org.texi 770 KB

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  1. \input texinfo @c -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org.info
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include docstyle.texi
  6. @include org-version.inc
  7. @c Version and Contact Info
  8. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{https://orgmode.org,maintainers web page}
  9. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  10. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  11. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  12. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  13. @c %**end of header
  14. @finalout
  15. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  16. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  17. @c =======================================
  18. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  19. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  20. @set cmdnames
  21. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  22. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  23. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  24. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  25. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  26. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  27. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  28. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  29. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  30. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  31. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  32. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  33. @c a key but no command
  34. @c Inserts: @item key
  35. @macro orgkey{key}
  36. @kindex \key\
  37. @item @kbd{\key\}
  38. @end macro
  39. @macro xorgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @c one key with a command
  44. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  45. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  46. @ifset cmdnames
  47. @kindex \key\
  48. @findex \command\
  49. @iftex
  50. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  51. @end iftex
  52. @ifnottex
  53. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  54. @end ifnottex
  55. @end ifset
  56. @ifclear cmdnames
  57. @kindex \key\
  58. @item @kbd{\key\}
  59. @end ifclear
  60. @end macro
  61. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  62. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  63. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  64. @ifset cmdnames
  65. @kindex \key\
  66. @findex \command\
  67. @iftex
  68. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  69. @end iftex
  70. @ifnottex
  71. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  72. @end ifnottex
  73. @end ifset
  74. @ifclear cmdnames
  75. @kindex \key\
  76. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  77. @end ifclear
  78. @end macro
  79. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  80. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  81. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  82. @ifset cmdnames
  83. @findex \command\
  84. @iftex
  85. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  86. @end iftex
  87. @ifnottex
  88. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  89. @end ifnottex
  90. @end ifset
  91. @ifclear cmdnames
  92. @item @kbd{\key\}
  93. @end ifclear
  94. @end macro
  95. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  96. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  97. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  98. @ifset cmdnames
  99. @kindex \key\
  100. @findex \command\
  101. @iftex
  102. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  103. @end iftex
  104. @ifnottex
  105. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  106. @end ifnottex
  107. @end ifset
  108. @ifclear cmdnames
  109. @kindex \key\
  110. @item @kbd{\text\}
  111. @end ifclear
  112. @end macro
  113. @c two keys with one command
  114. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  115. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  116. @ifset cmdnames
  117. @kindex \key1\
  118. @kindex \key2\
  119. @findex \command\
  120. @iftex
  121. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  122. @end iftex
  123. @ifnottex
  124. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  125. @end ifnottex
  126. @end ifset
  127. @ifclear cmdnames
  128. @kindex \key1\
  129. @kindex \key2\
  130. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  131. @end ifclear
  132. @end macro
  133. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  134. @c @itemx
  135. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  136. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  137. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  138. @ifset cmdnames
  139. @kindex \key1\
  140. @kindex \key2\
  141. @findex \command\
  142. @iftex
  143. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  144. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  145. @end iftex
  146. @ifnottex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  149. @end ifnottex
  150. @end ifset
  151. @ifclear cmdnames
  152. @kindex \key1\
  153. @kindex \key2\
  154. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  155. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  156. @end ifclear
  157. @end macro
  158. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  159. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  160. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  161. @ifset cmdnames
  162. @kindex \key1\
  163. @kindex \key2\
  164. @findex \command\
  165. @iftex
  166. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  167. @end iftex
  168. @ifnottex
  169. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  170. @end ifnottex
  171. @end ifset
  172. @ifclear cmdnames
  173. @kindex \key1\
  174. @kindex \key2\
  175. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  176. @end ifclear
  177. @end macro
  178. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  179. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  180. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  181. @ifset cmdnames
  182. @kindex \key1\
  183. @kindex \key2\
  184. @findex \command\
  185. @iftex
  186. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  187. @end iftex
  188. @ifnottex
  189. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  190. @end ifnottex
  191. @end ifset
  192. @ifclear cmdnames
  193. @kindex \key1\
  194. @kindex \key2\
  195. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  196. @end ifclear
  197. @end macro
  198. @c two keys with two commands
  199. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  200. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  201. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  202. @ifset cmdnames
  203. @kindex \key1\
  204. @kindex \key2\
  205. @findex \command1\
  206. @findex \command2\
  207. @iftex
  208. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  209. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  210. @end iftex
  211. @ifnottex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  214. @end ifnottex
  215. @end ifset
  216. @ifclear cmdnames
  217. @kindex \key1\
  218. @kindex \key2\
  219. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  220. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  221. @end ifclear
  222. @end macro
  223. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  224. @iftex
  225. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  226. @end iftex
  227. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  228. @macro tsubheading{text}
  229. @ifinfo
  230. @subsubheading \text\
  231. @end ifinfo
  232. @ifnotinfo
  233. @item @b{\text\}
  234. @end ifnotinfo
  235. @end macro
  236. @copying
  237. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  238. Copyright @copyright{} 2004--2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  239. @quotation
  240. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  241. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  242. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  243. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  244. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  245. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  246. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  247. modify this GNU manual.''
  248. @end quotation
  249. @end copying
  250. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  251. @direntry
  252. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  253. @end direntry
  254. @titlepage
  255. @title The Org Manual
  256. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  257. @author by Carsten Dominik
  258. with contributions by Bastien Guerry, Nicolas Goaziou, Eric Schulte,
  259. Jambunathan K, Dan Davison, Thomas Dye, David O'Toole, and Philip Rooke.
  260. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  261. @page
  262. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  263. @insertcopying
  264. @end titlepage
  265. @c Output the short table of contents at the beginning.
  266. @shortcontents
  267. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  268. @contents
  269. @ifnottex
  270. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  271. @top Org Mode Manual
  272. @insertcopying
  273. @end ifnottex
  274. @menu
  275. * Introduction:: Getting started
  276. * Document structure:: A tree works like your brain
  277. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  278. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  279. * TODO items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  280. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  281. * Properties and columns:: Storing information about an entry
  282. * Dates and times:: Making items useful for planning
  283. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  284. * Agenda views:: Collecting information into views
  285. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  286. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing notes
  287. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  288. * Working with source code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  289. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  290. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  291. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  292. * History and acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  293. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
  294. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  295. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  296. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  297. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  298. @detailmenu
  299. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  300. Introduction
  301. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  302. * Installation:: Installing Org
  303. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  304. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  305. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  306. Document structure
  307. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  308. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  309. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  310. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  311. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  312. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  313. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  314. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  315. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  316. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  317. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  318. Visibility cycling
  319. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  320. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  321. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  322. Tables
  323. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  324. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  325. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  326. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  327. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  328. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  329. The spreadsheet
  330. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  331. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  332. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  333. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  334. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  335. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  336. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  337. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  338. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  339. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  340. Hyperlinks
  341. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  342. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  343. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  344. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  345. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  346. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  347. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  348. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  349. Internal links
  350. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  351. TODO items
  352. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  353. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  354. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  355. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  356. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  357. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  358. Extended use of TODO keywords
  359. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  360. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  361. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  362. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  363. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  364. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  365. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  366. Progress logging
  367. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  368. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  369. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  370. Tags
  371. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  372. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  373. * Tag hierarchy:: Create a hierarchy of tags
  374. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  375. Properties and columns
  376. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  377. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  378. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  379. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  380. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  381. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  382. Column view
  383. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  384. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  385. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  386. Defining columns
  387. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  388. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  389. Dates and times
  390. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  391. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  392. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  393. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  394. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  395. * Timers:: Notes with a running timer
  396. Creating timestamps
  397. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  398. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  399. Deadlines and scheduling
  400. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  401. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  402. Clocking work time
  403. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  404. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  405. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  406. Capture - Refile - Archive
  407. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  408. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  409. * RSS feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  410. * Protocols:: External (e.g., Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  411. * Refile and copy:: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another
  412. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  413. Capture
  414. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  415. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  416. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  417. Capture templates
  418. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  419. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  420. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context
  421. Protocols for external access
  422. * @code{store-link} protocol:: Store a link, push URL to kill-ring.
  423. * @code{capture} protocol:: Fill a buffer with external information.
  424. * @code{open-source} protocol:: Edit published contents.
  425. Archiving
  426. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  427. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  428. Agenda views
  429. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  430. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  431. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  432. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  433. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  434. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  435. * Exporting agenda views:: Writing a view to a file
  436. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  437. The built-in agenda views
  438. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  439. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  440. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  441. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  442. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  443. Presentation and sorting
  444. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  445. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  446. * Sorting agenda items:: The order of things
  447. * Filtering/limiting agenda items:: Dynamically narrow the agenda
  448. Custom agenda views
  449. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  450. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  451. * Setting options:: Changing the rules
  452. Markup for rich export
  453. * Paragraphs:: The basic unit of text
  454. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  455. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  456. * Images and tables:: Images, tables and caption mechanism
  457. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  458. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  459. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  460. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  461. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  462. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  463. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  464. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  465. Exporting
  466. * The export dispatcher:: The main interface
  467. * Export settings:: Common export settings
  468. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  469. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  470. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create templates
  471. * Comment lines:: What will not be exported
  472. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  473. * Beamer export:: Exporting as a Beamer presentation
  474. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  475. * @LaTeX{} export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  476. * Markdown export:: Exporting to Markdown
  477. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  478. * Org export:: Exporting to Org
  479. * Texinfo export:: Exporting to Texinfo
  480. * iCalendar export:: Exporting to iCalendar
  481. * Other built-in back-ends:: Exporting to a man page
  482. * Advanced configuration:: Fine-tuning the export output
  483. * Export in foreign buffers:: Author tables and lists in Org syntax
  484. Beamer export
  485. * Beamer export commands:: For creating Beamer documents.
  486. * Beamer specific export settings:: For customizing Beamer export.
  487. * Sectioning Frames and Blocks in Beamer:: For composing Beamer slides.
  488. * Beamer specific syntax:: For using in Org documents.
  489. * Editing support:: For using helper functions.
  490. * A Beamer example:: A complete presentation.
  491. HTML export
  492. * HTML Export commands:: Invoking HTML export
  493. * HTML Specific export settings:: Settings for HTML export
  494. * HTML doctypes:: Exporting various (X)HTML flavors
  495. * HTML preamble and postamble:: Inserting preamble and postamble
  496. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org files
  497. * Links in HTML export:: Interpreting and formatting links
  498. * Tables in HTML export:: Formatting and modifying tables
  499. * Images in HTML export:: Inserting figures with HTML output
  500. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Handling math equations
  501. * Text areas in HTML export:: Showing an alternate approach, an example
  502. * CSS support:: Styling HTML output
  503. * JavaScript support:: Folding scripting in the web browser
  504. @LaTeX{} export
  505. * @LaTeX{} export commands:: For producing @LaTeX{} and PDF documents.
  506. * @LaTeX{} specific export settings:: Unique to this @LaTeX{} back-end.
  507. * @LaTeX{} header and sectioning:: For file structure.
  508. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Directly in the Org document.
  509. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to tables.
  510. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to images.
  511. * Plain lists in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to lists.
  512. * Source blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to source code blocks.
  513. * Example blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to example blocks.
  514. * Special blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to special blocks.
  515. * Horizontal rules in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to horizontal rules.
  516. OpenDocument Text export
  517. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: Required packages.
  518. * ODT export commands:: Invoking export.
  519. * ODT specific export settings:: Configuration options.
  520. * Extending ODT export:: Producing @file{.doc}, @file{.pdf} files.
  521. * Applying custom styles:: Styling the output.
  522. * Links in ODT export:: Handling and formatting links.
  523. * Tables in ODT export:: Org table conversions.
  524. * Images in ODT export:: Inserting images.
  525. * Math formatting in ODT export:: Formatting @LaTeX{} fragments.
  526. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: Rendering objects.
  527. * Literal examples in ODT export:: For source code and example blocks.
  528. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: For power users.
  529. Math formatting in ODT export
  530. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: Embedding in @LaTeX{} format.
  531. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: Embedding in native format.
  532. Advanced topics in ODT export
  533. * Configuring a document converter:: Registering a document converter.
  534. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Exploring internals.
  535. * Creating one-off styles:: Customizing styles, highlighting.
  536. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: Defining table templates.
  537. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: Debugging corrupted OpenDocument files.
  538. Texinfo export
  539. * Texinfo export commands:: Invoking commands.
  540. * Texinfo specific export settings:: Setting the environment.
  541. * Texinfo file header:: Generating the header.
  542. * Texinfo title and copyright page:: Creating preamble pages.
  543. * Info directory file:: Installing a manual in Info file hierarchy.
  544. * Headings and sectioning structure:: Building document structure.
  545. * Indices:: Creating indices.
  546. * Quoting Texinfo code:: Incorporating literal Texinfo code.
  547. * Plain lists in Texinfo export:: List attributes.
  548. * Tables in Texinfo export:: Table attributes.
  549. * Images in Texinfo export:: Image attributes.
  550. * Special blocks in Texinfo export:: Special block attributes.
  551. * A Texinfo example:: Processing Org to Texinfo.
  552. Publishing
  553. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  554. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  555. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  556. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  557. Configuration
  558. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  559. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  560. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  561. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  562. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  563. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  564. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  565. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  566. Sample configuration
  567. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  568. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  569. Working with source code
  570. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  571. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  572. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  573. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  574. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  575. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  576. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  577. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  578. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  579. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  580. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  581. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  582. Header arguments
  583. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  584. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  585. Using header arguments
  586. * System-wide header arguments:: Set globally, language-specific
  587. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set in the Org file's headers
  588. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set in the Org file
  589. * Language-specific mode properties::
  590. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most commonly used method
  591. * Arguments in function calls:: The most specific level, takes highest priority
  592. Specific header arguments
  593. * var:: Pass arguments to @samp{src} code blocks
  594. * results:: Specify results type; how to collect
  595. * file:: Specify a path for output file
  596. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  597. * file-ext:: Specify an extension for file output
  598. * output-dir:: Specify a directory for output file
  599. * dir:: Specify the default directory for code block execution
  600. * exports:: Specify exporting code, results, both, none
  601. * tangle:: Toggle tangling; or specify file name
  602. * mkdirp:: Toggle for parent directory creation for target files during tangling
  603. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled code files
  604. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled code files
  605. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb expansion during tangling
  606. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  607. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  608. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  609. * noweb-sep:: String to separate noweb references
  610. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  611. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  612. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  613. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  614. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  615. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  616. * tangle-mode:: Set permission of tangled files
  617. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  618. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  619. * post:: Post processing of results of code block evaluation
  620. * prologue:: Text to prepend to body of code block
  621. * epilogue:: Text to append to body of code block
  622. Miscellaneous
  623. * Completion:: M-TAB guesses completions
  624. * Structure templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  625. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  626. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  627. * Customization:: Adapting Org to changing tastes
  628. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  629. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  630. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  631. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  632. * Interaction:: With other Emacs packages
  633. * org-crypt:: Encrypting Org files
  634. Interaction with other packages
  635. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  636. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  637. Hacking
  638. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  639. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  640. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  641. * Adding export back-ends:: How to write new export back-ends
  642. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  643. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  644. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  645. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  646. * Speeding up your agendas:: Tips on how to speed up your agendas
  647. * Extracting agenda information:: Post-processing of agenda information
  648. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  649. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  650. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  651. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  652. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  653. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  654. MobileOrg
  655. * Setting up the staging area:: For the mobile device
  656. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  657. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  658. @end detailmenu
  659. @end menu
  660. @node Introduction
  661. @chapter Introduction
  662. @cindex introduction
  663. @menu
  664. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  665. * Installation:: Installing Org
  666. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  667. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  668. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  669. @end menu
  670. @node Summary
  671. @section Summary
  672. @cindex summary
  673. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and project planning
  674. with a fast and effective plain-text system. It also is an authoring system
  675. with unique support for literate programming and reproducible research.
  676. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep
  677. the content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and structure
  678. editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created with a
  679. built-in table editor. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites,
  680. emails, Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  681. Org develops organizational tasks around notes files that contain lists or
  682. information about projects as plain text. Project planning and task
  683. management makes use of metadata which is part of an outline node. Based on
  684. this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and create dynamic
  685. @i{agenda views} that also integrate the Emacs calendar and diary. Org can
  686. be used to implement many different project planning schemes, such as David
  687. Allen's GTD system.
  688. Org files can serve as a single source authoring system with export to many
  689. different formats such as HTML, @LaTeX{}, Open Document, and Markdown. New
  690. export backends can be derived from existing ones, or defined from scratch.
  691. Org files can include source code blocks, which makes Org uniquely suited for
  692. authoring technical documents with code examples. Org source code blocks are
  693. fully functional; they can be evaluated in place and their results can be
  694. captured in the file. This makes it possible to create a single file
  695. reproducible research compendium.
  696. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should feel like a
  697. straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not imposed, but a
  698. large amount of functionality is available when needed. Org is a toolbox.
  699. Many users actually run only a (very personal) fraction of Org's capabilities, and
  700. know that there is more whenever they need it.
  701. All of this is achieved with strictly plain text files, the most portable and
  702. future-proof file format. Org runs in Emacs. Emacs is one of the most
  703. widely ported programs, so that Org mode is available on every major
  704. platform.
  705. @cindex FAQ
  706. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  707. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  708. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc. This page is located at
  709. @uref{https://orgmode.org}.
  710. @cindex print edition
  711. An earlier version (7.3) of this manual is available as a
  712. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from
  713. Network Theory Ltd.}
  714. @page
  715. @node Installation
  716. @section Installation
  717. @cindex installation
  718. Org is part of recent distributions of GNU Emacs, so you normally don't need
  719. to install it. If, for one reason or another, you want to install Org on top
  720. of this pre-packaged version, there are three ways to do it:
  721. @itemize @bullet
  722. @item By using Emacs package system.
  723. @item By downloading Org as an archive.
  724. @item By using Org's git repository.
  725. @end itemize
  726. We @b{strongly recommend} to stick to a single installation method.
  727. @subsubheading Using Emacs packaging system
  728. Recent Emacs distributions include a packaging system which lets you install
  729. Elisp libraries. You can install Org with @kbd{M-x package-install RET org}.
  730. @noindent @b{Important}: you need to do this in a session where no @code{.org} file has
  731. been visited, i.e., where no Org built-in function have been loaded.
  732. Otherwise autoload Org functions will mess up the installation.
  733. Then, to make sure your Org configuration is taken into account, initialize
  734. the package system with @code{(package-initialize)} in your Emacs init file
  735. before setting any Org option. If you want to use Org's package repository,
  736. check out the @uref{https://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}.
  737. @subsubheading Downloading Org as an archive
  738. You can download Org latest release from @uref{https://orgmode.org/, Org's
  739. website}. In this case, make sure you set the load-path correctly in your
  740. Emacs init file:
  741. @lisp
  742. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  743. @end lisp
  744. The downloaded archive contains contributed libraries that are not included
  745. in Emacs. If you want to use them, add the @file{contrib} directory to your
  746. load-path:
  747. @lisp
  748. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  749. @end lisp
  750. Optionally, you can compile the files and/or install them in your system.
  751. Run @code{make help} to list compilation and installation options.
  752. @subsubheading Using Org's git repository
  753. You can clone Org's repository and install Org like this:
  754. @example
  755. $ cd ~/src/
  756. $ git clone https://code.orgmode.org/bzg/org-mode.git
  757. $ make autoloads
  758. @end example
  759. Note that in this case, @code{make autoloads} is mandatory: it defines Org's
  760. version in @file{org-version.el} and Org's autoloads in
  761. @file{org-loaddefs.el}.
  762. Remember to add the correct load-path as described in the method above.
  763. You can also compile with @code{make}, generate the documentation with
  764. @code{make doc}, create a local configuration with @code{make config} and
  765. install Org with @code{make install}. Please run @code{make help} to get
  766. the list of compilation/installation options.
  767. For more detailed explanations on Org's build system, please check the Org
  768. Build System page on @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html,
  769. Worg}.
  770. @node Activation
  771. @section Activation
  772. @cindex activation
  773. @cindex autoload
  774. @cindex ELPA
  775. @cindex global key bindings
  776. @cindex key bindings, global
  777. @findex org-agenda
  778. @findex org-capture
  779. @findex org-store-link
  780. @findex org-iswitchb
  781. Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on: this is the default in
  782. Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer
  783. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  784. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  785. packages, please take the time to check the list (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  786. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  787. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  788. global keys (i.e., anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  789. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  790. liking.
  791. @lisp
  792. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  793. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  794. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  795. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  796. @end lisp
  797. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  798. Files with the @file{.org} extension use Org mode by default. To turn on Org
  799. mode in a file that does not have the extension @file{.org}, make the first
  800. line of a file look like this:
  801. @example
  802. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  803. @end example
  804. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  805. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  806. the file's name is. See also the variable
  807. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  808. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  809. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode} turned on, which is
  810. the default. If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create
  811. an active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  812. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  813. @node Feedback
  814. @section Feedback
  815. @cindex feedback
  816. @cindex bug reports
  817. @cindex maintainer
  818. @cindex author
  819. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  820. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  821. You can subscribe to the list
  822. @uref{https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/emacs-orgmode, on this web page}.
  823. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  824. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  825. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  826. moderators have to do.}.
  827. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  828. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  829. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  830. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  831. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  832. (@kbd{M-x org-version RET}), as well as the Org related setup in the Emacs
  833. init file. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  834. @example
  835. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report RET}
  836. @end example
  837. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  838. that you only need to add your description. If you are not sending the Email
  839. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  840. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  841. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  842. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  843. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  844. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  845. @example
  846. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  847. @end example
  848. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  849. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as
  850. @code{emacs -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  851. shown below.
  852. @lisp
  853. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest 'org-mode'
  854. ;; activate debugging
  855. (setq debug-on-error t
  856. debug-on-signal nil
  857. debug-on-quit nil)
  858. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  859. (add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/org-mode/lisp")
  860. (add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t)
  861. @end lisp
  862. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  863. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  864. about:
  865. @enumerate
  866. @item What exactly did you do?
  867. @item What did you expect to happen?
  868. @item What happened instead?
  869. @end enumerate
  870. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  871. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  872. @cindex backtrace of an error
  873. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  874. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  875. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  876. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  877. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  878. @enumerate
  879. @item
  880. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  881. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  882. To do this, use
  883. @example
  884. @kbd{C-u M-x org-reload RET}
  885. @end example
  886. @noindent
  887. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  888. menu.
  889. @item
  890. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}.
  891. @item
  892. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  893. document the steps you take.
  894. @item
  895. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  896. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  897. attach it to your bug report.
  898. @end enumerate
  899. @node Conventions
  900. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  901. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  902. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  903. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  904. @table @code
  905. @item TODO
  906. @itemx WAITING
  907. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  908. user-defined.
  909. @item boss
  910. @itemx ARCHIVE
  911. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  912. meaning are written with all capitals.
  913. @item Release
  914. @itemx PRIORITY
  915. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  916. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  917. @end table
  918. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  919. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_EXPORT html} to start
  920. a @code{HTML} environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to
  921. enhance its readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org file.
  922. @subsubheading Key bindings and commands
  923. @kindex C-c a
  924. @findex org-agenda
  925. @kindex C-c c
  926. @findex org-capture
  927. The manual suggests a few global key bindings, in particular @kbd{C-c a} for
  928. @code{org-agenda} and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only
  929. suggestions, but the rest of the manual assumes that these key bindings are in
  930. place in order to list commands by key access.
  931. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  932. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  933. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  934. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  935. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  936. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will
  937. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  938. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  939. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  940. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  941. @node Document structure
  942. @chapter Document structure
  943. @cindex document structure
  944. @cindex structure of document
  945. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  946. edit the structure of the document.
  947. @menu
  948. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  949. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  950. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  951. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  952. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  953. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  954. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  955. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  956. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  957. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  958. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  959. @end menu
  960. @node Outlines
  961. @section Outlines
  962. @cindex outlines
  963. @cindex Outline mode
  964. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  965. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  966. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  967. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  968. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  969. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  970. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  971. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  972. @node Headlines
  973. @section Headlines
  974. @cindex headlines
  975. @cindex outline tree
  976. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  977. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  978. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  979. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  980. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  981. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  982. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  983. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  984. headings indented less than 30 stars.}. For example:
  985. @example
  986. * Top level headline
  987. ** Second level
  988. *** 3rd level
  989. some text
  990. *** 3rd level
  991. more text
  992. * Another top level headline
  993. @end example
  994. @vindex org-footnote-section
  995. @noindent Note that a headline named after @code{org-footnote-section},
  996. which defaults to @samp{Footnotes}, is considered as special. A subtree with
  997. this headline will be silently ignored by exporting functions.
  998. Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  999. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  1000. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  1001. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  1002. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  1003. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  1004. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  1005. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  1006. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  1007. @node Visibility cycling
  1008. @section Visibility cycling
  1009. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1010. @cindex visibility cycling
  1011. @cindex trees, visibility
  1012. @cindex show hidden text
  1013. @cindex hide text
  1014. @menu
  1015. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  1016. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  1017. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  1018. @end menu
  1019. @node Global and local cycling
  1020. @subsection Global and local cycling
  1021. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1022. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1023. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1024. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1025. @cindex subtree cycling
  1026. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1027. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1028. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1029. @table @asis
  1030. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1031. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1032. @example
  1033. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1034. '-----------------------------------'
  1035. @end example
  1036. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1037. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1038. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}.
  1039. @cindex global visibility states
  1040. @cindex global cycling
  1041. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1042. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1043. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1044. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1045. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1046. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1047. @example
  1048. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1049. '--------------------------------------'
  1050. @end example
  1051. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1052. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1053. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1054. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1055. You can run global cycling using @key{TAB} only if point is at the very
  1056. beginning of the buffer, but not on a headline, and
  1057. @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob} is set to a non-@code{nil} value.
  1058. @cindex set startup visibility, command
  1059. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1060. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer (@pxref{Initial visibility}).
  1061. @cindex show all, command
  1062. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},outline-show-all}
  1063. Show all, including drawers.
  1064. @cindex revealing context
  1065. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1066. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1067. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1068. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1069. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1070. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1071. entire subtree of the parent.
  1072. @cindex show branches, command
  1073. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,outline-show-branches}
  1074. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENTS view for just one subtree.
  1075. @cindex show children, command
  1076. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},outline-show-children}
  1077. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1078. expose all children down to level N@.
  1079. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1080. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect buffer
  1081. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual}) will contain the entire
  1082. buffer, but will be narrowed to the current tree. Editing the indirect
  1083. buffer will also change the original buffer, but without affecting visibility
  1084. in that buffer.}. With a numeric prefix argument N, go up to level N and
  1085. then take that tree. If N is negative then go up that many levels. With
  1086. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove the previously used indirect buffer.
  1087. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1088. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1089. @end table
  1090. @node Initial visibility
  1091. @subsection Initial visibility
  1092. @cindex visibility, initialize
  1093. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1094. @vindex org-agenda-inhibit-startup
  1095. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1096. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1097. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1098. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1099. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to OVERVIEW,
  1100. i.e., only the top level headlines are visible@footnote{When
  1101. @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} is non-@code{nil}, Org will not honor the default
  1102. visibility state when first opening a file for the agenda (@pxref{Speeding up
  1103. your agendas}).}. This can be configured through the variable
  1104. @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a per-file basis by adding one of the
  1105. following lines anywhere in the buffer:
  1106. @example
  1107. #+STARTUP: overview
  1108. #+STARTUP: content
  1109. #+STARTUP: showall
  1110. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1111. @end example
  1112. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1113. @noindent
  1114. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1115. and columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1116. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1117. @code{all}.
  1118. @table @asis
  1119. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1120. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e., whatever is
  1121. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1122. entries.
  1123. @end table
  1124. @node Catching invisible edits
  1125. @subsection Catching invisible edits
  1126. @vindex org-catch-invisible-edits
  1127. @cindex edits, catching invisible
  1128. Sometimes you may inadvertently edit an invisible part of the buffer and be
  1129. confused on what has been edited and how to undo the mistake. Setting
  1130. @code{org-catch-invisible-edits} to non-@code{nil} will help prevent this. See the
  1131. docstring of this option on how Org should catch invisible edits and process
  1132. them.
  1133. @node Motion
  1134. @section Motion
  1135. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1136. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1137. @cindex headline navigation
  1138. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1139. @table @asis
  1140. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,org-next-visible-heading}
  1141. Next heading.
  1142. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,org-previous-visible-heading}
  1143. Previous heading.
  1144. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1145. Next heading same level.
  1146. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1147. Previous heading same level.
  1148. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1149. Backward to higher level heading.
  1150. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1151. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1152. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1153. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1154. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1155. @example
  1156. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1157. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1158. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1159. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1160. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1161. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1162. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1163. u @r{One level up.}
  1164. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1165. q @r{Quit}
  1166. @end example
  1167. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1168. @noindent
  1169. See also the option @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1170. @end table
  1171. @node Structure editing
  1172. @section Structure editing
  1173. @cindex structure editing
  1174. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1175. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1176. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1177. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1178. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1179. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1180. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1181. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1182. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1183. @table @asis
  1184. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-meta-return}
  1185. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1186. Insert a new heading, item or row.
  1187. If the command is used at the @emph{beginning} of a line, and if there is
  1188. a heading or a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}) at point, the new
  1189. heading/item is created @emph{before} the current line. When used at the
  1190. beginning of a regular line of text, turn that line into a heading.
  1191. When this command is used in the middle of a line, the line is split and the
  1192. rest of the line becomes the new item or headline. If you do not want the
  1193. line to be split, customize @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.
  1194. Calling the command with a @kbd{C-u} prefix unconditionally inserts a new
  1195. heading at the end of the current subtree, thus preserving its contents.
  1196. With a double @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix, the new heading is created at the end of
  1197. the parent subtree instead.
  1198. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1199. Insert a new heading at the end of the current subtree.
  1200. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1201. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1202. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1203. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1204. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1205. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1206. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1207. subtree.
  1208. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1209. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1210. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1211. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1212. to the initial level.
  1213. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1214. Promote current heading by one level.
  1215. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1216. Demote current heading by one level.
  1217. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1218. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1219. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1220. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1221. @orgcmd{M-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1222. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1223. level).
  1224. @orgcmd{M-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1225. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1226. @orgcmd{M-h,org-mark-element}
  1227. Mark the element at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent elements
  1228. of the one just marked. E.g., hitting @key{M-h} on a paragraph will mark it,
  1229. hitting @key{M-h} immediately again will mark the next one.
  1230. @orgcmd{C-c @@,org-mark-subtree}
  1231. Mark the subtree at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent subtrees
  1232. of the same level than the marked subtree.
  1233. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1234. Kill subtree, i.e., remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1235. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1236. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1237. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1238. sequential subtrees.
  1239. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1240. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1241. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1242. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1243. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1244. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1245. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1246. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1247. Depending on the options @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1248. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1249. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1250. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1251. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1252. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1253. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1254. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1255. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1256. folding.
  1257. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1258. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1259. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1260. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1261. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1262. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1263. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1264. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1265. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refile and copy}.
  1266. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1267. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1268. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1269. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1270. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1271. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1272. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1273. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1274. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1275. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1276. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1277. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1278. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1279. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1280. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1281. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1282. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1283. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1284. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1285. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1286. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1287. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1288. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1289. @end table
  1290. @cindex region, active
  1291. @cindex active region
  1292. @cindex transient mark mode
  1293. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1294. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1295. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1296. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1297. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1298. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1299. functionality.
  1300. @node Sparse trees
  1301. @section Sparse trees
  1302. @cindex sparse trees
  1303. @cindex trees, sparse
  1304. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1305. @cindex occur, command
  1306. @vindex org-show-context-detail
  1307. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1308. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1309. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1310. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1311. variable @code{org-show-context-detail} to decide how much context is shown
  1312. around each match.}. Just try it out and you will see immediately how it
  1313. works.
  1314. Org mode contains several commands for creating such trees, all these
  1315. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1316. @table @asis
  1317. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1318. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1319. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / r,C-c / /,org-occur}
  1320. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1321. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1322. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1323. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1324. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1325. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1326. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1327. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1328. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1329. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1330. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1331. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1332. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1333. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1334. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1335. @end table
  1336. @noindent
  1337. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1338. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1339. use the option @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1340. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1341. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1342. For example:
  1343. @lisp
  1344. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1345. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1346. @end lisp
  1347. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1348. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1349. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1350. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1351. @kindex C-c C-e C-v
  1352. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1353. @cindex visible text, printing
  1354. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1355. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts of the
  1356. document. Or you can use @kbd{C-c C-e C-v} to export only the visible part
  1357. of the document and print the resulting file.
  1358. @node Plain lists
  1359. @section Plain lists
  1360. @cindex plain lists
  1361. @cindex lists, plain
  1362. @cindex lists, ordered
  1363. @cindex ordered lists
  1364. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1365. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1366. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1367. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1368. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1369. @itemize @bullet
  1370. @item
  1371. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1372. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1373. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1374. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1375. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1376. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1377. bullets.
  1378. @item
  1379. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1380. @vindex org-list-allow-alphabetical
  1381. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1382. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1383. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1384. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1385. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-list-allow-alphabetical}. To minimize
  1386. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1387. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1388. list to start with a different value (e.g., 20), start the text of the item
  1389. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1390. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1391. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1392. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1393. @item
  1394. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1395. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1396. description.
  1397. @end itemize
  1398. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1399. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1400. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1401. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1402. than its bullet/number.
  1403. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1404. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1405. lines. In that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1406. @example
  1407. @group
  1408. ** Lord of the Rings
  1409. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1410. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1411. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1412. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1413. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1414. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1415. - on DVD only
  1416. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1417. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1418. Important actors in this film are:
  1419. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1420. - @b{Sean Astin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1421. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1422. @end group
  1423. @end example
  1424. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1425. them correctly, and by exporting them properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since
  1426. indentation is what governs the structure of these lists, many structural
  1427. constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...} blocks can be indented to signal that they
  1428. belong to a particular item.
  1429. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1430. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1431. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1432. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1433. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1434. indentation between items and their sub-items, customize
  1435. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1436. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1437. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1438. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1439. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1440. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1441. to disable them individually.
  1442. @table @asis
  1443. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1444. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1445. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1446. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1447. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1448. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1449. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1450. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1451. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1452. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1453. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1454. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1455. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1456. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1457. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1458. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1459. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1460. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1461. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1462. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1463. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1464. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1465. one.
  1466. @end table
  1467. @table @kbd
  1468. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1469. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1470. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1471. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1472. @item S-up
  1473. @itemx S-down
  1474. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1475. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1476. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1477. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1478. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1479. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1480. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1481. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1482. similar effect.
  1483. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1484. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1485. @item M-up
  1486. @itemx M-down
  1487. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1488. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1489. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1490. is automatic.
  1491. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1492. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1493. @item M-left
  1494. @itemx M-right
  1495. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1496. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1497. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1498. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1499. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1500. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1501. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1502. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1503. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1504. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1505. motion or so.
  1506. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1507. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1508. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1509. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1510. @kindex C-c C-c
  1511. @item C-c C-c
  1512. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1513. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1514. consistency in the whole list.
  1515. @kindex C-c -
  1516. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1517. @item C-c -
  1518. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1519. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1520. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1521. and its indentation. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet
  1522. from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, all selected
  1523. lines are converted to list items. With a prefix argument, selected text is
  1524. changed into a single item. If the first line already was a list item, any
  1525. item marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1526. region, a normal line will be converted into a list item.
  1527. @kindex C-c *
  1528. @item C-c *
  1529. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1530. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1531. @kindex C-c C-*
  1532. @item C-c C-*
  1533. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1534. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1535. (resp. checked).
  1536. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1537. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1538. @item S-left/right
  1539. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1540. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1541. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1542. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1543. @kindex C-c ^
  1544. @cindex sorting, of plain list
  1545. @item C-c ^
  1546. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1547. numerically, alphabetically, by time, by checked status for check lists,
  1548. or by a custom function.
  1549. @end table
  1550. @node Drawers
  1551. @section Drawers
  1552. @cindex drawers
  1553. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1554. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  1555. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1556. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1557. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}. They
  1558. can contain anything but a headline and another drawer. Drawers look like
  1559. this:
  1560. @example
  1561. ** This is a headline
  1562. Still outside the drawer
  1563. :DRAWERNAME:
  1564. This is inside the drawer.
  1565. :END:
  1566. After the drawer.
  1567. @end example
  1568. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1569. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1570. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1571. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add
  1572. a property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1573. keywords is also possible using @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@footnote{Many desktops
  1574. intercept @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows. Use @kbd{C-M-i} or
  1575. @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} instead for completion (@pxref{Completion}).}.
  1576. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1577. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1578. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1579. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1580. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}), and you can also arrange
  1581. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1582. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1583. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state
  1584. changes, use
  1585. @table @kbd
  1586. @kindex C-c C-z
  1587. @item C-c C-z
  1588. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1589. @end table
  1590. @vindex org-export-with-drawers
  1591. @vindex org-export-with-properties
  1592. You can select the name of the drawers which should be exported with
  1593. @code{org-export-with-drawers}. In that case, drawer contents will appear in
  1594. export output. Property drawers are not affected by this variable: configure
  1595. @code{org-export-with-properties} instead.
  1596. @node Blocks
  1597. @section Blocks
  1598. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1599. @cindex blocks, folding
  1600. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1601. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1602. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1603. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1604. folded at startup by configuring the option @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1605. or on a per-file basis by using
  1606. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1607. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1608. @example
  1609. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1610. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1611. @end example
  1612. @node Footnotes
  1613. @section Footnotes
  1614. @cindex footnotes
  1615. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes.
  1616. A footnote is started by a footnote marker in square brackets in column 0, no
  1617. indentation allowed. It ends at the next footnote definition, headline, or
  1618. after two consecutive empty lines. The footnote reference is simply the
  1619. marker in square brackets, inside text. Markers always start with
  1620. @code{fn:}. For example:
  1621. @example
  1622. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1623. ...
  1624. [fn:1] The link is: https://orgmode.org
  1625. @end example
  1626. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1627. optional inline definition. Here are the valid references:
  1628. @table @code
  1629. @item [fn:name]
  1630. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1631. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1632. @item [fn::This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1633. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1634. reference point.
  1635. @item [fn:name:a definition]
  1636. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1637. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1638. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1639. @end table
  1640. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1641. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1642. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1643. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1644. for details.
  1645. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1646. @table @kbd
  1647. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1648. @item C-c C-x f
  1649. The footnote action command.
  1650. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1651. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1652. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1653. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1654. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1655. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the option
  1656. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1657. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1658. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1659. separately into the location determined by the option
  1660. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1661. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1662. options is offered:
  1663. @example
  1664. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1665. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1666. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1667. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1668. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1669. @r{option @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1670. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1671. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the option}
  1672. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1673. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1674. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1675. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1676. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers.}
  1677. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1678. @r{to it.}
  1679. @end example
  1680. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1681. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1682. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1683. deletion.
  1684. @kindex C-c C-c
  1685. @item C-c C-c
  1686. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1687. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1688. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1689. @kindex C-c C-o
  1690. @kindex mouse-1
  1691. @kindex mouse-2
  1692. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1693. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1694. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1695. @vindex org-edit-footnote-reference
  1696. @kindex C-c '
  1697. @item C-c '
  1698. @item C-c '
  1699. Edit the footnote definition corresponding to the reference at point in
  1700. a separate window. The window can be closed by pressing @kbd{C-c '}.
  1701. @end table
  1702. @node Org syntax
  1703. @section Org syntax
  1704. @cindex Org syntax
  1705. A reference document providing a formal description of Org's syntax is
  1706. available as @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-syntax.html, a draft on
  1707. Worg}, written and maintained by Nicolas Goaziou. It defines Org's core
  1708. internal concepts such as @code{headlines}, @code{sections}, @code{affiliated
  1709. keywords}, @code{(greater) elements} and @code{objects}. Each part of an Org
  1710. file falls into one of the categories above.
  1711. To explore the abstract structure of an Org buffer, run this in a buffer:
  1712. @lisp
  1713. M-: (org-element-parse-buffer) RET
  1714. @end lisp
  1715. It will output a list containing the buffer's content represented as an
  1716. abstract structure. The export engine relies on the information stored in
  1717. this list. Most interactive commands (e.g., for structure editing) also
  1718. rely on the syntactic meaning of the surrounding context.
  1719. @cindex syntax checker
  1720. @cindex linter
  1721. You can check syntax in your documents using @code{org-lint} command.
  1722. @node Tables
  1723. @chapter Tables
  1724. @cindex tables
  1725. @cindex editing tables
  1726. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1727. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1728. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1729. @menu
  1730. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1731. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1732. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1733. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1734. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1735. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1736. @end menu
  1737. @node Built-in table editor
  1738. @section The built-in table editor
  1739. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1740. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII@. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1741. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1742. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1743. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1744. might look like this:
  1745. @example
  1746. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1747. |-------+-------+-----|
  1748. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1749. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1750. @end example
  1751. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1752. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1753. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1754. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1755. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1756. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1757. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1758. create the above table, you would only type
  1759. @example
  1760. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1761. |-
  1762. @end example
  1763. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1764. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1765. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1766. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1767. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL}, @key{Backspace}, and all
  1768. character keys in a special way, so that inserting and deleting avoids
  1769. shifting other fields. Also, when typing @emph{immediately after the cursor
  1770. was moved into a new field with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or
  1771. @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is
  1772. too unpredictable for you, configure the option
  1773. @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1774. @table @kbd
  1775. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1776. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1777. Convert the active region to a table. If every line contains at least one
  1778. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1779. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1780. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1781. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1782. C-u} forces TAB, @kbd{C-u C-u C-u} will prompt for a regular expression to
  1783. match the separator, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1784. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1785. @*
  1786. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1787. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1788. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1789. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1790. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1791. Re-align the table and don't move to another field.
  1792. @c
  1793. @orgcmd{C-c SPC,org-table-blank-field}
  1794. Blank the field at point.
  1795. @c
  1796. @orgcmd{TAB,org-table-next-field}
  1797. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1798. necessary.
  1799. @c
  1800. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1801. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1802. @c
  1803. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1804. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1805. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1806. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1807. @c
  1808. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1809. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1810. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1811. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1812. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1813. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1814. Move the current column left/right.
  1815. @c
  1816. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1817. Kill the current column.
  1818. @c
  1819. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1820. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1821. @c
  1822. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1823. Move the current row up/down.
  1824. @c
  1825. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1826. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1827. @c
  1828. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1829. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1830. created below the current one.
  1831. @c
  1832. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1833. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1834. is created above the current line.
  1835. @c
  1836. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1837. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1838. below that line.
  1839. @c
  1840. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1841. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1842. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1843. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1844. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1845. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1846. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1847. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1848. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). You can sort in normal or
  1849. reverse order. You can also supply your own key extraction and comparison
  1850. functions. When called with a prefix argument, alphabetic sorting will be
  1851. case-sensitive.
  1852. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1853. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1854. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1855. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1856. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1857. @c
  1858. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1859. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1860. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1861. @c
  1862. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1863. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1864. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1865. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1866. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1867. lines.
  1868. @c
  1869. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1870. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1871. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1872. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1873. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1874. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1875. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1876. above.
  1877. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1878. @cindex formula, in tables
  1879. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1880. @cindex region, active
  1881. @cindex active region
  1882. @cindex transient mark mode
  1883. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1884. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1885. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1886. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1887. @c
  1888. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1889. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1890. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1891. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1892. Depending on the option @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1893. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1894. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1895. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1896. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1897. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1898. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1899. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1900. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1901. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1902. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1903. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1904. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1905. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1906. @c
  1907. @item M-x org-table-import RET
  1908. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1909. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1910. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1911. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1912. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1913. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1914. separator.
  1915. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1916. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1917. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1918. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1919. @c
  1920. @item M-x org-table-export RET
  1921. @findex org-table-export
  1922. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1923. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1924. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1925. used to export the file can be configured in the option
  1926. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1927. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1928. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1929. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1930. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1931. detailed description.
  1932. @end table
  1933. @node Column width and alignment
  1934. @section Column width and alignment
  1935. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1936. @cindex alignment in tables
  1937. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. The
  1938. alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction of
  1939. number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1940. @vindex org-table-automatic-realign
  1941. Editing a field may modify alignment of the table. Moving a contiguous row
  1942. or column---i.e., using @kbd{TAB} or @kbd{RET}---automatically re-aligns it.
  1943. If you want to disable this behavior, set @code{org-table-automatic-realign}
  1944. to @code{nil}. In any case, you can always align manually a table:
  1945. @table @asis
  1946. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1947. Align the current table.
  1948. @end table
  1949. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1950. @noindent
  1951. Setting the option @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} re-aligns all tables
  1952. in a file upon visiting it. You can also set this option on a per-file basis
  1953. with:
  1954. @example
  1955. #+STARTUP: align
  1956. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1957. @end example
  1958. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1959. inconveniently wide columns. Maybe you want to hide away several columns or
  1960. display them with a fixed width, regardless of content, as shown in the
  1961. following example.
  1962. @example
  1963. @group
  1964. |---+---------------------+--------| |---+-------@dots{}|@dots{}|
  1965. | | <6> | | | | <6> @dots{}|@dots{}|
  1966. | 1 | one | some | ----\ | 1 | one @dots{}|@dots{}|
  1967. | 2 | two | boring | ----/ | 2 | two @dots{}|@dots{}|
  1968. | 3 | This is a long text | column | | 3 | This i@dots{}|@dots{}|
  1969. |---+---------------------+--------| |---+-------@dots{}|@dots{}|
  1970. @end group
  1971. @end example
  1972. To set the width of a column, one field anywhere in the column may contain
  1973. just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} specifies the width as a number of
  1974. characters. You control displayed width of columns with the following tools:
  1975. @table @asis
  1976. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},org-table-toggle-column-width}
  1977. Shrink or expand current column.
  1978. If a width cookie specifies a width W for the column, shrinking it displays
  1979. the first W visible characters only. Otherwise, the column is shrunk to
  1980. a single character.
  1981. When called before the first column or after the last one, ask for a list of
  1982. column ranges to operate on.
  1983. @orgcmd{C-u C-c @key{TAB},org-table-shrink}
  1984. Shrink all columns with a column width. Expand the others.
  1985. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c @key{TAB},org-table-expand}
  1986. Expand all columns.
  1987. @end table
  1988. To see the full text of a shrunk field, hold the mouse over it---a tool-tip
  1989. window then shows the full content. Alternatively @kbd{C-h .}
  1990. (@code{display-local-help}) reveals the full content. For convenience, any
  1991. change to a shrunk column expands it.
  1992. @vindex org-startup-shrink-all-tables
  1993. Setting the option @code{org-startup-shrink-all-tables} shrinks all columns
  1994. containing a width cookie in a file the moment it is visited. You can also
  1995. set this option on a per-file basis with:
  1996. @example
  1997. #+STARTUP: shrink
  1998. @end example
  1999. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  2000. to the right and of string-rich columns to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  2001. @samp{<c>} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may also combine
  2002. alignment and field width like this: @samp{<r10>}.
  2003. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies are removed automatically
  2004. upon exporting the document.
  2005. @node Column groups
  2006. @section Column groups
  2007. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  2008. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical lines because
  2009. that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally however, vertical
  2010. lines can be useful to structure a table into groups of columns, much like
  2011. horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In order to specify column
  2012. groups, you can use a special row where the first field contains only
  2013. @samp{/}. The further fields can either contain @samp{<} to indicate that
  2014. this column should start a group, @samp{>} to indicate the end of a group, or
  2015. @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<} and @samp{>}) to make a column a group
  2016. of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be marked with
  2017. vertical lines. Here is an example:
  2018. @example
  2019. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | ~sqrt(n)~ | ~sqrt[4](N)~ |
  2020. |---+-----+-----+-----+-----------+--------------|
  2021. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  2022. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  2023. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  2024. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  2025. |---+-----+-----+-----+-----------+--------------|
  2026. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  2027. @end example
  2028. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  2029. every vertical line you would like to have:
  2030. @example
  2031. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2032. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2033. | / | < | | | < | |
  2034. @end example
  2035. @node Orgtbl mode
  2036. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2037. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2038. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2039. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  2040. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  2041. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  2042. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode RET}. To turn it on by default, for
  2043. example in Message mode, use
  2044. @lisp
  2045. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2046. @end lisp
  2047. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2048. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2049. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2050. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2051. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2052. @node The spreadsheet
  2053. @section The spreadsheet
  2054. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2055. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2056. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2057. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2058. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2059. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2060. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2061. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2062. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2063. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2064. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2065. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2066. @menu
  2067. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2068. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2069. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2070. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2071. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2072. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2073. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  2074. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2075. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2076. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2077. @end menu
  2078. @node References
  2079. @subsection References
  2080. @cindex references
  2081. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2082. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2083. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2084. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2085. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2086. @subsubheading Field references
  2087. @cindex field references
  2088. @cindex references, to fields
  2089. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2090. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2091. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2092. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2093. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2094. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2095. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the option
  2096. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2097. representation that looks like this:
  2098. @example
  2099. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2100. @end example
  2101. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2102. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e., the
  2103. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2104. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2105. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2106. column from the right.
  2107. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2108. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2109. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2110. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2111. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2112. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2113. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2114. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2115. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2116. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2117. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2118. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2119. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2120. after the third hline in the table.
  2121. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2122. i.e., to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2123. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2124. implied.
  2125. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2126. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2127. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2128. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2129. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2130. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2131. Here are a few examples:
  2132. @example
  2133. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2134. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2135. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2136. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2137. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2138. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2139. @end example
  2140. @subsubheading Range references
  2141. @cindex range references
  2142. @cindex references, to ranges
  2143. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2144. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2145. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2146. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2147. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2148. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2149. @example
  2150. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2151. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2152. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the last but one}
  2153. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2154. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 fields in the row above, starting from 2 columns on the left}
  2155. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2156. @end example
  2157. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2158. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally suppressed,
  2159. so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields. For other options
  2160. with the mode switches @samp{E}, @samp{N} and examples @pxref{Formula syntax
  2161. for Calc}.
  2162. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2163. @cindex field coordinates
  2164. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2165. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2166. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2167. One of the very first actions during evaluation of Calc formulas and Lisp
  2168. formulas is to substitute @code{@@#} and @code{$#} in the formula with the
  2169. row or column number of the field where the current result will go to. The
  2170. traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline} and
  2171. @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2172. @table @code
  2173. @item if(@@# % 2, $#, string(""))
  2174. Insert column number on odd rows, set field to empty on even rows.
  2175. @item $2 = '(identity remote(FOO, @@@@#$1))
  2176. Copy text or values of each row of column 1 of the table named @code{FOO}
  2177. into column 2 of the current table.
  2178. @item @@3 = 2 * remote(FOO, @@1$$#)
  2179. Insert the doubled value of each column of row 1 of the table named
  2180. @code{FOO} into row 3 of the current table.
  2181. @end table
  2182. @noindent For the second/third example, the table named @code{FOO} must have
  2183. at least as many rows/columns as the current table. Note that this is
  2184. inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as O(N^2) because the table
  2185. named @code{FOO} is parsed for each field to be read.} for large number of
  2186. rows/columns.
  2187. @subsubheading Named references
  2188. @cindex named references
  2189. @cindex references, named
  2190. @cindex name, of column or field
  2191. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2192. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2193. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2194. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2195. constant. Constants are defined globally through the option
  2196. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2197. line like
  2198. @example
  2199. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2200. @end example
  2201. @noindent
  2202. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2203. @pindex constants.el
  2204. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}) can be used as
  2205. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2206. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2207. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2208. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2209. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2210. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2211. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2212. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2213. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2214. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2215. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2216. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2217. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2218. numbers.
  2219. @subsubheading Remote references
  2220. @cindex remote references
  2221. @cindex references, remote
  2222. @cindex references, to a different table
  2223. @cindex name, of column or field
  2224. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2225. @cindex #+NAME, for table
  2226. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2227. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2228. @example
  2229. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2230. @end example
  2231. @noindent
  2232. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2233. @code{#+NAME: Name} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2234. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2235. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2236. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2237. referenced table.
  2238. Indirection of NAME-OR-ID: When NAME-OR-ID has the format @code{@@ROW$COLUMN}
  2239. it will be substituted with the name or ID found in this field of the current
  2240. table. For example @code{remote($1, @@>$2)} => @code{remote(year_2013,
  2241. @@>$1)}. The format @code{B3} is not supported because it can not be
  2242. distinguished from a plain table name or ID.
  2243. @node Formula syntax for Calc
  2244. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2245. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2246. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2247. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs @file{Calc}
  2248. package. Note that @file{calc} has the non-standard convention that @samp{/}
  2249. has lower precedence than @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as
  2250. @samp{a/(b*c)}. Before evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc
  2251. from Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc,
  2252. GNU Emacs Calc Manual}), variable substitution takes place according to the
  2253. rules described above.
  2254. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2255. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2256. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2257. @cindex format specifier
  2258. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2259. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2260. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2261. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2262. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2263. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2264. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2265. compact. The default settings can be configured using the option
  2266. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2267. @noindent List of modes:
  2268. @table @asis
  2269. @item @code{p20}
  2270. Set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits.
  2271. @item @code{n3}, @code{s3}, @code{e2}, @code{f4}
  2272. Normal, scientific, engineering or fixed format of the result of Calc passed
  2273. back to Org. Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as long as the Calc
  2274. calculation precision is greater.
  2275. @item @code{D}, @code{R}
  2276. Degree and radian angle modes of Calc.
  2277. @item @code{F}, @code{S}
  2278. Fraction and symbolic modes of Calc.
  2279. @item @code{T}, @code{t}, @code{U}
  2280. Duration computations in Calc or Lisp, @pxref{Durations and time values}.
  2281. @item @code{E}
  2282. If and how to consider empty fields. Without @samp{E} empty fields in range
  2283. references are suppressed so that the Calc vector or Lisp list contains only
  2284. the non-empty fields. With @samp{E} the empty fields are kept. For empty
  2285. fields in ranges or empty field references the value @samp{nan} (not a
  2286. number) is used in Calc formulas and the empty string is used for Lisp
  2287. formulas. Add @samp{N} to use 0 instead for both formula types. For the
  2288. value of a field the mode @samp{N} has higher precedence than @samp{E}.
  2289. @item @code{N}
  2290. Interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers. See the next section
  2291. to see how this is essential for computations with Lisp formulas. In Calc
  2292. formulas it is used only occasionally because there number strings are
  2293. already interpreted as numbers without @samp{N}.
  2294. @item @code{L}
  2295. Literal, for Lisp formulas only. See the next section.
  2296. @end table
  2297. @noindent
  2298. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation and
  2299. -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2300. @samp{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2301. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2302. formatting@footnote{The @samp{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2303. because the value passed to it is converted into an @samp{integer} or
  2304. @samp{double}. The @samp{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2305. signed value to 32 bits. The @samp{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2306. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}. A
  2307. few examples:
  2308. @example
  2309. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2310. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2311. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2312. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2313. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2314. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2315. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2316. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2317. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2318. @end example
  2319. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations, (@pxref{Logical
  2320. Operations, , Logical Operations, calc, GNU Emacs Calc Manual}). For example
  2321. @table @code
  2322. @item if($1 < 20, teen, string(""))
  2323. "teen" if age $1 is less than 20, else the Org table result field is set to
  2324. empty with the empty string.
  2325. @item if("$1" == "nan" || "$2" == "nan", string(""), $1 + $2); E f-1
  2326. Sum of the first two columns. When at least one of the input fields is empty
  2327. the Org table result field is set to empty. @samp{E} is required to not
  2328. convert empty fields to 0. @samp{f-1} is an optional Calc format string
  2329. similar to @samp{%.1f} but leaves empty results empty.
  2330. @item if(typeof(vmean($1..$7)) == 12, string(""), vmean($1..$7); E
  2331. Mean value of a range unless there is any empty field. Every field in the
  2332. range that is empty is replaced by @samp{nan} which lets @samp{vmean} result
  2333. in @samp{nan}. Then @samp{typeof == 12} detects the @samp{nan} from
  2334. @samp{vmean} and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use this when
  2335. the sample set is expected to never have missing values.
  2336. @item if("$1..$7" == "[]", string(""), vmean($1..$7))
  2337. Mean value of a range with empty fields skipped. Every field in the range
  2338. that is empty is skipped. When all fields in the range are empty the mean
  2339. value is not defined and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use
  2340. this when the sample set can have a variable size.
  2341. @item vmean($1..$7); EN
  2342. To complete the example before: Mean value of a range with empty fields
  2343. counting as samples with value 0. Use this only when incomplete sample sets
  2344. should be padded with 0 to the full size.
  2345. @end table
  2346. You can add your own Calc functions defined in Emacs Lisp with @code{defmath}
  2347. and use them in formula syntax for Calc.
  2348. @node Formula syntax for Lisp
  2349. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2350. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2351. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be useful
  2352. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is
  2353. not enough.
  2354. If a formula starts with an apostrophe followed by an opening parenthesis,
  2355. then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a
  2356. string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes
  2357. and a printf format after a semicolon.
  2358. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2359. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be
  2360. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If
  2361. you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers
  2362. (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without
  2363. quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated
  2364. literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted
  2365. as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in
  2366. double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated
  2367. fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax.
  2368. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2369. computations in Lisp:
  2370. @table @code
  2371. @item '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2372. Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1.
  2373. @item '(+ $1 $2);N
  2374. Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}.
  2375. @item '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2376. Compute the sum of columns 1 to 4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}.
  2377. @end table
  2378. @node Durations and time values
  2379. @subsection Durations and time values
  2380. @cindex Duration, computing
  2381. @cindex Time, computing
  2382. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2383. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T}, @code{t}, or @code{U}
  2384. flag, either in Calc formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2385. @example
  2386. @group
  2387. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2388. |---------+----------+----------|
  2389. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2390. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59 |
  2391. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2392. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;U::@@4$3=$1+$2;t
  2393. @end group
  2394. @end example
  2395. Input duration values must be of the form @code{HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2396. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2397. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{U} flag,
  2398. seconds will be omitted so that the result will be only @code{HH:MM} (see
  2399. second formula above). Zero-padding of the hours field will depend upon the
  2400. value of the variable @code{org-table-duration-hour-zero-padding}.
  2401. With the @code{t} flag, computed durations will be displayed according to the
  2402. value of the option @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults
  2403. to @code{'hours} and will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the
  2404. third formula in the example above).
  2405. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2406. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2407. @node Field and range formulas
  2408. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2409. @cindex field formula
  2410. @cindex range formula
  2411. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2412. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2413. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2414. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2415. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2416. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2417. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2418. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2419. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2420. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2421. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2422. inserting/deleting/swapping columns and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2423. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2424. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this, in
  2425. particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table borders (using
  2426. @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines using the
  2427. @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does of course
  2428. not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2429. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2430. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2431. command
  2432. @table @kbd
  2433. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2434. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2435. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2436. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2437. @end table
  2438. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2439. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2440. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2441. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2442. directly.
  2443. @table @code
  2444. @item $2=
  2445. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2446. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2447. @item @@3=
  2448. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2449. the last row.
  2450. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2451. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2452. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2453. @item $name=
  2454. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2455. @end table
  2456. @node Column formulas
  2457. @subsection Column formulas
  2458. @cindex column formula
  2459. @cindex formula, for table column
  2460. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2461. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2462. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2463. hlines with rows above and below, everything before the first such hline is
  2464. considered part of the table @emph{header} and will not be modified by column
  2465. formulas. Therefore a header is mandatory when you use column formulas and
  2466. want to add hlines to group rows, like for example to separate a total row at
  2467. the bottom from the summand rows above. (ii) Fields that already get a value
  2468. from a field/range formula will be left alone by column formulas. These
  2469. conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2470. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2471. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2472. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2473. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2474. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2475. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2476. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2477. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2478. left-hand side of a column formula cannot be the name of column, it must be
  2479. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2480. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2481. following command:
  2482. @table @kbd
  2483. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2484. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2485. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2486. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2487. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g., @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2488. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2489. @end table
  2490. @node Lookup functions
  2491. @subsection Lookup functions
  2492. @cindex lookup functions in tables
  2493. @cindex table lookup functions
  2494. Org has three predefined Emacs Lisp functions for lookups in tables.
  2495. @table @code
  2496. @item (org-lookup-first VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2497. @findex org-lookup-first
  2498. Searches for the first element @code{S} in list @code{S-LIST} for which
  2499. @lisp
  2500. (PREDICATE VAL S)
  2501. @end lisp
  2502. is @code{t}; returns the value from the corresponding position in list
  2503. @code{R-LIST}. The default @code{PREDICATE} is @code{equal}. Note that the
  2504. parameters @code{VAL} and @code{S} are passed to @code{PREDICATE} in the same
  2505. order as the corresponding parameters are in the call to
  2506. @code{org-lookup-first}, where @code{VAL} precedes @code{S-LIST}. If
  2507. @code{R-LIST} is @code{nil}, the matching element @code{S} of @code{S-LIST}
  2508. is returned.
  2509. @item (org-lookup-last VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2510. @findex org-lookup-last
  2511. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first} above, but searches for the @i{last}
  2512. element for which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}.
  2513. @item (org-lookup-all VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2514. @findex org-lookup-all
  2515. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first}, but searches for @i{all} elements for
  2516. which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}, and returns @i{all} corresponding
  2517. values. This function can not be used by itself in a formula, because it
  2518. returns a list of values. However, powerful lookups can be built when this
  2519. function is combined with other Emacs Lisp functions.
  2520. @end table
  2521. If the ranges used in these functions contain empty fields, the @code{E} mode
  2522. for the formula should usually be specified: otherwise empty fields will not be
  2523. included in @code{S-LIST} and/or @code{R-LIST} which can, for example, result
  2524. in an incorrect mapping from an element of @code{S-LIST} to the corresponding
  2525. element of @code{R-LIST}.
  2526. These three functions can be used to implement associative arrays, count
  2527. matching cells, rank results, group data etc. For practical examples
  2528. see @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-lookups.html, this
  2529. tutorial on Worg}.
  2530. @node Editing and debugging formulas
  2531. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2532. @cindex formula editing
  2533. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2534. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2535. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the field.
  2536. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active formulas of a table.
  2537. When offering a formula for editing, Org converts references to the standard
  2538. format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&}) if possible. If you prefer to only work
  2539. with the internal format (like @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the
  2540. option @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2541. @table @kbd
  2542. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2543. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2544. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2545. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2546. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2547. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2548. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2549. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2550. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2551. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2552. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2553. @kindex C-c @}
  2554. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2555. @item C-c @}
  2556. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2557. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2558. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2559. @kindex C-c @{
  2560. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2561. @item C-c @{
  2562. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2563. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2564. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2565. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2566. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2567. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2568. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2569. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2570. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2571. @table @kbd
  2572. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2573. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2574. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2575. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2576. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2577. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2578. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2579. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2580. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2581. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2582. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2583. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2584. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2585. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2586. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.@footnote{Many desktops
  2587. intercept @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows. Use @kbd{C-M-i} or
  2588. @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} instead for completion (@pxref{Completion}).}
  2589. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2590. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2591. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2592. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2593. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2594. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2595. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2596. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2597. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2598. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2599. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2600. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2601. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2602. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2603. down.
  2604. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2605. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2606. @kindex C-c @}
  2607. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2608. @item C-c @}
  2609. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2610. @end table
  2611. @end table
  2612. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2613. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2614. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2615. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2616. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2617. @kindex C-c C-c
  2618. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2619. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2620. recalculation commands in the table.
  2621. @anchor{Using multiple #+TBLFM lines}
  2622. @subsubheading Using multiple #+TBLFM lines
  2623. @cindex #+TBLFM line, multiple
  2624. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2625. @cindex #+TBLFM, switching
  2626. @kindex C-c C-c
  2627. You may apply the formula temporarily. This is useful when you
  2628. switch the formula. Place multiple @samp{#+TBLFM} lines right
  2629. after the table, and then press @kbd{C-c C-c} on the formula to
  2630. apply. Here is an example:
  2631. @example
  2632. | x | y |
  2633. |---+---|
  2634. | 1 | |
  2635. | 2 | |
  2636. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2637. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2638. @end example
  2639. @noindent
  2640. Pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} in the line of @samp{#+TBLFM: $2=$1*2} yields:
  2641. @example
  2642. | x | y |
  2643. |---+---|
  2644. | 1 | 2 |
  2645. | 2 | 4 |
  2646. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2647. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2648. @end example
  2649. @noindent
  2650. Note: If you recalculate this table (with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, for example), you
  2651. will get the following result of applying only the first @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2652. @example
  2653. | x | y |
  2654. |---+---|
  2655. | 1 | 1 |
  2656. | 2 | 2 |
  2657. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2658. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2659. @end example
  2660. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2661. @cindex formula debugging
  2662. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2663. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2664. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2665. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2666. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2667. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2668. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2669. @node Updating the table
  2670. @subsection Updating the table
  2671. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2672. @cindex updating, table
  2673. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2674. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2675. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2676. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2677. following commands:
  2678. @table @kbd
  2679. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2680. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2681. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2682. @c
  2683. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2684. @item C-u C-c *
  2685. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2686. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2687. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2688. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2689. @c
  2690. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2691. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2692. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2693. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2694. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables RET
  2695. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2696. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2697. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables RET
  2698. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2699. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2700. dependencies.
  2701. @end table
  2702. @node Advanced features
  2703. @subsection Advanced features
  2704. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2705. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2706. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2707. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2708. special marking characters.
  2709. @table @kbd
  2710. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2711. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2712. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2713. change all marks in the region.
  2714. @end table
  2715. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2716. makes use of these features:
  2717. @example
  2718. @group
  2719. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2720. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2721. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2722. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2723. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2724. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2725. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2726. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2727. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2728. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2729. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2730. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2731. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2732. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2733. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2734. @end group
  2735. @end example
  2736. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2737. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2738. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2739. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2740. empty first field.
  2741. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2742. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2743. @table @samp
  2744. @item !
  2745. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2746. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2747. @item ^
  2748. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2749. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2750. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2751. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2752. @item _
  2753. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2754. @emph{below}.
  2755. @item $
  2756. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2757. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2758. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2759. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2760. a per-table basis.
  2761. @item #
  2762. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2763. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2764. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2765. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2766. @item *
  2767. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2768. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2769. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2770. @item @w{ }
  2771. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2772. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2773. or @samp{*}.
  2774. @item /
  2775. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2776. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2777. @end table
  2778. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2779. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2780. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2781. functions.
  2782. @example
  2783. @group
  2784. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2785. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2786. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2787. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2788. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2789. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2790. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2791. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2792. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2793. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2794. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2795. @end group
  2796. @end example
  2797. @node Org-Plot
  2798. @section Org-Plot
  2799. @cindex graph, in tables
  2800. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2801. @cindex #+PLOT
  2802. Org-Plot can produce graphs of information stored in org tables, either
  2803. graphically or in ASCII-art.
  2804. @subheading Graphical plots using @file{Gnuplot}
  2805. Org-Plot produces 2D and 3D graphs using @file{Gnuplot}
  2806. @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2807. @uref{http://xafs.org/BruceRavel/GnuplotMode}. To see this in action, ensure
  2808. that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed on your system, then
  2809. call @kbd{C-c " g} or @kbd{M-x org-plot/gnuplot @key{RET}} on the following
  2810. table.
  2811. @example
  2812. @group
  2813. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2814. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2815. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2816. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2817. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2818. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2819. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2820. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2821. @end group
  2822. @end example
  2823. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2824. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2825. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2826. for a complete list of Org-plot options. The @code{#+PLOT:} lines are
  2827. optional. For more information and examples see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2828. @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2829. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2830. @table @code
  2831. @item set
  2832. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2833. @item title
  2834. Specify the title of the plot.
  2835. @item ind
  2836. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2837. @item deps
  2838. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2839. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2840. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2841. column).
  2842. @item type
  2843. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2844. @item with
  2845. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2846. (e.g., @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2847. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2848. @item file
  2849. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2850. @item labels
  2851. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2852. if they exist).
  2853. @item line
  2854. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2855. @item map
  2856. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2857. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2858. @item timefmt
  2859. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2860. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2861. @item script
  2862. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2863. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2864. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2865. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2866. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2867. the data file.
  2868. @end table
  2869. @subheading ASCII bar plots
  2870. While the cursor is on a column, typing @kbd{C-c " a} or
  2871. @kbd{M-x orgtbl-ascii-plot @key{RET}} create a new column containing an
  2872. ASCII-art bars plot. The plot is implemented through a regular column
  2873. formula. When the source column changes, the bar plot may be updated by
  2874. refreshing the table, for example typing @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2875. @example
  2876. @group
  2877. | Sede | Max cites | |
  2878. |---------------+-----------+--------------|
  2879. | Chile | 257.72 | WWWWWWWWWWWW |
  2880. | Leeds | 165.77 | WWWWWWWh |
  2881. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | WWW; |
  2882. | Stockholm | 134.19 | WWWWWW: |
  2883. | Morelia | 257.56 | WWWWWWWWWWWH |
  2884. | Rochefourchat | 0.00 | |
  2885. #+TBLFM: $3='(orgtbl-ascii-draw $2 0.0 257.72 12)
  2886. @end group
  2887. @end example
  2888. The formula is an elisp call:
  2889. @lisp
  2890. (orgtbl-ascii-draw COLUMN MIN MAX WIDTH)
  2891. @end lisp
  2892. @table @code
  2893. @item COLUMN
  2894. is a reference to the source column.
  2895. @item MIN MAX
  2896. are the minimal and maximal values displayed. Sources values
  2897. outside this range are displayed as @samp{too small}
  2898. or @samp{too large}.
  2899. @item WIDTH
  2900. is the width in characters of the bar-plot. It defaults to @samp{12}.
  2901. @end table
  2902. @node Hyperlinks
  2903. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2904. @cindex hyperlinks
  2905. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2906. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2907. @menu
  2908. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2909. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2910. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2911. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2912. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2913. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2914. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2915. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2916. @end menu
  2917. @node Link format
  2918. @section Link format
  2919. @cindex link format
  2920. @cindex format, of links
  2921. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2922. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2923. @example
  2924. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2925. @end example
  2926. @noindent
  2927. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2928. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2929. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2930. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2931. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2932. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2933. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2934. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2935. cursor on the link.
  2936. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2937. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2938. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2939. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2940. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2941. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2942. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2943. @node Internal links
  2944. @section Internal links
  2945. @cindex internal links
  2946. @cindex links, internal
  2947. @cindex targets, for links
  2948. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2949. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2950. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2951. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2952. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. You are responsible yourself
  2953. to make sure these custom IDs are unique in a file.
  2954. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2955. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2956. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2957. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2958. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2959. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets, like
  2960. @samp{<<My Target>>}.
  2961. @cindex #+NAME
  2962. If no dedicated target exists, the link will then try to match the exact name
  2963. of an element within the buffer. Naming is done with the @code{#+NAME}
  2964. keyword, which has to be put in the line before the element it refers to, as
  2965. in the following example
  2966. @example
  2967. #+NAME: My Target
  2968. | a | table |
  2969. |----+------------|
  2970. | of | four cells |
  2971. @end example
  2972. If none of the above succeeds, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2973. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2974. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type
  2975. a star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2976. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2977. completions.}.
  2978. During export, internal links will be used to mark objects and assign them
  2979. a number. Marked objects will then be referenced by links pointing to them.
  2980. In particular, links without a description will appear as the number assigned
  2981. to the marked object@footnote{When targeting a @code{#+NAME} keyword,
  2982. @code{#+CAPTION} keyword is mandatory in order to get proper numbering
  2983. (@pxref{Images and tables}).}. In the following excerpt from an Org buffer
  2984. @example
  2985. - one item
  2986. - <<target>>another item
  2987. Here we refer to item [[target]].
  2988. @end example
  2989. @noindent
  2990. The last sentence will appear as @samp{Here we refer to item 2} when
  2991. exported.
  2992. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the link text. In
  2993. the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2994. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2995. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2996. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2997. earlier.
  2998. @menu
  2999. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  3000. @end menu
  3001. @node Radio targets
  3002. @subsection Radio targets
  3003. @cindex radio targets
  3004. @cindex targets, radio
  3005. @cindex links, radio targets
  3006. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  3007. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  3008. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  3009. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  3010. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  3011. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  3012. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  3013. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3014. cursor on or at a target.
  3015. @node External links
  3016. @section External links
  3017. @cindex links, external
  3018. @cindex external links
  3019. @cindex Gnus links
  3020. @cindex BBDB links
  3021. @cindex IRC links
  3022. @cindex URL links
  3023. @cindex file links
  3024. @cindex RMAIL links
  3025. @cindex MH-E links
  3026. @cindex USENET links
  3027. @cindex SHELL links
  3028. @cindex Info links
  3029. @cindex Elisp links
  3030. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB
  3031. database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs.
  3032. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short identifying
  3033. string followed by a colon. There can be no space after the colon. The
  3034. following list shows examples for each link type.
  3035. @example
  3036. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  3037. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  3038. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  3039. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  3040. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  3041. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3042. file:/ssh:myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  3043. /ssh:myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3044. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  3045. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  3046. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  3047. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  3048. the option @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  3049. is @code{nil}, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is @code{t}, then only
  3050. the exact headline will be matched, ignoring spaces and cookies. If the
  3051. value is @code{query-to-create}, then an exact headline will be searched; if
  3052. it is not found, then the user will be queried to create it.}
  3053. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}@footnote{
  3054. Headline searches always match the exact headline, ignoring
  3055. spaces and cookies. If the headline is not found and the value of the option
  3056. @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline} is @code{query-to-create},
  3057. then the user will be queried to create it.}
  3058. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  3059. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  3060. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  3061. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  3062. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  3063. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  3064. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  3065. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  3066. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  3067. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  3068. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  3069. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  3070. info:org#External links @r{Info node or index link}
  3071. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  3072. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  3073. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  3074. @end example
  3075. @cindex VM links
  3076. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  3077. On top of these built-in link types, some are available through the
  3078. @code{contrib/} directory (@pxref{Installation}). For example, these links
  3079. to VM or Wanderlust messages are available when you load the corresponding
  3080. libraries from the @code{contrib/} directory:
  3081. @example
  3082. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  3083. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  3084. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  3085. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  3086. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  3087. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  3088. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  3089. @end example
  3090. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  3091. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a descriptive
  3092. text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link format}), for example:
  3093. @example
  3094. [[https://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  3095. @end example
  3096. @noindent
  3097. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  3098. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  3099. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  3100. image,
  3101. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  3102. @cindex square brackets, around links
  3103. @cindex plain text external links
  3104. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  3105. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  3106. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  3107. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  3108. @node Handling links
  3109. @section Handling links
  3110. @cindex links, handling
  3111. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  3112. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  3113. @table @kbd
  3114. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  3115. @cindex storing links
  3116. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  3117. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  3118. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  3119. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  3120. buffer:
  3121. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  3122. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  3123. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  3124. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  3125. removed from the link and result in a wrong link---you should avoid putting
  3126. timestamp in the headline.}.
  3127. @vindex org-id-link-to-org-use-id
  3128. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  3129. @cindex property, ID
  3130. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  3131. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  3132. @code{org-id-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will
  3133. be created and/or used to construct a link@footnote{The library
  3134. @file{org-id.el} must first be loaded, either through @code{org-customize} by
  3135. enabling @code{org-id} in @code{org-modules}, or by adding @code{(require
  3136. 'org-id)} in your Emacs init file.}. So using this command in Org buffers
  3137. will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom ID, and
  3138. one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from file to
  3139. file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one to use.
  3140. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  3141. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  3142. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  3143. constructed from the author and the subject.
  3144. @b{Web browsers: Eww, W3 and W3M}@*
  3145. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  3146. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  3147. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  3148. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  3149. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  3150. For IRC links, if you set the option @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to @code{t},
  3151. a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for the current
  3152. conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to the
  3153. user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  3154. @b{Other files}@*
  3155. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  3156. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  3157. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  3158. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  3159. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  3160. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  3161. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  3162. @b{Agenda view}@*
  3163. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  3164. entry referenced by the current line.
  3165. @c
  3166. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  3167. @cindex link completion
  3168. @cindex completion, of links
  3169. @cindex inserting links
  3170. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  3171. @vindex org-link-parameters
  3172. Insert a link@footnote{Note that you don't have to use this command to
  3173. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  3174. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  3175. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  3176. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  3177. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  3178. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  3179. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  3180. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  3181. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  3182. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  3183. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  3184. becomes the default description.
  3185. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  3186. All links stored during the
  3187. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  3188. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  3189. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  3190. valid link prefixes like @samp{https:}, including the prefixes
  3191. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  3192. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  3193. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works if
  3194. a completion function is defined in the @samp{:complete} property of a link
  3195. in @code{org-link-parameters}.} For example, if you type @kbd{file
  3196. @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see
  3197. below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb @key{RET}} you can complete
  3198. contact names.
  3199. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  3200. @cindex file name completion
  3201. @cindex completion, of file names
  3202. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  3203. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  3204. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  3205. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  3206. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  3207. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  3208. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  3209. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3210. @c
  3211. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  3212. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  3213. link and description parts of the link.
  3214. @c
  3215. @cindex following links
  3216. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  3217. @vindex org-file-apps
  3218. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3219. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  3220. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  3221. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  3222. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  3223. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  3224. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  3225. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  3226. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3227. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3228. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3229. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3230. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3231. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3232. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3233. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3234. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3235. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3236. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3237. the link at point.
  3238. @c
  3239. @kindex mouse-2
  3240. @kindex mouse-1
  3241. @item mouse-2
  3242. @itemx mouse-1
  3243. On links, @kbd{mouse-1} and @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c
  3244. C-o} would.
  3245. @c
  3246. @kindex mouse-3
  3247. @item mouse-3
  3248. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3249. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3250. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3251. option @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3252. @c
  3253. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3254. @cindex inlining images
  3255. @cindex images, inlining
  3256. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3257. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3258. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3259. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3260. images that have no description part in the link, i.e., images that will also
  3261. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3262. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3263. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3264. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3265. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{noinlineimages}}.
  3266. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3267. @cindex mark ring
  3268. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3269. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3270. @c
  3271. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3272. @cindex links, returning to
  3273. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3274. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3275. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3276. previously recorded positions.
  3277. @c
  3278. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3279. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3280. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3281. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3282. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3283. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3284. @lisp
  3285. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3286. (lambda ()
  3287. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3288. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3289. @end lisp
  3290. @end table
  3291. @node Using links outside Org
  3292. @section Using links outside Org
  3293. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3294. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3295. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3296. yourself):
  3297. @lisp
  3298. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3299. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3300. @end lisp
  3301. @node Link abbreviations
  3302. @section Link abbreviations
  3303. @cindex link abbreviations
  3304. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3305. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3306. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3307. abbreviated link looks like this
  3308. @example
  3309. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3310. @end example
  3311. @noindent
  3312. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3313. where the tag is optional.
  3314. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3315. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3316. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3317. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3318. @smalllisp
  3319. @group
  3320. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3321. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3322. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3323. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3324. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3325. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3326. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3327. @end group
  3328. @end smalllisp
  3329. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3330. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3331. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3332. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3333. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3334. If the replacement text doesn't contain any specifier, the tag will simply be
  3335. appended in order to create the link.
  3336. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3337. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3338. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3339. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3340. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3341. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3342. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3343. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3344. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3345. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3346. can define them in the file with
  3347. @cindex #+LINK
  3348. @example
  3349. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3350. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3351. @end example
  3352. @noindent
  3353. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3354. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function that implements
  3355. special (e.g., completion) support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c
  3356. C-l}. Such a function should not accept any arguments, and return the full
  3357. link with prefix. You can add a completion function to a link like this:
  3358. @lisp
  3359. (org-link-set-parameters ``type'' :complete #'some-function)
  3360. @end lisp
  3361. @node Search options
  3362. @section Search options in file links
  3363. @cindex search option in file links
  3364. @cindex file links, searching
  3365. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3366. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3367. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3368. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3369. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3370. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3371. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3372. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3373. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3374. link, together with an explanation:
  3375. @example
  3376. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3377. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3378. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3379. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3380. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3381. @end example
  3382. @table @code
  3383. @item 255
  3384. Jump to line 255.
  3385. @item My Target
  3386. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3387. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3388. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3389. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3390. the linked file.
  3391. @item *My Target
  3392. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3393. @item #my-custom-id
  3394. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3395. @item /regexp/
  3396. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3397. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3398. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3399. sparse tree with the matches.
  3400. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3401. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3402. @end table
  3403. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3404. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3405. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3406. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3407. @node Custom searches
  3408. @section Custom Searches
  3409. @cindex custom search strings
  3410. @cindex search strings, custom
  3411. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3412. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3413. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3414. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3415. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3416. citation key.
  3417. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3418. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3419. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3420. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3421. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3422. to be added to the hook variables
  3423. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3424. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3425. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3426. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3427. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3428. @node TODO items
  3429. @chapter TODO items
  3430. @cindex TODO items
  3431. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3432. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3433. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3434. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3435. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3436. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3437. item emerged is always present.
  3438. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3439. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3440. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3441. @menu
  3442. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3443. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3444. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3445. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3446. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3447. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3448. @end menu
  3449. @node TODO basics
  3450. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3451. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3452. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3453. @example
  3454. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3455. @end example
  3456. @noindent
  3457. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3458. @table @kbd
  3459. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3460. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3461. @vindex org-use-fast-todo-selection
  3462. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3463. @example
  3464. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3465. '--------------------------------'
  3466. @end example
  3467. If TODO keywords have fast access keys (see @ref{Fast access to TODO
  3468. states}), you will be prompted for a TODO keyword through the fast selection
  3469. interface; this is the default behavior when
  3470. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is non-@code{nil}.
  3471. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from agenda buffers with the
  3472. @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3473. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3474. When TODO keywords have no selection keys, select a specific keyword using
  3475. completion; otherwise force cycling through TODO states with no prompt. When
  3476. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is set to @code{prefix}, use the fast
  3477. selection interface.
  3478. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3479. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3480. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3481. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3482. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3483. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3484. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3485. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3486. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3487. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-tree}
  3488. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3489. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3490. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3491. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3492. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3493. / T}), search for a specific TODO@. You will be prompted for the keyword,
  3494. and you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3495. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3496. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the option @code{org-todo-keywords}.
  3497. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states, both un-done and done.
  3498. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3499. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3500. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3501. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3502. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3503. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3504. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3505. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3506. @end table
  3507. @noindent
  3508. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3509. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3510. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3511. @node TODO extensions
  3512. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3513. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3514. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3515. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3516. DONE@. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3517. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3518. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3519. files.
  3520. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3521. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3522. @menu
  3523. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3524. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3525. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3526. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3527. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3528. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3529. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3530. @end menu
  3531. @node Workflow states
  3532. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3533. @cindex TODO workflow
  3534. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3535. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3536. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3537. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3538. buffer.}:
  3539. @lisp
  3540. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3541. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3542. @end lisp
  3543. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3544. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3545. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3546. state.
  3547. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3548. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3549. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED@. You may
  3550. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3551. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY@.
  3552. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3553. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3554. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3555. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3556. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3557. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3558. @node TODO types
  3559. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3560. @cindex TODO types
  3561. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3562. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3563. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3564. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3565. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3566. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3567. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3568. be set up like this:
  3569. @lisp
  3570. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3571. @end lisp
  3572. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3573. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to
  3574. a person, and later to mark it DONE@. Org mode supports this style by
  3575. adapting the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true
  3576. for the @kbd{t} command in the agenda buffers.}. When used several times in
  3577. succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first select
  3578. the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some time
  3579. and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly to
  3580. DONE@. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific name.
  3581. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree by
  3582. using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things Lucy
  3583. has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items from all
  3584. agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix argument
  3585. as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3586. @node Multiple sets in one file
  3587. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3588. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3589. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3590. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3591. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3592. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3593. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3594. like this:
  3595. @lisp
  3596. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3597. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3598. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3599. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3600. @end lisp
  3601. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3602. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3603. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3604. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3605. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3606. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3607. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3608. @table @kbd
  3609. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3610. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3611. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3612. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3613. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3614. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3615. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3616. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3617. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3618. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3619. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3620. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3621. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3622. @item S-@key{right}
  3623. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3624. @kbd{S-@key{left}} and @kbd{S-@key{right}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3625. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{right}} would switch
  3626. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3627. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3628. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3629. @end table
  3630. @node Fast access to TODO states
  3631. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3632. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3633. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3634. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection character after
  3635. each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except
  3636. @code{@@^!}, which have a special meaning here.}. For example:
  3637. @lisp
  3638. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3639. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3640. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3641. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3642. @end lisp
  3643. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3644. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3645. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3646. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the option
  3647. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3648. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3649. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3650. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3651. @node Per-file keywords
  3652. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3653. @cindex keyword options
  3654. @cindex per-file keywords
  3655. @cindex #+TODO
  3656. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3657. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3658. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3659. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines to
  3660. the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file only. For
  3661. example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you need one of the
  3662. following lines anywhere in the file:
  3663. @example
  3664. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3665. @end example
  3666. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3667. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3668. @example
  3669. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3670. @end example
  3671. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3672. @example
  3673. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3674. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3675. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3676. @end example
  3677. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3678. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3679. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3680. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3681. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3682. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3683. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3684. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3685. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3686. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3687. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3688. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3689. for the current buffer.}.
  3690. @node Faces for TODO keywords
  3691. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3692. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3693. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3694. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3695. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3696. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3697. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3698. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3699. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3700. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the option
  3701. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3702. @lisp
  3703. @group
  3704. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3705. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3706. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3707. @end group
  3708. @end lisp
  3709. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3710. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3711. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The option
  3712. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3713. foreground or a background color.
  3714. @node TODO dependencies
  3715. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3716. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3717. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3718. @cindex TODO dependencies, NOBLOCKING
  3719. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3720. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3721. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3722. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3723. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE@. And sometimes
  3724. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3725. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3726. the option @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3727. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE@.
  3728. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3729. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE@. Here is an
  3730. example:
  3731. @example
  3732. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3733. ** DONE one
  3734. ** TODO two
  3735. * Parent
  3736. :PROPERTIES:
  3737. :ORDERED: t
  3738. :END:
  3739. ** TODO a
  3740. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3741. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3742. @end example
  3743. You can ensure an entry is never blocked by using the @code{NOBLOCKING}
  3744. property:
  3745. @example
  3746. * This entry is never blocked
  3747. :PROPERTIES:
  3748. :NOBLOCKING: t
  3749. :END:
  3750. @end example
  3751. @table @kbd
  3752. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3753. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3754. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3755. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3756. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3757. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3758. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the option
  3759. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3760. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3761. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3762. @end table
  3763. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3764. If you set the option @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3765. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3766. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda views}).
  3767. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3768. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3769. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3770. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the option
  3771. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3772. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3773. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3774. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3775. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3776. @page
  3777. @node Progress logging
  3778. @section Progress logging
  3779. @cindex progress logging
  3780. @cindex logging, of progress
  3781. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3782. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3783. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable; settings can be on a
  3784. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3785. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3786. work time}.
  3787. @menu
  3788. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3789. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3790. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3791. @end menu
  3792. @node Closing items
  3793. @subsection Closing items
  3794. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3795. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3796. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3797. @lisp
  3798. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3799. @end lisp
  3800. @vindex org-closed-keep-when-no-todo
  3801. @noindent
  3802. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any of the
  3803. DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after
  3804. the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item through further
  3805. state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you turn the entry back
  3806. to a non-TODO state (by pressing @key{C-c C-t SPC} for example), that line
  3807. will also be removed, unless you set @code{org-closed-keep-when-no-todo} to
  3808. non-@code{nil}. If you want to record a note along with the timestamp,
  3809. use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP:
  3810. lognotedone}.}
  3811. @lisp
  3812. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3813. @end lisp
  3814. @noindent
  3815. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3816. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3817. @node Tracking TODO state changes
  3818. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3819. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3820. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3821. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3822. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3823. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3824. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3825. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3826. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3827. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the option
  3828. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3829. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3830. Customize @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the recommended
  3831. drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3832. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3833. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3834. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3835. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3836. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3837. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3838. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3839. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3840. setting
  3841. @lisp
  3842. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3843. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3844. @end lisp
  3845. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3846. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3847. @noindent
  3848. @vindex org-log-done
  3849. You not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3850. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3851. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3852. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3853. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3854. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3855. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3856. WAIT or CANCELED@. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3857. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3858. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3859. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3860. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3861. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3862. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3863. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3864. configured.
  3865. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3866. to a buffer:
  3867. @example
  3868. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3869. @end example
  3870. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3871. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3872. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3873. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to @code{nil}. You may then turn
  3874. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3875. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3876. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3877. @example
  3878. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3879. :PROPERTIES:
  3880. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3881. :END:
  3882. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3883. :PROPERTIES:
  3884. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3885. :END:
  3886. * TODO No logging at all
  3887. :PROPERTIES:
  3888. :LOGGING: nil
  3889. :END:
  3890. @end example
  3891. @node Tracking your habits
  3892. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3893. @cindex habits
  3894. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3895. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3896. @enumerate
  3897. @item
  3898. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing @code{org-modules}.
  3899. @item
  3900. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3901. @item
  3902. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3903. @item
  3904. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3905. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3906. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3907. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3908. @item
  3909. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3910. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3911. three days, but at most every two days.
  3912. @item
  3913. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled
  3914. (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3915. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an
  3916. error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless.
  3917. @end enumerate
  3918. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3919. actual habit with some history:
  3920. @example
  3921. ** TODO Shave
  3922. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3923. :PROPERTIES:
  3924. :STYLE: habit
  3925. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3926. :END:
  3927. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3928. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3929. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3930. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3931. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3932. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3933. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3934. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3935. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3936. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3937. @end example
  3938. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3939. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3940. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3941. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3942. after four days have elapsed.
  3943. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3944. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3945. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3946. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3947. @table @code
  3948. @item Blue
  3949. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3950. @item Green
  3951. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3952. @item Yellow
  3953. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3954. @item Red
  3955. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3956. @end table
  3957. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3958. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3959. the current day falls in the graph.
  3960. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3961. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3962. @table @code
  3963. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3964. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3965. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3966. titles brief and to the point.
  3967. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3968. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3969. @item org-habit-following-days
  3970. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3971. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3972. If non-@code{nil}, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3973. default.
  3974. @end table
  3975. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3976. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3977. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3978. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3979. @node Priorities
  3980. @section Priorities
  3981. @cindex priorities
  3982. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3983. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3984. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3985. @example
  3986. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3987. @end example
  3988. @noindent
  3989. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3990. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3991. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3992. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3993. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3994. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3995. special faces by customizing @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3996. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3997. items.
  3998. @table @kbd
  3999. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  4000. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  4001. @findex org-priority
  4002. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  4003. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  4004. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  4005. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the agenda
  4006. buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  4007. @c
  4008. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  4009. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  4010. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  4011. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  4012. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  4013. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  4014. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  4015. @end table
  4016. @vindex org-highest-priority
  4017. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  4018. @vindex org-default-priority
  4019. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the options
  4020. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  4021. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  4022. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  4023. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  4024. priority):
  4025. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  4026. @example
  4027. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  4028. @end example
  4029. @node Breaking down tasks
  4030. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  4031. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  4032. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  4033. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  4034. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  4035. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  4036. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  4037. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  4038. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  4039. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  4040. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  4041. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  4042. @example
  4043. * Organize Party [33%]
  4044. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  4045. *** TODO Peter
  4046. *** DONE Sarah
  4047. ** TODO Buy food
  4048. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  4049. @end example
  4050. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  4051. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  4052. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  4053. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  4054. this issue.
  4055. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  4056. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  4057. subtree (not just direct children), configure
  4058. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  4059. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4060. property.
  4061. @example
  4062. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  4063. :PROPERTIES:
  4064. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  4065. :END:
  4066. @end example
  4067. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  4068. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  4069. @example
  4070. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  4071. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  4072. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  4073. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  4074. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  4075. @end example
  4076. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  4077. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  4078. @node Checkboxes
  4079. @section Checkboxes
  4080. @cindex checkboxes
  4081. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  4082. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  4083. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  4084. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  4085. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  4086. (@pxref{TODO items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  4087. in the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  4088. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  4089. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  4090. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  4091. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  4092. @example
  4093. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  4094. - [-] call people [1/3]
  4095. - [ ] Peter
  4096. - [X] Sarah
  4097. - [ ] Sam
  4098. - [X] order food
  4099. - [ ] think about what music to play
  4100. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  4101. @end example
  4102. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  4103. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  4104. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  4105. checked.
  4106. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  4107. @cindex checkbox statistics
  4108. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  4109. @vindex org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics
  4110. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  4111. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  4112. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  4113. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  4114. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  4115. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  4116. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the option
  4117. @code{org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  4118. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  4119. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  4120. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  4121. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  4122. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  4123. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  4124. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  4125. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4126. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  4127. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  4128. @cindex checkbox blocking
  4129. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4130. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  4131. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  4132. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  4133. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  4134. @table @kbd
  4135. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4136. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4137. a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  4138. one@footnote{@kbd{C-u C-c C-c} before the @emph{first} bullet in a list with
  4139. no checkbox will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double
  4140. prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4141. intermediate state.
  4142. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4143. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4144. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4145. intermediate state.
  4146. @itemize @minus
  4147. @item
  4148. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  4149. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  4150. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  4151. @item
  4152. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle the state of the first checkbox in the
  4153. region between this headline and the next---so @emph{not} the entire
  4154. subtree---and propagate this new state to all other checkboxes in the same
  4155. area.
  4156. @item
  4157. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  4158. @end itemize
  4159. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  4160. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  4161. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  4162. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  4163. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  4164. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4165. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  4166. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  4167. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  4168. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  4169. for better visibility, customize @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  4170. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  4171. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  4172. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  4173. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  4174. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  4175. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  4176. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  4177. @end table
  4178. @node Tags
  4179. @chapter Tags
  4180. @cindex tags
  4181. @cindex headline tagging
  4182. @cindex matching, tags
  4183. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  4184. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  4185. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  4186. support for tags.
  4187. @vindex org-tag-faces
  4188. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  4189. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  4190. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  4191. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  4192. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  4193. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the option
  4194. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  4195. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  4196. @menu
  4197. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  4198. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  4199. * Tag hierarchy:: Create a hierarchy of tags
  4200. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  4201. @end menu
  4202. @node Tag inheritance
  4203. @section Tag inheritance
  4204. @cindex tag inheritance
  4205. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  4206. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  4207. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  4208. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  4209. well. For example, in the list
  4210. @example
  4211. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  4212. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  4213. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  4214. @end example
  4215. @noindent
  4216. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  4217. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  4218. explicitly marked with all those tags. You can also set tags that all
  4219. entries in a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in
  4220. a hypothetical level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like
  4221. this@footnote{As with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}
  4222. activates any changes in the line.}:
  4223. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  4224. @example
  4225. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  4226. @end example
  4227. @noindent
  4228. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  4229. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  4230. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, use @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  4231. To turn it off entirely, use @code{org-use-tag-inheritance}.
  4232. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4233. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  4234. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  4235. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  4236. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  4237. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  4238. match in a subtree, configure @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not
  4239. recommended).
  4240. @vindex org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance
  4241. Tag inheritance is relevant when the agenda search tries to match a tag,
  4242. either in the @code{tags} or @code{tags-todo} agenda types. In other agenda
  4243. types, @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} has no effect. Still, you may want to
  4244. have your tags correctly set in the agenda, so that tag filtering works fine,
  4245. with inherited tags. Set @code{org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance} to control
  4246. this: the default value includes all agenda types, but setting this to @code{nil}
  4247. can really speed up agenda generation.
  4248. @node Setting tags
  4249. @section Setting tags
  4250. @cindex setting tags
  4251. @cindex tags, setting
  4252. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  4253. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4254. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4255. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4256. @table @kbd
  4257. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4258. @cindex completion, of tags
  4259. @vindex org-tags-column
  4260. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4261. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4262. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4263. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4264. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4265. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4266. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4267. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4268. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4269. @end table
  4270. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4271. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4272. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4273. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4274. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4275. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4276. @cindex #+TAGS
  4277. @example
  4278. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4279. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4280. @end example
  4281. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4282. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4283. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4284. @example
  4285. #+TAGS:
  4286. @end example
  4287. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4288. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4289. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4290. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4291. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4292. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4293. @example
  4294. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4295. @end example
  4296. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4297. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4298. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4299. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4300. assign unique, case-sensitive, letters to most of your commonly used tags.
  4301. You can do this globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in
  4302. your Emacs init file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items
  4303. in different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4304. like:
  4305. @lisp
  4306. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4307. @end lisp
  4308. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4309. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4310. @example
  4311. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4312. @end example
  4313. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4314. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4315. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4316. @example
  4317. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4318. @end example
  4319. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4320. @example
  4321. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4322. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4323. @end example
  4324. @noindent
  4325. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4326. braces, as in:
  4327. @example
  4328. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4329. @end example
  4330. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4331. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4332. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4333. these lines to activate any changes.
  4334. @noindent
  4335. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tag-alist},
  4336. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4337. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4338. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4339. configuration:
  4340. @lisp
  4341. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4342. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4343. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4344. (:endgroup . nil)
  4345. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4346. @end lisp
  4347. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4348. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4349. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4350. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4351. have no configured keys.}.
  4352. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of tags
  4353. in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually exclusive tags
  4354. will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4355. In this interface, you can also use the following special keys:
  4356. @table @kbd
  4357. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4358. @item @key{TAB}
  4359. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4360. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4361. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4362. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4363. @item @key{SPC}
  4364. Clear all tags for this line.
  4365. @kindex @key{RET}
  4366. @item @key{RET}
  4367. Accept the modified set.
  4368. @item C-g
  4369. Abort without installing changes.
  4370. @item q
  4371. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4372. @item !
  4373. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4374. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4375. @item C-c
  4376. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4377. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4378. selection window.
  4379. @end table
  4380. @noindent
  4381. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4382. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4383. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4384. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4385. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4386. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4387. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4388. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4389. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4390. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4391. modify your list of tags, set @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}.
  4392. Then you no longer have to press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it
  4393. will immediately exit after the first change. If you then occasionally
  4394. need more keys, press @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag
  4395. selection process (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c}
  4396. instead of @kbd{C-c C-c}). If you set the variable to the value
  4397. @code{expert}, the special window is not even shown for single-key tag
  4398. selection, it comes up only when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4399. @node Tag hierarchy
  4400. @section Tag hierarchy
  4401. @cindex group tags
  4402. @cindex tags, groups
  4403. @cindex tag hierarchy
  4404. Tags can be defined in hierarchies. A tag can be defined as a @emph{group
  4405. tag} for a set of other tags. The group tag can be seen as the ``broader
  4406. term'' for its set of tags. Defining multiple @emph{group tags} and nesting
  4407. them creates a tag hierarchy.
  4408. One use-case is to create a taxonomy of terms (tags) that can be used to
  4409. classify nodes in a document or set of documents.
  4410. When you search for a group tag, it will return matches for all members in
  4411. the group and its subgroups. In an agenda view, filtering by a group tag
  4412. will display or hide headlines tagged with at least one of the members of the
  4413. group or any of its subgroups. This makes tag searches and filters even more
  4414. flexible.
  4415. You can set group tags by using brackets and inserting a colon between the
  4416. group tag and its related tags---beware that all whitespaces are mandatory so
  4417. that Org can parse this line correctly:
  4418. @example
  4419. #+TAGS: [ GTD : Control Persp ]
  4420. @end example
  4421. In this example, @samp{GTD} is the @emph{group tag} and it is related to two
  4422. other tags: @samp{Control}, @samp{Persp}. Defining @samp{Control} and
  4423. @samp{Persp} as group tags creates an hierarchy of tags:
  4424. @example
  4425. #+TAGS: [ Control : Context Task ]
  4426. #+TAGS: [ Persp : Vision Goal AOF Project ]
  4427. @end example
  4428. That can conceptually be seen as a hierarchy of tags:
  4429. @example
  4430. - GTD
  4431. - Persp
  4432. - Vision
  4433. - Goal
  4434. - AOF
  4435. - Project
  4436. - Control
  4437. - Context
  4438. - Task
  4439. @end example
  4440. You can use the @code{:startgrouptag}, @code{:grouptags} and
  4441. @code{:endgrouptag} keyword directly when setting @code{org-tag-alist}
  4442. directly:
  4443. @lisp
  4444. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgrouptag)
  4445. ("GTD")
  4446. (:grouptags)
  4447. ("Control")
  4448. ("Persp")
  4449. (:endgrouptag)
  4450. (:startgrouptag)
  4451. ("Control")
  4452. (:grouptags)
  4453. ("Context")
  4454. ("Task")
  4455. (:endgrouptag)))
  4456. @end lisp
  4457. The tags in a group can be mutually exclusive if using the same group syntax
  4458. as is used for grouping mutually exclusive tags together; using curly
  4459. brackets.
  4460. @example
  4461. #+TAGS: @{ Context : @@Home @@Work @@Call @}
  4462. @end example
  4463. When setting @code{org-tag-alist} you can use @code{:startgroup} &
  4464. @code{:endgroup} instead of @code{:startgrouptag} & @code{:endgrouptag} to
  4465. make the tags mutually exclusive.
  4466. Furthermore, the members of a @emph{group tag} can also be regular
  4467. expressions, creating the possibility of a more dynamic and rule-based
  4468. tag structure. The regular expressions in the group must be specified
  4469. within @{ @}. Here is an expanded example:
  4470. @example
  4471. #+TAGS: [ Vision : @{V@@@.+@} ]
  4472. #+TAGS: [ Goal : @{G@@@.+@} ]
  4473. #+TAGS: [ AOF : @{AOF@@@.+@} ]
  4474. #+TAGS: [ Project : @{P@@@.+@} ]
  4475. @end example
  4476. Searching for the tag @samp{Project} will now list all tags also including
  4477. regular expression matches for @samp{P@@@.+}, and similarly for tag searches on
  4478. @samp{Vision}, @samp{Goal} and @samp{AOF}. For example, this would work well
  4479. for a project tagged with a common project-identifier, e.g. @samp{P@@2014_OrgTags}.
  4480. @kindex C-c C-x q
  4481. @vindex org-group-tags
  4482. If you want to ignore group tags temporarily, toggle group tags support
  4483. with @command{org-toggle-tags-groups}, bound to @kbd{C-c C-x q}. If you
  4484. want to disable tag groups completely, set @code{org-group-tags} to @code{nil}.
  4485. @node Tag searches
  4486. @section Tag searches
  4487. @cindex tag searches
  4488. @cindex searching for tags
  4489. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4490. information into special lists.
  4491. @table @kbd
  4492. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4493. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags/property/TODO search.
  4494. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4495. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4496. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4497. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files. @xref{Matching
  4498. tags and properties}.
  4499. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4500. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4501. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4502. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see the option
  4503. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4504. @end table
  4505. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4506. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4507. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4508. tagged as @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search string
  4509. is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels and
  4510. properties. For a complete description with many examples, see @ref{Matching
  4511. tags and properties}.
  4512. @node Properties and columns
  4513. @chapter Properties and columns
  4514. @cindex properties
  4515. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4516. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4517. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4518. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4519. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4520. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4521. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4522. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4523. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4524. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4525. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4526. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4527. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4528. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4529. @menu
  4530. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4531. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4532. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4533. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4534. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4535. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4536. @end menu
  4537. @node Property syntax
  4538. @section Property syntax
  4539. @cindex property syntax
  4540. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4541. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4542. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special drawer
  4543. (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}, which has to be located
  4544. right below a headline, and its planning line (@pxref{Deadlines and
  4545. scheduling}) when applicable. Each property is specified on a single line,
  4546. with the key (surrounded by colons) first, and the value after it. Keys are
  4547. case-insensitive. Here is an example:
  4548. @example
  4549. * CD collection
  4550. ** Classic
  4551. *** Goldberg Variations
  4552. :PROPERTIES:
  4553. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4554. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4555. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4556. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4557. :NDisks: 1
  4558. :END:
  4559. @end example
  4560. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4561. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the subtree
  4562. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4563. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4564. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4565. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4566. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4567. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4568. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4569. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4570. @example
  4571. * CD collection
  4572. :PROPERTIES:
  4573. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4574. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4575. :END:
  4576. @end example
  4577. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4578. file, use a line like
  4579. @cindex property, _ALL
  4580. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4581. @example
  4582. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4583. @end example
  4584. Contrary to properties set from a special drawer, you have to refresh the
  4585. buffer with @kbd{C-c C-c} to activate this change.
  4586. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4587. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4588. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4589. @cindex property, +
  4590. @example
  4591. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4592. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4593. @end example
  4594. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4595. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4596. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4597. @cindex property, +
  4598. @example
  4599. * CD collection
  4600. ** Classic
  4601. :PROPERTIES:
  4602. :GENRES: Classic
  4603. :END:
  4604. *** Goldberg Variations
  4605. :PROPERTIES:
  4606. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4607. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4608. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4609. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4610. :NDisks: 1
  4611. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4612. :END:
  4613. @end example
  4614. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4615. @vindex org-global-properties
  4616. Property values set with the global variable
  4617. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4618. Org files.
  4619. @noindent
  4620. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4621. @table @kbd
  4622. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4623. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4624. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4625. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4626. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4627. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4628. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer RET
  4629. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  4630. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4631. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4632. information like deadlines.
  4633. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4634. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4635. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4636. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4637. can be inserted using completion.
  4638. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4639. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4640. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4641. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4642. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4643. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4644. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4645. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4646. nearest column format definition.
  4647. @end table
  4648. @node Special properties
  4649. @section Special properties
  4650. @cindex properties, special
  4651. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4652. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4653. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in
  4654. a column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The
  4655. following property names are special and should not be used as keys in the
  4656. properties drawer:
  4657. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4658. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4659. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4660. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM_T
  4661. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4662. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4663. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4664. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4665. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4666. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4667. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4668. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4669. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4670. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4671. @example
  4672. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4673. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings.}
  4674. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4675. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4676. CLOCKSUM_T @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree for today.}
  4677. @r{@code{org-clock-sum-today} must be run first to compute the}
  4678. @r{values in the current buffer.}
  4679. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4680. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4681. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4682. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4683. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4684. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4685. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4686. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4687. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4688. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4689. @end example
  4690. @node Property searches
  4691. @section Property searches
  4692. @cindex properties, searching
  4693. @cindex searching, of properties
  4694. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4695. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4696. @table @kbd
  4697. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4698. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4699. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4700. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4701. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4702. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4703. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4704. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4705. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4706. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see the option
  4707. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4708. @end table
  4709. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4710. properties}.
  4711. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4712. single property:
  4713. @table @kbd
  4714. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4715. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4716. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4717. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4718. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4719. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4720. @end table
  4721. @node Property inheritance
  4722. @section Property Inheritance
  4723. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4724. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4725. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4726. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4727. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4728. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4729. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4730. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4731. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4732. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4733. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4734. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4735. inherited properties. If a property has the value @code{nil}, this is
  4736. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4737. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4738. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4739. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4740. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4741. @table @code
  4742. @item COLUMNS
  4743. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4744. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4745. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4746. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4747. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4748. @item CATEGORY
  4749. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4750. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4751. applies to the entire subtree.
  4752. @item ARCHIVE
  4753. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4754. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4755. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4756. @item LOGGING
  4757. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4758. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4759. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4760. @end table
  4761. @node Column view
  4762. @section Column view
  4763. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4764. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4765. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4766. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4767. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4768. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4769. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4770. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4771. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4772. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4773. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4774. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda views}) where
  4775. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4776. @menu
  4777. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4778. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4779. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4780. @end menu
  4781. @node Defining columns
  4782. @subsection Defining columns
  4783. @cindex column view, for properties
  4784. @cindex properties, column view
  4785. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4786. done by defining a column format line.
  4787. @menu
  4788. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4789. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4790. @end menu
  4791. @node Scope of column definitions
  4792. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4793. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4794. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4795. @example
  4796. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4797. @end example
  4798. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4799. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4800. @example
  4801. ** Top node for columns view
  4802. :PROPERTIES:
  4803. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4804. :END:
  4805. @end example
  4806. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4807. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4808. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4809. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4810. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4811. deeper part of the tree.
  4812. @node Column attributes
  4813. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4814. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4815. definition looks like this:
  4816. @example
  4817. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4818. @end example
  4819. @noindent
  4820. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4821. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4822. @example
  4823. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4824. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4825. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4826. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4827. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4828. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4829. @r{name is used.}
  4830. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4831. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children@footnote{If
  4832. more than one summary type apply to the property, the parent
  4833. values are computed according to the first of them.}.}
  4834. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4835. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4836. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4837. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4838. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4839. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4840. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4841. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4842. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4843. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4844. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are
  4845. hours@footnote{A time can also be a duration, using effort
  4846. modifiers defined in @code{org-effort-durations}, e.g.,
  4847. @samp{3d 1h}. If any value in the column is as such, the
  4848. summary will also be an effort duration.}.}
  4849. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4850. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4851. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4852. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age@footnote{An age is defined as
  4853. a duration since a given time-stamp (@pxref{Timestamps}). It
  4854. can also be expressed as days, hours, minutes and seconds,
  4855. identified by @samp{d}, @samp{h}, @samp{m} and @samp{s}
  4856. suffixes, all mandatory, e.g., @samp{0d 13h 0m 10s}.} (in
  4857. days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4858. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4859. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4860. @{est+@} @r{Add @samp{low-high} estimates.}
  4861. @end example
  4862. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4863. combining estimates, expressed as @samp{low-high} ranges or plain numbers.
  4864. For example, instead of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you
  4865. might estimate it as 5--6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much
  4866. work is required, or 1--10 days if you don't really know what needs to be
  4867. done. Both ranges average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more
  4868. predictable delivery.
  4869. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4870. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4871. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4872. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4873. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4874. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything go