343134413451346134713481349135013511352135313541355135613571358135913601361136213631364136513661367136813691370137113721373137413751376137713781379138013811382138313841385138613871388138913901391139213931394139513961397139813991400140114021403140414051406140714081409141014111412141314141415141614171418141914201421142214231424142514261427142814291430143114321433143414351436143714381439144014411442144314441445144614471448144914501451145214531454145514561457145814591460146114621463146414651466146714681469147014711472147314741475147614771478147914801481148214831484148514861487148814891490149114921493149414951496149714981499150015011502150315041505150615071508150915101511151215131514151515161517151815191520152115221523152415251526152715281529153015311532153315341535153615371538153915401541154215431544154515461547154815491550155115521553155415551556155715581559156015611562156315641565156615671568156915701571157215731574157515761577157815791580158115821583158415851586158715881589159015911592159315941595159615971598159916001601160216031604160516061607160816091610161116121613161416151616161716181619162016211622162316241625162616271628162916301631163216331634163516361637163816391640164116421643164416451646164716481649165016511652165316541655165616571658165916601661166216631664166516661667166816691670167116721673167416751676167716781679168016811682168316841685168616871688168916901691169216931694169516961697169816991700170117021703170417051706170717081709171017111712171317141715171617171718171917201721172217231724172517261727172817291730173117321733173417351736173717381739174017411742174317441745174617471748174917501751175217531754175517561757175817591760176117621763176417651766176717681769177017711772177317741775177617771778177917801781178217831784178517861787178817891790179117921793179417951796179717981799180018011802180318041805180618071808180918101811181218131814181518161817181818191820182118221823182418251826182718281829183018311832183318341835183618371838183918401841184218431844184518461847184818491850185118521853185418551856185718581859186018611862186318641865186618671868186918701871187218731874187518761877187818791880188118821883188418851886188718881889189018911892189318941895189618971898189919001901190219031904190519061907190819091910191119121913191419151916191719181919192019211922192319241925192619271928192919301931193219331934193519361937193819391940194119421943194419451946194719481949195019511952195319541955195619571958195919601961196219631964196519661967196819691970197119721973197419751976197719781979198019811982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018201920202021202220232024202520262027202820292030203120322033203420352036203720382039204020412042204320442045204620472048204920502051205220532054205520562057205820592060206120622063206420652066206720682069207020712072207320742075207620772078207920802081208220832084208520862087208820892090209120922093209420952096209720982099210021012102210321042105210621072108210921102111211221132114211521162117211821192120212121222123212421252126212721282129213021312132213321342135213621372138213921402141214221432144214521462147214821492150215121522153215421552156215721582159216021612162216321642165216621672168216921702171217221732174217521762177217821792180218121822183218421852186218721882189219021912192219321942195219621972198219922002201220222032204220522062207220822092210221122122213221422152216221722182219222022212222222322242225222622272228222922302231223222332234223522362237223822392240224122422243224422452246224722482249225022512252225322542255225622572258225922602261226222632264226522662267226822692270227122722273227422752276227722782279228022812282228322842285228622872288228922902291229222932294229522962297229822992300230123022303230423052306230723082309231023112312231323142315231623172318231923202321232223232324232523262327232823292330233123322333233423352336233723382339234023412342234323442345234623472348234923502351235223532354235523562357235823592360236123622363236423652366236723682369237023712372237323742375237623772378237923802381238223832384238523862387238823892390239123922393239423952396239723982399240024012402240324042405240624072408240924102411241224132414241524162417241824192420242124222423242424252426242724282429243024312432243324342435243624372438243924402441244224432444244524462447244824492450245124522453245424552456245724582459246024612462246324642465246624672468246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249324942495249624972498249925002501250225032504250525062507250825092510251125122513251425152516251725182519252025212522252325242525252625272528252925302531253225332534253525362537253825392540254125422543254425452546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561256225632564256525662567256825692570257125722573257425752576257725782579258025812582258325842585258625872588258925902591259225932594259525962597259825992600260126022603260426052606260726082609261026112612261326142615261626172618261926202621262226232624262526262627262826292630263126322633263426352636263726382639264026412642264326442645264626472648264926502651265226532654265526562657265826592660266126622663266426652666266726682669267026712672267326742675267626772678267926802681268226832684268526862687268826892690269126922693269426952696269726982699270027012702270327042705270627072708270927102711271227132714271527162717271827192720272127222723272427252726272727282729273027312732273327342735273627372738273927402741274227432744274527462747274827492750275127522753275427552756275727582759276027612762276327642765276627672768276927702771277227732774277527762777277827792780278127822783278427852786278727882789279027912792279327942795279627972798279928002801280228032804280528062807280828092810281128122813281428152816281728182819282028212822282328242825282628272828282928302831283228332834283528362837283828392840284128422843284428452846284728482849285028512852285328542855285628572858285928602861286228632864286528662867286828692870287128722873287428752876287728782879288028812882288328842885288628872888288928902891289228932894289528962897289828992900290129022903290429052906290729082909291029112912291329142915291629172918291929202921292229232924292529262927292829292930293129322933293429352936293729382939294029412942294329442945294629472948294929502951295229532954295529562957295829592960296129622963296429652966296729682969297029712972297329742975297629772978297929802981298229832984298529862987298829892990299129922993299429952996299729982999300030013002300330043005300630073008300930103011301230133014301530163017301830193020302130223023302430253026302730283029303030313032303330343035303630373038303930403041304230433044304530463047304830493050305130523053305430553056305730583059306030613062306330643065306630673068306930703071307230733074307530763077307830793080308130823083308430853086308730883089309030913092309330943095309630973098309931003101310231033104310531063107310831093110311131123113311431153116311731183119312031213122312331243125312631273128312931303131313231333134313531363137313831393140314131423143314431453146314731483149315031513152315331543155315631573158315931603161316231633164316531663167316831693170317131723173317431753176317731783179318031813182318331843185318631873188318931903191319231933194319531963197319831993200320132023203320432053206320732083209321032113212321332143215321632173218321932203221322232233224322532263227322832293230323132323233323432353236323732383239324032413242324332443245324632473248324932503251325232533254325532563257325832593260326132623263326432653266326732683269327032713272327332743275327632773278327932803281328232833284328532863287328832893290329132923293329432953296329732983299330033013302330333043305330633073308330933103311331233133314331533163317331833193320332133223323332433253326332733283329333033313332333333343335333633373338333933403341334233433344334533463347334833493350335133523353335433553356335733583359336033613362336333643365336633673368336933703371337233733374337533763377337833793380338133823383338433853386338733883389339033913392339333943395339633973398339934003401340234033404340534063407340834093410341134123413341434153416341734183419342034213422342334243425342634273428342934303431343234333434343534363437343834393440344134423443344434453446344734483449345034513452345334543455345634573458345934603461346234633464346534663467346834693470347134723473347434753476347734783479348034813482348334843485348634873488348934903491349234933494349534963497349834993500350135023503350435053506350735083509351035113512351335143515351635173518351935203521352235233524352535263527352835293530353135323533353435353536353735383539354035413542354335443545354635473548354935503551355235533554355535563557355835593560356135623563356435653566356735683569357035713572357335743575357635773578357935803581358235833584358535863587358835893590359135923593359435953596359735983599360036013602360336043605360636073608360936103611361236133614361536163617361836193620362136223623362436253626362736283629363036313632363336343635363636373638363936403641364236433644364536463647364836493650365136523653365436553656365736583659366036613662366336643665366636673668366936703671367236733674367536763677367836793680368136823683368436853686368736883689369036913692369336943695369636973698369937003701370237033704370537063707370837093710371137123713371437153716371737183719372037213722372337243725372637273728372937303731373237333734373537363737373837393740374137423743374437453746374737483749375037513752375337543755375637573758375937603761376237633764376537663767376837693770377137723773377437753776377737783779378037813782378337843785378637873788378937903791379237933794379537963797379837993800380138023803380438053806380738083809381038113812381338143815381638173818381938203821382238233824382538263827382838293830383138323833383438353836383738383839384038413842384338443845384638473848384938503851385238533854385538563857385838593860386138623863386438653866386738683869387038713872387338743875387638773878387938803881388238833884388538863887388838893890389138923893389438953896389738983899390039013902390339043905390639073908390939103911391239133914391539163917391839193920392139223923392439253926392739283929393039313932393339343935393639373938393939403941394239433944394539463947394839493950395139523953395439553956395739583959396039613962396339643965396639673968396939703971397239733974397539763977397839793980398139823983398439853986398739883989399039913992399339943995399639973998399940004001400240034004400540064007400840094010401140124013401440154016401740184019402040214022402340244025402640274028402940304031403240334034403540364037403840394040404140424043404440454046404740484049405040514052405340544055405640574058405940604061406240634064406540664067406840694070407140724073407440754076407740784079408040814082408340844085408640874088408940904091409240934094409540964097409840994100410141024103410441054106410741084109411041114112411341144115411641174118411941204121412241234124412541264127412841294130413141324133413441354136413741384139414041414142414341444145414641474148414941504151415241534154415541564157415841594160416141624163416441654166416741684169417041714172417341744175417641774178417941804181418241834184418541864187418841894190419141924193419441954196419741984199420042014202420342044205420642074208420942104211421242134214421542164217421842194220422142224223422442254226422742284229423042314232423342344235423642374238423942404241424242434244424542464247424842494250425142524253425442554256425742584259426042614262426342644265426642674268426942704271427242734274427542764277427842794280428142824283428442854286428742884289429042914292429342944295429642974298429943004301430243034304430543064307430843094310431143124313431443154316431743184319432043214322432343244325432643274328432943304331433243334334433543364337433843394340434143424343434443454346434743484349435043514352435343544355435643574358435943604361436243634364436543664367436843694370437143724373437443754376437743784379438043814382438343844385438643874388438943904391439243934394439543964397439843994400440144024403440444054406440744084409441044114412441344144415441644174418441944204421442244234424442544264427442844294430443144324433443444354436443744384439444044414442444344444445444644474448444944504451445244534454445544564457445844594460446144624463446444654466446744684469447044714472447344744475447644774478447944804481448244834484448544864487448844894490449144924493449444954496449744984499450045014502450345044505450645074508450945104511451245134514451545164517451845194520452145224523452445254526452745284529453045314532453345344535453645374538453945404541454245434544454545464547454845494550455145524553455445554556455745584559456045614562456345644565456645674568456945704571457245734574457545764577457845794580458145824583458445854586458745884589459045914592459345944595459645974598459946004601460246034604460546064607460846094610461146124613461446154616461746184619462046214622462346244625462646274628462946304631463246334634463546364637463846394640464146424643464446454646464746484649465046514652465346544655465646574658465946604661466246634664466546664667466846694670467146724673467446754676467746784679468046814682468346844685468646874688468946904691469246934694469546964697469846994700470147024703470447054706470747084709471047114712471347144715471647174718471947204721472247234724472547264727472847294730473147324733473447354736473747384739474047414742474347444745474647474748474947504751475247534754475547564757475847594760476147624763476447654766476747684769477047714772477347744775477647774778477947804781478247834784478547864787478847894790479147924793479447954796479747984799480048014802480348044805480648074808480948104811481248134814481548164817481848194820482148224823482448254826482748284829483048314832483348344835483648374838483948404841484248434844484548464847484848494850485148524853485448554856485748584859486048614862486348644865486648674868486948704871487248734874487548764877487848794880488148824883488448854886488748884889489048914892489348944895489648974898489949004901490249034904490549064907490849094910491149124913491449154916491749184919492049214922492349244925492649274928492949304931493249334934493549364937493849394940494149424943494449454946494749484949495049514952495349544955495649574958495949604961496249634964496549664967496849694970497149724973497449754976497749784979498049814982498349844985498649874988498949904991499249934994499549964997499849995000500150025003500450055006500750085009501050115012501350145015501650175018501950205021502250235024502550265027502850295030503150325033503450355036503750385039504050415042504350445045504650475048504950505051505250535054505550565057505850595060506150625063506450655066506750685069507050715072507350745075507650775078507950805081508250835084508550865087508850895090509150925093509450955096509750985099510051015102510351045105510651075108510951105111511251135114511551165117511851195120512151225123512451255126512751285129513051315132513351345135513651375138513951405141514251435144514551465147514851495150515151525153515451555156515751585159516051615162516351645165516651675168516951705171517251735174517551765177517851795180518151825183518451855186518751885189519051915192519351945195519651975198519952005201520252035204520552065207520852095210521152125213521452155216521752185219522052215222522352245225522652275228522952305231523252335234523552365237523852395240524152425243524452455246524752485249525052515252525352545255525652575258525952605261526252635264526552665267526852695270527152725273527452755276527752785279528052815282528352845285528652875288528952905291529252935294529552965297529852995300530153025303530453055306530753085309531053115312531353145315531653175318531953205321532253235324532553265327532853295330533153325333533453355336533753385339534053415342534353445345534653475348534953505351535253535354535553565357535853595360536153625363536453655366536753685369537053715372537353745375537653775378537953805381538253835384538553865387538853895390539153925393539453955396539753985399540054015402540354045405540654075408540954105411541254135414541554165417541854195420542154225423542454255426542754285429543054315432543354345435543654375438543954405441544254435444544554465447544854495450545154525453545454555456545754585459546054615462546354645465546654675468546954705471547254735474547554765477547854795480548154825483548454855486548754885489549054915492549354945495549654975498549955005501550255035504550555065507550855095510551155125513551455155516551755185519552055215522552355245525552655275528552955305531553255335534553555365537553855395540554155425543554455455546554755485549555055515552555355545555555655575558555955605561556255635564556555665567556855695570557155725573557455755576557755785579558055815582558355845585558655875588558955905591559255935594559555965597559855995600560156025603560456055606560756085609561056115612561356145615561656175618561956205621562256235624562556265627562856295630563156325633563456355636563756385639564056415642564356445645564656475648564956505651565256535654565556565657565856595660566156625663566456655666566756685669567056715672567356745675567656775678567956805681568256835684568556865687568856895690569156925693569456955696569756985699570057015702570357045705570657075708570957105711571257135714571557165717571857195720572157225723572457255726572757285729573057315732573357345735573657375738573957405741574257435744574557465747574857495750575157525753575457555756575757585759576057615762576357645765576657675768576957705771577257735774577557765777577857795780578157825783578457855786578757885789579057915792579357945795579657975798579958005801580258035804580558065807580858095810581158125813581458155816581758185819582058215822582358245825582658275828582958305831583258335834583558365837583858395840584158425843584458455846584758485849585058515852585358545855585658575858585958605861586258635864586558665867586858695870587158725873587458755876587758785879588058815882588358845885588658875888588958905891589258935894589558965897589858995900590159025903590459055906590759085909591059115912591359145915591659175918591959205921592259235924592559265927592859295930593159325933593459355936593759385939594059415942594359445945594659475948594959505951595259535954595559565957595859595960596159625963596459655966596759685969597059715972597359745975597659775978597959805981598259835984598559865987598859895990599159925993599459955996599759985999600060016002600360046005600660076008600960106011601260136014601560166017601860196020602160226023602460256026602760286029603060316032603360346035603660376038603960406041604260436044604560466047604860496050605160526053605460556056605760586059606060616062606360646065606660676068606960706071607260736074607560766077607860796080608160826083608460856086608760886089609060916092609360946095609660976098609961006101610261036104610561066107610861096110611161126113611461156116611761186119612061216122612361246125612661276128612961306131613261336134613561366137613861396140614161426143614461456146614761486149615061516152615361546155615661576158615961606161616261636164616561666167616861696170617161726173617461756176617761786179618061816182618361846185618661876188618961906191619261936194619561966197619861996200620162026203620462056206620762086209621062116212621362146215621662176218621962206221622262236224622562266227622862296230623162326233623462356236623762386239624062416242624362446245624662476248624962506251625262536254625562566257625862596260626162626263626462656266626762686269627062716272627362746275627662776278627962806281628262836284628562866287628862896290629162926293629462956296629762986299630063016302630363046305630663076308630963106311631263136314631563166317631863196320632163226323632463256326632763286329633063316332633363346335633663376338633963406341634263436344634563466347634863496350635163526353635463556356635763586359636063616362636363646365636663676368636963706371637263736374637563766377637863796380638163826383638463856386638763886389639063916392639363946395639663976398639964006401640264036404640564066407640864096410641164126413641464156416641764186419642064216422642364246425642664276428642964306431643264336434643564366437643864396440644164426443644464456446644764486449645064516452645364546455645664576458645964606461646264636464646564666467646864696470647164726473647464756476647764786479648064816482648364846485648664876488648964906491649264936494649564966497649864996500650165026503650465056506650765086509651065116512651365146515651665176518651965206521652265236524652565266527652865296530653165326533653465356536653765386539654065416542654365446545654665476548654965506551655265536554655565566557655865596560656165626563656465656566656765686569657065716572657365746575657665776578657965806581658265836584658565866587658865896590659165926593659465956596659765986599660066016602660366046605660666076608660966106611661266136614661566166617661866196620662166226623662466256626662766286629663066316632663366346635663666376638663966406641664266436644664566466647664866496650665166526653665466556656665766586659666066616662666366646665666666676668666966706671667266736674667566766677667866796680668166826683668466856686668766886689669066916692669366946695669666976698669967006701670267036704670567066707670867096710671167126713671467156716671767186719672067216722672367246725672667276728672967306731673267336734673567366737673867396740674167426743674467456746674767486749675067516752675367546755675667576758675967606761676267636764676567666767676867696770677167726773677467756776677767786779678067816782678367846785678667876788678967906791679267936794679567966797679867996800680168026803680468056806680768086809681068116812681368146815681668176818681968206821682268236824682568266827682868296830683168326833683468356836683768386839684068416842684368446845684668476848684968506851685268536854685568566857685868596860686168626863686468656866686768686869687068716872687368746875687668776878687968806881688268836884688568866887688868896890689168926893689468956896689768986899690069016902690369046905690669076908690969106911691269136914691569166917691869196920692169226923692469256926692769286929693069316932693369346935693669376938693969406941694269436944694569466947694869496950695169526953695469556956695769586959696069616962696369646965696669676968696969706971697269736974697569766977697869796980698169826983698469856986698769886989699069916992699369946995699669976998699970007001700270037004700570067007700870097010701170127013701470157016701770187019702070217022702370247025702670277028702970307031703270337034703570367037703870397040704170427043704470457046704770487049705070517052705370547055705670577058705970607061706270637064706570667067706870697070707170727073707470757076707770787079708070817082708370847085708670877088708970907091709270937094709570967097709870997100710171027103710471057106710771087109711071117112711371147115711671177118711971207121712271237124712571267127712871297130713171327133713471357136713771387139714071417142714371447145714671477148714971507151715271537154715571567157715871597160716171627163716471657166716771687169717071717172717371747175717671777178717971807181718271837184718571867187718871897190719171927193719471957196719771987199720072017202720372047205720672077208720972107211721272137214721572167217721872197220722172227223722472257226722772287229723072317232723372347235723672377238723972407241724272437244724572467247724872497250725172527253725472557256725772587259726072617262726372647265726672677268726972707271727272737274727572767277727872797280728172827283728472857286728772887289729072917292729372947295729672977298729973007301730273037304730573067307730873097310731173127313731473157316731773187319732073217322732373247325732673277328732973307331733273337334733573367337733873397340734173427343734473457346734773487349735073517352735373547355735673577358735973607361736273637364736573667367736873697370737173727373737473757376737773787379738073817382738373847385738673877388738973907391739273937394739573967397739873997400740174027403740474057406740774087409741074117412741374147415741674177418741974207421742274237424742574267427742874297430743174327433743474357436743774387439744074417442744374447445744674477448744974507451745274537454745574567457745874597460746174627463746474657466746774687469747074717472747374747475747674777478747974807481748274837484748574867487748874897490749174927493749474957496749774987499750075017502750375047505750675077508750975107511751275137514751575167517751875197520752175227523752475257526752775287529753075317532753375347535753675377538753975407541754275437544754575467547754875497550755175527553755475557556755775587559756075617562756375647565756675677568756975707571757275737574757575767577757875797580758175827583758475857586758775887589759075917592759375947595759675977598759976007601760276037604760576067607760876097610761176127613761476157616761776187619762076217622762376247625762676277628762976307631763276337634763576367637763876397640764176427643764476457646764776487649765076517652765376547655765676577658765976607661766276637664766576667667766876697670767176727673767476757676767776787679768076817682768376847685768676877688768976907691769276937694769576967697769876997700770177027703770477057706770777087709771077117712771377147715771677177718771977207721772277237724772577267727772877297730773177327733773477357736773777387739774077417742774377447745774677477748774977507751775277537754775577567757775877597760776177627763776477657766776777687769777077717772777377747775777677777778777977807781778277837784778577867787778877897790779177927793779477957796779777987799780078017802780378047805780678077808780978107811781278137814781578167817781878197820782178227823782478257826782778287829783078317832783378347835783678377838783978407841784278437844784578467847784878497850785178527853785478557856785778587859786078617862786378647865786678677868786978707871787278737874787578767877787878797880788178827883788478857886788778887889789078917892789378947895789678977898789979007901790279037904790579067907790879097910791179127913791479157916791779187919792079217922792379247925792679277928792979307931793279337934793579367937793879397940794179427943794479457946794779487949795079517952795379547955795679577958795979607961796279637964796579667967796879697970797179727973797479757976797779787979798079817982798379847985798679877988798979907991799279937994799579967997799879998000800180028003800480058006800780088009801080118012801380148015801680178018801980208021802280238024802580268027802880298030803180328033803480358036803780388039804080418042804380448045804680478048804980508051805280538054805580568057805880598060806180628063806480658066806780688069807080718072807380748075807680778078807980808081808280838084808580868087808880898090809180928093809480958096809780988099810081018102810381048105810681078108810981108111811281138114811581168117811881198120812181228123812481258126812781288129813081318132813381348135813681378138813981408141814281438144814581468147814881498150815181528153815481558156815781588159816081618162816381648165816681678168816981708171817281738174817581768177817881798180818181828183818481858186818781888189819081918192819381948195819681978198819982008201820282038204820582068207820882098210821182128213821482158216821782188219822082218222822382248225822682278228822982308231823282338234823582368237823882398240824182428243824482458246824782488249825082518252825382548255825682578258825982608261826282638264826582668267826882698270827182728273827482758276827782788279828082818282828382848285828682878288828982908291829282938294829582968297829882998300830183028303830483058306830783088309831083118312831383148315831683178318831983208321832283238324832583268327832883298330833183328333833483358336833783388339834083418342834383448345834683478348834983508351835283538354835583568357835883598360836183628363836483658366836783688369837083718372837383748375837683778378837983808381838283838384838583868387838883898390839183928393839483958396839783988399840084018402840384048405840684078408840984108411841284138414841584168417841884198420842184228423842484258426842784288429843084318432843384348435843684378438843984408441844284438444844584468447844884498450845184528453845484558456845784588459846084618462846384648465846684678468846984708471847284738474847584768477847884798480848184828483848484858486848784888489849084918492849384948495849684978498849985008501850285038504850585068507850885098510851185128513851485158516851785188519852085218522852385248525852685278528852985308531853285338534853585368537853885398540854185428543854485458546854785488549855085518552855385548555855685578558855985608561856285638564856585668567856885698570857185728573857485758576857785788579858085818582858385848585858685878588858985908591859285938594859585968597859885998600860186028603860486058606860786088609861086118612861386148615861686178618861986208621862286238624862586268627862886298630863186328633863486358636863786388639864086418642864386448645864686478648864986508651865286538654865586568657865886598660866186628663866486658666866786688669867086718672867386748675867686778678867986808681868286838684868586868687868886898690869186928693869486958696869786988699870087018702870387048705870687078708870987108711871287138714871587168717871887198720872187228723872487258726872787288729873087318732873387348735873687378738873987408741874287438744874587468747874887498750875187528753875487558756875787588759876087618762876387648765876687678768876987708771877287738774877587768777877887798780878187828783878487858786878787888789879087918792879387948795879687978798879988008801880288038804880588068807880888098810881188128813881488158816881788188819882088218822882388248825882688278828882988308831883288338834883588368837883888398840884188428843884488458846884788488849885088518852885388548855885688578858885988608861886288638864886588668867886888698870887188728873887488758876887788788879888088818882888388848885888688878888888988908891889288938894889588968897889888998900890189028903890489058906890789088909891089118912891389148915891689178918891989208921892289238924892589268927892889298930893189328933893489358936893789388939894089418942894389448945894689478948894989508951895289538954895589568957895889598960896189628963896489658966896789688969897089718972897389748975897689778978897989808981898289838984898589868987898889898990899189928993899489958996899789988999900090019002900390049005900690079008900990109011901290139014901590169017901890199020902190229023902490259026902790289029903090319032903390349035903690379038903990409041904290439044904590469047904890499050905190529053905490559056905790589059906090619062906390649065906690679068906990709071907290739074907590769077907890799080908190829083908490859086908790889089909090919092909390949095909690979098909991009101910291039104910591069107910891099110911191129113911491159116911791189119912091219122912391249125912691279128912991309131913291339134913591369137913891399140914191429143914491459146914791489149915091519152915391549155915691579158915991609161916291639164916591669167916891699170917191729173917491759176917791789179918091819182918391849185918691879188918991909191919291939194919591969197919891999200920192029203920492059206920792089209921092119212921392149215921692179218921992209221922292239224922592269227922892299230923192329233923492359236923792389239924092419242924392449245924692479248924992509251925292539254925592569257925892599260926192629263926492659266926792689269927092719272927392749275927692779278927992809281928292839284928592869287928892899290929192929293929492959296929792989299930093019302930393049305930693079308930993109311931293139314931593169317931893199320932193229323932493259326932793289329933093319332933393349335933693379338933993409341934293439344934593469347934893499350935193529353935493559356935793589359936093619362936393649365936693679368936993709371937293739374937593769377937893799380938193829383938493859386938793889389939093919392939393949395939693979398939994009401940294039404940594069407940894099410941194129413941494159416941794189419942094219422942394249425942694279428942994309431943294339434943594369437943894399440944194429443944494459446944794489449945094519452945394549455945694579458945994609461946294639464946594669467946894699470947194729473947494759476947794789479948094819482948394849485948694879488948994909491949294939494949594969497949894999500950195029503950495059506950795089509951095119512951395149515951695179518951995209521952295239524952595269527952895299530953195329533953495359536953795389539954095419542954395449545954695479548954995509551955295539554955595569557955895599560956195629563956495659566956795689569957095719572957395749575957695779578957995809581958295839584958595869587958895899590959195929593959495959596959795989599960096019602960396049605960696079608960996109611961296139614961596169617961896199620962196229623962496259626962796289629963096319632963396349635963696379638963996409641964296439644964596469647964896499650965196529653965496559656965796589659966096619662966396649665966696679668966996709671967296739674967596769677967896799680968196829683968496859686968796889689969096919692969396949695969696979698969997009701970297039704970597069707970897099710971197129713971497159716971797189719972097219722972397249725972697279728972997309731973297339734973597369737973897399740974197429743974497459746974797489749975097519752975397549755975697579758975997609761976297639764976597669767976897699770977197729773977497759776977797789779978097819782978397849785978697879788978997909791979297939794979597969797979897999800980198029803980498059806980798089809981098119812981398149815981698179818981998209821982298239824982598269827982898299830983198329833983498359836983798389839984098419842984398449845984698479848984998509851985298539854985598569857985898599860986198629863986498659866986798689869987098719872987398749875987698779878987998809881988298839884988598869887988898899890989198929893989498959896989798989899990099019902990399049905990699079908990999109911991299139914991599169917991899199920992199229923992499259926992799289929993099319932993399349935993699379938993999409941994299439944994599469947994899499950995199529953995499559956995799589959996099619962996399649965996699679968996999709971997299739974997599769977997899799980998199829983998499859986998799889989999099919992999399949995999699979998999910000100011000210003100041000510006100071000810009100101001110012100131001410015100161001710018100191002010021100221002310024100251002610027100281002910030100311003210033100341003510036100371003810039100401004110042100431004410045100461004710048100491005010051100521005310054100551005610057100581005910060100611006210063100641006510066100671006810069100701007110072100731007410075100761007710078100791008010081100821008310084100851008610087100881008910090100911009210093100941009510096100971009810099101001010110102101031010410105101061010710108101091011010111101121011310114101151011610117101181011910120101211012210123101241012510126101271012810129101301013110132101331013410135101361013710138101391014010141101421014310144101451014610147101481014910150101511015210153101541015510156101571015810159101601016110162101631016410165101661016710168101691017010171101721017310174101751017610177101781017910180101811018210183101841018510186101871018810189101901019110192101931019410195101961019710198101991020010201102021020310204102051020610207102081020910210102111021210213102141021510216102171021810219102201022110222102231022410225102261022710228102291023010231102321023310234102351023610237102381023910240102411024210243102441024510246102471024810249102501025110252102531025410255102561025710258102591026010261102621026310264102651026610267102681026910270102711027210273102741027510276102771027810279102801028110282102831028410285102861028710288102891029010291102921029310294102951029610297102981029910300103011030210303103041030510306103071030810309103101031110312103131031410315103161031710318103191032010321103221032310324103251032610327103281032910330103311033210333103341033510336103371033810339103401034110342103431034410345103461034710348103491035010351103521035310354103551035610357103581035910360103611036210363103641036510366103671036810369103701037110372103731037410375103761037710378103791038010381103821038310384103851038610387103881038910390103911039210393103941039510396103971039810399104001040110402104031040410405104061040710408104091041010411104121041310414104151041610417104181041910420104211042210423104241042510426104271042810429104301043110432104331043410435104361043710438104391044010441104421044310444104451044610447104481044910450104511045210453104541045510456104571045810459104601046110462104631046410465104661046710468104691047010471104721047310474104751047610477104781047910480104811048210483104841048510486104871048810489104901049110492104931049410495104961049710498104991050010501105021050310504105051050610507105081050910510105111051210513105141051510516105171051810519105201052110522105231052410525105261052710528105291053010531105321053310534105351053610537105381053910540105411054210543105441054510546105471054810549105501055110552105531055410555105561055710558105591056010561105621056310564105651056610567105681056910570105711057210573105741057510576105771057810579105801058110582105831058410585105861058710588105891059010591105921059310594105951059610597105981059910600106011060210603106041060510606106071060810609106101061110612106131061410615106161061710618106191062010621106221062310624106251062610627106281062910630106311063210633106341063510636106371063810639106401064110642106431064410645106461064710648106491065010651106521065310654106551065610657106581065910660106611066210663106641066510666106671066810669106701067110672106731067410675106761067710678106791068010681106821068310684106851068610687106881068910690106911069210693106941069510696106971069810699107001070110702107031070410705107061070710708107091071010711107121071310714107151071610717107181071910720107211072210723107241072510726107271072810729107301073110732107331073410735107361073710738107391074010741107421074310744107451074610747107481074910750107511075210753107541075510756107571075810759107601076110762107631076410765107661076710768107691077010771107721077310774107751077610777107781077910780107811078210783107841078510786107871078810789107901079110792107931079410795107961079710798107991080010801108021080310804108051080610807108081080910810108111081210813108141081510816108171081810819108201082110822108231082410825108261082710828108291083010831108321083310834108351083610837108381083910840108411084210843108441084510846108471084810849108501085110852108531085410855108561085710858108591086010861108621086310864108651086610867108681086910870108711087210873108741087510876108771087810879108801088110882108831088410885108861088710888108891089010891108921089310894108951089610897108981089910900109011090210903109041090510906109071090810909109101091110912109131091410915109161091710918109191092010921109221092310924109251092610927109281092910930109311093210933109341093510936109371093810939109401094110942109431094410945109461094710948109491095010951109521095310954109551095610957109581095910960109611096210963109641096510966109671096810969109701097110972109731097410975109761097710978109791098010981109821098310984109851098610987109881098910990109911099210993109941099510996109971099810999110001100111002110031100411005110061100711008110091101011011110121101311014110151101611017110181101911020110211102211023110241102511026110271102811029110301103111032110331103411035110361103711038110391104011041110421104311044110451104611047110481104911050110511105211053110541105511056110571105811059110601106111062110631106411065110661106711068110691107011071110721107311074110751107611077110781107911080110811108211083110841108511086110871108811089110901109111092110931109411095110961109711098110991110011101111021110311104111051110611107111081110911110111111111211113111141111511116111171111811119111201112111122111231112411125111261112711128111291113011131111321113311134111351113611137111381113911140111411114211143111441114511146111471114811149111501115111152111531115411155111561115711158111591116011161111621116311164111651116611167111681116911170111711117211173111741117511176111771117811179111801118111182111831118411185111861118711188111891119011191111921119311194111951119611197111981119911200112011120211203112041120511206112071120811209112101121111212112131121411215112161121711218112191122011221112221122311224112251122611227112281122911230112311123211233112341123511236112371123811239112401124111242112431124411245112461124711248112491125011251112521125311254112551125611257112581125911260112611126211263112641126511266112671126811269112701127111272112731127411275112761127711278112791128011281112821128311284112851128611287112881128911290112911129211293112941129511296112971129811299113001130111302113031130411305113061130711308113091131011311113121131311314113151131611317113181131911320113211132211323113241132511326113271132811329113301133111332113331133411335113361133711338113391134011341113421134311344113451134611347113481134911350113511135211353113541135511356113571135811359113601136111362113631136411365113661136711368113691137011371113721137311374113751137611377113781137911380113811138211383113841138511386113871138811389113901139111392113931139411395113961139711398113991140011401114021140311404114051140611407114081140911410114111141211413114141141511416114171141811419114201142111422114231142411425114261142711428114291143011431114321143311434114351143611437114381143911440114411144211443114441144511446114471144811449114501145111452114531145411455114561145711458114591146011461114621146311464114651146611467114681146911470114711147211473114741147511476114771147811479114801148111482114831148411485114861148711488114891149011491114921149311494114951149611497114981149911500115011150211503115041150511506115071150811509115101151111512115131151411515115161151711518115191152011521115221152311524115251152611527115281152911530115311153211533115341153511536115371153811539115401154111542115431154411545115461154711548115491155011551115521155311554115551155611557115581155911560115611156211563115641156511566115671156811569115701157111572115731157411575115761157711578115791158011581115821158311584115851158611587115881158911590115911159211593115941159511596115971159811599116001160111602116031160411605116061160711608116091161011611116121161311614116151161611617116181161911620116211162211623116241162511626116271162811629116301163111632116331163411635116361163711638116391164011641116421164311644116451164611647116481164911650116511165211653116541165511656116571165811659116601166111662116631166411665116661166711668116691167011671116721167311674116751167611677116781167911680116811168211683116841168511686116871168811689116901169111692116931169411695116961169711698116991170011701117021170311704117051170611707117081170911710117111171211713117141171511716117171171811719117201172111722117231172411725117261172711728117291173011731117321173311734117351173611737117381173911740117411174211743117441174511746117471174811749117501175111752117531175411755117561175711758117591176011761117621176311764117651176611767117681176911770117711177211773117741177511776117771177811779117801178111782117831178411785117861178711788117891179011791117921179311794117951179611797117981179911800118011180211803118041180511806118071180811809118101181111812118131181411815118161181711818118191182011821118221182311824118251182611827118281182911830118311183211833118341183511836118371183811839118401184111842118431184411845118461184711848118491185011851118521185311854118551185611857118581185911860118611186211863118641186511866118671186811869118701187111872118731187411875118761187711878118791188011881118821188311884118851188611887118881188911890118911189211893118941189511896118971189811899119001190111902119031190411905119061190711908119091191011911119121191311914119151191611917119181191911920119211192211923119241192511926119271192811929119301193111932119331193411935119361193711938119391194011941119421194311944119451194611947119481194911950119511195211953119541195511956119571195811959119601196111962119631196411965119661196711968119691197011971119721197311974119751197611977119781197911980119811198211983119841198511986119871198811989119901199111992119931199411995119961199711998119991200012001120021200312004120051200612007120081200912010120111201212013120141201512016120171201812019120201202112022120231202412025120261202712028120291203012031120321203312034120351203612037120381203912040120411204212043120441204512046120471204812049120501205112052120531205412055120561205712058120591206012061120621206312064120651206612067120681206912070120711207212073120741207512076120771207812079120801208112082120831208412085120861208712088120891209012091120921209312094120951209612097120981209912100121011210212103121041210512106121071210812109121101211112112121131211412115121161211712118121191212012121121221212312124121251212612127121281212912130121311213212133121341213512136121371213812139121401214112142121431214412145121461214712148121491215012151121521215312154121551215612157121581215912160121611216212163121641216512166121671216812169121701217112172121731217412175121761217712178121791218012181121821218312184121851218612187121881218912190121911219212193121941219512196121971219812199122001220112202122031220412205122061220712208122091221012211122121221312214122151221612217122181221912220122211222212223122241222512226122271222812229122301223112232122331223412235122361223712238122391224012241122421224312244122451224612247122481224912250122511225212253122541225512256122571225812259122601226112262122631226412265122661226712268122691227012271122721227312274122751227612277122781227912280122811228212283122841228512286122871228812289122901229112292122931229412295122961229712298122991230012301123021230312304123051230612307123081230912310123111231212313123141231512316123171231812319123201232112322123231232412325123261232712328123291233012331123321233312334123351233612337123381233912340123411234212343123441234512346123471234812349123501235112352123531235412355123561235712358123591236012361123621236312364123651236612367123681236912370123711237212373123741237512376123771237812379123801238112382123831238412385123861238712388123891239012391123921239312394123951239612397123981239912400124011240212403124041240512406124071240812409124101241112412124131241412415124161241712418124191242012421124221242312424124251242612427124281242912430124311243212433124341243512436124371243812439124401244112442124431244412445124461244712448124491245012451124521245312454124551245612457124581245912460124611246212463124641246512466124671246812469124701247112472124731247412475124761247712478124791248012481124821248312484124851248612487124881248912490124911249212493124941249512496124971249812499125001250112502125031250412505125061250712508125091251012511125121251312514125151251612517125181251912520125211252212523125241252512526125271252812529125301253112532125331253412535125361253712538125391254012541125421254312544125451254612547125481254912550125511255212553125541255512556125571255812559125601256112562125631256412565125661256712568125691257012571125721257312574125751257612577125781257912580125811258212583125841258512586125871258812589125901259112592125931259412595125961259712598125991260012601126021260312604126051260612607126081260912610126111261212613126141261512616126171261812619126201262112622126231262412625126261262712628126291263012631126321263312634126351263612637126381263912640126411264212643126441264512646126471264812649126501265112652126531265412655126561265712658126591266012661126621266312664126651266612667126681266912670126711267212673126741267512676126771267812679126801268112682126831268412685126861268712688126891269012691126921269312694126951269612697126981269912700127011270212703127041270512706127071270812709127101271112712127131271412715127161271712718127191272012721127221272312724127251272612727127281272912730127311273212733127341273512736127371273812739127401274112742127431274412745127461274712748127491275012751127521275312754127551275612757127581275912760127611276212763127641276512766127671276812769127701277112772127731277412775127761277712778127791278012781127821278312784127851278612787127881278912790127911279212793127941279512796127971279812799128001280112802128031280412805128061280712808128091281012811128121281312814128151281612817128181281912820128211282212823128241282512826128271282812829128301283112832128331283412835128361283712838128391284012841128421284312844128451284612847128481284912850128511285212853128541285512856128571285812859128601286112862128631286412865128661286712868128691287012871128721287312874128751287612877128781287912880128811288212883128841288512886128871288812889128901289112892128931289412895128961289712898128991290012901129021290312904129051290612907129081290912910129111291212913129141291512916129171291812919129201292112922129231292412925129261292712928129291293012931129321293312934129351293612937129381293912940129411294212943129441294512946129471294812949129501295112952129531295412955129561295712958129591296012961129621296312964129651296612967129681296912970129711297212973129741297512976129771297812979129801298112982129831298412985129861298712988129891299012991129921299312994129951299612997129981299913000130011300213003130041300513006130071300813009130101301113012130131301413015130161301713018130191302013021130221302313024130251302613027130281302913030130311303213033130341303513036130371303813039130401304113042130431304413045130461304713048130491305013051130521305313054130551305613057130581305913060130611306213063130641306513066130671306813069130701307113072130731307413075130761307713078130791308013081130821308313084130851308613087130881308913090130911309213093130941309513096130971309813099131001310113102131031310413105131061310713108131091311013111131121311313114131151311613117131181311913120131211312213123131241312513126131271312813129131301313113132131331313413135131361313713138131391314013141131421314313144131451314613147131481314913150131511315213153131541315513156131571315813159131601316113162131631316413165131661316713168131691317013171131721317313174131751317613177131781317913180131811318213183131841318513186131871318813189131901319113192131931319413195131961319713198131991320013201132021320313204132051320613207132081320913210132111321213213132141321513216132171321813219132201322113222132231322413225132261322713228132291323013231132321323313234132351323613237132381323913240132411324213243132441324513246132471324813249132501325113252132531325413255132561325713258132591326013261132621326313264132651326613267132681326913270132711327213273132741327513276132771327813279132801328113282132831328413285132861328713288132891329013291132921329313294132951329613297132981329913300133011330213303133041330513306133071330813309133101331113312133131331413315133161331713318133191332013321133221332313324133251332613327133281332913330133311333213333133341333513336133371333813339133401334113342133431334413345133461334713348133491335013351133521335313354133551335613357133581335913360133611336213363133641336513366133671336813369133701337113372133731337413375133761337713378133791338013381133821338313384133851338613387133881338913390133911339213393133941339513396133971339813399134001340113402134031340413405134061340713408134091341013411134121341313414134151341613417134181341913420134211342213423134241342513426134271342813429134301343113432134331343413435134361343713438134391344013441134421344313444134451344613447134481344913450134511345213453134541345513456134571345813459134601346113462134631346413465134661346713468134691347013471134721347313474134751347613477134781347913480134811348213483134841348513486134871348813489134901349113492134931349413495134961349713498134991350013501135021350313504135051350613507135081350913510135111351213513135141351513516135171351813519135201352113522135231352413525135261352713528135291353013531135321353313534135351353613537135381353913540135411354213543135441354513546135471354813549135501355113552135531355413555135561355713558135591356013561135621356313564135651356613567135681356913570135711357213573135741357513576135771357813579135801358113582135831358413585135861358713588135891359013591135921359313594135951359613597135981359913600136011360213603136041360513606136071360813609136101361113612136131361413615136161361713618136191362013621136221362313624136251362613627136281362913630136311363213633136341363513636136371363813639136401364113642136431364413645136461364713648136491365013651136521365313654136551365613657136581365913660136611366213663136641366513666136671366813669136701367113672136731367413675136761367713678136791368013681136821368313684136851368613687136881368913690136911369213693136941369513696136971369813699137001370113702137031370413705137061370713708137091371013711137121371313714137151371613717137181371913720137211372213723137241372513726137271372813729137301373113732137331373413735137361373713738137391374013741137421374313744137451374613747137481374913750137511375213753137541375513756137571375813759137601376113762137631376413765137661376713768137691377013771137721377313774137751377613777137781377913780137811378213783137841378513786137871378813789137901379113792137931379413795137961379713798137991380013801138021380313804138051380613807138081380913810138111381213813138141381513816138171381813819138201382113822138231382413825138261382713828138291383013831138321383313834138351383613837138381383913840138411384213843138441384513846138471384813849138501385113852138531385413855138561385713858138591386013861138621386313864138651386613867138681386913870138711387213873138741387513876138771387813879138801388113882138831388413885138861388713888138891389013891138921389313894138951389613897138981389913900139011390213903139041390513906139071390813909139101391113912139131391413915139161391713918139191392013921139221392313924139251392613927139281392913930139311393213933139341393513936139371393813939139401394113942139431394413945139461394713948139491395013951139521395313954139551395613957139581395913960139611396213963139641396513966139671396813969139701397113972139731397413975139761397713978139791398013981139821398313984139851398613987139881398913990139911399213993139941399513996139971399813999140001400114002140031400414005140061400714008140091401014011140121401314014140151401614017140181401914020140211402214023140241402514026140271402814029140301403114032140331403414035140361403714038140391404014041140421404314044140451404614047140481404914050140511405214053140541405514056140571405814059140601406114062140631406414065140661406714068140691407014071140721407314074140751407614077140781407914080140811408214083140841408514086140871408814089140901409114092140931409414095140961409714098140991410014101141021410314104141051410614107141081410914110141111411214113141141411514116141171411814119141201412114122141231412414125141261412714128141291413014131141321413314134141351413614137141381413914140141411414214143141441414514146141471414814149141501415114152141531415414155141561415714158141591416014161141621416314164141651416614167141681416914170141711417214173141741417514176141771417814179141801418114182141831418414185141861418714188141891419014191141921419314194141951419614197141981419914200142011420214203142041420514206142071420814209142101421114212142131421414215142161421714218142191422014221142221422314224142251422614227142281422914230142311423214233142341423514236142371423814239142401424114242142431424414245142461424714248142491425014251142521425314254142551425614257142581425914260142611426214263142641426514266142671426814269142701427114272142731427414275142761427714278142791428014281142821428314284142851428614287142881428914290142911429214293142941429514296142971429814299143001430114302143031430414305143061430714308143091431014311143121431314314143151431614317143181431914320143211432214323143241432514326143271432814329143301433114332143331433414335143361433714338143391434014341143421434314344143451434614347143481434914350143511435214353143541435514356143571435814359143601436114362143631436414365143661436714368143691437014371143721437314374143751437614377143781437914380143811438214383143841438514386143871438814389143901439114392143931439414395143961439714398143991440014401144021440314404144051440614407144081440914410144111441214413144141441514416144171441814419144201442114422144231442414425144261442714428144291443014431144321443314434144351443614437144381443914440144411444214443144441444514446144471444814449144501445114452144531445414455144561445714458144591446014461144621446314464144651446614467144681446914470144711447214473144741447514476144771447814479144801448114482144831448414485144861448714488144891449014491144921449314494144951449614497144981449914500145011450214503145041450514506145071450814509145101451114512145131451414515145161451714518145191452014521145221452314524145251452614527145281452914530145311453214533145341453514536145371453814539145401454114542145431454414545145461454714548145491455014551145521455314554145551455614557145581455914560145611456214563145641456514566145671456814569145701457114572145731457414575145761457714578145791458014581145821458314584145851458614587145881458914590145911459214593145941459514596145971459814599146001460114602146031460414605146061460714608146091461014611146121461314614146151461614617146181461914620146211462214623146241462514626146271462814629146301463114632146331463414635146361463714638146391464014641146421464314644146451464614647146481464914650146511465214653146541465514656146571465814659146601466114662146631466414665146661466714668146691467014671146721467314674146751467614677146781467914680146811468214683146841468514686146871468814689146901469114692146931469414695146961469714698146991470014701147021470314704147051470614707147081470914710147111471214713147141471514716147171471814719147201472114722147231472414725147261472714728147291473014731147321473314734147351473614737147381473914740147411474214743147441474514746147471474814749147501475114752147531475414755147561475714758147591476014761147621476314764147651476614767147681476914770147711477214773147741477514776147771477814779147801478114782147831478414785147861478714788147891479014791147921479314794147951479614797147981479914800148011480214803148041480514806148071480814809148101481114812148131481414815148161481714818148191482014821148221482314824148251482614827148281482914830148311483214833148341483514836148371483814839148401484114842148431484414845148461484714848148491485014851148521485314854148551485614857148581485914860148611486214863148641486514866148671486814869148701487114872148731487414875148761487714878148791488014881148821488314884148851488614887148881488914890148911489214893148941489514896148971489814899149001490114902149031490414905149061490714908149091491014911149121491314914149151491614917149181491914920149211492214923149241492514926149271492814929149301493114932149331493414935149361493714938149391494014941149421494314944149451494614947149481494914950149511495214953149541495514956149571495814959149601496114962149631496414965149661496714968149691497014971149721497314974149751497614977149781497914980149811498214983149841498514986149871498814989149901499114992149931499414995149961499714998149991500015001150021500315004150051500615007150081500915010150111501215013150141501515016150171501815019150201502115022150231502415025150261502715028150291503015031150321503315034150351503615037150381503915040150411504215043150441504515046150471504815049150501505115052150531505415055150561505715058150591506015061150621506315064150651506615067150681506915070150711507215073150741507515076150771507815079150801508115082150831508415085150861508715088150891509015091150921509315094150951509615097150981509915100151011510215103151041510515106151071510815109151101511115112151131511415115151161511715118151191512015121151221512315124151251512615127151281512915130151311513215133151341513515136151371513815139151401514115142151431514415145151461514715148151491515015151151521515315154151551515615157151581515915160151611516215163151641516515166151671516815169151701517115172151731517415175151761517715178151791518015181151821518315184151851518615187151881518915190151911519215193151941519515196151971519815199152001520115202152031520415205152061520715208152091521015211152121521315214152151521615217152181521915220152211522215223152241522515226152271522815229152301523115232152331523415235152361523715238152391524015241152421524315244152451524615247152481524915250152511525215253152541525515256152571525815259152601526115262152631526415265152661526715268152691527015271152721527315274152751527615277152781527915280152811528215283152841528515286152871528815289152901529115292152931529415295152961529715298152991530015301153021530315304153051530615307153081530915310153111531215313153141531515316153171531815319153201532115322153231532415325153261532715328153291533015331153321533315334153351533615337153381533915340153411534215343153441534515346153471534815349153501535115352153531535415355153561535715358153591536015361153621536315364153651536615367153681536915370153711537215373153741537515376153771537815379153801538115382153831538415385153861538715388153891539015391153921539315394153951539615397153981539915400154011540215403154041540515406154071540815409154101541115412154131541415415154161541715418154191542015421154221542315424154251542615427154281542915430154311543215433154341543515436154371543815439154401544115442154431544415445154461544715448154491545015451154521545315454154551545615457154581545915460154611546215463154641546515466154671546815469154701547115472154731547415475154761547715478154791548015481154821548315484154851548615487154881548915490154911549215493154941549515496154971549815499155001550115502155031550415505155061550715508155091551015511155121551315514155151551615517155181551915520155211552215523155241552515526155271552815529155301553115532155331553415535155361553715538155391554015541155421554315544155451554615547155481554915550155511555215553155541555515556155571555815559155601556115562155631556415565155661556715568155691557015571155721557315574155751557615577155781557915580155811558215583155841558515586155871558815589155901559115592155931559415595155961559715598155991560015601156021560315604156051560615607156081560915610156111561215613156141561515616156171561815619156201562115622
  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @set VERSION 7.7
  6. @set DATE July 2011
  7. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  8. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  9. @set txicodequoteundirected
  10. @set txicodequotebacktick
  11. @c Version and Contact Info
  12. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  13. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  15. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  16. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  20. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  21. @c =======================================
  22. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  23. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  24. @set cmdnames
  25. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  26. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  27. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  28. @c xorgcmd{key,cmmand} Key with command name as @itemx
  29. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  30. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  31. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  32. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  33. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  34. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  35. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  36. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  37. @c a key but no command
  38. @c Inserts: @item key
  39. @macro orgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @item @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @macro xorgkey{key}
  44. @kindex \key\
  45. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  46. @end macro
  47. @c one key with a command
  48. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  49. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  50. @ifset cmdnames
  51. @kindex \key\
  52. @findex \command\
  53. @iftex
  54. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  55. @end iftex
  56. @ifnottex
  57. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  58. @end ifnottex
  59. @end ifset
  60. @ifclear cmdnames
  61. @kindex \key\
  62. @item @kbd{\key\}
  63. @end ifclear
  64. @end macro
  65. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  66. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  67. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  68. @ifset cmdnames
  69. @kindex \key\
  70. @findex \command\
  71. @iftex
  72. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  73. @end iftex
  74. @ifnottex
  75. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  76. @end ifnottex
  77. @end ifset
  78. @ifclear cmdnames
  79. @kindex \key\
  80. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  81. @end ifclear
  82. @end macro
  83. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  84. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  85. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  86. @ifset cmdnames
  87. @findex \command\
  88. @iftex
  89. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  90. @end iftex
  91. @ifnottex
  92. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  93. @end ifnottex
  94. @end ifset
  95. @ifclear cmdnames
  96. @item @kbd{\key\}
  97. @end ifclear
  98. @end macro
  99. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  100. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  101. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  102. @ifset cmdnames
  103. @kindex \key\
  104. @findex \command\
  105. @iftex
  106. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  107. @end iftex
  108. @ifnottex
  109. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  110. @end ifnottex
  111. @end ifset
  112. @ifclear cmdnames
  113. @kindex \key\
  114. @item @kbd{\text\}
  115. @end ifclear
  116. @end macro
  117. @c two keys with one command
  118. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  119. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  120. @ifset cmdnames
  121. @kindex \key1\
  122. @kindex \key2\
  123. @findex \command\
  124. @iftex
  125. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  126. @end iftex
  127. @ifnottex
  128. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  129. @end ifnottex
  130. @end ifset
  131. @ifclear cmdnames
  132. @kindex \key1\
  133. @kindex \key2\
  134. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  135. @end ifclear
  136. @end macro
  137. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  138. @c @itemx
  139. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  140. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  141. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  142. @ifset cmdnames
  143. @kindex \key1\
  144. @kindex \key2\
  145. @findex \command\
  146. @iftex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  149. @end iftex
  150. @ifnottex
  151. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  152. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  153. @end ifnottex
  154. @end ifset
  155. @ifclear cmdnames
  156. @kindex \key1\
  157. @kindex \key2\
  158. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  159. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  160. @end ifclear
  161. @end macro
  162. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  163. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  164. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  165. @ifset cmdnames
  166. @kindex \key1\
  167. @kindex \key2\
  168. @findex \command\
  169. @iftex
  170. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  171. @end iftex
  172. @ifnottex
  173. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  174. @end ifnottex
  175. @end ifset
  176. @ifclear cmdnames
  177. @kindex \key1\
  178. @kindex \key2\
  179. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  180. @end ifclear
  181. @end macro
  182. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  183. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  184. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  185. @ifset cmdnames
  186. @kindex \key1\
  187. @kindex \key2\
  188. @findex \command\
  189. @iftex
  190. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  191. @end iftex
  192. @ifnottex
  193. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  194. @end ifnottex
  195. @end ifset
  196. @ifclear cmdnames
  197. @kindex \key1\
  198. @kindex \key2\
  199. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  200. @end ifclear
  201. @end macro
  202. @c two keys with two commands
  203. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  204. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  205. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  206. @ifset cmdnames
  207. @kindex \key1\
  208. @kindex \key2\
  209. @findex \command1\
  210. @findex \command2\
  211. @iftex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  214. @end iftex
  215. @ifnottex
  216. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  217. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  218. @end ifnottex
  219. @end ifset
  220. @ifclear cmdnames
  221. @kindex \key1\
  222. @kindex \key2\
  223. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  224. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  225. @end ifclear
  226. @end macro
  227. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  228. @iftex
  229. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  230. @end iftex
  231. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  232. @macro tsubheading{text}
  233. @ifinfo
  234. @subsubheading \text\
  235. @end ifinfo
  236. @ifnotinfo
  237. @item @b{\text\}
  238. @end ifnotinfo
  239. @end macro
  240. @copying
  241. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  242. Copyright @copyright{} 2004-2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  243. @quotation
  244. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  245. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  246. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  247. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  248. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  249. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  250. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  251. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  252. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  253. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  254. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  255. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  256. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  257. @end quotation
  258. @end copying
  259. @dircategory Emacs
  260. @direntry
  261. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  262. @end direntry
  263. @titlepage
  264. @title The Org Manual
  265. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  266. @author by Carsten Dominik
  267. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, and Thomas Dye
  268. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  269. @page
  270. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  271. @insertcopying
  272. @end titlepage
  273. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  274. @contents
  275. @ifnottex
  276. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  277. @top Org Mode Manual
  278. @insertcopying
  279. @end ifnottex
  280. @menu
  281. * Introduction:: Getting started
  282. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  283. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  284. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  285. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  286. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  287. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  288. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  289. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  290. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  291. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  292. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  293. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  294. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  295. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  296. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  297. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  298. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  299. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  300. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  301. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  302. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  303. @detailmenu
  304. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  305. Introduction
  306. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  307. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  308. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  309. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  310. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  311. Document structure
  312. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  313. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  314. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  315. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  316. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  317. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  318. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  319. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  320. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  321. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  322. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  323. Tables
  324. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  325. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  326. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  327. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  328. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  329. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  330. The spreadsheet
  331. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  332. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  333. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  334. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  335. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  336. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  337. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  338. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  339. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  340. Hyperlinks
  341. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  342. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  343. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  344. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  345. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  346. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  347. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  348. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  349. Internal links
  350. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  351. TODO items
  352. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  353. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  354. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  355. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  356. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  357. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  358. Extended use of TODO keywords
  359. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  360. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  361. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  362. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  363. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  364. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  365. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  366. Progress logging
  367. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  368. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  369. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  370. Tags
  371. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  372. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  373. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  374. Properties and columns
  375. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  376. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  377. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  378. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  379. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  380. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  381. Column view
  382. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  383. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  384. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  385. Defining columns
  386. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  387. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  388. Dates and times
  389. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  390. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  391. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  392. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  393. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  394. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  395. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  396. Creating timestamps
  397. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  398. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  399. Deadlines and scheduling
  400. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  401. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  402. Clocking work time
  403. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  404. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  405. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  406. Capture - Refile - Archive
  407. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  408. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  409. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  410. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  411. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  412. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  413. Capture
  414. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  415. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  416. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  417. Capture templates
  418. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  419. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  420. Archiving
  421. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  422. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  423. Agenda views
  424. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  425. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  426. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  427. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  428. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  429. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  430. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  431. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  432. The built-in agenda views
  433. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  434. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  435. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  436. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  437. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  438. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  439. Presentation and sorting
  440. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  441. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  442. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  443. Custom agenda views
  444. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  445. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  446. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  447. Markup for rich export
  448. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  449. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  450. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  451. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  452. * Index entries:: Making an index
  453. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  454. * Embedded LaTeX:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  455. Structural markup elements
  456. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  457. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  458. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  459. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  460. * Lists:: Lists
  461. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  462. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  463. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  464. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  465. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  466. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  467. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  468. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  469. * LaTeX fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  470. * Previewing LaTeX fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  471. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  472. Exporting
  473. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  474. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  475. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  476. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  477. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  478. * LaTeX and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  479. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  480. * OpenDocumentText export:: Exporting to OpenDocumentText
  481. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  482. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  483. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  484. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  485. HTML export
  486. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  487. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  488. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org-mode
  489. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  490. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  491. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  492. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  493. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  494. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  495. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  496. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  497. * LaTeX/PDF export commands:: Which key invokes which commands
  498. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  499. * Quoting LaTeX code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  500. * Tables in LaTeX export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  501. * Images in LaTeX export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  502. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  503. DocBook export
  504. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  505. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  506. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  507. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  508. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  509. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  510. OpenDocument export
  511. * OpenDocumentText export commands:: How to invoke OpenDocumentText export
  512. * Applying Custom Styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  513. * Converting to Other formats:: How to convert to formats like doc, docx etc
  514. * Links in OpenDocumentText export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  515. * Tables in OpenDocumentText export:: How Tables are handled
  516. * Images in OpenDocumentText export:: How to insert figures
  517. * Additional Documentation:: How to handle special characters
  518. Publishing
  519. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  520. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  521. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  522. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  523. Configuration
  524. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  525. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  526. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  527. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  528. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  529. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  530. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  531. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  532. Sample configuration
  533. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  534. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  535. Working with source code
  536. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  537. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  538. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  539. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  540. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org-mode buffer
  541. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  542. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  543. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  544. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  545. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org-mode
  546. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  547. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  548. Header arguments
  549. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  550. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  551. Using header arguments
  552. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  553. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  554. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  555. * Header arguments in Org-mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  556. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  557. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  558. Specific header arguments
  559. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  560. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  561. be collected and handled
  562. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  563. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  564. directory for code block execution
  565. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  566. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  567. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  568. files during tangling
  569. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  570. code files
  571. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  572. code files
  573. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  574. expansion during tangling
  575. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  576. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  577. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  578. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  579. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  580. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  581. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  582. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  583. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  584. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  585. Miscellaneous
  586. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  587. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  588. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  589. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  590. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  591. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  592. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  593. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  594. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  595. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  596. * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files
  597. Interaction with other packages
  598. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  599. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  600. Hacking
  601. * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals
  602. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  603. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  604. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  605. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  606. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  607. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  608. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  609. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  610. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  611. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  612. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  613. * A LaTeX example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  614. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  615. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  616. MobileOrg
  617. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  618. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  619. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  620. @end detailmenu
  621. @end menu
  622. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  623. @chapter Introduction
  624. @cindex introduction
  625. @menu
  626. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  627. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  628. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  629. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  630. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  631. @end menu
  632. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  633. @section Summary
  634. @cindex summary
  635. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  636. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  637. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  638. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  639. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  640. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  641. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  642. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  643. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  644. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  645. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  646. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  647. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  648. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  649. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  650. linked web pages.
  651. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  652. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  653. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  654. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  655. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  656. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  657. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  658. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  659. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  660. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  661. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  662. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  663. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  664. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  665. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  666. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  667. ends, for example:
  668. @example
  669. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  670. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  671. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  672. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  673. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  674. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  675. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  676. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  677. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  678. @end example
  679. @cindex FAQ
  680. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  681. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  682. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  683. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  684. @cindex print edition
  685. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  686. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  687. Theory Ltd.}
  688. @page
  689. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  690. @section Installation
  691. @cindex installation
  692. @cindex XEmacs
  693. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  694. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  695. to @ref{Activation}. To see what version of Org (if any) is part of your
  696. Emacs distribution, type @kbd{M-x load-library RET org} and then @kbd{M-x
  697. org-version}.}
  698. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  699. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
  700. to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
  701. top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs
  702. binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
  703. directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have
  704. access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
  705. the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
  706. Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  707. @example
  708. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  709. @end example
  710. @noindent
  711. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  712. step for this directory:
  713. @example
  714. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  715. @end example
  716. @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
  717. @example
  718. make
  719. @end example
  720. @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
  721. all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
  722. administrator)
  723. @example
  724. make install
  725. @end example
  726. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  727. @file{install-info} program. The following should correctly install the Info
  728. files on most systems, please send a bug report if not@footnote{The output
  729. from install-info (if any) is also system dependent. In particular Debian
  730. and its derivatives use two different versions of install-info and you may
  731. see the message:
  732. @example
  733. This is not dpkg install-info anymore, but GNU install-info
  734. See the man page for ginstall-info for command line arguments
  735. @end example
  736. @noindent which can be safely ignored.}.
  737. @example
  738. make install-info
  739. @end example
  740. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  741. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  742. when Org-mode starts.
  743. @lisp
  744. (require 'org-install)
  745. @end lisp
  746. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  747. @page
  748. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  749. @section Activation
  750. @cindex activation
  751. @cindex autoload
  752. @cindex global key bindings
  753. @cindex key bindings, global
  754. To make sure files with extension @file{.org} use Org mode, add the following
  755. line to your @file{.emacs} file.
  756. @lisp
  757. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  758. @end lisp
  759. @noindent Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on - this is the
  760. default in Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in
  761. Org buffer with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  762. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  763. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  764. global keys (i.e.@: anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  765. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  766. liking.
  767. @lisp
  768. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  769. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  770. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  771. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  772. @end lisp
  773. @cindex Org-mode, turning on
  774. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  775. into Org-mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  776. like this:
  777. @example
  778. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  779. @end example
  780. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  781. @noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what
  782. the file's name is. See also the variable
  783. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  784. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  785. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  786. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  787. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  788. @lisp
  789. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  790. @end lisp
  791. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  792. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  793. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  794. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  795. @section Feedback
  796. @cindex feedback
  797. @cindex bug reports
  798. @cindex maintainer
  799. @cindex author
  800. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  801. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  802. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  803. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  804. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  805. moderators have to do.}.
  806. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  807. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  808. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  809. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  810. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  811. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  812. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  813. @example
  814. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  815. @end example
  816. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  817. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  818. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  819. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  820. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  821. about:
  822. @enumerate
  823. @item What exactly did you do?
  824. @item What did you expect to happen?
  825. @item What happened instead?
  826. @end enumerate
  827. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  828. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  829. @cindex backtrace of an error
  830. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  831. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  832. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  833. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  834. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  835. @enumerate
  836. @item
  837. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org-mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  838. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  839. To do this, use
  840. @example
  841. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  842. @end example
  843. @noindent
  844. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  845. menu.
  846. @item
  847. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  848. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  849. @item
  850. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  851. document the steps you take.
  852. @item
  853. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  854. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  855. attach it to your bug report.
  856. @end enumerate
  857. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  858. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  859. Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
  860. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  861. @table @code
  862. @item TODO
  863. @itemx WAITING
  864. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  865. user-defined.
  866. @item boss
  867. @itemx ARCHIVE
  868. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  869. meaning are written with all capitals.
  870. @item Release
  871. @itemx PRIORITY
  872. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  873. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  874. @end table
  875. The manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for accessing
  876. functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different functions,
  877. depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has a generic
  878. name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever possible,
  879. give the function that is internally called by the generic command. For
  880. example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will be
  881. listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it will
  882. be listed to call org-table-move-column-right.
  883. If you prefer, you can compile the manual without the command names by
  884. unsetting the flag @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  885. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  886. @chapter Document structure
  887. @cindex document structure
  888. @cindex structure of document
  889. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  890. edit the structure of the document.
  891. @menu
  892. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  893. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  894. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  895. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  896. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  897. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  898. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  899. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  900. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  901. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  902. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  903. @end menu
  904. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  905. @section Outlines
  906. @cindex outlines
  907. @cindex Outline mode
  908. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  909. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  910. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  911. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  912. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  913. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  914. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  915. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  916. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  917. @section Headlines
  918. @cindex headlines
  919. @cindex outline tree
  920. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  921. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  922. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  923. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  924. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  925. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  926. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  927. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.}. For example:
  928. @example
  929. * Top level headline
  930. ** Second level
  931. *** 3rd level
  932. some text
  933. *** 3rd level
  934. more text
  935. * Another top level headline
  936. @end example
  937. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  938. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  939. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  940. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  941. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  942. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  943. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  944. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  945. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  946. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  947. @section Visibility cycling
  948. @cindex cycling, visibility
  949. @cindex visibility cycling
  950. @cindex trees, visibility
  951. @cindex show hidden text
  952. @cindex hide text
  953. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  954. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  955. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  956. @cindex subtree visibility states
  957. @cindex subtree cycling
  958. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  959. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  960. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  961. @table @asis
  962. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  963. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  964. @example
  965. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  966. '-----------------------------------'
  967. @end example
  968. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  969. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  970. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  971. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  972. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  973. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  974. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  975. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  976. @cindex global visibility states
  977. @cindex global cycling
  978. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  979. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  980. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  981. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  982. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  983. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  984. @example
  985. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  986. '--------------------------------------'
  987. @end example
  988. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  989. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  990. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  991. @cindex show all, command
  992. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  993. Show all, including drawers.
  994. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  995. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  996. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  997. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  998. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  999. level, all sibling headings. With double prefix arg, also show the entire
  1000. subtree of the parent.
  1001. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1002. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1003. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1004. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1005. buffer
  1006. @ifinfo
  1007. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1008. @end ifinfo
  1009. @ifnotinfo
  1010. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1011. @end ifnotinfo
  1012. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1013. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1014. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1015. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1016. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1017. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1018. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1019. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1020. @end table
  1021. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1022. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1023. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1024. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1025. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1026. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1027. OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1028. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1029. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1030. buffer:
  1031. @example
  1032. #+STARTUP: overview
  1033. #+STARTUP: content
  1034. #+STARTUP: showall
  1035. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1036. @end example
  1037. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1038. @noindent
  1039. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1040. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1041. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1042. @code{all}.
  1043. @table @asis
  1044. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1045. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.@: whatever is
  1046. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1047. entries.
  1048. @end table
  1049. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1050. @section Motion
  1051. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1052. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1053. @cindex headline navigation
  1054. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1055. @table @asis
  1056. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1057. Next heading.
  1058. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1059. Previous heading.
  1060. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1061. Next heading same level.
  1062. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1063. Previous heading same level.
  1064. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1065. Backward to higher level heading.
  1066. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1067. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1068. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1069. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1070. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1071. @example
  1072. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1073. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1074. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1075. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1076. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1077. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1078. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1079. u @r{One level up.}
  1080. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1081. q @r{Quit}
  1082. @end example
  1083. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1084. @noindent
  1085. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1086. @end table
  1087. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1088. @section Structure editing
  1089. @cindex structure editing
  1090. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1091. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1092. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1093. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1094. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1095. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1096. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1097. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1098. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1099. @table @asis
  1100. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1101. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1102. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1103. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1104. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1105. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1106. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1107. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1108. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1109. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1110. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.@:
  1111. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1112. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1113. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1114. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1115. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1116. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1117. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1118. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1119. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1120. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1121. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1122. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1123. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1124. subtree.
  1125. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1126. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1127. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1128. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1129. to the initial level.
  1130. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1131. Promote current heading by one level.
  1132. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1133. Demote current heading by one level.
  1134. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1135. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1136. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1137. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1138. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1139. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1140. level).
  1141. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1142. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1143. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1144. Kill subtree, i.e.@: remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1145. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1146. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1147. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1148. sequential subtrees.
  1149. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1150. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1151. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1152. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1153. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1154. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1155. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1156. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1157. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1158. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1159. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1160. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1161. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1162. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1163. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1164. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1165. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1166. folding.
  1167. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1168. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1169. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1170. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1171. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1172. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1173. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1174. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1175. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  1176. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort-entries-or-items}
  1177. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1178. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1179. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1180. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1181. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1182. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1183. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1184. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1185. sorting will be case-sensitive. With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, duplicate
  1186. entries will also be removed.
  1187. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1188. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1189. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1190. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1191. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1192. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1193. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1194. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1195. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1196. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1197. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1198. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1199. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1200. @end table
  1201. @cindex region, active
  1202. @cindex active region
  1203. @cindex transient mark mode
  1204. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1205. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1206. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1207. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1208. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1209. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1210. functionality.
  1211. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1212. @section Sparse trees
  1213. @cindex sparse trees
  1214. @cindex trees, sparse
  1215. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1216. @cindex occur, command
  1217. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1218. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1219. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1220. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1221. An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1222. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1223. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1224. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1225. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1226. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1227. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1228. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1229. Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1230. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1231. @table @asis
  1232. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1233. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1234. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1235. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1236. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1237. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1238. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1239. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1240. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1241. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1242. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1243. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1244. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1245. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1246. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1247. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1248. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1249. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1250. @end table
  1251. @noindent
  1252. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1253. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1254. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1255. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1256. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1257. For example:
  1258. @lisp
  1259. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1260. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1261. @end lisp
  1262. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1263. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1264. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1265. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1266. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1267. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1268. @cindex visible text, printing
  1269. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1270. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1271. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1272. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1273. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1274. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1275. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1276. @section Plain lists
  1277. @cindex plain lists
  1278. @cindex lists, plain
  1279. @cindex lists, ordered
  1280. @cindex ordered lists
  1281. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1282. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1283. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1284. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1285. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1286. @itemize @bullet
  1287. @item
  1288. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1289. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1290. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1291. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1292. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1293. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1294. bullets.
  1295. @item
  1296. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1297. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1298. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1299. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1300. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1301. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1302. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1303. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1304. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1305. list to start with a different value (e.g.@: 20), start the text of the item
  1306. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1307. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1308. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1309. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1310. @item
  1311. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1312. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1313. description.
  1314. @end itemize
  1315. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1316. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1317. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1318. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1319. than its bullet/number.
  1320. @vindex org-list-ending-method
  1321. @vindex org-list-end-regexp
  1322. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1323. Two methods@footnote{To disable either of them, configure
  1324. @code{org-list-ending-method}.} are provided to terminate lists. A list ends
  1325. whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less or equally
  1326. indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1327. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1328. that case, all items are closed. For finer control, you can end lists with
  1329. any pattern set in @code{org-list-end-regexp}. Here is an example:
  1330. @example
  1331. @group
  1332. ** Lord of the Rings
  1333. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1334. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1335. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1336. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1337. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1338. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1339. - on DVD only
  1340. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1341. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1342. Important actors in this film are:
  1343. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1344. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1345. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1346. @end group
  1347. @end example
  1348. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1349. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1350. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1351. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1352. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1353. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1354. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1355. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1356. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1357. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1358. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1359. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1360. indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1361. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1362. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1363. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1364. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1365. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1366. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1367. to disable them individually.
  1368. @table @asis
  1369. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1370. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1371. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1372. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1373. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1374. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1375. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the
  1376. indentation of the bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real
  1377. headlines, however; the hierarchies remain completely separated.
  1378. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1379. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1380. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1381. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1382. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1383. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1384. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1385. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1386. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1387. one.
  1388. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1389. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1390. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1391. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1392. In a new item with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the item to
  1393. become a child of the previous one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to
  1394. meaningful levels in the list and eventually get it back to its initial
  1395. position.
  1396. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1397. @item S-@key{up}
  1398. @itemx S-@key{down}
  1399. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1400. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1401. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1402. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1403. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1404. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1405. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1406. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1407. similar effect.
  1408. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1409. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1410. @item M-@key{up}
  1411. @itemx M-@key{down}
  1412. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1413. @code{org-liste-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1414. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1415. is automatic.
  1416. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1417. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1418. @item M-@key{left}
  1419. @itemx M-@key{right}
  1420. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1421. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1422. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1423. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1424. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1425. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1426. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1427. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1428. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1429. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1430. motion or so.
  1431. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1432. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1433. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1434. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1435. @kindex C-c C-c
  1436. @item C-c C-c
  1437. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1438. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1439. consistency in the whole list.
  1440. @kindex C-c -
  1441. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1442. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1443. @item C-c -
  1444. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1445. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1446. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1447. and its position@footnote{See @code{bullet} rule in
  1448. @code{org-list-automatic-rules} for more information.}. With a numeric
  1449. prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an
  1450. active region when calling this, selected text will be changed into an item.
  1451. With a prefix argument, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1452. first line already was a list item, any item marker will be removed from the
  1453. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1454. converted into a list item.
  1455. @kindex C-c *
  1456. @item C-c *
  1457. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1458. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1459. @kindex C-c C-*
  1460. @item C-c C-*
  1461. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1462. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1463. (resp. checked).
  1464. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1465. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1466. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  1467. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1468. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1469. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1470. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1471. @kindex C-c ^
  1472. @item C-c ^
  1473. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1474. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1475. @end table
  1476. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1477. @section Drawers
  1478. @cindex drawers
  1479. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1480. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1481. @vindex org-drawers
  1482. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1483. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org-mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1484. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1485. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
  1486. with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}. Drawers
  1487. look like this:
  1488. @example
  1489. ** This is a headline
  1490. Still outside the drawer
  1491. :DRAWERNAME:
  1492. This is inside the drawer.
  1493. :END:
  1494. After the drawer.
  1495. @end example
  1496. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1497. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1498. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1499. press @key{TAB} there. Org-mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1500. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1501. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1502. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1503. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1504. @table @kbd
  1505. @kindex C-c C-z
  1506. @item C-c C-z
  1507. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1508. @end table
  1509. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1510. @section Blocks
  1511. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1512. @cindex blocks, folding
  1513. Org-mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1514. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1515. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1516. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1517. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1518. or on a per-file basis by using
  1519. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1520. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1521. @example
  1522. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1523. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1524. @end example
  1525. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1526. @section Footnotes
  1527. @cindex footnotes
  1528. Org-mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1529. @file{footnote.el} package, Org-mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1530. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1531. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e.@: a footnote is
  1532. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1533. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1534. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1535. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1536. @example
  1537. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1538. ...
  1539. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1540. @end example
  1541. Org-mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1542. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1543. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1544. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1545. LaTeX}). Here are the valid references:
  1546. @table @code
  1547. @item [1]
  1548. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1549. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1550. snippet.
  1551. @item [fn:name]
  1552. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1553. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1554. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1555. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1556. reference point.
  1557. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1558. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1559. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1560. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1561. @end table
  1562. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1563. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1564. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1565. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1566. for details.
  1567. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1568. @table @kbd
  1569. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1570. @item C-c C-x f
  1571. The footnote action command.
  1572. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1573. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1574. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1575. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1576. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1577. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1578. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1579. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1580. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1581. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1582. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1583. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1584. options is offered:
  1585. @example
  1586. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1587. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1588. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1589. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1590. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1591. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1592. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1593. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1594. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1595. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1596. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1597. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1598. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1599. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g.@: sending}
  1600. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1601. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1602. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1603. @r{to it.}
  1604. @end example
  1605. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1606. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1607. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1608. deletion.
  1609. @kindex C-c C-c
  1610. @item C-c C-c
  1611. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1612. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1613. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1614. @kindex C-c C-o
  1615. @kindex mouse-1
  1616. @kindex mouse-2
  1617. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1618. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1619. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1620. @end table
  1621. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1622. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1623. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1624. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1625. If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode structure editing and list
  1626. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1627. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1628. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1629. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1630. @lisp
  1631. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1632. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1633. @end lisp
  1634. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1635. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1636. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1637. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1638. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1639. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1640. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1641. item.
  1642. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1643. @chapter Tables
  1644. @cindex tables
  1645. @cindex editing tables
  1646. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1647. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1648. @ifinfo
  1649. (@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1650. @end ifinfo
  1651. @ifnotinfo
  1652. (see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
  1653. calculator).
  1654. @end ifnotinfo
  1655. @menu
  1656. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1657. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1658. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1659. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1660. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1661. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1662. @end menu
  1663. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1664. @section The built-in table editor
  1665. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1666. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1667. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1668. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1669. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1670. might look like this:
  1671. @example
  1672. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1673. |-------+-------+-----|
  1674. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1675. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1676. @end example
  1677. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1678. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1679. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1680. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1681. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1682. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1683. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1684. create the above table, you would only type
  1685. @example
  1686. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1687. |-
  1688. @end example
  1689. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1690. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1691. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1692. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1693. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1694. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1695. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1696. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1697. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1698. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1699. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1700. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1701. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1702. @table @kbd
  1703. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1704. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1705. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1706. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1707. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1708. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1709. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1710. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1711. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1712. @*
  1713. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1714. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1715. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1716. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1717. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1718. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1719. @c
  1720. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1721. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1722. necessary.
  1723. @c
  1724. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1725. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1726. @c
  1727. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1728. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1729. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1730. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1731. @c
  1732. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1733. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1734. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1735. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1736. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1737. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1738. Move the current column left/right.
  1739. @c
  1740. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1741. Kill the current column.
  1742. @c
  1743. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1744. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1745. @c
  1746. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1747. Move the current row up/down.
  1748. @c
  1749. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1750. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1751. @c
  1752. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1753. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1754. created below the current one.
  1755. @c
  1756. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1757. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1758. is created above the current line.
  1759. @c
  1760. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1761. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1762. below that line.
  1763. @c
  1764. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1765. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1766. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1767. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1768. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1769. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1770. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1771. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1772. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1773. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1774. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1775. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1776. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1777. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1778. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1779. @c
  1780. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1781. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1782. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1783. @c
  1784. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1785. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1786. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1787. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1788. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1789. lines.
  1790. @c
  1791. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1792. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1793. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1794. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1795. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1796. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1797. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1798. above.
  1799. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1800. @cindex formula, in tables
  1801. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1802. @cindex region, active
  1803. @cindex active region
  1804. @cindex transient mark mode
  1805. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1806. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1807. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1808. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1809. @c
  1810. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1811. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1812. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1813. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1814. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1815. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1816. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1817. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1818. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1819. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1820. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1821. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1822. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1823. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1824. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1825. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1826. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1827. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1828. @c
  1829. @item M-x org-table-import
  1830. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1831. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1832. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1833. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1834. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1835. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1836. separator.
  1837. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1838. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1839. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1840. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1841. @c
  1842. @item M-x org-table-export
  1843. @findex org-table-export
  1844. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1845. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1846. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1847. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1848. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1849. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1850. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1851. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1852. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1853. detailed description.
  1854. @end table
  1855. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1856. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1857. it off with
  1858. @lisp
  1859. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1860. @end lisp
  1861. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1862. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1863. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1864. @section Column width and alignment
  1865. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1866. @cindex alignment in tables
  1867. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1868. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1869. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1870. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1871. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1872. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1873. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1874. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1875. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1876. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1877. @example
  1878. @group
  1879. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1880. | | | | | <6> |
  1881. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1882. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1883. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1884. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1885. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1886. @end group
  1887. @end example
  1888. @noindent
  1889. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1890. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1891. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1892. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1893. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1894. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1895. C-c}.
  1896. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1897. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1898. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1899. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1900. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1901. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1902. on a per-file basis with:
  1903. @example
  1904. #+STARTUP: align
  1905. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1906. @end example
  1907. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1908. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  1909. @samp{c}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1910. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  1911. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1912. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1913. automatically when exporting the document.
  1914. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1915. @section Column groups
  1916. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1917. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1918. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1919. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1920. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1921. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1922. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1923. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1924. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} to make a column
  1925. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1926. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1927. @example
  1928. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1929. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1930. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1931. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1932. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1933. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1934. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1935. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1936. @end example
  1937. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1938. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1939. @example
  1940. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1941. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1942. | / | < | | | < | |
  1943. @end example
  1944. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  1945. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  1946. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1947. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1948. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  1949. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  1950. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  1951. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1952. example in Message mode, use
  1953. @lisp
  1954. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1955. @end lisp
  1956. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  1957. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  1958. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  1959. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  1960. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  1961. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  1962. @section The spreadsheet
  1963. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1964. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  1965. @cindex @file{calc} package
  1966. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  1967. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  1968. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  1969. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  1970. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  1971. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  1972. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  1973. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  1974. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  1975. @menu
  1976. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  1977. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  1978. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  1979. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  1980. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  1981. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  1982. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  1983. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  1984. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  1985. @end menu
  1986. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  1987. @subsection References
  1988. @cindex references
  1989. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  1990. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  1991. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  1992. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  1993. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  1994. @subsubheading Field references
  1995. @cindex field references
  1996. @cindex references, to fields
  1997. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  1998. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  1999. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2000. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2001. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2002. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2003. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  2004. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2005. representation that looks like this:
  2006. @example
  2007. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2008. @end example
  2009. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2010. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e.@: the
  2011. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2012. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2013. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2014. column from the right.
  2015. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2016. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2017. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2018. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2019. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2020. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2021. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2022. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2023. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2024. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2025. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc@. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2026. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2027. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2028. after the third hline in the table.
  2029. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2030. i.e. to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2031. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2032. implied.
  2033. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2034. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2035. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2036. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2037. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2038. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2039. Here are a few examples:
  2040. @example
  2041. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2042. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2043. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2044. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2045. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2046. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2047. @end example
  2048. @subsubheading Range references
  2049. @cindex range references
  2050. @cindex references, to ranges
  2051. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2052. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2053. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2054. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2055. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2056. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2057. @example
  2058. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2059. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2060. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2061. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2062. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2063. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2064. @end example
  2065. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2066. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2067. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2068. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2069. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2070. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2071. @cindex field coordinates
  2072. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2073. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2074. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2075. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2076. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2077. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2078. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2079. @example
  2080. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2081. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2082. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2083. @end example
  2084. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2085. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2086. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2087. number of rows.
  2088. @subsubheading Named references
  2089. @cindex named references
  2090. @cindex references, named
  2091. @cindex name, of column or field
  2092. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2093. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2094. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2095. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2096. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2097. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2098. line like
  2099. @example
  2100. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2101. @end example
  2102. @noindent
  2103. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2104. @pindex constants.el
  2105. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2106. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2107. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2108. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2109. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2110. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2111. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2112. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2113. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2114. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2115. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2116. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2117. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2118. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2119. numbers.
  2120. @subsubheading Remote references
  2121. @cindex remote references
  2122. @cindex references, remote
  2123. @cindex references, to a different table
  2124. @cindex name, of column or field
  2125. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2126. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2127. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2128. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2129. @example
  2130. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2131. @end example
  2132. @noindent
  2133. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2134. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2135. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2136. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2137. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2138. referenced table.
  2139. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2140. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2141. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2142. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2143. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2144. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2145. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2146. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2147. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2148. Your Programs,calc-eval,Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs,Calc,GNU
  2149. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2150. @c FIXME: The link to the Calc manual in HTML does not work.
  2151. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2152. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2153. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2154. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2155. @cindex format specifier
  2156. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2157. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2158. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2159. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2160. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2161. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2162. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2163. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2164. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2165. @example
  2166. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2167. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2168. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2169. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2170. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2171. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2172. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2173. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  2174. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  2175. L @r{literal}
  2176. @end example
  2177. @noindent
  2178. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2179. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2180. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2181. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2182. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2183. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2184. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2185. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2186. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2187. A few examples:
  2188. @example
  2189. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2190. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2191. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2192. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2193. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2194. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2195. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2196. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2197. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  2198. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2199. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2200. @end example
  2201. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2202. @example
  2203. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{"teen" if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  2204. @end example
  2205. Note that you can also use two org-specific flags @code{T} and @code{t} for
  2206. durations computations @ref{Durations and time values}.
  2207. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2208. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2209. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2210. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful for
  2211. string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is not
  2212. enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening
  2213. parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should
  2214. return either a string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you
  2215. can specify modes and a printf format after a semicolon. With Emacs Lisp
  2216. forms, you need to be conscious about the way field references are
  2217. interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be interpolated as
  2218. a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If you provide the
  2219. @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers (non-number
  2220. fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If
  2221. you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally,
  2222. without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string
  2223. by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes,
  2224. like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  2225. embed them in list or vector syntax. Here are a few examples---note how the
  2226. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp:
  2227. @example
  2228. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2229. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2230. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2231. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2232. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2233. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2234. @end example
  2235. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2236. @subsection Durations and time values
  2237. @cindex Duration, computing
  2238. @cindex Time, computing
  2239. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2240. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2241. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2242. @example
  2243. @group
  2244. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2245. |---------+----------+----------|
  2246. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2247. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2248. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2249. @end group
  2250. @end example
  2251. Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2252. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2253. as @code{[HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2254. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the variable
  2255. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2256. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2257. example above).
  2258. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2259. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2260. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2261. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2262. @cindex field formula
  2263. @cindex range formula
  2264. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2265. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2266. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2267. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2268. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2269. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2270. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2271. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2272. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2273. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2274. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2275. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2276. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2277. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2278. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2279. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2280. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2281. of cause not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2282. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2283. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2284. command
  2285. @table @kbd
  2286. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2287. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2288. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2289. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2290. @end table
  2291. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2292. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2293. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2294. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2295. directly.
  2296. @table @code
  2297. @item $2=
  2298. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2299. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2300. @item @@3=
  2301. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2302. the last row.
  2303. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2304. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2305. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2306. @item $name=
  2307. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2308. @end table
  2309. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2310. @subsection Column formulas
  2311. @cindex column formula
  2312. @cindex formula, for table column
  2313. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2314. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2315. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2316. hlines, everything before the first such line is considered part of the table
  2317. @emph{header} and will not be modified by column formulas. (ii) Fields that
  2318. already get a value from a field/range formula will be left alone by column
  2319. formulas. These conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2320. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2321. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2322. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2323. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2324. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2325. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2326. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2327. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2328. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2329. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2330. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2331. following command:
  2332. @table @kbd
  2333. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2334. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2335. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2336. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2337. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g.@: @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2338. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2339. @end table
  2340. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2341. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2342. @cindex formula editing
  2343. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2344. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2345. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2346. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2347. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2348. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2349. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2350. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2351. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2352. @table @kbd
  2353. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2354. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2355. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2356. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2357. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2358. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2359. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2360. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2361. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2362. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2363. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2364. @kindex C-c @}
  2365. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2366. @item C-c @}
  2367. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2368. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2369. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2370. @kindex C-c @{
  2371. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2372. @item C-c @{
  2373. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2374. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2375. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2376. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2377. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2378. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2379. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2380. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2381. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2382. @table @kbd
  2383. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2384. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2385. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2386. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2387. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2388. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2389. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2390. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2391. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2392. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2393. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2394. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2395. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2396. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2397. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2398. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2399. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2400. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2401. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2402. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2403. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2404. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2405. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2406. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2407. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2408. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2409. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2410. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2411. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2412. down.
  2413. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2414. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2415. @kindex C-c @}
  2416. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2417. @item C-c @}
  2418. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2419. @end table
  2420. @end table
  2421. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2422. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2423. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2424. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2425. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2426. @kindex C-c C-c
  2427. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2428. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2429. recalculation commands in the table.
  2430. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2431. @cindex formula debugging
  2432. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2433. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2434. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2435. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2436. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2437. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2438. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2439. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2440. @subsection Updating the table
  2441. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2442. @cindex updating, table
  2443. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2444. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2445. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2446. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2447. following commands:
  2448. @table @kbd
  2449. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2450. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2451. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2452. @c
  2453. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2454. @item C-u C-c *
  2455. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2456. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2457. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2458. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2459. @c
  2460. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2461. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2462. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2463. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2464. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2465. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2466. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2467. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2468. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2469. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2470. dependencies.
  2471. @end table
  2472. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2473. @subsection Advanced features
  2474. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2475. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2476. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2477. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2478. special marking characters.
  2479. @table @kbd
  2480. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2481. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2482. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2483. change all marks in the region.
  2484. @end table
  2485. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2486. makes use of these features:
  2487. @example
  2488. @group
  2489. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2490. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2491. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2492. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2493. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2494. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2495. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2496. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2497. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2498. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2499. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2500. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2501. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2502. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2503. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2504. @end group
  2505. @end example
  2506. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2507. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2508. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2509. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2510. empty first field.
  2511. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2512. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2513. @table @samp
  2514. @item !
  2515. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2516. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2517. @item ^
  2518. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2519. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2520. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2521. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2522. @item _
  2523. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2524. @emph{below}.
  2525. @item $
  2526. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2527. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2528. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2529. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2530. a per-table basis.
  2531. @item #
  2532. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2533. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2534. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2535. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2536. @item *
  2537. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2538. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2539. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2540. @item
  2541. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2542. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2543. or @samp{*}.
  2544. @item /
  2545. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2546. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2547. @end table
  2548. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2549. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2550. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2551. functions.
  2552. @example
  2553. @group
  2554. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2555. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2556. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2557. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2558. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2559. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2560. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2561. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2562. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2563. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2564. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2565. @end group
  2566. @end example
  2567. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2568. @section Org-Plot
  2569. @cindex graph, in tables
  2570. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2571. @cindex #+PLOT
  2572. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2573. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2574. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2575. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2576. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2577. @example
  2578. @group
  2579. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2580. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2581. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2582. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2583. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2584. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2585. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2586. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2587. @end group
  2588. @end example
  2589. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2590. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2591. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2592. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2593. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2594. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2595. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2596. @table @code
  2597. @item set
  2598. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2599. @item title
  2600. Specify the title of the plot.
  2601. @item ind
  2602. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2603. @item deps
  2604. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2605. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2606. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2607. column).
  2608. @item type
  2609. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2610. @item with
  2611. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2612. (e.g.@: @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2613. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2614. @item file
  2615. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2616. @item labels
  2617. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2618. if they exist).
  2619. @item line
  2620. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2621. @item map
  2622. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2623. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2624. @item timefmt
  2625. Specify format of Org-mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2626. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2627. @item script
  2628. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2629. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2630. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2631. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2632. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2633. the data file.
  2634. @end table
  2635. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2636. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2637. @cindex hyperlinks
  2638. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2639. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2640. @menu
  2641. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2642. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2643. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2644. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2645. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2646. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2647. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2648. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2649. @end menu
  2650. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2651. @section Link format
  2652. @cindex link format
  2653. @cindex format, of links
  2654. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2655. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2656. @example
  2657. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2658. @end example
  2659. @noindent
  2660. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2661. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2662. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2663. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2664. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2665. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2666. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2667. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2668. cursor on the link.
  2669. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2670. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2671. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2672. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2673. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2674. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2675. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2676. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2677. @section Internal links
  2678. @cindex internal links
  2679. @cindex links, internal
  2680. @cindex targets, for links
  2681. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2682. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2683. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2684. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2685. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2686. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2687. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2688. in a file.
  2689. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2690. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2691. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2692. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2693. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2694. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2695. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2696. comment line. For example
  2697. @example
  2698. # <<My Target>>
  2699. @end example
  2700. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2701. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2702. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2703. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2704. first headline.}.
  2705. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2706. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2707. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2708. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2709. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2710. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2711. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2712. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2713. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2714. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2715. earlier.
  2716. @menu
  2717. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2718. @end menu
  2719. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2720. @subsection Radio targets
  2721. @cindex radio targets
  2722. @cindex targets, radio
  2723. @cindex links, radio targets
  2724. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2725. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2726. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2727. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2728. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2729. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2730. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2731. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2732. cursor on or at a target.
  2733. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2734. @section External links
  2735. @cindex links, external
  2736. @cindex external links
  2737. @cindex links, external
  2738. @cindex Gnus links
  2739. @cindex BBDB links
  2740. @cindex IRC links
  2741. @cindex URL links
  2742. @cindex file links
  2743. @cindex VM links
  2744. @cindex RMAIL links
  2745. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2746. @cindex MH-E links
  2747. @cindex USENET links
  2748. @cindex SHELL links
  2749. @cindex Info links
  2750. @cindex Elisp links
  2751. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2752. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2753. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2754. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2755. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2756. @example
  2757. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2758. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2759. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2760. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2761. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2762. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2763. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2764. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2765. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file with line number to jump to}
  2766. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2767. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  2768. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  2769. the variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  2770. is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  2771. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  2772. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  2773. will be queried to create it.}
  2774. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2775. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open file in doc-view mode at page NNN}
  2776. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2777. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2778. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2779. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2780. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2781. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2782. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2783. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2784. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2785. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2786. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2787. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2788. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2789. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2790. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2791. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2792. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  2793. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2794. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2795. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2796. @end example
  2797. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2798. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2799. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2800. format}), for example:
  2801. @example
  2802. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2803. @end example
  2804. @noindent
  2805. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2806. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2807. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2808. image,
  2809. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2810. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2811. @cindex plain text external links
  2812. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2813. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2814. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2815. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2816. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2817. @section Handling links
  2818. @cindex links, handling
  2819. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2820. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2821. @table @kbd
  2822. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2823. @cindex storing links
  2824. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2825. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2826. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2827. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2828. buffer:
  2829. @b{Org-mode buffers}@*
  2830. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2831. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2832. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  2833. removed from the link and result in a wrong link -- you should avoid putting
  2834. timestamp in the headline.}.
  2835. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2836. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2837. @cindex property, ID
  2838. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2839. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2840. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2841. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2842. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2843. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2844. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2845. to use.
  2846. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2847. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2848. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2849. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2850. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2851. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2852. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2853. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2854. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2855. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2856. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2857. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2858. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2859. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2860. @b{Other files}@*
  2861. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2862. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2863. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2864. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2865. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2866. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2867. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2868. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2869. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2870. entry referenced by the current line.
  2871. @c
  2872. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  2873. @cindex link completion
  2874. @cindex completion, of links
  2875. @cindex inserting links
  2876. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2877. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2878. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2879. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2880. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2881. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2882. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2883. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2884. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2885. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2886. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2887. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2888. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2889. becomes the default description.
  2890. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2891. All links stored during the
  2892. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2893. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2894. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2895. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2896. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2897. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2898. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2899. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2900. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2901. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2902. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2903. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  2904. @cindex file name completion
  2905. @cindex completion, of file names
  2906. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2907. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2908. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2909. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2910. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2911. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2912. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2913. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2914. @c
  2915. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2916. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2917. link and description parts of the link.
  2918. @c
  2919. @cindex following links
  2920. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  2921. @vindex org-file-apps
  2922. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  2923. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2924. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2925. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2926. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2927. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2928. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2929. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2930. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2931. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  2932. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  2933. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  2934. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  2935. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  2936. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  2937. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  2938. @orgkey @key{RET}
  2939. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  2940. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  2941. the link at point.
  2942. @c
  2943. @kindex mouse-2
  2944. @kindex mouse-1
  2945. @item mouse-2
  2946. @itemx mouse-1
  2947. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  2948. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  2949. @c
  2950. @kindex mouse-3
  2951. @item mouse-3
  2952. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  2953. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  2954. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  2955. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  2956. @c
  2957. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  2958. @cindex inlining images
  2959. @cindex images, inlining
  2960. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  2961. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2962. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2963. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  2964. images that have no description part in the link, i.e.@: images that will also
  2965. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  2966. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  2967. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  2968. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  2969. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  2970. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  2971. @cindex mark ring
  2972. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  2973. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  2974. @c
  2975. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  2976. @cindex links, returning to
  2977. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  2978. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  2979. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  2980. previously recorded positions.
  2981. @c
  2982. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  2983. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  2984. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  2985. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  2986. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  2987. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  2988. @lisp
  2989. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  2990. (lambda ()
  2991. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  2992. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  2993. @end lisp
  2994. @end table
  2995. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  2996. @section Using links outside Org
  2997. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  2998. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  2999. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3000. yourself):
  3001. @lisp
  3002. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3003. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3004. @end lisp
  3005. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  3006. @section Link abbreviations
  3007. @cindex link abbreviations
  3008. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3009. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3010. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3011. abbreviated link looks like this
  3012. @example
  3013. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3014. @end example
  3015. @noindent
  3016. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3017. where the tag is optional.
  3018. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3019. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3020. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3021. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3022. @smalllisp
  3023. @group
  3024. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3025. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3026. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3027. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3028. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3029. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3030. @end group
  3031. @end smalllisp
  3032. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3033. replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
  3034. in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will
  3035. be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3036. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3037. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3038. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3039. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3040. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3041. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3042. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3043. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3044. can define them in the file with
  3045. @cindex #+LINK
  3046. @example
  3047. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3048. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3049. @end example
  3050. @noindent
  3051. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3052. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3053. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g.@: completion)
  3054. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3055. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3056. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3057. @section Search options in file links
  3058. @cindex search option in file links
  3059. @cindex file links, searching
  3060. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3061. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3062. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3063. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3064. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3065. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3066. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3067. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3068. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3069. link, together with an explanation:
  3070. @example
  3071. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3072. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3073. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3074. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3075. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3076. @end example
  3077. @table @code
  3078. @item 255
  3079. Jump to line 255.
  3080. @item My Target
  3081. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3082. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3083. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3084. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3085. the linked file.
  3086. @item *My Target
  3087. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3088. @item #my-custom-id
  3089. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3090. @item /regexp/
  3091. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3092. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3093. target file is in Org-mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3094. sparse tree with the matches.
  3095. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3096. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3097. @end table
  3098. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3099. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3100. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3101. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3102. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3103. @section Custom Searches
  3104. @cindex custom search strings
  3105. @cindex search strings, custom
  3106. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3107. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3108. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3109. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3110. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3111. citation key.
  3112. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3113. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3114. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3115. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3116. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3117. to be added to the hook variables
  3118. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3119. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3120. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3121. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3122. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3123. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3124. @chapter TODO items
  3125. @cindex TODO items
  3126. Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3127. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3128. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3129. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3130. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3131. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3132. item emerged is always present.
  3133. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3134. throughout your notes file. Org-mode compensates for this by providing
  3135. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3136. @menu
  3137. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3138. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3139. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3140. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3141. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3142. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3143. @end menu
  3144. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3145. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3146. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3147. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3148. @example
  3149. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3150. @end example
  3151. @noindent
  3152. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3153. @table @kbd
  3154. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3155. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3156. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3157. @example
  3158. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3159. '--------------------------------'
  3160. @end example
  3161. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3162. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3163. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3164. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  3165. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  3166. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  3167. more information.
  3168. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3169. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3170. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3171. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3172. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3173. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3174. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3175. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3176. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3177. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-key}
  3178. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3179. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3180. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3181. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3182. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3183. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3184. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3185. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3186. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3187. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3188. both un-done and done.
  3189. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3190. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3191. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3192. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3193. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3194. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3195. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3196. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3197. @end table
  3198. @noindent
  3199. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3200. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3201. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3202. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3203. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3204. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3205. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3206. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3207. DONE. Org-mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3208. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3209. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3210. files.
  3211. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3212. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3213. @menu
  3214. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3215. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3216. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3217. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3218. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3219. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3220. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3221. @end menu
  3222. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3223. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3224. @cindex TODO workflow
  3225. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3226. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3227. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3228. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org-mode in a
  3229. buffer.}:
  3230. @lisp
  3231. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3232. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3233. @end lisp
  3234. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3235. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3236. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3237. state.
  3238. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3239. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3240. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  3241. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3242. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  3243. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3244. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3245. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3246. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3247. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3248. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3249. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3250. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3251. @cindex TODO types
  3252. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3253. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3254. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3255. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3256. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3257. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3258. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3259. be set up like this:
  3260. @lisp
  3261. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3262. @end lisp
  3263. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3264. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3265. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org-mode supports this style by adapting
  3266. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3267. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3268. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3269. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3270. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3271. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3272. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3273. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3274. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3275. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3276. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3277. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3278. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3279. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3280. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3281. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3282. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3283. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3284. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3285. like this:
  3286. @lisp
  3287. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3288. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3289. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3290. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3291. @end lisp
  3292. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org-mode to keep track
  3293. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3294. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3295. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3296. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3297. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3298. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3299. @table @kbd
  3300. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3301. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3302. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3303. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3304. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3305. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3306. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3307. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3308. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3309. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3310. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3311. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3312. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3313. @item S-@key{right}
  3314. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3315. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3316. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3317. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3318. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3319. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3320. @end table
  3321. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3322. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3323. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3324. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3325. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section
  3326. key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3327. @lisp
  3328. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3329. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3330. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3331. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3332. @end lisp
  3333. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3334. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3335. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3336. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3337. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3338. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3339. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3340. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3341. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3342. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3343. @cindex keyword options
  3344. @cindex per-file keywords
  3345. @cindex #+TODO
  3346. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3347. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3348. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3349. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3350. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3351. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3352. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3353. file:
  3354. @example
  3355. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3356. @end example
  3357. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3358. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3359. @example
  3360. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3361. @end example
  3362. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3363. @example
  3364. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3365. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3366. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3367. @end example
  3368. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3369. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3370. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3371. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3372. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3373. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3374. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3375. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3376. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3377. known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode parses these lines only when
  3378. Org-mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3379. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org-mode
  3380. for the current buffer.}.
  3381. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3382. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3383. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3384. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3385. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3386. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3387. Org-mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3388. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3389. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3390. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3391. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3392. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3393. @lisp
  3394. @group
  3395. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3396. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3397. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3398. @end group
  3399. @end lisp
  3400. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3401. work, this does not aways seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3402. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3403. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3404. foreground or a background color.
  3405. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3406. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3407. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3408. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3409. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3410. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3411. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3412. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3413. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3414. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3415. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3416. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3417. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3418. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3419. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3420. example:
  3421. @example
  3422. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3423. ** DONE one
  3424. ** TODO two
  3425. * Parent
  3426. :PROPERTIES:
  3427. :ORDERED: t
  3428. :END:
  3429. ** TODO a
  3430. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3431. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3432. @end example
  3433. @table @kbd
  3434. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3435. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3436. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3437. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3438. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3439. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3440. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3441. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3442. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3443. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3444. @end table
  3445. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3446. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3447. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3448. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3449. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3450. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3451. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3452. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3453. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3454. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3455. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3456. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3457. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3458. @page
  3459. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3460. @section Progress logging
  3461. @cindex progress logging
  3462. @cindex logging, of progress
  3463. Org-mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3464. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3465. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3466. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3467. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3468. work time}.
  3469. @menu
  3470. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3471. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3472. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3473. @end menu
  3474. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3475. @subsection Closing items
  3476. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3477. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3478. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3479. @lisp
  3480. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3481. @end lisp
  3482. @noindent
  3483. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3484. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3485. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3486. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3487. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3488. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3489. @lisp
  3490. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3491. @end lisp
  3492. @noindent
  3493. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3494. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3495. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3496. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3497. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3498. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3499. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3500. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3501. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3502. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3503. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3504. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3505. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3506. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3507. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3508. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3509. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3510. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3511. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3512. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this
  3513. behavior---the recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}. You can
  3514. also overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3515. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3516. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org-mode
  3517. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3518. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) and @samp{@@} (for a note)
  3519. in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the setting
  3520. @lisp
  3521. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3522. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3523. @end lisp
  3524. @noindent
  3525. @vindex org-log-done
  3526. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3527. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3528. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org-mode will record two timestamps
  3529. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3530. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3531. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3532. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3533. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3534. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3535. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3536. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3537. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3538. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3539. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3540. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3541. configured.
  3542. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3543. to a buffer:
  3544. @example
  3545. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3546. @end example
  3547. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3548. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3549. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3550. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3551. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3552. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3553. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3554. @example
  3555. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3556. :PROPERTIES:
  3557. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3558. :END:
  3559. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3560. :PROPERTIES:
  3561. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3562. :END:
  3563. * TODO No logging at all
  3564. :PROPERTIES:
  3565. :LOGGING: nil
  3566. :END:
  3567. @end example
  3568. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3569. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3570. @cindex habits
  3571. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3572. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3573. @enumerate
  3574. @item
  3575. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3576. @code{org-modules}.
  3577. @item
  3578. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3579. @item
  3580. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3581. @item
  3582. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3583. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3584. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3585. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3586. @item
  3587. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3588. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3589. three days, but at most every two days.
  3590. @item
  3591. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3592. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it is not
  3593. enabled it is not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3594. meaningless.
  3595. @end enumerate
  3596. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3597. actual habit with some history:
  3598. @example
  3599. ** TODO Shave
  3600. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3601. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3602. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3603. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3604. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3605. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3606. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3607. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3608. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3609. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3610. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3611. :PROPERTIES:
  3612. :STYLE: habit
  3613. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3614. :END:
  3615. @end example
  3616. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3617. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3618. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3619. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3620. after four days have elapsed.
  3621. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3622. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3623. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3624. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3625. @table @code
  3626. @item Blue
  3627. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3628. @item Green
  3629. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3630. @item Yellow
  3631. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3632. @item Red
  3633. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3634. @end table
  3635. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3636. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3637. the current day falls in the graph.
  3638. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3639. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3640. @table @code
  3641. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3642. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3643. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3644. titles brief and to the point.
  3645. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3646. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3647. @item org-habit-following-days
  3648. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3649. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3650. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3651. default.
  3652. @end table
  3653. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3654. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3655. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3656. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3657. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3658. @section Priorities
  3659. @cindex priorities
  3660. If you use Org-mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3661. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3662. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3663. @example
  3664. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3665. @end example
  3666. @noindent
  3667. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3668. By default, Org-mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3669. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3670. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3671. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3672. have no inherent meaning to Org-mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3673. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3674. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3675. items.
  3676. @table @kbd
  3677. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3678. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3679. @findex org-priority
  3680. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3681. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3682. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3683. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3684. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3685. @c
  3686. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3687. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3688. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3689. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3690. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3691. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3692. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3693. @end table
  3694. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3695. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3696. @vindex org-default-priority
  3697. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3698. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3699. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3700. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3701. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3702. priority):
  3703. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3704. @example
  3705. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3706. @end example
  3707. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3708. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3709. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3710. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3711. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3712. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3713. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3714. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3715. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3716. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3717. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3718. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3719. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3720. @example
  3721. * Organize Party [33%]
  3722. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3723. *** TODO Peter
  3724. *** DONE Sarah
  3725. ** TODO Buy food
  3726. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3727. @end example
  3728. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3729. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3730. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3731. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3732. this issue.
  3733. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3734. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3735. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3736. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3737. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3738. property.
  3739. @example
  3740. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3741. :PROPERTIES:
  3742. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3743. :END:
  3744. @end example
  3745. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3746. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3747. @example
  3748. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3749. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3750. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3751. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3752. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3753. @end example
  3754. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3755. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3756. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3757. @section Checkboxes
  3758. @cindex checkboxes
  3759. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3760. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3761. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3762. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3763. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3764. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3765. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3766. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3767. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3768. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3769. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3770. @example
  3771. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3772. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3773. - [ ] Peter
  3774. - [X] Sarah
  3775. - [ ] Sam
  3776. - [X] order food
  3777. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3778. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3779. @end example
  3780. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3781. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3782. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3783. checked.
  3784. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3785. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3786. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3787. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3788. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3789. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3790. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3791. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3792. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3793. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3794. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3795. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3796. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3797. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3798. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3799. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3800. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3801. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3802. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3803. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3804. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3805. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3806. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3807. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3808. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3809. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3810. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3811. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3812. @table @kbd
  3813. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3814. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3815. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3816. intermediate state.
  3817. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3818. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3819. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3820. intermediate state.
  3821. @itemize @minus
  3822. @item
  3823. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3824. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3825. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3826. @item
  3827. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3828. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3829. @item
  3830. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3831. @end itemize
  3832. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3833. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  3834. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3835. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3836. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3837. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3838. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3839. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3840. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3841. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3842. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3843. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3844. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  3845. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3846. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3847. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3848. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3849. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3850. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  3851. @end table
  3852. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3853. @chapter Tags
  3854. @cindex tags
  3855. @cindex headline tagging
  3856. @cindex matching, tags
  3857. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3858. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3859. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org-mode has extensive
  3860. support for tags.
  3861. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3862. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3863. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3864. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3865. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3866. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3867. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3868. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3869. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3870. @menu
  3871. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3872. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3873. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3874. @end menu
  3875. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3876. @section Tag inheritance
  3877. @cindex tag inheritance
  3878. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3879. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3880. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3881. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3882. well. For example, in the list
  3883. @example
  3884. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3885. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3886. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3887. @end example
  3888. @noindent
  3889. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3890. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3891. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3892. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3893. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3894. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3895. changes in the line.}:
  3896. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3897. @example
  3898. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3899. @end example
  3900. @noindent
  3901. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3902. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3903. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  3904. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  3905. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3906. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3907. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3908. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3909. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3910. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3911. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3912. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3913. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  3914. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  3915. @section Setting tags
  3916. @cindex setting tags
  3917. @cindex tags, setting
  3918. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3919. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  3920. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  3921. also a special command for inserting tags:
  3922. @table @kbd
  3923. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  3924. @cindex completion, of tags
  3925. @vindex org-tags-column
  3926. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org-mode will either offer
  3927. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  3928. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  3929. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  3930. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  3931. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  3932. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  3933. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  3934. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  3935. @end table
  3936. @vindex org-tag-alist
  3937. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  3938. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  3939. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  3940. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  3941. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  3942. @cindex #+TAGS
  3943. @example
  3944. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  3945. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  3946. @end example
  3947. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  3948. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  3949. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  3950. @example
  3951. #+TAGS:
  3952. @end example
  3953. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  3954. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  3955. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  3956. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  3957. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  3958. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  3959. @example
  3960. #+STARTUP: noptag
  3961. @end example
  3962. By default Org-mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  3963. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  3964. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  3965. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  3966. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  3967. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  3968. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  3969. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  3970. like:
  3971. @lisp
  3972. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  3973. @end lisp
  3974. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  3975. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  3976. @example
  3977. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  3978. @end example
  3979. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  3980. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  3981. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  3982. @example
  3983. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  3984. @end example
  3985. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  3986. @example
  3987. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  3988. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  3989. @end example
  3990. @noindent
  3991. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  3992. braces, as in:
  3993. @example
  3994. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  3995. @end example
  3996. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  3997. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  3998. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  3999. these lines to activate any changes.
  4000. @noindent
  4001. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  4002. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4003. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4004. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4005. configuration:
  4006. @lisp
  4007. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4008. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4009. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4010. (:endgroup . nil)
  4011. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4012. @end lisp
  4013. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4014. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4015. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4016. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4017. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4018. keys:
  4019. @table @kbd
  4020. @item a-z...
  4021. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4022. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4023. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4024. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4025. @item @key{TAB}
  4026. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4027. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4028. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4029. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4030. @item @key{SPC}
  4031. Clear all tags for this line.
  4032. @kindex @key{RET}
  4033. @item @key{RET}
  4034. Accept the modified set.
  4035. @item C-g
  4036. Abort without installing changes.
  4037. @item q
  4038. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4039. @item !
  4040. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4041. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4042. @item C-c
  4043. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4044. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4045. selection window.
  4046. @end table
  4047. @noindent
  4048. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4049. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4050. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4051. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4052. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4053. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4054. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4055. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4056. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4057. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4058. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  4059. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  4060. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  4061. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  4062. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  4063. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  4064. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  4065. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  4066. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4067. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4068. @section Tag searches
  4069. @cindex tag searches
  4070. @cindex searching for tags
  4071. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4072. information into special lists.
  4073. @table @kbd
  4074. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4075. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4076. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4077. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4078. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4079. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4080. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4081. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4082. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4083. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4084. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4085. @end table
  4086. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4087. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4088. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4089. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4090. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4091. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4092. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4093. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4094. @chapter Properties and columns
  4095. @cindex properties
  4096. Properties are a set of key-value pairs associated with an entry. There
  4097. are two main applications for properties in Org-mode. First, properties
  4098. are like tags, but with a value. Second, you can use properties to
  4099. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. For
  4100. an example of the first application, imagine maintaining a file where
  4101. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4102. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, one can use a
  4103. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4104. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. For an example of the second
  4105. application of properties, imagine keeping track of your music CDs,
  4106. where properties could be things such as the album, artist, date of
  4107. release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4108. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4109. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4110. @menu
  4111. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4112. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  4113. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4114. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4115. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4116. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4117. @end menu
  4118. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4119. @section Property syntax
  4120. @cindex property syntax
  4121. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4122. Properties are key-value pairs. They need to be inserted into a special
  4123. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4124. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4125. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4126. @example
  4127. * CD collection
  4128. ** Classic
  4129. *** Goldberg Variations
  4130. :PROPERTIES:
  4131. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4132. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4133. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4134. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4135. :NDisks: 1
  4136. :END:
  4137. @end example
  4138. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4139. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4140. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4141. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4142. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4143. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4144. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4145. @example
  4146. * CD collection
  4147. :PROPERTIES:
  4148. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4149. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4150. :END:
  4151. @end example
  4152. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4153. file, use a line like
  4154. @cindex property, _ALL
  4155. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4156. @example
  4157. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4158. @end example
  4159. @vindex org-global-properties
  4160. Property values set with the global variable
  4161. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4162. Org files.
  4163. @noindent
  4164. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4165. @table @kbd
  4166. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4167. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4168. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4169. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4170. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4171. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4172. @item M-x org-insert-property-drawer
  4173. @findex org-insert-property-drawer
  4174. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4175. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4176. information like deadlines.
  4177. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4178. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4179. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4180. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4181. can be inserted using completion.
  4182. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4183. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4184. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4185. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4186. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4187. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4188. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4189. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4190. nearest column format definition.
  4191. @end table
  4192. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4193. @section Special properties
  4194. @cindex properties, special
  4195. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org-mode features,
  4196. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4197. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4198. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4199. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4200. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4201. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4202. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4203. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4204. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4205. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4206. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4207. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4208. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4209. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4210. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4211. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4212. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4213. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4214. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4215. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4216. @example
  4217. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4218. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4219. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4220. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4221. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4222. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4223. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4224. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4225. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4226. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4227. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4228. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4229. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4230. ITEM @r{The content of the entry.}
  4231. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4232. @end example
  4233. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4234. @section Property searches
  4235. @cindex properties, searching
  4236. @cindex searching, of properties
  4237. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4238. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4239. @table @kbd
  4240. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4241. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4242. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4243. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4244. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4245. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4246. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4247. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4248. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4249. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4250. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4251. @end table
  4252. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4253. properties}.
  4254. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4255. single property:
  4256. @table @kbd
  4257. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4258. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4259. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4260. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4261. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4262. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4263. @end table
  4264. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4265. @section Property Inheritance
  4266. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4267. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4268. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4269. The outline structure of Org-mode documents lends itself to an
  4270. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4271. property, the children can inherit this property. Org-mode does not
  4272. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4273. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4274. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4275. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4276. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4277. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4278. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4279. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4280. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4281. Org-mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4282. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4283. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4284. @table @code
  4285. @item COLUMNS
  4286. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4287. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4288. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4289. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4290. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4291. @item CATEGORY
  4292. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4293. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4294. applies to the entire subtree.
  4295. @item ARCHIVE
  4296. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4297. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4298. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4299. @item LOGGING
  4300. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4301. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4302. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4303. @end table
  4304. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4305. @section Column view
  4306. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4307. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4308. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4309. entries. Org-mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4310. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4311. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4312. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4313. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4314. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4315. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4316. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4317. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4318. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4319. @menu
  4320. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4321. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4322. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4323. @end menu
  4324. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4325. @subsection Defining columns
  4326. @cindex column view, for properties
  4327. @cindex properties, column view
  4328. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4329. done by defining a column format line.
  4330. @menu
  4331. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4332. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4333. @end menu
  4334. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4335. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4336. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4337. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4338. @example
  4339. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4340. @end example
  4341. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4342. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4343. @example
  4344. ** Top node for columns view
  4345. :PROPERTIES:
  4346. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4347. :END:
  4348. @end example
  4349. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4350. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4351. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4352. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4353. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4354. deeper part of the tree.
  4355. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4356. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4357. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4358. definition looks like this:
  4359. @example
  4360. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4361. @end example
  4362. @noindent
  4363. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4364. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4365. @example
  4366. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4367. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4368. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4369. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4370. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4371. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4372. @r{name is used.}
  4373. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4374. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4375. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4376. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4377. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4378. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4379. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4380. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4381. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4382. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4383. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4384. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4385. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4386. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4387. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4388. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4389. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4390. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4391. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4392. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4393. @end example
  4394. @noindent
  4395. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4396. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4397. same summary information.
  4398. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4399. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4400. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4401. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4402. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4403. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4404. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4405. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4406. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4407. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4408. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4409. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4410. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4411. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4412. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4413. values.
  4414. @example
  4415. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4416. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4417. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4418. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4419. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4420. @end example
  4421. @noindent
  4422. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4423. item itself, i.e.@: of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4424. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4425. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4426. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4427. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4428. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4429. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4430. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4431. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4432. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4433. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4434. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4435. in the subtree.
  4436. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4437. @subsection Using column view
  4438. @table @kbd
  4439. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4440. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4441. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4442. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4443. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4444. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4445. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4446. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4447. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4448. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4449. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4450. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4451. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4452. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4453. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4454. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4455. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4456. Exit column view.
  4457. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4458. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4459. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4460. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4461. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4462. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4463. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4464. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4465. @item 1..9,0
  4466. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4467. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4468. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4469. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4470. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4471. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4472. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4473. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4474. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4475. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4476. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4477. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4478. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4479. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4480. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4481. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4482. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4483. current column view.
  4484. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4485. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4486. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4487. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4488. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4489. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4490. Delete the current column.
  4491. @end table
  4492. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4493. @subsection Capturing column view
  4494. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4495. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4496. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4497. of this block looks like this:
  4498. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4499. @example
  4500. * The column view
  4501. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4502. #+END:
  4503. @end example
  4504. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4505. @table @code
  4506. @item :id
  4507. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4508. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4509. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4510. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4511. @cindex property, ID
  4512. @example
  4513. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4514. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4515. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4516. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4517. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4518. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4519. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4520. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4521. @end example
  4522. @item :hlines
  4523. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4524. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4525. @item :vlines
  4526. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4527. @item :maxlevel
  4528. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4529. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4530. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4531. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4532. @end table
  4533. @noindent
  4534. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4535. @table @kbd
  4536. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4537. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4538. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4539. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4540. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4541. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4542. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4543. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4544. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4545. blocks in a buffer.
  4546. @end table
  4547. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4548. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4549. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4550. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4551. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4552. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4553. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4554. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4555. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4556. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4557. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4558. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4559. @section The Property API
  4560. @cindex properties, API
  4561. @cindex API, for properties
  4562. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4563. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4564. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4565. property API}.
  4566. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4567. @chapter Dates and times
  4568. @cindex dates
  4569. @cindex times
  4570. @cindex timestamp
  4571. @cindex date stamp
  4572. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4573. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4574. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org-mode. This may be a
  4575. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4576. something was created or last changed. However, in Org-mode this term
  4577. is used in a much wider sense.
  4578. @menu
  4579. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4580. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4581. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4582. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4583. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4584. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4585. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4586. @end menu
  4587. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4588. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4589. @cindex timestamps
  4590. @cindex ranges, time
  4591. @cindex date stamps
  4592. @cindex deadlines
  4593. @cindex scheduling
  4594. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4595. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or
  4596. @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue
  4597. 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601 date/time
  4598. format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time format}.}. A
  4599. timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree entry.
  4600. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda
  4601. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4602. @table @var
  4603. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4604. @cindex timestamp
  4605. @cindex appointment
  4606. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4607. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4608. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4609. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4610. @example
  4611. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4612. * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4613. @end example
  4614. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4615. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4616. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4617. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4618. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4619. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4620. @example
  4621. * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4622. @end example
  4623. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4624. For more complex date specifications, Org-mode supports using the special
  4625. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4626. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  4627. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  4628. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  4629. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  4630. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  4631. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  4632. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org-mode users
  4633. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  4634. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  4635. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  4636. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For example
  4637. @example
  4638. * The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4639. <%%(org-float t 4 2)>
  4640. @end example
  4641. @item Time/Date range
  4642. @cindex timerange
  4643. @cindex date range
  4644. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4645. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4646. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4647. @example
  4648. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4649. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4650. @end example
  4651. @item Inactive timestamp
  4652. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4653. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4654. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4655. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4656. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4657. @example
  4658. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4659. @end example
  4660. @end table
  4661. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4662. @section Creating timestamps
  4663. @cindex creating timestamps
  4664. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4665. For Org-mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4666. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4667. format.
  4668. @table @kbd
  4669. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4670. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4671. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4672. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4673. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4674. @c
  4675. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4676. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4677. an agenda entry.
  4678. @c
  4679. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4680. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4681. @item C-u C-c .
  4682. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4683. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4684. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4685. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4686. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4687. @c
  4688. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4689. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4690. @c
  4691. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4692. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4693. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4694. instead.
  4695. @c
  4696. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4697. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4698. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4699. @c
  4700. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4701. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4702. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4703. @c
  4704. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4705. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4706. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4707. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4708. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4709. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4710. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4711. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4712. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4713. @c
  4714. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4715. @cindex evaluate time range
  4716. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4717. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4718. the following column).
  4719. @end table
  4720. @menu
  4721. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  4722. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4723. @end menu
  4724. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4725. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4726. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4727. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4728. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4729. When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4730. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4731. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4732. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4733. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4734. copied from an email message. Org-mode will find whatever information is in
  4735. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4736. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4737. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4738. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4739. information, Org-mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4740. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4741. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4742. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4743. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4744. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4745. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4746. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4747. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org-mode are
  4748. in @b{bold}.
  4749. @example
  4750. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4751. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4752. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4753. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4754. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4755. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4756. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4757. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4758. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4759. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4760. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4761. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4762. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4763. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4764. @end example
  4765. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4766. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4767. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4768. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4769. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4770. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4771. the Nth such day, e.g.@:
  4772. @example
  4773. +0 @result{} today
  4774. . @result{} today
  4775. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4776. +4 @result{} same as above
  4777. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4778. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4779. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4780. @end example
  4781. @vindex parse-time-months
  4782. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4783. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4784. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4785. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4786. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  4787. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  4788. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  4789. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  4790. read the docstring of the variable
  4791. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  4792. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4793. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  4794. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  4795. case, e.g.@:
  4796. @example
  4797. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  4798. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  4799. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  4800. @end example
  4801. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4802. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4803. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4804. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4805. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4806. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4807. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4808. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4809. from the minibuffer:
  4810. @kindex <
  4811. @kindex >
  4812. @kindex M-v
  4813. @kindex C-v
  4814. @kindex mouse-1
  4815. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4816. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4817. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4818. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4819. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4820. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4821. @kindex @key{RET}
  4822. @example
  4823. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4824. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4825. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4826. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4827. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4828. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4829. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4830. @end example
  4831. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4832. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4833. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4834. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4835. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4836. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4837. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4838. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4839. @subsection Custom time format
  4840. @cindex custom date/time format
  4841. @cindex time format, custom
  4842. @cindex date format, custom
  4843. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4844. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4845. Org-mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4846. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4847. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4848. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4849. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4850. @table @kbd
  4851. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  4852. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4853. @end table
  4854. @noindent
  4855. Org-mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  4856. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  4857. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  4858. following consequences:
  4859. @itemize @bullet
  4860. @item
  4861. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  4862. after.
  4863. @item
  4864. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  4865. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  4866. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  4867. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  4868. time will be changed by one minute.
  4869. @item
  4870. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  4871. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  4872. @item
  4873. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  4874. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  4875. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  4876. @item
  4877. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  4878. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  4879. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  4880. @end itemize
  4881. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  4882. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  4883. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  4884. @table @var
  4885. @item DEADLINE
  4886. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  4887. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  4888. to be finished on that date.
  4889. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4890. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  4891. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  4892. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  4893. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  4894. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  4895. @example
  4896. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  4897. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  4898. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  4899. @end example
  4900. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  4901. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  4902. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  4903. @item SCHEDULED
  4904. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  4905. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  4906. date.
  4907. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  4908. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  4909. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  4910. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  4911. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  4912. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.@:
  4913. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  4914. @example
  4915. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  4916. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  4917. @end example
  4918. @noindent
  4919. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org-mode should @i{not} be
  4920. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  4921. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  4922. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  4923. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  4924. Org users. In Org-mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  4925. want to start working on an action item.
  4926. @end table
  4927. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  4928. entries. Org-mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  4929. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  4930. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  4931. @c
  4932. @code{<%%(org-float t 42)>}
  4933. @c
  4934. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org-mode does not
  4935. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  4936. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  4937. sexp entry matches.
  4938. @menu
  4939. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  4940. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  4941. @end menu
  4942. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  4943. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  4944. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  4945. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  4946. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  4947. an item:
  4948. @table @kbd
  4949. @c
  4950. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  4951. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  4952. in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be
  4953. removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed
  4954. from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  4955. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  4956. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4957. deadline.
  4958. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  4959. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  4960. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  4961. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  4962. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  4963. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  4964. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  4965. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4966. scheduling time.
  4967. @c
  4968. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  4969. @kindex k a
  4970. @kindex k s
  4971. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  4972. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  4973. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  4974. schedule the marked item.
  4975. @c
  4976. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  4977. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  4978. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4979. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  4980. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  4981. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  4982. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  4983. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  4984. @c
  4985. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  4986. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  4987. @c
  4988. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  4989. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  4990. @end table
  4991. Note that @code{org-schedule} and @code{org-deadline} supports
  4992. setting the date by indicating a relative time: e.g. +1d will set
  4993. the date to the next day after today, and --1w will set the date
  4994. to the previous week before any current timestamp.
  4995. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  4996. @subsection Repeated tasks
  4997. @cindex tasks, repeated
  4998. @cindex repeated tasks
  4999. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org-mode helps to
  5000. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  5001. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  5002. @example
  5003. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5004. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  5005. @end example
  5006. @noindent
  5007. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  5008. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  5009. from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in
  5010. a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last:
  5011. @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  5012. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  5013. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  5014. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  5015. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  5016. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  5017. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  5018. repeated entry will not be active. Org-mode deals with this in the following
  5019. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  5020. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  5021. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  5022. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  5023. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  5024. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  5025. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  5026. switch the date like this:
  5027. @example
  5028. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5029. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  5030. @end example
  5031. @vindex org-log-repeat
  5032. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  5033. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  5034. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  5035. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  5036. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  5037. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  5038. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  5039. will be visible.
  5040. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  5041. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  5042. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  5043. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  5044. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  5045. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  5046. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  5047. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org-mode has
  5048. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  5049. @example
  5050. ** TODO Call Father
  5051. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  5052. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  5053. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  5054. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  5055. and marked it done on Saturday.
  5056. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  5057. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  5058. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  5059. today.
  5060. @end example
  5061. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  5062. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  5063. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  5064. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  5065. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  5066. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  5067. @section Clocking work time
  5068. @cindex clocking time
  5069. @cindex time clocking
  5070. Org-mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  5071. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock.
  5072. When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the
  5073. clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It
  5074. also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project. And it
  5075. remembers a history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly
  5076. between a number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5077. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5078. @lisp
  5079. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5080. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5081. @end lisp
  5082. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5083. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5084. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5085. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5086. what to do with it.
  5087. @menu
  5088. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5089. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5090. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5091. @end menu
  5092. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5093. @subsection Clocking commands
  5094. @table @kbd
  5095. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5096. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5097. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  5098. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5099. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5100. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5101. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5102. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule
  5103. the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  5104. @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  5105. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5106. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5107. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task.
  5108. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task,
  5109. with letter @kbd{d}.@*
  5110. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5111. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5112. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5113. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5114. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5115. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5116. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5117. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5118. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5119. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5120. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5121. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5122. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5123. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5124. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5125. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5126. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5127. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5128. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5129. @c
  5130. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5131. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5132. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5133. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5134. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5135. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5136. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5137. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5138. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5139. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5140. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5141. @kindex C-c C-y
  5142. @kindex C-c C-c
  5143. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5144. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5145. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5146. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5147. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{up/down},org-clock-timestamps-up/down}
  5148. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease both timestamps at the same
  5149. time so that duration keeps the same.
  5150. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5151. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5152. if it is running in this same item.
  5153. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-cancel}
  5154. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5155. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5156. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5157. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5158. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5159. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5160. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5161. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts
  5162. overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under
  5163. that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility
  5164. cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the
  5165. buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press
  5166. @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5167. @end table
  5168. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5169. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5170. worked on or closed during a day.
  5171. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5172. @subsection The clock table
  5173. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5174. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5175. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5176. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5177. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5178. @table @kbd
  5179. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5180. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5181. report as an Org-mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5182. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5183. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5184. update it. The clock table always includes also trees with
  5185. @code{:ARCHIVE:} tag.
  5186. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5187. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5188. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5189. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5190. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5191. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5192. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5193. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5194. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5195. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5196. @end table
  5197. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5198. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5199. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5200. @example
  5201. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5202. #+END: clocktable
  5203. @end example
  5204. @noindent
  5205. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5206. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5207. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5208. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5209. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5210. be selected:
  5211. @example
  5212. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5213. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5214. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5215. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5216. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5217. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5218. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5219. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5220. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5221. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5222. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5223. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5224. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5225. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5226. @r{these formats:}
  5227. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5228. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5229. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5230. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5231. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5232. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5233. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5234. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5235. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5236. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5237. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5238. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5239. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5240. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5241. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5242. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5243. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5244. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5245. @end example
  5246. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5247. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5248. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5249. @example
  5250. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5251. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5252. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5253. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5254. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5255. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5256. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5257. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5258. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5259. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5260. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5261. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5262. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5263. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5264. :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each}
  5265. @r{property will get its own column.}
  5266. :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.}
  5267. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5268. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5269. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5270. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5271. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5272. @end example
  5273. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5274. day, you could write
  5275. @example
  5276. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5277. #+END: clocktable
  5278. @end example
  5279. @noindent
  5280. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5281. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5282. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5283. @example
  5284. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5285. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5286. #+END: clocktable
  5287. @end example
  5288. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5289. @example
  5290. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5291. #+END: clocktable
  5292. @end example
  5293. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5294. would be
  5295. @example
  5296. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5297. #+END: clocktable
  5298. @end example
  5299. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5300. @subsection Resolving idle time
  5301. @cindex resolve idle time
  5302. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5303. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5304. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5305. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5306. applying it to another one.
  5307. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5308. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5309. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5310. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5311. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5312. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5313. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5314. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5315. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5316. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5317. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5318. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5319. @table @kbd
  5320. @item k
  5321. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5322. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5323. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5324. @item K
  5325. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5326. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5327. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5328. @item s
  5329. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5330. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5331. @item S
  5332. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5333. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5334. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5335. @item C
  5336. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5337. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5338. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5339. log with an empty entry.
  5340. @end table
  5341. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5342. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5343. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5344. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5345. the next task you clock in on.
  5346. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5347. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5348. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5349. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5350. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5351. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5352. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5353. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5354. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5355. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due
  5356. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5357. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5358. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5359. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5360. @section Effort estimates
  5361. @cindex effort estimates
  5362. @cindex property, Effort
  5363. @vindex org-effort-property
  5364. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5365. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5366. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5367. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5368. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5369. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5370. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5371. for an entry with the following commands:
  5372. @table @kbd
  5373. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5374. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5375. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5376. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5377. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5378. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5379. @end table
  5380. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5381. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5382. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5383. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5384. buffer you can use
  5385. @example
  5386. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
  5387. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5388. @end example
  5389. @noindent
  5390. @vindex org-global-properties
  5391. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5392. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5393. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5394. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5395. setup may be advised.
  5396. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5397. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5398. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5399. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5400. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5401. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5402. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5403. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5404. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5405. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5406. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5407. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5408. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5409. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5410. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5411. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5412. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5413. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5414. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5415. @cindex relative timer
  5416. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5417. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5418. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5419. @table @kbd
  5420. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5421. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5422. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5423. restarted.
  5424. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5425. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5426. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5427. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5428. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5429. new timer items.
  5430. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5431. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5432. @item C-c C-x ,
  5433. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5434. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5435. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5436. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5437. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5438. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5439. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5440. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5441. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5442. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5443. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5444. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5445. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5446. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5447. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5448. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5449. @end table
  5450. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5451. @section Countdown timer
  5452. @cindex Countdown timer
  5453. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5454. @kindex ;
  5455. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org-mode buffer runs a countdown
  5456. timer. Use @kbd{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everwhere else.
  5457. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5458. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5459. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5460. default value.
  5461. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5462. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5463. @cindex capture
  5464. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5465. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5466. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5467. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5468. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5469. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5470. @menu
  5471. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5472. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5473. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5474. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5475. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5476. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5477. @end menu
  5478. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5479. @section Capture
  5480. @cindex capture
  5481. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5482. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5483. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org-mode for
  5484. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5485. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5486. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5487. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5488. @example
  5489. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5490. @end example
  5491. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5492. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5493. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5494. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5495. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5496. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5497. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5498. @menu
  5499. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5500. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5501. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5502. @end menu
  5503. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5504. @subsection Setting up capture
  5505. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5506. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5507. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5508. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5509. @example
  5510. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5511. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5512. @end example
  5513. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5514. @subsection Using capture
  5515. @table @kbd
  5516. @orgcmd{C-c c,org-capture}
  5517. Call the command @code{org-capture}. Note that this keybinding is global and
  5518. not active by default - you need to install it. If you have templates
  5519. @cindex date tree
  5520. defined @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for
  5521. selection or use a new Org outline node as the default template. It will
  5522. insert the template into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer
  5523. narrowed to this new node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5524. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-capture-finalize}
  5525. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer, @kbd{C-c
  5526. C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture process,
  5527. so that you can resume your work without further distraction. When called
  5528. with a prefix arg, finalize and then jump to the captured item.
  5529. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-capture-refile}
  5530. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5531. a different place. Please realize that this is a normal refiling command
  5532. that will be executed---so the cursor position at the moment you run this
  5533. command is important. If you have inserted a tree with a parent and
  5534. children, first move the cursor back to the parent. Any prefix argument
  5535. given to this command will be passed on to the @code{org-refile} command.
  5536. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,org-capture-kill}
  5537. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5538. @end table
  5539. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5540. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5541. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5542. rather than to the current date.
  5543. To find the locations of the last stored capture, use @code{org-capture} with
  5544. prefix commands:
  5545. @table @kbd
  5546. @orgkey{C-u C-c c}
  5547. Visit the target location of a capture template. You get to select the
  5548. template in the usual way.
  5549. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-c c}
  5550. Visit the last stored capture item in its buffer.
  5551. @end table
  5552. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5553. @subsection Capture templates
  5554. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5555. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5556. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5557. through the customize interface.
  5558. @table @kbd
  5559. @orgkey{C-c c C}
  5560. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5561. @end table
  5562. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5563. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5564. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5565. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5566. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5567. would look like:
  5568. @example
  5569. (setq org-capture-templates
  5570. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5571. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5572. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5573. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5574. @end example
  5575. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5576. for you like this:
  5577. @example
  5578. * TODO
  5579. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5580. @end example
  5581. @noindent
  5582. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5583. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5584. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5585. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same
  5586. place where you started the capture process.
  5587. To define special keys to capture to a particular template without going
  5588. through the interactive template selection, you can create your key binding
  5589. like this:
  5590. @lisp
  5591. (define-key global-map "\C-cx"
  5592. (lambda () (interactive) (org-capture nil "x")))
  5593. @end lisp
  5594. @menu
  5595. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  5596. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  5597. @end menu
  5598. @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates
  5599. @subsubsection Template elements
  5600. Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in
  5601. @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items:
  5602. @table @var
  5603. @item keys
  5604. The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters
  5605. only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a
  5606. single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using
  5607. several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential
  5608. in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the
  5609. prefix key, for example
  5610. @example
  5611. ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy")
  5612. @end example
  5613. @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will
  5614. be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable.
  5615. @item description
  5616. A short string describing the template, which will be shown during
  5617. selection.
  5618. @item type
  5619. The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are:
  5620. @table @code
  5621. @item entry
  5622. An Org-mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the target
  5623. entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org-mode file.
  5624. @item item
  5625. A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target
  5626. location. Again the target file should be an Org file.
  5627. @item checkitem
  5628. A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the
  5629. default template.
  5630. @item table-line
  5631. a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the
  5632. line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and
  5633. @code{:table-line-pos} (see below).
  5634. @item plain
  5635. Text to be inserted as it is.
  5636. @end table
  5637. @item target
  5638. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5639. Specification of where the captured item should be placed. In Org-mode
  5640. files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become children of this
  5641. node. Other types will be added to the table or list in the body of this
  5642. node. Most target specifications contain a file name. If that file name is
  5643. the empty string, it defaults to @code{org-default-notes-file}. A file can
  5644. also be given as a variable, function, or Emacs Lisp form.
  5645. Valid values are:
  5646. @table @code
  5647. @item (file "path/to/file")
  5648. Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file.
  5649. @item (id "id of existing org entry")
  5650. Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry.
  5651. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline")
  5652. Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file.
  5653. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...)
  5654. For non-unique headings, the full path is safer.
  5655. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location")
  5656. Use a regular expression to position the cursor.
  5657. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file")
  5658. Will create a heading in a date tree for today's date.
  5659. @item (file+datetree+prompt "path/to/file")
  5660. Will create a heading in a date tree, but will prompt for the date.
  5661. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location)
  5662. A function to find the right location in the file.
  5663. @item (clock)
  5664. File to the entry that is currently being clocked.
  5665. @item (function function-finding-location)
  5666. Most general way, write your own function to find both
  5667. file and location.
  5668. @end table
  5669. @item template
  5670. The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an
  5671. appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with
  5672. escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the
  5673. capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file,
  5674. using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for
  5675. more details.
  5676. @item properties
  5677. The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options.
  5678. Recognized properties are:
  5679. @table @code
  5680. @item :prepend
  5681. Normally new captured information will be appended at
  5682. the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...).
  5683. Setting this property will change that.
  5684. @item :immediate-finish
  5685. When set, do not offer to edit the information, just
  5686. file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs
  5687. information that can be added automatically.
  5688. @item :empty-lines
  5689. Set this to the number of lines to insert
  5690. before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1.
  5691. @item :clock-in
  5692. Start the clock in this item.
  5693. @item :clock-keep
  5694. Keep the clock running when filing the captured entry.
  5695. @item :clock-resume
  5696. If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished
  5697. with the capture. Note that @code{:clock-keep} has precedence over
  5698. @code{:clock-resume}. When setting both to @code{t}, the current clock will
  5699. run and the previous one will not be resumed.
  5700. @item :unnarrowed
  5701. Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to
  5702. narrow it so that you only see the new material.
  5703. @item :table-line-pos
  5704. Specification of the location in the table where the new line should be
  5705. inserted. It should be a string like @code{"II-3"} meaning that the new
  5706. line should become the third line before the second horizontal separator
  5707. line.
  5708. @item :kill-buffer
  5709. If the target file was not yet visited when capture was invoked, kill the
  5710. buffer again after capture is completed.
  5711. @end table
  5712. @end table
  5713. @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates
  5714. @subsubsection Template expansion
  5715. In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of
  5716. these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow
  5717. dynamic insertion of content. The templates are expanded in the order given here:
  5718. @smallexample
  5719. %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}.}
  5720. %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result.}
  5721. %<...> @r{the result of format-time-string on the ... format specification.}
  5722. %t @r{timestamp, date only.}
  5723. %T @r{timestamp with date and time.}
  5724. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps.}
  5725. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}.}
  5726. %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the}
  5727. @r{region is active.}
  5728. @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
  5729. %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part.}
  5730. %c @r{Current kill ring head.}
  5731. %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.}
  5732. %k @r{title of the currently clocked task.}
  5733. %K @r{link to the currently clocked task.}
  5734. %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name}).}
  5735. %f @r{file visited by current buffer when org-capture was called.}
  5736. %F @r{full path of the file or directory visited by current buffer.}
  5737. %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below.}
  5738. %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.}
  5739. %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.}
  5740. %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}.}
  5741. @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}.}
  5742. %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.}
  5743. %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.}
  5744. %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}.}
  5745. %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
  5746. @r{You may specify a default value and a completion table with}
  5747. @r{%^@{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...@}.}
  5748. @r{The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history.}
  5749. @end smallexample
  5750. @noindent
  5751. For specific link types, the following keywords will be
  5752. defined@footnote{If you define your own link types (@pxref{Adding
  5753. hyperlink types}), any property you store with
  5754. @code{org-store-link-props} can be accessed in capture templates in a
  5755. similar way.}:
  5756. @vindex org-from-is-user-regexp
  5757. @smallexample
  5758. Link type | Available keywords
  5759. ------------------------+----------------------------------------------
  5760. bbdb | %:name %:company
  5761. irc | %:server %:port %:nick
  5762. vm, wl, mh, mew, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id
  5763. | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress
  5764. | %:to %:toname %:toaddress
  5765. | %:date @r{(message date header field)}
  5766. | %:date-timestamp @r{(date as active timestamp)}
  5767. | %:date-timestamp-inactive @r{(date as inactive timestamp)}
  5768. | %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}}
  5769. gnus | %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields}
  5770. w3, w3m | %:url
  5771. info | %:file %:node
  5772. calendar | %:date
  5773. @end smallexample
  5774. @noindent
  5775. To place the cursor after template expansion use:
  5776. @smallexample
  5777. %? @r{After completing the template, position cursor here.}
  5778. @end smallexample
  5779. @node Attachments, RSS Feeds, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5780. @section Attachments
  5781. @cindex attachments
  5782. @vindex org-attach-directory
  5783. It is often useful to associate reference material with an outline node/task.
  5784. Small chunks of plain text can simply be stored in the subtree of a project.
  5785. Hyperlinks (@pxref{Hyperlinks}) can establish associations with
  5786. files that live elsewhere on your computer or in the cloud, like emails or
  5787. source code files belonging to a project. Another method is @i{attachments},
  5788. which are files located in a directory belonging to an outline node. Org
  5789. uses directories named by the unique ID of each entry. These directories are
  5790. located in the @file{data} directory which lives in the same directory where
  5791. your Org file lives@footnote{If you move entries or Org files from one
  5792. directory to another, you may want to configure @code{org-attach-directory}
  5793. to contain an absolute path.}. If you initialize this directory with
  5794. @code{git init}, Org will automatically commit changes when it sees them.
  5795. The attachment system has been contributed to Org by John Wiegley.
  5796. In cases where it seems better to do so, you can also attach a directory of your
  5797. choice to an entry. You can also make children inherit the attachment
  5798. directory from a parent, so that an entire subtree uses the same attached
  5799. directory.
  5800. @noindent The following commands deal with attachments:
  5801. @table @kbd
  5802. @orgcmd{C-c C-a,org-attach}
  5803. The dispatcher for commands related to the attachment system. After these
  5804. keys, a list of commands is displayed and you must press an additional key
  5805. to select a command:
  5806. @table @kbd
  5807. @orgcmdtkc{a,C-c C-a a,org-attach-attach}
  5808. @vindex org-attach-method
  5809. Select a file and move it into the task's attachment directory. The file
  5810. will be copied, moved, or linked, depending on @code{org-attach-method}.
  5811. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5812. @kindex C-c C-a c
  5813. @kindex C-c C-a m
  5814. @kindex C-c C-a l
  5815. @item c/m/l
  5816. Attach a file using the copy/move/link method.
  5817. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5818. @orgcmdtkc{n,C-c C-a n,org-attach-new}
  5819. Create a new attachment as an Emacs buffer.
  5820. @orgcmdtkc{z,C-c C-a z,org-attach-sync}
  5821. Synchronize the current task with its attachment directory, in case you added
  5822. attachments yourself.
  5823. @orgcmdtkc{o,C-c C-a o,org-attach-open}
  5824. @vindex org-file-apps
  5825. Open current task's attachment. If there is more than one, prompt for a
  5826. file name first. Opening will follow the rules set by @code{org-file-apps}.
  5827. For more details, see the information on following hyperlinks
  5828. (@pxref{Handling links}).
  5829. @orgcmdtkc{O,C-c C-a O,org-attach-open-in-emacs}
  5830. Also open the attachment, but force opening the file in Emacs.
  5831. @orgcmdtkc{f,C-c C-a f,org-attach-reveal}
  5832. Open the current task's attachment directory.
  5833. @orgcmdtkc{F,C-c C-a F,org-attach-reveal-in-emacs}
  5834. Also open the directory, but force using @command{dired} in Emacs.
  5835. @orgcmdtkc{d,C-c C-a d,org-attach-delete-one}
  5836. Select and delete a single attachment.
  5837. @orgcmdtkc{D,C-c C-a D,org-attach-delete-all}
  5838. Delete all of a task's attachments. A safer way is to open the directory in
  5839. @command{dired} and delete from there.
  5840. @orgcmdtkc{s,C-c C-a s,org-attach-set-directory}
  5841. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR
  5842. Set a specific directory as the entry's attachment directory. This works by
  5843. putting the directory path into the @code{ATTACH_DIR} property.
  5844. @orgcmdtkc{i,C-c C-a i,org-attach-set-inherit}
  5845. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT
  5846. Set the @code{ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT} property, so that children will use the
  5847. same directory for attachments as the parent does.
  5848. @end table
  5849. @end table
  5850. @node RSS Feeds, Protocols, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5851. @section RSS feeds
  5852. @cindex RSS feeds
  5853. @cindex Atom feeds
  5854. Org can add and change entries based on information found in RSS feeds and
  5855. Atom feeds. You could use this to make a task out of each new podcast in a
  5856. podcast feed. Or you could use a phone-based note-creating service on the
  5857. web to import tasks into Org. To access feeds, configure the variable
  5858. @code{org-feed-alist}. The docstring of this variable has detailed
  5859. information. Here is just an example:
  5860. @example
  5861. (setq org-feed-alist
  5862. '(("Slashdot"
  5863. "http://rss.slashdot.org/Slashdot/slashdot"
  5864. "~/txt/org/feeds.org" "Slashdot Entries")))
  5865. @end example
  5866. @noindent
  5867. will configure that new items from the feed provided by
  5868. @code{rss.slashdot.org} will result in new entries in the file
  5869. @file{~/org/feeds.org} under the heading @samp{Slashdot Entries}, whenever
  5870. the following command is used:
  5871. @table @kbd
  5872. @orgcmd{C-c C-x g,org-feed-update-all}
  5873. @item C-c C-x g
  5874. Collect items from the feeds configured in @code{org-feed-alist} and act upon
  5875. them.
  5876. @orgcmd{C-c C-x G,org-feed-goto-inbox}
  5877. Prompt for a feed name and go to the inbox configured for this feed.
  5878. @end table
  5879. Under the same headline, Org will create a drawer @samp{FEEDSTATUS} in which
  5880. it will store information about the status of items in the feed, to avoid
  5881. adding the same item several times. You should add @samp{FEEDSTATUS} to the
  5882. list of drawers in that file:
  5883. @example
  5884. #+DRAWERS: LOGBOOK PROPERTIES FEEDSTATUS
  5885. @end example
  5886. For more information, including how to read atom feeds, see
  5887. @file{org-feed.el} and the docstring of @code{org-feed-alist}.
  5888. @node Protocols, Refiling notes, RSS Feeds, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5889. @section Protocols for external access
  5890. @cindex protocols, for external access
  5891. @cindex emacsserver
  5892. You can set up Org for handling protocol calls from outside applications that
  5893. are passed to Emacs through the @file{emacsserver}. For example, you can
  5894. configure bookmarks in your web browser to send a link to the current page to
  5895. Org and create a note from it using capture (@pxref{Capture}). Or you
  5896. could create a bookmark that will tell Emacs to open the local source file of
  5897. a remote website you are looking at with the browser. See
  5898. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/org-protocol.php} for detailed
  5899. documentation and setup instructions.
  5900. @node Refiling notes, Archiving, Protocols, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5901. @section Refiling notes
  5902. @cindex refiling notes
  5903. When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile some of the entries
  5904. into a different list, for example into a project. Cutting, finding the
  5905. right location, and then pasting the note is cumbersome. To simplify this
  5906. process, you can use the following special command:
  5907. @table @kbd
  5908. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  5909. @vindex org-reverse-note-order
  5910. @vindex org-refile-targets
  5911. @vindex org-refile-use-outline-path
  5912. @vindex org-outline-path-complete-in-steps
  5913. @vindex org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes
  5914. @vindex org-log-refile
  5915. @vindex org-refile-use-cache
  5916. Refile the entry or region at point. This command offers possible locations
  5917. for refiling the entry and lets you select one with completion. The item (or
  5918. all items in the region) is filed below the target heading as a subitem.
  5919. Depending on @code{org-reverse-note-order}, it will be either the first or
  5920. last subitem.@*
  5921. By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are considered to be
  5922. targets, but you can have more complex definitions across a number of files.
  5923. See the variable @code{org-refile-targets} for details. If you would like to
  5924. select a location via a file-path-like completion along the outline path, see
  5925. the variables @code{org-refile-use-outline-path} and
  5926. @code{org-outline-path-complete-in-steps}. If you would like to be able to
  5927. create new nodes as new parents for refiling on the fly, check the
  5928. variable @code{org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes}.
  5929. When the variable @code{org-log-refile}@footnote{with corresponding
  5930. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logrefile}, @code{lognoterefile},
  5931. and @code{nologrefile}} is set, a timestamp or a note will be
  5932. recorded when an entry has been refiled.
  5933. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-w}
  5934. Use the refile interface to jump to a heading.
  5935. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c C-w,org-refile-goto-last-stored}
  5936. Jump to the location where @code{org-refile} last moved a tree to.
  5937. @item C-2 C-c C-w
  5938. Refile as the child of the item currently being clocked.
  5939. @item C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5940. @orgcmdtkc{C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w,C-0 C-c C-w,org-refile-cache-clear}
  5941. Clear the target cache. Caching of refile targets can be turned on by
  5942. setting @code{org-refile-use-cache}. To make the command see new possible
  5943. targets, you have to clear the cache with this command.
  5944. @end table
  5945. @node Archiving, , Refiling notes, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5946. @section Archiving
  5947. @cindex archiving
  5948. When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
  5949. to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
  5950. agenda. Archiving is important to keep your working files compact and global
  5951. searches like the construction of agenda views fast.
  5952. @table @kbd
  5953. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-a,org-archive-subtree-default}
  5954. @vindex org-archive-default-command
  5955. Archive the current entry using the command specified in the variable
  5956. @code{org-archive-default-command}.
  5957. @end table
  5958. @menu
  5959. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  5960. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  5961. @end menu
  5962. @node Moving subtrees, Internal archiving, Archiving, Archiving
  5963. @subsection Moving a tree to the archive file
  5964. @cindex external archiving
  5965. The most common archiving action is to move a project tree to another file,
  5966. the archive file.
  5967. @table @kbd
  5968. @orgcmdkskc{C-c C-x C-s,C-c $,org-archive-subtree}
  5969. @vindex org-archive-location
  5970. Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
  5971. given by @code{org-archive-location}.
  5972. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-s}
  5973. Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to
  5974. the archive. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.
  5975. If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive
  5976. location. If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command
  5977. is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.
  5978. @end table
  5979. @cindex archive locations
  5980. The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
  5981. current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
  5982. current file name. For information and examples on how to change this,
  5983. see the documentation string of the variable
  5984. @code{org-archive-location}. There is also an in-buffer option for
  5985. setting this variable, for example@footnote{For backward compatibility,
  5986. the following also works: If there are several such lines in a file,
  5987. each specifies the archive location for the text below it. The first
  5988. such line also applies to any text before its definition. However,
  5989. using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is incompatible
  5990. with the outline structure of the document. The correct method for
  5991. setting multiple archive locations in a buffer is using properties.}:
  5992. @cindex #+ARCHIVE
  5993. @example
  5994. #+ARCHIVE: %s_done::
  5995. @end example
  5996. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  5997. @noindent
  5998. If you would like to have a special ARCHIVE location for a single entry
  5999. or a (sub)tree, give the entry an @code{:ARCHIVE:} property with the
  6000. location as the value (@pxref{Properties and Columns}).
  6001. @vindex org-archive-save-context-info
  6002. When a subtree is moved, it receives a number of special properties that
  6003. record context information like the file from where the entry came, its
  6004. outline path the archiving time etc. Configure the variable
  6005. @code{org-archive-save-context-info} to adjust the amount of information
  6006. added.
  6007. @node Internal archiving, , Moving subtrees, Archiving
  6008. @subsection Internal archiving
  6009. If you want to just switch off (for agenda views) certain subtrees without
  6010. moving them to a different file, you can use the @code{ARCHIVE tag}.
  6011. A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at
  6012. its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way:
  6013. @itemize @minus
  6014. @item
  6015. @vindex org-cycle-open-archived-trees
  6016. It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling
  6017. command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}). You can force cycling archived
  6018. subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option
  6019. @code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}. Also normal outline commands like
  6020. @code{show-all} will open archived subtrees.
  6021. @item
  6022. @vindex org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees
  6023. During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in
  6024. archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option
  6025. @code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}.
  6026. @item
  6027. @vindex org-agenda-skip-archived-trees
  6028. During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda Views}), the content of
  6029. archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option
  6030. @code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}, in which case these trees will always
  6031. be included. In the agenda you can press @kbd{v a} to get archives
  6032. temporarily included.
  6033. @item
  6034. @vindex org-export-with-archived-trees
  6035. Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline
  6036. is. Configure the details using the variable
  6037. @code{org-export-with-archived-trees}.
  6038. @item
  6039. @vindex org-columns-skip-archived-trees
  6040. Archived trees are excluded from column view unless the variable
  6041. @code{org-columns-skip-archived-trees} is configured to @code{nil}.
  6042. @end itemize
  6043. The following commands help manage the ARCHIVE tag:
  6044. @table @kbd
  6045. @orgcmd{C-c C-x a,org-toggle-archive-tag}
  6046. Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline. When the tag is set,
  6047. the headline changes to a shadowed face, and the subtree below it is
  6048. hidden.
  6049. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x a}
  6050. Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived.
  6051. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries. If none are
  6052. found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child. If the
  6053. cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the
  6054. level 1 trees will be checked.
  6055. @orgcmd{C-@kbd{TAB},org-force-cycle-archived}
  6056. Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE.
  6057. @orgcmd{C-c C-x A,org-archive-to-archive-sibling}
  6058. Move the current entry to the @emph{Archive Sibling}. This is a sibling of
  6059. the entry with the heading @samp{Archive} and the tag @samp{ARCHIVE}. The
  6060. entry becomes a child of that sibling and in this way retains a lot of its
  6061. original context, including inherited tags and approximate position in the
  6062. outline.
  6063. @end table
  6064. @node Agenda Views, Markup, Capture - Refile - Archive, Top
  6065. @chapter Agenda views
  6066. @cindex agenda views
  6067. Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and
  6068. tagged headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of
  6069. files. To get an overview of open action items, or of events that are
  6070. important for a particular date, this information must be collected,
  6071. sorted and displayed in an organized way.
  6072. Org can select items based on various criteria and display them
  6073. in a separate buffer. Seven different view types are provided:
  6074. @itemize @bullet
  6075. @item
  6076. an @emph{agenda} that is like a calendar and shows information
  6077. for specific dates,
  6078. @item
  6079. a @emph{TODO list} that covers all unfinished
  6080. action items,
  6081. @item
  6082. a @emph{match view}, showings headlines based on the tags, properties, and
  6083. TODO state associated with them,
  6084. @item
  6085. a @emph{timeline view} that shows all events in a single Org file,
  6086. in time-sorted view,
  6087. @item
  6088. a @emph{text search view} that shows all entries from multiple files
  6089. that contain specified keywords,
  6090. @item
  6091. a @emph{stuck projects view} showing projects that currently don't move
  6092. along, and
  6093. @item
  6094. @emph{custom views} that are special searches and combinations of different
  6095. views.
  6096. @end itemize
  6097. @noindent
  6098. The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda
  6099. buffer}. This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the
  6100. corresponding locations in the original Org files, and even to
  6101. edit these files remotely.
  6102. @vindex org-agenda-window-setup
  6103. @vindex org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit
  6104. Two variables control how the agenda buffer is displayed and whether the
  6105. window configuration is restored when the agenda exits:
  6106. @code{org-agenda-window-setup} and
  6107. @code{org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit}.
  6108. @menu
  6109. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  6110. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  6111. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  6112. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  6113. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  6114. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  6115. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  6116. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  6117. @end menu
  6118. @node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views, Agenda Views
  6119. @section Agenda files
  6120. @cindex agenda files
  6121. @cindex files for agenda
  6122. @vindex org-agenda-files
  6123. The information to be shown is normally collected from all @emph{agenda
  6124. files}, the files listed in the variable
  6125. @code{org-agenda-files}@footnote{If the value of that variable is not a
  6126. list, but a single file name, then the list of agenda files will be
  6127. maintained in that external file.}. If a directory is part of this list,
  6128. all files with the extension @file{.org} in this directory will be part
  6129. of the list.
  6130. Thus, even if you only work with a single Org file, that file should
  6131. be put into the list@footnote{When using the dispatcher, pressing
  6132. @kbd{<} before selecting a command will actually limit the command to
  6133. the current file, and ignore @code{org-agenda-files} until the next
  6134. dispatcher command.}. You can customize @code{org-agenda-files}, but
  6135. the easiest way to maintain it is through the following commands
  6136. @cindex files, adding to agenda list
  6137. @table @kbd
  6138. @orgcmd{C-c [,org-agenda-file-to-front}
  6139. Add current file to the list of agenda files. The file is added to
  6140. the front of the list. If it was already in the list, it is moved to
  6141. the front. With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the end.
  6142. @orgcmd{C-c ],org-remove-file}
  6143. Remove current file from the list of agenda files.
  6144. @kindex C-,
  6145. @orgcmd{C-',org-cycle-agenda-files}
  6146. @itemx C-,
  6147. Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.
  6148. @kindex M-x org-iswitchb
  6149. @item M-x org-iswitchb
  6150. Command to use an @code{iswitchb}-like interface to switch to and between Org
  6151. buffers.
  6152. @end table
  6153. @noindent
  6154. The Org menu contains the current list of files and can be used
  6155. to visit any of them.
  6156. If you would like to focus the agenda temporarily on a file not in
  6157. this list, or on just one file in the list, or even on only a subtree in a
  6158. file, then this can be done in different ways. For a single agenda command,
  6159. you may press @kbd{<} once or several times in the dispatcher
  6160. (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}). To restrict the agenda scope for an
  6161. extended period, use the following commands:
  6162. @table @kbd
  6163. @orgcmd{C-c C-x <,org-agenda-set-restriction-lock}
  6164. Permanently restrict the agenda to the current subtree. When with a
  6165. prefix argument, or with the cursor before the first headline in a file,
  6166. the agenda scope is set to the entire file. This restriction remains in
  6167. effect until removed with @kbd{C-c C-x >}, or by typing either @kbd{<}
  6168. or @kbd{>} in the agenda dispatcher. If there is a window displaying an
  6169. agenda view, the new restriction takes effect immediately.
  6170. @orgcmd{C-c C-x >,org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock}
  6171. Remove the permanent restriction created by @kbd{C-c C-x <}.
  6172. @end table
  6173. @noindent
  6174. When working with @file{speedbar.el}, you can use the following commands in
  6175. the Speedbar frame:
  6176. @table @kbd
  6177. @orgcmdtkc{< @r{in the speedbar frame},<,org-speedbar-set-agenda-restriction}
  6178. Permanently restrict the agenda to the item---either an Org file or a subtree
  6179. in such a file---at the cursor in the Speedbar frame.
  6180. If there is a window displaying an agenda view, the new restriction takes
  6181. effect immediately.
  6182. @orgcmdtkc{> @r{in the speedbar frame},>,org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock}
  6183. Lift the restriction.
  6184. @end table
  6185. @node Agenda dispatcher, Built-in agenda views, Agenda files, Agenda Views
  6186. @section The agenda dispatcher
  6187. @cindex agenda dispatcher
  6188. @cindex dispatching agenda commands
  6189. The views are created through a dispatcher, which should be bound to a
  6190. global key---for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Activation}). In the
  6191. following we will assume that @kbd{C-c a} is indeed how the dispatcher
  6192. is accessed and list keyboard access to commands accordingly. After
  6193. pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a
  6194. command. The dispatcher offers the following default commands:
  6195. @table @kbd
  6196. @item a
  6197. Create the calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  6198. @item t @r{/} T
  6199. Create a list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}).
  6200. @item m @r{/} M
  6201. Create a list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching
  6202. tags and properties}).
  6203. @item L
  6204. Create the timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}).
  6205. @item s
  6206. Create a list of entries selected by a boolean expression of keywords
  6207. and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in the entry.
  6208. @item /
  6209. @vindex org-agenda-text-search-extra-files
  6210. Search for a regular expression in all agenda files and additionally in
  6211. the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}. This
  6212. uses the Emacs command @code{mu