org.texi 580 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @set VERSION 7.01trans
  6. @set DATE July 2010
  7. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  8. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  9. @set txicodequoteundirected
  10. @set txicodequotebacktick
  11. @c Version and Contact Info
  12. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  13. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  15. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  16. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c Macro definitions
  20. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  21. @iftex
  22. @kindex \key\
  23. @findex \command\
  24. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  25. @end iftex
  26. @ifnottex
  27. @kindex \key\
  28. @findex \command\
  29. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  30. @end ifnottex
  31. @end macro
  32. @macro orgkey{key}
  33. @kindex \key\
  34. @item @kbd{\key\}
  35. @end macro
  36. @iftex
  37. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  38. @end iftex
  39. @macro Ie {}
  40. I.e.,
  41. @end macro
  42. @macro ie {}
  43. i.e.,
  44. @end macro
  45. @macro Eg {}
  46. E.g.,
  47. @end macro
  48. @macro eg {}
  49. e.g.,
  50. @end macro
  51. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  52. @macro tsubheading{text}
  53. @ifinfo
  54. @subsubheading \text\
  55. @end ifinfo
  56. @ifnotinfo
  57. @item @b{\text\}
  58. @end ifnotinfo
  59. @end macro
  60. @copying
  61. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  62. Copyright @copyright{} 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation
  63. @quotation
  64. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  65. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  66. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  67. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  68. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  69. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  70. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  71. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  72. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  73. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  74. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  75. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  76. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  77. @end quotation
  78. @end copying
  79. @dircategory Emacs
  80. @direntry
  81. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  82. @end direntry
  83. @titlepage
  84. @title The Org Manual
  85. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  86. @author by Carsten Dominik
  87. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, and Thomas Dye
  88. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  89. @page
  90. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  91. @insertcopying
  92. @end titlepage
  93. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  94. @contents
  95. @ifnottex
  96. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  97. @top Org Mode Manual
  98. @insertcopying
  99. @end ifnottex
  100. @menu
  101. * Introduction:: Getting started
  102. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  103. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  104. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  105. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  106. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  107. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  108. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  109. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  110. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  111. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  112. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  113. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  114. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  115. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  116. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  117. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  118. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  119. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  120. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  121. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  122. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  123. @detailmenu
  124. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  125. Introduction
  126. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  127. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  128. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  129. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  130. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  131. Document structure
  132. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  133. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  134. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  135. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  136. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  137. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  138. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  139. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  140. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  141. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  142. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  143. Tables
  144. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  145. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  146. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  147. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  148. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  149. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  150. The spreadsheet
  151. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  152. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  153. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  154. * Field formulas:: Formulas valid for a single field
  155. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  156. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  157. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  158. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  159. Hyperlinks
  160. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  161. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  162. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  163. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  164. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  165. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  166. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  167. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  168. Internal links
  169. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  170. TODO items
  171. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  172. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  173. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  174. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  175. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  176. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  177. Extended use of TODO keywords
  178. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  179. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  180. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  181. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  182. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  183. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  184. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  185. Progress logging
  186. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  187. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  188. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  189. Tags
  190. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  191. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  192. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  193. Properties and columns
  194. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  195. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  196. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  197. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  198. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  199. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  200. Column view
  201. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  202. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  203. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  204. Defining columns
  205. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  206. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  207. Dates and times
  208. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  209. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  210. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  211. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  212. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time if you've been idle
  213. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  214. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  215. Creating timestamps
  216. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  217. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  218. Deadlines and scheduling
  219. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  220. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  221. Capture - Refile - Archive
  222. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  223. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  224. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  225. * Protocols:: External (e.g. Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  226. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  227. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  228. Capture
  229. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  230. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  231. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  232. Capture templates
  233. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  234. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  235. Archiving
  236. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  237. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  238. Agenda views
  239. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  240. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  241. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  242. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  243. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  244. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  245. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  246. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  247. The built-in agenda views
  248. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  249. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  250. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  251. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  252. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  253. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  254. Presentation and sorting
  255. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  256. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  257. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  258. Custom agenda views
  259. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  260. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  261. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  262. Markup for rich export
  263. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  264. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  265. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  266. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  267. * Index entries:: Making an index
  268. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  269. * Embedded LaTeX:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  270. Structural markup elements
  271. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  272. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  273. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  274. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  275. * Lists:: Lists
  276. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  277. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  278. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  279. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  280. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  281. Embedded La@TeX{}
  282. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  283. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  284. * LaTeX fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  285. * Previewing LaTeX fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  286. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  287. Exporting
  288. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  289. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  290. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  291. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  292. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  293. * LaTeX and PDF export:: Exporting to La@TeX{}, and processing to PDF
  294. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  295. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  296. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  297. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  298. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  299. HTML export
  300. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  301. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org-mode
  302. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  303. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  304. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  305. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  306. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  307. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  308. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  309. La@TeX{} and PDF export
  310. * LaTeX/PDF export commands:: Which key invokes which commands
  311. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  312. * Quoting LaTeX code:: Incorporating literal La@TeX{} code
  313. * Tables in LaTeX export:: Options for exporting tables to La@TeX{}
  314. * Images in LaTeX export:: How to insert figures into La@TeX{} output
  315. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  316. DocBook export
  317. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  318. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  319. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  320. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  321. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  322. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  323. Publishing
  324. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  325. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  326. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  327. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  328. Configuration
  329. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  330. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  331. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  332. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  333. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML export
  334. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  335. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  336. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  337. Sample configuration
  338. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  339. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  340. Working with source code
  341. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  342. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  343. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  344. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  345. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org-mode buffer
  346. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  347. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  348. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  349. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  350. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org-mode
  351. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  352. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  353. Header arguments
  354. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  355. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  356. Using header arguments
  357. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  358. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  359. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  360. * Header arguments in Org-mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  361. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  362. Specific header arguments
  363. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  364. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  365. be collected and handled
  366. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  367. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  368. directory for code block execution
  369. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  370. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  371. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  372. code files
  373. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  374. expansion during tangling
  375. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  376. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  377. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  378. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  379. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  380. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  381. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  382. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  383. Miscellaneous
  384. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  385. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  386. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  387. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  388. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  389. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  390. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  391. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  392. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  393. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  394. Interaction with other packages
  395. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  396. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  397. Hacking
  398. * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals
  399. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  400. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  401. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  402. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for La@TeX{} and other programs
  403. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  404. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  405. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  406. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  407. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  408. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  409. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  410. * A LaTeX example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  411. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  412. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  413. MobileOrg
  414. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  415. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  416. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  417. @end detailmenu
  418. @end menu
  419. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  420. @chapter Introduction
  421. @cindex introduction
  422. @menu
  423. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  424. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  425. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  426. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  427. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  428. @end menu
  429. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  430. @section Summary
  431. @cindex summary
  432. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  433. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  434. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  435. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  436. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  437. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  438. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  439. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  440. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  441. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  442. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  443. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  444. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  445. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  446. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  447. linked web pages.
  448. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  449. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  450. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  451. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows to work with
  452. embedded source code block in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  453. documentation, and tangling.
  454. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  455. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  456. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  457. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in La@TeX{}. The structure
  458. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  459. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  460. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  461. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  462. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  463. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  464. ends, for example:
  465. @example
  466. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  467. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  468. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  469. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  470. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  471. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  472. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and La@TeX{} export}
  473. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  474. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  475. @end example
  476. @cindex FAQ
  477. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  478. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  479. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  480. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  481. @page
  482. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  483. @section Installation
  484. @cindex installation
  485. @cindex XEmacs
  486. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  487. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  488. to @ref{Activation}.}
  489. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  490. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
  491. to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
  492. top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs
  493. binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
  494. directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have
  495. access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
  496. the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
  497. Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  498. @example
  499. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  500. @end example
  501. @noindent
  502. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  503. step for this directory:
  504. @example
  505. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  506. @end example
  507. @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
  508. @example
  509. make
  510. @end example
  511. @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
  512. all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
  513. administrator)
  514. @example
  515. make install
  516. @end example
  517. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  518. @file{install-info} program. In Debian it copies the info files into the
  519. correct directory and modifies the info directory file. In many other
  520. systems, the files need to be copied to the correct directory separately, and
  521. @file{install-info} then only modifies the directory file. Check your system
  522. documentation to find out which of the following commands you need:
  523. @example
  524. make install-info
  525. make install-info-debian
  526. @end example
  527. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  528. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  529. when Org-mode starts.
  530. @lisp
  531. (require 'org-install)
  532. @end lisp
  533. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  534. @page
  535. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  536. @section Activation
  537. @cindex activation
  538. @cindex autoload
  539. @cindex global key bindings
  540. @cindex key bindings, global
  541. Add the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file. The last three lines
  542. define @emph{global} keys for the commands @command{org-store-link},
  543. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb}---please choose suitable
  544. keys yourself.
  545. @lisp
  546. ;; The following lines are always needed. Choose your own keys.
  547. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  548. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  549. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  550. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  551. @end lisp
  552. Furthermore, you must activate @code{font-lock-mode} in Org
  553. buffers, because significant functionality depends on font-locking being
  554. active. You can do this with either one of the following two lines
  555. (XEmacs users must use the second option):
  556. @lisp
  557. (global-font-lock-mode 1) ; for all buffers
  558. (add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock) ; Org buffers only
  559. @end lisp
  560. @cindex Org-mode, turning on
  561. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  562. into Org-mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  563. like this:
  564. @example
  565. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  566. @end example
  567. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  568. @noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what
  569. the file's name is. See also the variable
  570. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  571. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  572. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  573. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  574. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  575. @lisp
  576. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  577. @end lisp
  578. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  579. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  580. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  581. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  582. @section Feedback
  583. @cindex feedback
  584. @cindex bug reports
  585. @cindex maintainer
  586. @cindex author
  587. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  588. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  589. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  590. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  591. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  592. moderators have to do.}.
  593. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  594. version of Org available - if you are running an outdated version, it is
  595. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  596. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  597. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  598. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  599. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  600. @example
  601. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  602. @end example
  603. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  604. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  605. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  606. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  607. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  608. about:
  609. @enumerate
  610. @item What exactly did you do?
  611. @item What did you expect to happen?
  612. @item What happened instead?
  613. @end enumerate
  614. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  615. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  616. @cindex backtrace of an error
  617. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  618. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  619. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  620. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  621. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  622. @enumerate
  623. @item
  624. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org-mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  625. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  626. To do this, use
  627. @example
  628. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  629. @end example
  630. @noindent
  631. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  632. menu.
  633. @item
  634. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  635. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  636. @item
  637. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  638. document the steps you take.
  639. @item
  640. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  641. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  642. attach it to your bug report.
  643. @end enumerate
  644. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  645. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  646. Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
  647. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  648. @table @code
  649. @item TODO
  650. @itemx WAITING
  651. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  652. user-defined.
  653. @item boss
  654. @itemx ARCHIVE
  655. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  656. meaning are written with all capitals.
  657. @item Release
  658. @itemx PRIORITY
  659. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  660. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  661. @end table
  662. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  663. @chapter Document structure
  664. @cindex document structure
  665. @cindex structure of document
  666. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  667. edit the structure of the document.
  668. @menu
  669. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  670. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  671. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  672. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  673. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  674. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  675. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  676. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  677. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  678. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  679. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  680. @end menu
  681. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  682. @section Outlines
  683. @cindex outlines
  684. @cindex Outline mode
  685. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  686. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  687. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  688. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  689. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  690. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  691. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  692. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  693. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  694. @section Headlines
  695. @cindex headlines
  696. @cindex outline tree
  697. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  698. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  699. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  700. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  701. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  702. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  703. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  704. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.}. For example:
  705. @example
  706. * Top level headline
  707. ** Second level
  708. *** 3rd level
  709. some text
  710. *** 3rd level
  711. more text
  712. * Another top level headline
  713. @end example
  714. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  715. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  716. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  717. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  718. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  719. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  720. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  721. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  722. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  723. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  724. @section Visibility cycling
  725. @cindex cycling, visibility
  726. @cindex visibility cycling
  727. @cindex trees, visibility
  728. @cindex show hidden text
  729. @cindex hide text
  730. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  731. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  732. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  733. @cindex subtree visibility states
  734. @cindex subtree cycling
  735. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  736. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  737. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  738. @table @asis
  739. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  740. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  741. @example
  742. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  743. '-----------------------------------'
  744. @end example
  745. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  746. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  747. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  748. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  749. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  750. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  751. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  752. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  753. @cindex global visibility states
  754. @cindex global cycling
  755. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  756. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  757. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  758. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  759. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  760. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  761. @example
  762. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  763. '--------------------------------------'
  764. @end example
  765. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  766. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  767. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  768. @cindex show all, command
  769. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  770. Show all, including drawers.
  771. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  772. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  773. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  774. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  775. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  776. level, all sibling headings. With double prefix arg, also show the entire
  777. subtree of the parent.
  778. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  779. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  780. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  781. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  782. buffer
  783. @ifinfo
  784. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  785. @end ifinfo
  786. @ifnotinfo
  787. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  788. @end ifnotinfo
  789. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  790. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  791. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  792. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  793. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  794. the previously used indirect buffer.
  795. @end table
  796. @vindex org-startup-folded
  797. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  798. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  799. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  800. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  801. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  802. OVERVIEW, i.e. only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  803. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  804. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  805. buffer:
  806. @example
  807. #+STARTUP: overview
  808. #+STARTUP: content
  809. #+STARTUP: showall
  810. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  811. @end example
  812. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  813. @noindent
  814. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  815. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  816. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  817. @code{all}.
  818. @table @asis
  819. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  820. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e. whatever is
  821. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  822. entries.
  823. @end table
  824. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  825. @section Motion
  826. @cindex motion, between headlines
  827. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  828. @cindex headline navigation
  829. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  830. @table @asis
  831. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  832. Next heading.
  833. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  834. Previous heading.
  835. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  836. Next heading same level.
  837. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  838. Previous heading same level.
  839. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  840. Backward to higher level heading.
  841. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  842. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  843. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  844. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  845. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  846. @example
  847. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  848. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  849. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  850. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  851. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  852. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  853. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  854. u @r{One level up.}
  855. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  856. q @r{Quit}
  857. @end example
  858. @vindex org-goto-interface
  859. @noindent
  860. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  861. @end table
  862. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  863. @section Structure editing
  864. @cindex structure editing
  865. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  866. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  867. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  868. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  869. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  870. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  871. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  872. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  873. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  874. @table @asis
  875. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  876. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  877. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a
  878. plain list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force
  879. creation of a new headline, use a prefix argument, or first press @key{RET}
  880. to get to the beginning of the next line. When this command is used in
  881. the middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes
  882. the new headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split,
  883. customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the
  884. command is used at the beginning of a headline, the new headline is
  885. created before the current line. If at the beginning of any other line,
  886. the content of that line is made the new heading. If the command is
  887. used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e. behind the ellipses at the end
  888. of a headline), then a headline like the current one will be inserted
  889. after the end of the subtree.
  890. @kindex C-@key{RET}
  891. @item C-@key{RET}
  892. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  893. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  894. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  895. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  896. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  897. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  898. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  899. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  900. @kindex C-S-@key{RET}
  901. @item C-S-@key{RET}
  902. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  903. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  904. subtree.
  905. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  906. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  907. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  908. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  909. to the initial level.
  910. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  911. Promote current heading by one level.
  912. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  913. Demote current heading by one level.
  914. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  915. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  916. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  917. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  918. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  919. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  920. level).
  921. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  922. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  923. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  924. Kill subtree, i.e. remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  925. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  926. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  927. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  928. sequential subtrees.
  929. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  930. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  931. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  932. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  933. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  934. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  935. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  936. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  937. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  938. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  939. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  940. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  941. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  942. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  943. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  944. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  945. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  946. folding.
  947. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  948. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  949. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  950. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  951. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  952. more details, see the docstring of the command
  953. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  954. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  955. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  956. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort-entries-or-items}
  957. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  958. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  959. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  960. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  961. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  962. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  963. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  964. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  965. sorting will be case-sensitive. With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, duplicate
  966. entries will also be removed.
  967. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  968. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  969. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  970. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  971. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  972. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  973. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  974. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  975. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  976. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  977. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  978. @end table
  979. @cindex region, active
  980. @cindex active region
  981. @cindex transient mark mode
  982. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  983. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  984. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  985. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  986. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  987. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  988. functionality.
  989. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  990. @section Sparse trees
  991. @cindex sparse trees
  992. @cindex trees, sparse
  993. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  994. @cindex occur, command
  995. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  996. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  997. @vindex org-show-siblings
  998. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  999. An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1000. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1001. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1002. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1003. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1004. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1005. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1006. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1007. Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1008. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1009. @table @asis
  1010. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1011. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1012. @kindex C-c / r
  1013. @item C-c / r
  1014. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1015. Occur. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1016. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1017. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1018. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1019. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1020. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1021. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1022. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1023. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1024. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1025. @end table
  1026. @noindent
  1027. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1028. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1029. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1030. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1031. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1032. For example:
  1033. @lisp
  1034. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1035. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1036. @end lisp
  1037. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1038. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1039. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1040. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1041. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1042. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1043. @cindex visible text, printing
  1044. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1045. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1046. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1047. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1048. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1049. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1050. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1051. @section Plain lists
  1052. @cindex plain lists
  1053. @cindex lists, plain
  1054. @cindex lists, ordered
  1055. @cindex ordered lists
  1056. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1057. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of
  1058. checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists,
  1059. and the HTML exporter (@pxref{Exporting}) parses and formats them.
  1060. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1061. @itemize @bullet
  1062. @item
  1063. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1064. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1065. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1066. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star are
  1067. visually indistinguishable from true headlines. In short: even though
  1068. @samp{*} is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.}
  1069. as bullets.
  1070. @item
  1071. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1072. a right parenthesis, such as @samp{1.} or @samp{1)}. If you want a list to
  1073. start a different value (e.g. 20), start the text of the item with
  1074. @code{[@@start:20]}.
  1075. @item
  1076. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1077. separator @samp{ :: } to separate the description @emph{term} from the
  1078. description.
  1079. @end itemize
  1080. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1081. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1082. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1083. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1084. list. Indentation also determines the end of a list item. It ends before
  1085. the next line that is indented like the bullet/number, or less. Empty lines
  1086. are part of the previous item, so you can have several paragraphs in one
  1087. item. If you would like an empty line to terminate all currently open plain
  1088. lists, configure the variable @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.
  1089. Here is an example:
  1090. @example
  1091. @group
  1092. ** Lord of the Rings
  1093. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1094. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1095. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1096. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1097. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1098. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1099. - on DVD only
  1100. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1101. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1102. Important actors in this film are:
  1103. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1104. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1105. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1106. @end group
  1107. @end example
  1108. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1109. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1110. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1111. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1112. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1113. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1114. blocks can be indented to signal that they should be part of a list item.
  1115. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1116. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1117. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1118. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}.
  1119. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line
  1120. of an item (the line with the bullet or number).
  1121. @table @asis
  1122. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1123. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1124. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1125. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1126. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. to @code{integrate}, plain list items
  1127. will be treated like low-level. The level of an item is then given by the
  1128. indentation of the bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real
  1129. headlines, however; the hierarchies remain completely separated.
  1130. If @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists} has not been set, @key{TAB}
  1131. fixes the indentation of the current line in a heuristic way.
  1132. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1133. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1134. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1135. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1136. of a line, the line is @emph{split} and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1137. item@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the variable
  1138. @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed in the
  1139. @emph{whitespace before a bullet or number}, the new item is created
  1140. @emph{before} the current item. If the command is executed in the white
  1141. space before the text that is part of an item but does not contain the
  1142. bullet, a bullet is added to the current line.
  1143. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1144. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1145. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1146. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1147. In a new item with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the item to
  1148. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1149. and so on, all the way to the left margin. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you
  1150. are back to the initial level.
  1151. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1152. @item S-@key{up}
  1153. @itemx S-@key{down}
  1154. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1155. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1156. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list, but only if
  1157. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1158. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1159. similar effect.
  1160. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  1161. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  1162. @item M-S-@key{up}
  1163. @itemx M-S-@key{down}
  1164. Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item
  1165. of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering is
  1166. automatic.
  1167. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1168. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1169. @item M-@key{left}
  1170. @itemx M-@key{right}
  1171. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1172. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1173. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1174. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1175. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1176. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1177. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation.
  1178. When these commands are executed several times in direct succession,
  1179. the initially selected region is used, even if the new indentation
  1180. would imply a different hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break
  1181. the command chain with a cursor motion or so.
  1182. @kindex C-c C-c
  1183. @item C-c C-c
  1184. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1185. state of the checkbox. If not, this command makes sure that all the
  1186. items on this list level use the same bullet. Furthermore, if this is
  1187. an ordered list, make sure the numbering is OK.
  1188. @kindex C-c -
  1189. @item C-c -
  1190. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1191. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}). With a numeric prefix
  1192. argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an active
  1193. region when calling this, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1194. first line already was a list item, any item markers will be removed from the
  1195. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1196. converted into a list item.
  1197. @kindex C-c *
  1198. @item C-c *
  1199. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1200. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1201. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1202. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1203. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  1204. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1205. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1206. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1207. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1208. @kindex C-c ^
  1209. @item C-c ^
  1210. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1211. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1212. @end table
  1213. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1214. @section Drawers
  1215. @cindex drawers
  1216. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1217. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1218. @vindex org-drawers
  1219. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1220. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org-mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1221. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1222. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
  1223. with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}. Drawers
  1224. look like this:
  1225. @example
  1226. ** This is a headline
  1227. Still outside the drawer
  1228. :DRAWERNAME:
  1229. This is inside the drawer.
  1230. :END:
  1231. After the drawer.
  1232. @end example
  1233. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1234. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1235. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1236. press @key{TAB} there. Org-mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1237. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1238. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1239. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1240. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way as this is
  1241. done by state changes, use
  1242. @table @kbd
  1243. @kindex C-c C-z
  1244. @item C-c C-z
  1245. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1246. @end table
  1247. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1248. @section Blocks
  1249. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1250. @cindex blocks, folding
  1251. Org-mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1252. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1253. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1254. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1255. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1256. or on a per-file basis by using
  1257. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1258. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1259. @example
  1260. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1261. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1262. @end example
  1263. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1264. @section Footnotes
  1265. @cindex footnotes
  1266. Org-mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1267. @file{footnote.el} package, Org-mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1268. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1269. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e. a footnote is
  1270. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1271. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1272. inside a footnote, use the La@TeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1273. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1274. @example
  1275. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1276. ...
  1277. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1278. @end example
  1279. Org-mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1280. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1281. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1282. encouraged because of possible conflicts with La@TeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1283. LaTeX}). Here are the valid references:
  1284. @table @code
  1285. @item [1]
  1286. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1287. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1288. snippet.
  1289. @item [fn:name]
  1290. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1291. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1292. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1293. A La@TeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1294. reference point.
  1295. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1296. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1297. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1298. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1299. @end table
  1300. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1301. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1302. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1303. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords, see the docstring of that variable
  1304. for details.
  1305. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1306. @table @kbd
  1307. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1308. @item C-c C-x f
  1309. The footnote action command.
  1310. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1311. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1312. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1313. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1314. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1315. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1316. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1317. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1318. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1319. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1320. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1321. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1322. options is offered:
  1323. @example
  1324. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1325. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1326. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1327. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1328. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1329. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1330. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1331. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1332. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1333. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1334. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1335. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1336. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1337. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g. sending}
  1338. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1339. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1340. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1341. @r{to it.}
  1342. @end example
  1343. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1344. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1345. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1346. deletion.
  1347. @kindex C-c C-c
  1348. @item C-c C-c
  1349. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1350. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1351. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1352. @kindex C-c C-o
  1353. @kindex mouse-1
  1354. @kindex mouse-2
  1355. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1356. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1357. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1358. @end table
  1359. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1360. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1361. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1362. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1363. If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode structure editing and list
  1364. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1365. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1366. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1367. turn it on by default, for example in Mail mode, with one of:
  1368. @lisp
  1369. (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1370. (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1371. @end lisp
  1372. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1373. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1374. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1375. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1376. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadow. When you use
  1377. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1378. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1379. item.
  1380. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1381. @chapter Tables
  1382. @cindex tables
  1383. @cindex editing tables
  1384. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1385. calculations are supported in connection with the Emacs @file{calc}
  1386. package
  1387. @ifinfo
  1388. (@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1389. @end ifinfo
  1390. @ifnotinfo
  1391. (see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
  1392. calculator).
  1393. @end ifnotinfo
  1394. @menu
  1395. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1396. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1397. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1398. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1399. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1400. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1401. @end menu
  1402. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1403. @section The built-in table editor
  1404. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1405. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with
  1406. @samp{|} as the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a
  1407. table. @samp{|} is also the column separator. A table might look like
  1408. this:
  1409. @example
  1410. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1411. |-------+-------+-----|
  1412. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1413. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1414. @end example
  1415. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1416. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1417. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1418. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1419. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1420. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1421. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1422. create the above table, you would only type
  1423. @example
  1424. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1425. |-
  1426. @end example
  1427. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1428. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1429. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1430. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1431. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1432. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1433. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1434. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1435. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1436. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1437. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1438. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1439. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1440. @table @kbd
  1441. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1442. @kindex C-c |
  1443. @item C-c |
  1444. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1445. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1446. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1447. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1448. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1449. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1450. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1451. @*
  1452. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1453. table. But it's easier just to start typing, like
  1454. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1455. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1456. @kindex C-c C-c
  1457. @item C-c C-c
  1458. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1459. @c
  1460. @kindex @key{TAB}
  1461. @item @key{TAB}
  1462. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1463. necessary.
  1464. @c
  1465. @kindex S-@key{TAB}
  1466. @item S-@key{TAB}
  1467. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1468. @c
  1469. @kindex @key{RET}
  1470. @item @key{RET}
  1471. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1472. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1473. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1474. @c
  1475. @kindex M-a
  1476. @item M-a
  1477. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1478. @kindex M-e
  1479. @item M-e
  1480. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1481. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1482. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1483. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1484. @item M-@key{left}
  1485. @itemx M-@key{right}
  1486. Move the current column left/right.
  1487. @c
  1488. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1489. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1490. Kill the current column.
  1491. @c
  1492. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1493. @item M-S-@key{right}
  1494. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1495. @c
  1496. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1497. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1498. @item M-@key{up}
  1499. @itemx M-@key{down}
  1500. Move the current row up/down.
  1501. @c
  1502. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  1503. @item M-S-@key{up}
  1504. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1505. @c
  1506. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  1507. @item M-S-@key{down}
  1508. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1509. created below the current one.
  1510. @c
  1511. @kindex C-c -
  1512. @item C-c -
  1513. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1514. is created above the current line.
  1515. @c
  1516. @kindex C-c @key{RET}
  1517. @item C-c @key{RET}
  1518. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1519. below that line.
  1520. @c
  1521. @kindex C-c ^
  1522. @item C-c ^
  1523. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1524. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1525. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1526. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1527. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1528. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1529. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1530. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1531. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1532. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1533. @kindex C-c C-x M-w
  1534. @item C-c C-x M-w
  1535. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1536. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1537. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1538. @c
  1539. @kindex C-c C-x C-w
  1540. @item C-c C-x C-w
  1541. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1542. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1543. @c
  1544. @kindex C-c C-x C-y
  1545. @item C-c C-x C-y
  1546. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1547. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1548. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1549. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1550. lines.
  1551. @c
  1552. @kindex M-@key{RET}
  1553. @itemx M-@kbd{RET}
  1554. Wrap several fields in a column like a paragraph. If there is an active
  1555. region, and both point and mark are in the same column, the text in the
  1556. column is wrapped to minimum width for the given number of lines. A numeric
  1557. prefix argument may be used to change the number of desired lines. If there
  1558. is no region, the current field is split at the cursor position and the text
  1559. fragment to the right of the cursor is prepended to the field one line
  1560. down. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument, the current
  1561. field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field above.
  1562. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1563. @cindex formula, in tables
  1564. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1565. @cindex region, active
  1566. @cindex active region
  1567. @cindex transient mark mode
  1568. @kindex C-c +
  1569. @item C-c +
  1570. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1571. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1572. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1573. @c
  1574. @kindex S-@key{RET}
  1575. @item S-@key{RET}
  1576. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1577. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1578. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1579. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1580. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1581. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1582. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1583. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1584. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1585. @kindex C-c `
  1586. @item C-c `
  1587. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1588. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1589. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1590. edited in place.
  1591. @c
  1592. @item M-x org-table-import
  1593. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1594. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1595. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1596. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1597. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1598. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1599. separator.
  1600. @item C-c |
  1601. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1602. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1603. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1604. @c
  1605. @item M-x org-table-export
  1606. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1607. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1608. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1609. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1610. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1611. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1612. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1613. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1614. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1615. detailed description.
  1616. @end table
  1617. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1618. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1619. it off with
  1620. @lisp
  1621. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1622. @end lisp
  1623. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1624. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1625. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1626. @section Column width and alignment
  1627. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1628. @cindex alignment in tables
  1629. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1630. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1631. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1632. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1633. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1634. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1635. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1636. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1637. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1638. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1639. @example
  1640. @group
  1641. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1642. | | | | | <6> |
  1643. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1644. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1645. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1646. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1647. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1648. @end group
  1649. @end example
  1650. @noindent
  1651. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1652. Note that the full text is still in the buffer, it is only invisible.
  1653. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1654. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1655. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1656. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1657. C-c}.
  1658. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1659. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1660. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1661. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1662. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1663. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1664. on a per-file basis with:
  1665. @example
  1666. #+STARTUP: align
  1667. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1668. @end example
  1669. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1670. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you and use @samp{<r>} or
  1671. @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may also combine alignment and field
  1672. width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1673. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1674. automatically when exporting the document.
  1675. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1676. @section Column groups
  1677. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1678. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1679. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1680. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1681. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1682. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1683. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1684. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1685. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} to make a column
  1686. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1687. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1688. @example
  1689. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1690. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1691. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1692. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1693. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1694. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1695. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1696. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1697. @end example
  1698. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1699. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1700. @example
  1701. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1702. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1703. | / | < | | | < | |
  1704. @end example
  1705. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  1706. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  1707. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1708. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1709. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  1710. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  1711. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  1712. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1713. example in mail mode, use
  1714. @lisp
  1715. (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1716. @end lisp
  1717. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  1718. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  1719. construct La@TeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  1720. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  1721. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  1722. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  1723. @section The spreadsheet
  1724. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1725. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  1726. @cindex @file{calc} package
  1727. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  1728. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  1729. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  1730. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  1731. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  1732. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  1733. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  1734. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  1735. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  1736. @menu
  1737. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  1738. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  1739. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  1740. * Field formulas:: Formulas valid for a single field
  1741. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  1742. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  1743. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  1744. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  1745. @end menu
  1746. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  1747. @subsection References
  1748. @cindex references
  1749. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  1750. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  1751. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  1752. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  1753. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  1754. @subsubheading Field references
  1755. @cindex field references
  1756. @cindex references, to fields
  1757. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  1758. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  1759. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  1760. @c Such references are always fixed to that field, they don't change
  1761. @c when you copy and paste a formula to a different field. So
  1762. @c Org's @code{B3} behaves like @code{$B$3} in other spreadsheets.
  1763. @noindent
  1764. Org also uses another, more general operator that looks like this:
  1765. @example
  1766. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  1767. @end example
  1768. @noindent
  1769. Column references can be absolute like @samp{1}, @samp{2},...@samp{@var{N}},
  1770. or relative to the current column like @samp{+1} or @samp{-2}.
  1771. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal
  1772. separator lines (hlines). You can use absolute row numbers
  1773. @samp{1}...@samp{@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the current row like
  1774. @samp{+3} or @samp{-1}. Or specify the row relative to one of the
  1775. hlines: @samp{I} refers to the first hline@footnote{Note that only
  1776. hlines are counted that @emph{separate} table lines. If the table
  1777. starts with a hline above the header, it does not count.}, @samp{II} to
  1778. the second, etc@. @samp{-I} refers to the first such line above the
  1779. current line, @samp{+I} to the first such line below the current line.
  1780. You can also write @samp{III+2} which is the second data line after the
  1781. third hline in the table.
  1782. @samp{0} refers to the current row and column. Also, if you omit
  1783. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current
  1784. row/column is implied.
  1785. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  1786. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  1787. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  1788. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  1789. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  1790. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  1791. As a special case, references like @samp{$LR5} and @samp{$LR12} can be used
  1792. to refer in a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the
  1793. table.
  1794. Here are a few examples:
  1795. @example
  1796. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column}
  1797. C2 @r{same as previous}
  1798. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row}
  1799. E& @r{same as previous}
  1800. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  1801. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  1802. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  1803. @end example
  1804. @subsubheading Range references
  1805. @cindex range references
  1806. @cindex references, to ranges
  1807. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  1808. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  1809. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  1810. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  1811. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  1812. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  1813. @example
  1814. $1..$3 @r{First three fields in the current row.}
  1815. $P..$Q @r{Range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  1816. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields.}
  1817. A2..C4 @r{Same as above.}
  1818. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  1819. @end example
  1820. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  1821. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  1822. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  1823. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  1824. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  1825. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  1826. @cindex field coordinates
  1827. @cindex coordinates, of field
  1828. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  1829. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  1830. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  1831. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  1832. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  1833. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  1834. @example
  1835. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  1836. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  1837. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  1838. @end example
  1839. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  1840. as the current table. Inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  1841. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  1842. number of rows.
  1843. @subsubheading Named references
  1844. @cindex named references
  1845. @cindex references, named
  1846. @cindex name, of column or field
  1847. @cindex constants, in calculations
  1848. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  1849. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  1850. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  1851. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  1852. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  1853. line like
  1854. @example
  1855. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  1856. @end example
  1857. @noindent
  1858. @vindex constants-unit-system
  1859. @pindex constants.el
  1860. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  1861. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  1862. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  1863. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  1864. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  1865. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  1866. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  1867. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  1868. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  1869. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  1870. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  1871. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  1872. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  1873. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  1874. numbers.
  1875. @subsubheading Remote references
  1876. @cindex remote references
  1877. @cindex references, remote
  1878. @cindex references, to a different table
  1879. @cindex name, of column or field
  1880. @cindex constants, in calculations
  1881. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  1882. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  1883. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  1884. @example
  1885. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  1886. @end example
  1887. @noindent
  1888. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  1889. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  1890. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  1891. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  1892. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  1893. referenced table.
  1894. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  1895. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  1896. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  1897. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  1898. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  1899. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  1900. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  1901. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  1902. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  1903. Your Programs,calc-eval,Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs,Calc,GNU
  1904. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  1905. @c FIXME: The link to the Calc manual in HTML does not work.
  1906. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  1907. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  1908. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  1909. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  1910. @cindex format specifier
  1911. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  1912. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  1913. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  1914. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  1915. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  1916. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  1917. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  1918. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  1919. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  1920. @example
  1921. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  1922. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  1923. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  1924. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  1925. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  1926. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  1927. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  1928. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  1929. T @r{force text interpretation}
  1930. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  1931. L @r{literal}
  1932. @end example
  1933. @noindent
  1934. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  1935. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  1936. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  1937. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  1938. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  1939. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  1940. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  1941. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  1942. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  1943. A few examples:
  1944. @example
  1945. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  1946. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  1947. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  1948. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  1949. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  1950. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  1951. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  1952. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  1953. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  1954. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  1955. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  1956. @end example
  1957. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  1958. @example
  1959. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{``teen'' if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  1960. @end example
  1961. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Field formulas, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  1962. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  1963. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  1964. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful
  1965. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's
  1966. functionality is not enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote
  1967. followed by an opening parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form.
  1968. The evaluation should return either a string or a number. Just as with
  1969. @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes and a printf format after a
  1970. semicolon. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way
  1971. field references are interpolated into the form. By default, a
  1972. reference will be interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes)
  1973. containing the field. If you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all
  1974. referenced elements will be numbers (non-number fields will be zero) and
  1975. interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If you provide the
  1976. @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally, without quotes.
  1977. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string by the Lisp
  1978. form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes, like
  1979. @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  1980. embed them in list or vector syntax. A few examples, note how the
  1981. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp.
  1982. @example
  1983. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  1984. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  1985. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  1986. '(+ $1 $2);N
  1987. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  1988. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  1989. @end example
  1990. @node Field formulas, Column formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  1991. @subsection Field formulas
  1992. @cindex field formula
  1993. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  1994. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the
  1995. field, preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=$1+$2}. When you
  1996. press @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in
  1997. the field, the formula will be stored as the formula for this field,
  1998. evaluated, and the current field replaced with the result.
  1999. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2000. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:}
  2001. directly below the table. If you typed the equation in the 4th field of
  2002. the 3rd data line in the table, the formula will look like
  2003. @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows
  2004. with the appropriate commands, @i{absolute references} (but not relative
  2005. ones) in stored formulas are modified in order to still reference the
  2006. same field. Of course this is not true if you edit the table structure
  2007. with normal editing commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2008. The left-hand side of a formula may also be a named field (@pxref{Advanced
  2009. features}), or a last-row reference like @samp{$LR3}.
  2010. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2011. following command
  2012. @table @kbd
  2013. @kindex C-u C-c =
  2014. @item C-u C-c =
  2015. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2016. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2017. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2018. @end table
  2019. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field formulas, The spreadsheet
  2020. @subsection Column formulas
  2021. @cindex column formula
  2022. @cindex formula, for table column
  2023. Often in a table, the same formula should be used for all fields in a
  2024. particular column. Instead of having to copy the formula to all fields
  2025. in that column, Org allows you to assign a single formula to an entire
  2026. column. If the table contains horizontal separator hlines, everything
  2027. before the first such line is considered part of the table @emph{header}
  2028. and will not be modified by column formulas.
  2029. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2030. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2031. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2032. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2033. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2034. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2035. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2036. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The left-hand
  2037. side of a column formula cannot currently be the name of column, it
  2038. must be the numeric column reference.
  2039. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2040. following command:
  2041. @table @kbd
  2042. @kindex C-c =
  2043. @item C-c =
  2044. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2045. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2046. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2047. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g. @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2048. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2049. @end table
  2050. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2051. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2052. @cindex formula editing
  2053. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2054. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2055. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2056. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2057. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2058. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2059. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2060. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2061. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2062. @table @kbd
  2063. @kindex C-c =
  2064. @kindex C-u C-c =
  2065. @item C-c =
  2066. @itemx C-u C-c =
  2067. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2068. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field formulas}.
  2069. @kindex C-u C-u C-c =
  2070. @item C-u C-u C-c =
  2071. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2072. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2073. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2074. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2075. @kindex C-c ?
  2076. @item C-c ?
  2077. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2078. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2079. @kindex C-c @}
  2080. @item C-c @}
  2081. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using
  2082. overlays. These are updated each time the table is aligned; you can
  2083. force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2084. @kindex C-c @{
  2085. @item C-c @{
  2086. Toggle the formula debugger on and off. See below.
  2087. @kindex C-c '
  2088. @item C-c '
  2089. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2090. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2091. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2092. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2093. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2094. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2095. @table @kbd
  2096. @kindex C-c C-c
  2097. @kindex C-x C-s
  2098. @item C-c C-c
  2099. @itemx C-x C-s
  2100. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2101. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2102. @kindex C-c C-q
  2103. @item C-c C-q
  2104. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2105. @kindex C-c C-r
  2106. @item C-c C-r
  2107. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2108. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2109. @kindex @key{TAB}
  2110. @item @key{TAB}
  2111. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2112. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2113. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2114. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2115. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  2116. @item M-@key{TAB}
  2117. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2118. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2119. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2120. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2121. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2122. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2123. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2124. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2125. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2126. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  2127. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  2128. @item M-S-@key{up}/@key{down}
  2129. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2130. down.
  2131. @kindex M-@key{up}
  2132. @kindex M-@key{down}
  2133. @item M-@key{up}/@key{down}
  2134. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2135. @kindex C-c @}
  2136. @item C-c @}
  2137. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2138. @end table
  2139. @end table
  2140. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2141. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2142. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2143. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2144. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2145. @kindex C-c C-c
  2146. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2147. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2148. recalculation commands in the table.
  2149. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2150. @cindex formula debugging
  2151. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2152. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2153. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2154. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2155. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2156. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2157. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2158. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2159. @subsection Updating the table
  2160. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2161. @cindex updating, table
  2162. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2163. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2164. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2165. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2166. following commands:
  2167. @table @kbd
  2168. @kindex C-c *
  2169. @item C-c *
  2170. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2171. from left to right, and all field formulas in the current row.
  2172. @c
  2173. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2174. @item C-u C-c *
  2175. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2176. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2177. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2178. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2179. @c
  2180. @kindex C-u C-u C-c *
  2181. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-c
  2182. @item C-u C-u C-c *
  2183. @itemx C-u C-u C-c C-c
  2184. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2185. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2186. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2187. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2188. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2189. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2190. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2191. dependencies.
  2192. @end table
  2193. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2194. @subsection Advanced features
  2195. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if
  2196. you want to be able to assign @i{names} to fields and columns, you need
  2197. to reserve the first column of the table for special marking characters.
  2198. @table @kbd
  2199. @kindex C-#
  2200. @item C-#
  2201. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2202. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2203. change all marks in the region.
  2204. @end table
  2205. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2206. makes use of these features:
  2207. @example
  2208. @group
  2209. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2210. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2211. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2212. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2213. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2214. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2215. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2216. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2217. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2218. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2219. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2220. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2221. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2222. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2223. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2224. @end group
  2225. @end example
  2226. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2227. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2228. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2229. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2230. empty first field.
  2231. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2232. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2233. @table @samp
  2234. @item !
  2235. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2236. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2237. @item ^
  2238. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2239. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2240. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2241. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2242. @item _
  2243. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2244. @emph{below}.
  2245. @item $
  2246. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2247. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2248. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2249. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2250. a per-table basis.
  2251. @item #
  2252. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2253. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2254. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2255. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2256. @item *
  2257. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2258. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2259. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2260. @item
  2261. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2262. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2263. or @samp{*}.
  2264. @item /
  2265. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2266. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2267. @end table
  2268. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2269. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2270. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2271. functions.
  2272. @example
  2273. @group
  2274. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2275. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2276. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2277. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2278. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2279. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2280. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2281. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2282. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2283. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2284. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2285. @end group
  2286. @end example
  2287. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2288. @section Org-Plot
  2289. @cindex graph, in tables
  2290. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2291. @cindex #+PLOT
  2292. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2293. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2294. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2295. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2296. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2297. @example
  2298. @group
  2299. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2300. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2301. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2302. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2303. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2304. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2305. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2306. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2307. @end group
  2308. @end example
  2309. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2310. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2311. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2312. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2313. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2314. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.php}.
  2315. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2316. @table @code
  2317. @item set
  2318. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2319. @item title
  2320. Specify the title of the plot.
  2321. @item ind
  2322. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2323. @item deps
  2324. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2325. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2326. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2327. column).
  2328. @item type
  2329. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2330. @item with
  2331. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2332. (e.g. @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2333. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2334. @item file
  2335. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2336. @item labels
  2337. List of labels to be used for the deps (defaults to the column headers if
  2338. they exist).
  2339. @item line
  2340. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2341. @item map
  2342. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2343. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2344. @item timefmt
  2345. Specify format of Org-mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2346. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2347. @item script
  2348. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2349. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2350. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2351. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2352. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2353. the data file.
  2354. @end table
  2355. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2356. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2357. @cindex hyperlinks
  2358. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2359. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2360. @menu
  2361. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2362. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2363. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2364. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2365. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2366. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2367. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2368. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2369. @end menu
  2370. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2371. @section Link format
  2372. @cindex link format
  2373. @cindex format, of links
  2374. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2375. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2376. @example
  2377. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2378. @end example
  2379. @noindent
  2380. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2381. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2382. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2383. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2384. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2385. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2386. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2387. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2388. cursor on the link.
  2389. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2390. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2391. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2392. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2393. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2394. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2395. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2396. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2397. @section Internal links
  2398. @cindex internal links
  2399. @cindex links, internal
  2400. @cindex targets, for links
  2401. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2402. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2403. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2404. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2405. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2406. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2407. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2408. in a file.
  2409. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2410. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2411. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2412. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2413. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2414. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2415. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2416. comment line. For example
  2417. @example
  2418. # <<My Target>>
  2419. @end example
  2420. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2421. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2422. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2423. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2424. first headline.}.
  2425. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2426. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2427. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2428. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2429. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2430. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2431. link text, in the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2432. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2433. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2434. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2435. earlier.
  2436. @menu
  2437. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2438. @end menu
  2439. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2440. @subsection Radio targets
  2441. @cindex radio targets
  2442. @cindex targets, radio
  2443. @cindex links, radio targets
  2444. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2445. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2446. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2447. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2448. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2449. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2450. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2451. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2452. cursor on or at a target.
  2453. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2454. @section External links
  2455. @cindex links, external
  2456. @cindex external links
  2457. @cindex links, external
  2458. @cindex Gnus links
  2459. @cindex BBDB links
  2460. @cindex IRC links
  2461. @cindex URL links
  2462. @cindex file links
  2463. @cindex VM links
  2464. @cindex RMAIL links
  2465. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2466. @cindex MH-E links
  2467. @cindex USENET links
  2468. @cindex SHELL links
  2469. @cindex Info links
  2470. @cindex Elisp links
  2471. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2472. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2473. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2474. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2475. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2476. @example
  2477. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2478. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2479. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2480. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2481. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2482. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2483. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2484. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2485. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file with line number to jump to}
  2486. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2487. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}
  2488. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2489. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open file in doc-view mode at page NNN}
  2490. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2491. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2492. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2493. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2494. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2495. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2496. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2497. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2498. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2499. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2500. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2501. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2502. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2503. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2504. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2505. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2506. info:org:External%20links @r{Info node link (with encoded space)}
  2507. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2508. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2509. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2510. @end example
  2511. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2512. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2513. format}), for example:
  2514. @example
  2515. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2516. @end example
  2517. @noindent
  2518. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2519. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2520. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2521. image,
  2522. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2523. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2524. @cindex plain text external links
  2525. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2526. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2527. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2528. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2529. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2530. @section Handling links
  2531. @cindex links, handling
  2532. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2533. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2534. @table @kbd
  2535. @kindex C-c l
  2536. @cindex storing links
  2537. @item C-c l
  2538. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2539. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2540. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2541. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2542. buffer:
  2543. @b{Org-mode buffers}@*
  2544. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2545. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2546. be the description.
  2547. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2548. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2549. @cindex property, ID
  2550. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2551. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2552. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2553. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2554. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2555. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2556. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2557. to use.
  2558. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2559. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2560. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2561. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2562. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2563. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2564. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2565. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2566. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2567. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2568. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2569. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2570. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2571. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2572. @b{Other files}@*
  2573. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2574. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2575. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2576. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2577. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2578. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2579. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2580. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2581. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2582. entry referenced by the current line.
  2583. @c
  2584. @kindex C-c C-l
  2585. @cindex link completion
  2586. @cindex completion, of links
  2587. @cindex inserting links
  2588. @item C-c C-l
  2589. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2590. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2591. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2592. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2593. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2594. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2595. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2596. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2597. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2598. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2599. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2600. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2601. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2602. becomes the default description.
  2603. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2604. All links stored during the
  2605. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2606. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2607. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2608. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2609. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2610. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2611. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2612. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2613. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2614. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2615. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2616. @kindex C-u C-c C-l
  2617. @cindex file name completion
  2618. @cindex completion, of file names
  2619. @item C-u C-c C-l
  2620. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2621. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2622. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2623. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2624. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2625. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2626. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2627. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2628. @c
  2629. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2630. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2631. link and description parts of the link.
  2632. @c
  2633. @cindex following links
  2634. @kindex C-c C-o
  2635. @kindex @key{RET}
  2636. @item C-c C-o @ @r{(or, if @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, also} @key{RET}
  2637. @vindex org-file-apps
  2638. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2639. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2640. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2641. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2642. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2643. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2644. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2645. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2646. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  2647. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  2648. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  2649. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  2650. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  2651. headline and entry text.
  2652. @c
  2653. @kindex mouse-2
  2654. @kindex mouse-1
  2655. @item mouse-2
  2656. @itemx mouse-1
  2657. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  2658. would. Under Emacs 22, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  2659. @c
  2660. @kindex mouse-3
  2661. @item mouse-3
  2662. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  2663. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  2664. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  2665. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  2666. @c
  2667. @cindex inlining images
  2668. @cindex images, inlining
  2669. @kindex C-c C-x C-v
  2670. @item C-c C-x C-v
  2671. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  2672. images that have no description part in the link, i.e. images that will also
  2673. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  2674. images that do have a link description.
  2675. @cindex mark ring
  2676. @kindex C-c %
  2677. @item C-c %
  2678. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  2679. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  2680. @c
  2681. @cindex links, returning to
  2682. @kindex C-c &
  2683. @item C-c &
  2684. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  2685. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  2686. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  2687. previously recorded positions.
  2688. @c
  2689. @kindex C-c C-x C-n
  2690. @kindex C-c C-x C-p
  2691. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  2692. @item C-c C-x C-n
  2693. @itemx C-c C-x C-p
  2694. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  2695. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  2696. bindings for this are really too long, you might want to bind this also
  2697. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  2698. @lisp
  2699. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  2700. (lambda ()
  2701. (define-key 'org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  2702. (define-key 'org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  2703. @end lisp
  2704. @end table
  2705. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  2706. @section Using links outside Org
  2707. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  2708. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  2709. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  2710. yourself):
  2711. @lisp
  2712. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  2713. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  2714. @end lisp
  2715. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  2716. @section Link abbreviations
  2717. @cindex link abbreviations
  2718. @cindex abbreviation, links
  2719. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  2720. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  2721. abbreviated link looks like this
  2722. @example
  2723. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  2724. @end example
  2725. @noindent
  2726. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  2727. where the tag is optional.
  2728. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  2729. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  2730. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  2731. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  2732. @lisp
  2733. @group
  2734. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  2735. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  2736. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  2737. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/
  2738. nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  2739. @end group
  2740. @end lisp
  2741. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  2742. replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
  2743. in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will
  2744. be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  2745. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  2746. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  2747. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]} and find out what the Org author is
  2748. doing besides Emacs hacking with @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  2749. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  2750. can define them in the file with
  2751. @cindex #+LINK
  2752. @example
  2753. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  2754. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  2755. @end example
  2756. @noindent
  2757. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  2758. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  2759. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g. completion)
  2760. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  2761. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  2762. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  2763. @section Search options in file links
  2764. @cindex search option in file links
  2765. @cindex file links, searching
  2766. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  2767. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  2768. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  2769. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  2770. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  2771. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  2772. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  2773. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  2774. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  2775. link, together with an explanation:
  2776. @example
  2777. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  2778. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  2779. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  2780. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  2781. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  2782. @end example
  2783. @table @code
  2784. @item 255
  2785. Jump to line 255.
  2786. @item My Target
  2787. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  2788. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  2789. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  2790. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  2791. the linked file.
  2792. @item *My Target
  2793. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  2794. @item #my-custom-id
  2795. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  2796. @item /regexp/
  2797. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  2798. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  2799. target file is in Org-mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  2800. sparse tree with the matches.
  2801. @c If the target file is a directory,
  2802. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  2803. @end table
  2804. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  2805. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  2806. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  2807. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  2808. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  2809. @section Custom Searches
  2810. @cindex custom search strings
  2811. @cindex search strings, custom
  2812. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  2813. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  2814. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  2815. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  2816. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  2817. citation key.
  2818. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  2819. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  2820. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  2821. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  2822. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  2823. to be added to the hook variables
  2824. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  2825. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  2826. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  2827. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  2828. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  2829. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  2830. @chapter TODO items
  2831. @cindex TODO items
  2832. Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  2833. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  2834. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  2835. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  2836. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  2837. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  2838. item emerged is always present.
  2839. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  2840. throughout your notes file. Org-mode compensates for this by providing
  2841. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  2842. @menu
  2843. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  2844. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  2845. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  2846. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  2847. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  2848. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  2849. @end menu
  2850. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  2851. @section Basic TODO functionality
  2852. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  2853. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  2854. @example
  2855. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  2856. @end example
  2857. @noindent
  2858. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  2859. @table @kbd
  2860. @kindex C-c C-t
  2861. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  2862. @item C-c C-t
  2863. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  2864. @example
  2865. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  2866. '--------------------------------'
  2867. @end example
  2868. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  2869. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  2870. @kindex C-u C-c C-t
  2871. @item C-u C-c C-t
  2872. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  2873. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  2874. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  2875. more information.
  2876. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2877. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2878. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  2879. @item S-@key{right}
  2880. @itemx S-@key{left}
  2881. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  2882. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  2883. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  2884. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  2885. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  2886. @kindex C-c / t
  2887. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  2888. @itemx C-c / t
  2889. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  2890. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  2891. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  2892. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  2893. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  2894. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  2895. entries that match any one of these keywords. With numeric prefix argument
  2896. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  2897. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  2898. both un-done and done.
  2899. @kindex C-c a t
  2900. @item C-c a t
  2901. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  2902. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  2903. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  2904. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  2905. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  2906. @kindex S-M-@key{RET}
  2907. @item S-M-@key{RET}
  2908. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  2909. @end table
  2910. @noindent
  2911. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  2912. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  2913. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  2914. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  2915. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  2916. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  2917. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  2918. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  2919. DONE. Org-mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  2920. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  2921. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  2922. files.
  2923. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  2924. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  2925. @menu
  2926. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  2927. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  2928. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  2929. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  2930. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  2931. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  2932. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  2933. @end menu
  2934. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  2935. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  2936. @cindex TODO workflow
  2937. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  2938. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  2939. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  2940. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org-mode in a
  2941. buffer.}:
  2942. @lisp
  2943. (setq org-todo-keywords
  2944. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  2945. @end lisp
  2946. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  2947. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  2948. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  2949. state.
  2950. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  2951. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  2952. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  2953. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  2954. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  2955. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  2956. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  2957. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  2958. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  2959. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  2960. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  2961. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  2962. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  2963. @cindex TODO types
  2964. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  2965. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  2966. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  2967. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  2968. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  2969. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  2970. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  2971. be set up like this:
  2972. @lisp
  2973. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  2974. @end lisp
  2975. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  2976. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  2977. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org-mode supports this style by adapting
  2978. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  2979. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  2980. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  2981. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  2982. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  2983. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  2984. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  2985. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  2986. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  2987. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  2988. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  2989. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  2990. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  2991. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  2992. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  2993. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  2994. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  2995. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  2996. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  2997. like this:
  2998. @lisp
  2999. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3000. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3001. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3002. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3003. @end lisp
  3004. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org-mode to keep track
  3005. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3006. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3007. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3008. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3009. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3010. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3011. @table @kbd
  3012. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3013. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3014. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3015. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3016. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3017. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3018. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3019. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3020. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3021. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3022. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3023. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3024. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3025. @item S-@key{right}
  3026. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3027. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3028. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3029. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3030. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3031. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3032. @end table
  3033. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3034. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3035. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3036. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3037. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section
  3038. key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3039. @lisp
  3040. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3041. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3042. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3043. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3044. @end lisp
  3045. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3046. If you then press @code{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3047. will be switched to this state. @key{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3048. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3049. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3050. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3051. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3052. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3053. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3054. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3055. @cindex keyword options
  3056. @cindex per-file keywords
  3057. @cindex #+TODO
  3058. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3059. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3060. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3061. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3062. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3063. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3064. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3065. file:
  3066. @example
  3067. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3068. @end example
  3069. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3070. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3071. @example
  3072. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3073. @end example
  3074. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3075. @example
  3076. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3077. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3078. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3079. @end example
  3080. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3081. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3082. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3083. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3084. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3085. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3086. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3087. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3088. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3089. known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode parses these lines only when
  3090. Org-mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3091. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org-mode
  3092. for the current buffer.}.
  3093. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3094. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3095. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3096. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3097. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3098. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3099. Org-mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3100. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3101. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3102. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3103. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3104. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3105. @lisp
  3106. @group
  3107. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3108. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3109. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3110. @end group
  3111. @end lisp
  3112. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3113. work, this does not aways seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3114. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3115. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3116. foreground or a background color.
  3117. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3118. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3119. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3120. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3121. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3122. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3123. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3124. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3125. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3126. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3127. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3128. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3129. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3130. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3131. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3132. example:
  3133. @example
  3134. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3135. ** DONE one
  3136. ** TODO two
  3137. * Parent
  3138. :PROPERTIES:
  3139. :ORDERED: t
  3140. :END:
  3141. ** TODO a
  3142. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3143. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3144. @end example
  3145. @table @kbd
  3146. @kindex C-c C-x o
  3147. @item C-c C-x o
  3148. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3149. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3150. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3151. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3152. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3153. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3154. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3155. @kindex C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3156. @item C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3157. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3158. @end table
  3159. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3160. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3161. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3162. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3163. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3164. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3165. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3166. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3167. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3168. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3169. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3170. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3171. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3172. @page
  3173. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3174. @section Progress logging
  3175. @cindex progress logging
  3176. @cindex logging, of progress
  3177. Org-mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3178. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3179. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3180. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3181. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3182. work time}.
  3183. @menu
  3184. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3185. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3186. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3187. @end menu
  3188. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3189. @subsection Closing items
  3190. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3191. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3192. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}.
  3193. @lisp
  3194. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3195. @end lisp
  3196. @noindent
  3197. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3198. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3199. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3200. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3201. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3202. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3203. @lisp
  3204. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3205. @end lisp
  3206. @noindent
  3207. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3208. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3209. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3210. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3211. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3212. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3213. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3214. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3215. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3216. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3217. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3218. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3219. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3220. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3221. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3222. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3223. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3224. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3225. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3226. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this
  3227. behavior---the recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}. You can
  3228. also overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3229. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3230. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org-mode
  3231. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3232. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) and @samp{@@} (for a note)
  3233. in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the setting
  3234. @lisp
  3235. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3236. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3237. @end lisp
  3238. @noindent
  3239. @vindex org-log-done
  3240. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3241. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3242. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org-mode will record two timestamps
  3243. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3244. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3245. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3246. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3247. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3248. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3249. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3250. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3251. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3252. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3253. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3254. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3255. configured.
  3256. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3257. to a buffer:
  3258. @example
  3259. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3260. @end example
  3261. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3262. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3263. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3264. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3265. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3266. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3267. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3268. @example
  3269. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3270. :PROPERTIES:
  3271. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3272. :END:
  3273. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3274. :PROPERTIES:
  3275. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3276. :END:
  3277. * TODO No logging at all
  3278. :PROPERTIES:
  3279. :LOGGING: nil
  3280. :END:
  3281. @end example
  3282. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3283. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3284. @cindex habits
  3285. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3286. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3287. @enumerate
  3288. @item
  3289. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3290. @code{org-modules}.
  3291. @item
  3292. The habit is a TODO, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3293. @item
  3294. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3295. @item
  3296. The TODO has a scheduled date, with a @code{.+} style repeat interval.
  3297. @item
  3298. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3299. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3300. three days, but at most every two days.
  3301. @item
  3302. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3303. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it's not
  3304. enabled it's not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3305. meaningless.
  3306. @end enumerate
  3307. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3308. actual habit with some history:
  3309. @example
  3310. ** TODO Shave
  3311. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3312. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3313. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3314. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3315. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3316. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3317. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3318. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3319. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3320. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3321. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3322. :PROPERTIES:
  3323. :STYLE: habit
  3324. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3325. :END:
  3326. @end example
  3327. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3328. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3329. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3330. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3331. after four days have elapsed.
  3332. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3333. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3334. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3335. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3336. @table @code
  3337. @item Blue
  3338. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3339. @item Green
  3340. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3341. @item Yellow
  3342. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3343. @item Red
  3344. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3345. @end table
  3346. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3347. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3348. the current day falls in the graph.
  3349. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3350. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3351. @table @code
  3352. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3353. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3354. overwrite any text in that column, so it's a good idea to keep your habits'
  3355. titles brief and to the point.
  3356. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3357. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3358. @item org-habit-following-days
  3359. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3360. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3361. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3362. default.
  3363. @end table
  3364. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3365. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3366. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3367. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3368. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3369. @section Priorities
  3370. @cindex priorities
  3371. If you use Org-mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3372. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3373. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3374. @example
  3375. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3376. @end example
  3377. @noindent
  3378. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3379. By default, Org-mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3380. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3381. treated as priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only in the
  3382. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they have no
  3383. inherent meaning to Org-mode. The cookies can be highlighted with special
  3384. faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3385. Priorities can be attached to any outline tree entries; they do not need
  3386. to be TODO items.
  3387. @table @kbd
  3388. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3389. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3390. Set the priority of the current headline. The command prompts for a
  3391. priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}. When you press
  3392. @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the headline.
  3393. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3394. agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3395. @c
  3396. @kindex S-@key{up}
  3397. @kindex S-@key{down}
  3398. @item S-@key{up}
  3399. @itemx S-@key{down}
  3400. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3401. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3402. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3403. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3404. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3405. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3406. @end table
  3407. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3408. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3409. @vindex org-default-priority
  3410. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3411. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3412. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3413. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3414. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3415. priority):
  3416. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3417. @example
  3418. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3419. @end example
  3420. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3421. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3422. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3423. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3424. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3425. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3426. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3427. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3428. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3429. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3430. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3431. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3432. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3433. @example
  3434. * Organize Party [33%]
  3435. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3436. *** TODO Peter
  3437. *** DONE Sarah
  3438. ** TODO Buy food
  3439. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3440. @end example
  3441. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3442. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3443. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3444. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3445. this issue.
  3446. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3447. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3448. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3449. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3450. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3451. property.
  3452. @example
  3453. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3454. :PROPERTIES:
  3455. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3456. :END:
  3457. @end example
  3458. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3459. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3460. @example
  3461. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3462. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3463. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3464. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3465. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3466. @end example
  3467. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3468. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3469. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3470. @section Checkboxes
  3471. @cindex checkboxes
  3472. Every item in a plain list (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a
  3473. checkbox by starting it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is
  3474. similar to TODO items (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight.
  3475. Checkboxes are not included into the global TODO list, so they are often
  3476. great to split a task into a number of simple steps. Or you can use
  3477. them in a shopping list. To toggle a checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or
  3478. use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3479. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3480. @example
  3481. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3482. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3483. - [ ] Peter
  3484. - [X] Sarah
  3485. - [ ] Sam
  3486. - [X] order food
  3487. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3488. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3489. @end example
  3490. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3491. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3492. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3493. checked.
  3494. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3495. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3496. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3497. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3498. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3499. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3500. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3501. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3502. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3503. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3504. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3505. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3506. represent the all checkboxes below the cookie, not just the direct
  3507. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3508. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3509. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3510. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3511. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3512. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3513. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3514. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3515. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3516. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3517. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3518. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3519. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3520. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3521. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3522. @table @kbd
  3523. @kindex C-c C-c
  3524. @item C-c C-c
  3525. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3526. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3527. intermediate state.
  3528. @kindex C-c C-x C-b
  3529. @item C-c C-x C-b
  3530. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3531. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3532. intermediate state.
  3533. @itemize @minus
  3534. @item
  3535. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3536. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3537. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3538. @item
  3539. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3540. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3541. @item
  3542. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3543. @end itemize
  3544. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  3545. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  3546. Insert a new item with a checkbox.
  3547. This works only if the cursor is already in a plain list item
  3548. (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3549. @kindex C-c C-x o
  3550. @item C-c C-x o
  3551. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3552. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3553. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3554. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3555. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3556. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3557. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3558. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3559. @kindex C-c #
  3560. @item C-c #
  3561. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3562. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3563. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3564. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3565. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3566. hand, use this command to get things back into sync. Or simply toggle any
  3567. entry twice (checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c}).
  3568. @end table
  3569. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3570. @chapter Tags
  3571. @cindex tags
  3572. @cindex headline tagging
  3573. @cindex matching, tags
  3574. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3575. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3576. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org-mode has extensive
  3577. support for tags.
  3578. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3579. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3580. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3581. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3582. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3583. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3584. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3585. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3586. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3587. @menu
  3588. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3589. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3590. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3591. @end menu
  3592. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3593. @section Tag inheritance
  3594. @cindex tag inheritance
  3595. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3596. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3597. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3598. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3599. well. For example, in the list
  3600. @example
  3601. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3602. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3603. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3604. @end example
  3605. @noindent
  3606. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3607. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3608. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3609. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3610. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3611. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3612. changes in the line.}:
  3613. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3614. @example
  3615. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3616. @end example
  3617. @noindent
  3618. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3619. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3620. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  3621. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  3622. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3623. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3624. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3625. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3626. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3627. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3628. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3629. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3630. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  3631. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  3632. @section Setting tags
  3633. @cindex setting tags
  3634. @cindex tags, setting
  3635. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3636. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  3637. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  3638. also a special command for inserting tags:
  3639. @table @kbd
  3640. @kindex C-c C-q
  3641. @item C-c C-q
  3642. @cindex completion, of tags
  3643. @vindex org-tags-column
  3644. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org-mode will either offer
  3645. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  3646. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  3647. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  3648. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  3649. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  3650. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  3651. @kindex C-c C-c
  3652. @item C-c C-c
  3653. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  3654. @end table
  3655. @vindex org-tag-alist
  3656. Org will support tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  3657. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  3658. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  3659. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  3660. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  3661. @cindex #+TAGS
  3662. @example
  3663. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  3664. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  3665. @end example
  3666. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  3667. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  3668. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  3669. @example
  3670. #+TAGS:
  3671. @end example
  3672. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  3673. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  3674. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  3675. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  3676. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  3677. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  3678. @example
  3679. #+STARTUP: noptag
  3680. @end example
  3681. By default Org-mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  3682. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  3683. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  3684. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  3685. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  3686. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  3687. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  3688. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  3689. like:
  3690. @lisp
  3691. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  3692. @end lisp
  3693. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  3694. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  3695. @example
  3696. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  3697. @end example
  3698. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  3699. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  3700. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  3701. @example
  3702. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  3703. @end example
  3704. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  3705. @example
  3706. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  3707. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  3708. @end example
  3709. @noindent
  3710. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  3711. braces, as in:
  3712. @example
  3713. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  3714. @end example
  3715. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  3716. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  3717. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  3718. these lines to activate any changes.
  3719. @noindent
  3720. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  3721. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  3722. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  3723. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  3724. configuration:
  3725. @lisp
  3726. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  3727. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  3728. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  3729. (:endgroup . nil)
  3730. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  3731. @end lisp
  3732. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  3733. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  3734. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  3735. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  3736. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  3737. keys:
  3738. @table @kbd
  3739. @item a-z...
  3740. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  3741. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  3742. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  3743. @kindex @key{TAB}
  3744. @item @key{TAB}
  3745. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  3746. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  3747. @kindex @key{SPC}
  3748. @item @key{SPC}
  3749. Clear all tags for this line.
  3750. @kindex @key{RET}
  3751. @item @key{RET}
  3752. Accept the modified set.
  3753. @item C-g
  3754. Abort without installing changes.
  3755. @item q
  3756. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  3757. @item !
  3758. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  3759. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  3760. @item C-c
  3761. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  3762. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  3763. selection window.
  3764. @end table
  3765. @noindent
  3766. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  3767. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  3768. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  3769. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  3770. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  3771. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  3772. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  3773. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  3774. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  3775. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  3776. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  3777. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  3778. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  3779. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  3780. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  3781. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  3782. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  3783. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  3784. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  3785. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  3786. @section Tag searches
  3787. @cindex tag searches
  3788. @cindex searching for tags
  3789. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  3790. information into special lists.
  3791. @table @kbd
  3792. @kindex C-c \
  3793. @kindex C-c / m
  3794. @item C-c \
  3795. @itemx C-c / m
  3796. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  3797. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  3798. @kindex C-c a m
  3799. @item C-c a m
  3800. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  3801. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  3802. @kindex C-c a M
  3803. @item C-c a M
  3804. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3805. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  3806. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  3807. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  3808. @end table
  3809. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  3810. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  3811. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  3812. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  3813. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  3814. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  3815. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  3816. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  3817. @chapter Properties and columns
  3818. @cindex properties
  3819. Properties are a set of key-value pairs associated with an entry. There
  3820. are two main applications for properties in Org-mode. First, properties
  3821. are like tags, but with a value. Second, you can use properties to
  3822. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. For
  3823. an example of the first application, imagine maintaining a file where
  3824. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  3825. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, one can use a
  3826. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  3827. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. For an example of the second
  3828. application of properties, imagine keeping track of your music CDs,
  3829. where properties could be things such as the album, artist, date of
  3830. release, number of tracks, and so on.
  3831. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  3832. (@pxref{Column view}).
  3833. @menu
  3834. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  3835. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  3836. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  3837. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  3838. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  3839. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  3840. @end menu
  3841. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  3842. @section Property syntax
  3843. @cindex property syntax
  3844. @cindex drawer, for properties
  3845. Properties are key-value pairs. They need to be inserted into a special
  3846. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  3847. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  3848. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  3849. @example
  3850. * CD collection
  3851. ** Classic
  3852. *** Goldberg Variations
  3853. :PROPERTIES:
  3854. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  3855. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  3856. :Artist: Glen Gould
  3857. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  3858. :NDisks: 1
  3859. :END:
  3860. @end example
  3861. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  3862. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  3863. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  3864. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  3865. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  3866. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  3867. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  3868. @example
  3869. * CD collection
  3870. :PROPERTIES:
  3871. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  3872. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  3873. :END:
  3874. @end example
  3875. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  3876. file, use a line like
  3877. @cindex property, _ALL
  3878. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  3879. @example
  3880. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  3881. @end example
  3882. @vindex org-global-properties
  3883. Property values set with the global variable
  3884. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  3885. Org files.
  3886. @noindent
  3887. The following commands help to work with properties:
  3888. @table @kbd
  3889. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3890. @item M-@key{TAB}
  3891. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  3892. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  3893. @kindex C-c C-x p
  3894. @item C-c C-x p
  3895. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  3896. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  3897. @item M-x org-insert-property-drawer
  3898. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  3899. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  3900. information like deadlines.
  3901. @kindex C-c C-c
  3902. @item C-c C-c
  3903. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  3904. @item C-c C-c s
  3905. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  3906. can be inserted using completion.
  3907. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3908. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3909. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  3910. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  3911. @item C-c C-c d
  3912. Remove a property from the current entry.
  3913. @item C-c C-c D
  3914. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  3915. @item C-c C-c c
  3916. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  3917. nearest column format definition.
  3918. @end table
  3919. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  3920. @section Special properties
  3921. @cindex properties, special
  3922. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org-mode
  3923. features, like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the
  3924. previous chapters. This interface exists so that you can include
  3925. these states in a column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in
  3926. queries. The following property names are special and should not be
  3927. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  3928. @cindex property, special, TODO
  3929. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  3930. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  3931. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  3932. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  3933. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  3934. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  3935. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  3936. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  3937. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  3938. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  3939. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  3940. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  3941. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  3942. @example
  3943. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  3944. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  3945. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  3946. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  3947. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  3948. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  3949. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  3950. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  3951. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  3952. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  3953. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  3954. @r{must be run first to compute the values.}
  3955. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  3956. ITEM @r{The content of the entry.}
  3957. @end example
  3958. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  3959. @section Property searches
  3960. @cindex properties, searching
  3961. @cindex searching, of properties
  3962. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  3963. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  3964. @table @kbd
  3965. @kindex C-c \
  3966. @kindex C-c / m
  3967. @item C-c \
  3968. @itemx C-c / m
  3969. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  3970. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  3971. @kindex C-c a m
  3972. @item C-c a m
  3973. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  3974. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  3975. @kindex C-c a M
  3976. @item C-c a M
  3977. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3978. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  3979. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  3980. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  3981. @end table
  3982. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  3983. properties}.
  3984. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  3985. single property:
  3986. @table @kbd
  3987. @kindex C-c / p
  3988. @item C-c / p
  3989. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  3990. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  3991. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  3992. value. If you enclose the value into curly braces, it is interpreted as
  3993. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  3994. @end table
  3995. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  3996. @section Property Inheritance
  3997. @cindex properties, inheritance
  3998. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  3999. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4000. The outline structure of Org-mode documents lends itself for an
  4001. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4002. property, the children can inherit this property. Org-mode does not
  4003. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4004. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4005. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4006. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4007. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4008. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4009. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4010. interpreted as an explicit undefine of he property, so that inheritance
  4011. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4012. Org-mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4013. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4014. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4015. @table @code
  4016. @item COLUMNS
  4017. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4018. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4019. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4020. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4021. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4022. @item CATEGORY
  4023. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4024. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4025. applies to the entire subtree.
  4026. @item ARCHIVE
  4027. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4028. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4029. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4030. @item LOGGING
  4031. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4032. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4033. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4034. @end table
  4035. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4036. @section Column view
  4037. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4038. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4039. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4040. entries. Org-mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4041. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4042. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4043. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4044. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4045. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4046. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4047. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4048. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4049. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4050. @menu
  4051. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4052. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4053. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4054. @end menu
  4055. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4056. @subsection Defining columns
  4057. @cindex column view, for properties
  4058. @cindex properties, column view
  4059. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4060. done by defining a column format line.
  4061. @menu
  4062. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4063. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4064. @end menu
  4065. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4066. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4067. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4068. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4069. @example
  4070. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4071. @end example
  4072. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4073. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4074. @example
  4075. ** Top node for columns view
  4076. :PROPERTIES:
  4077. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4078. :END:
  4079. @end example
  4080. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4081. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4082. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4083. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4084. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4085. deeper part of the tree.
  4086. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4087. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4088. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4089. definition looks like this:
  4090. @example
  4091. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4092. @end example
  4093. @noindent
  4094. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4095. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4096. @example
  4097. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4098. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4099. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4100. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4101. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4102. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4103. @r{name is used.}
  4104. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4105. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4106. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4107. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4108. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4109. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4110. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4111. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4112. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4113. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4114. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4115. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4116. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4117. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4118. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4119. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4120. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4121. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4122. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4123. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4124. @end example
  4125. @noindent
  4126. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4127. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4128. same summary information.
  4129. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4130. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4131. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4132. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much woark is required, or
  4133. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4134. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4135. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4136. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4137. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4138. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4139. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4140. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4141. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4142. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4143. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4144. values.
  4145. @example
  4146. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4147. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4148. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4149. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4150. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4151. @end example
  4152. @noindent
  4153. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4154. item itself, i.e. of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4155. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4156. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4157. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4158. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4159. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4160. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4161. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4162. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4163. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4164. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4165. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4166. in the subtree.
  4167. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4168. @subsection Using column view
  4169. @table @kbd
  4170. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4171. @kindex C-c C-x C-c
  4172. @item C-c C-x C-c
  4173. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4174. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4175. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4176. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4177. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4178. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4179. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4180. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4181. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4182. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4183. @kindex r
  4184. @item r
  4185. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4186. @kindex g
  4187. @item g
  4188. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4189. @kindex q
  4190. @item q
  4191. Exit column view.
  4192. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4193. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4194. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4195. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4196. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4197. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4198. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4199. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4200. @item 1..9,0
  4201. Directly select the nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4202. @kindex n
  4203. @kindex p
  4204. @itemx n / p
  4205. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4206. @kindex e
  4207. @item e
  4208. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4209. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4210. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4211. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4212. @kindex C-c C-c
  4213. @item C-c C-c
  4214. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4215. @kindex v
  4216. @item v
  4217. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4218. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4219. @kindex a
  4220. @item a
  4221. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4222. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4223. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4224. current column view.
  4225. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4226. @kindex <
  4227. @kindex >
  4228. @item < / >
  4229. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4230. @kindex S-M-@key{right}
  4231. @item S-M-@key{right}
  4232. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4233. @kindex S-M-@key{left}
  4234. @item S-M-@key{left}
  4235. Delete the current column.
  4236. @end table
  4237. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4238. @subsection Capturing column view
  4239. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4240. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4241. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4242. of this block looks like this:
  4243. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4244. @example
  4245. * The column view
  4246. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4247. #+END:
  4248. @end example
  4249. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4250. @table @code
  4251. @item :id
  4252. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4253. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4254. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4255. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4256. @cindex property, ID
  4257. @example
  4258. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4259. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4260. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4261. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4262. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4263. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4264. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4265. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4266. @end example
  4267. @item :hlines
  4268. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4269. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4270. @item :vlines
  4271. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4272. @item :maxlevel
  4273. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4274. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4275. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4276. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4277. @end table
  4278. @noindent
  4279. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4280. @table @kbd
  4281. @kindex C-c C-x i
  4282. @item C-c C-x i
  4283. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4284. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4285. @kindex C-c C-c
  4286. @item C-c C-c
  4287. @kindex C-c C-x C-u
  4288. @itemx C-c C-x C-u
  4289. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4290. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4291. @kindex C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4292. @item C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4293. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4294. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  4295. @end table
  4296. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4297. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4298. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4299. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4300. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4301. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4302. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4303. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4304. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4305. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4306. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4307. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4308. @section The Property API
  4309. @cindex properties, API
  4310. @cindex API, for properties
  4311. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4312. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4313. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4314. property API}.
  4315. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4316. @chapter Dates and times
  4317. @cindex dates
  4318. @cindex times
  4319. @cindex timestamp
  4320. @cindex date stamp
  4321. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4322. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4323. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org-mode. This may be a
  4324. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4325. something was created or last changed. However, in Org-mode this term
  4326. is used in a much wider sense.
  4327. @menu
  4328. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4329. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4330. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4331. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4332. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time if you've been idle
  4333. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4334. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4335. @end menu
  4336. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4337. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4338. @cindex timestamps
  4339. @cindex ranges, time
  4340. @cindex date stamps
  4341. @cindex deadlines
  4342. @cindex scheduling
  4343. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4344. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or
  4345. @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue
  4346. 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601 date/time
  4347. format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time format}.}. A
  4348. timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree entry.
  4349. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda
  4350. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4351. @table @var
  4352. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4353. @cindex timestamp
  4354. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4355. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4356. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4357. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4358. @example
  4359. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4360. * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4361. @end example
  4362. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4363. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4364. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4365. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4366. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4367. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4368. @example
  4369. * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4370. @end example
  4371. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4372. For more complex date specifications, Org-mode supports using the
  4373. special sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4374. package. For example
  4375. @example
  4376. * The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4377. <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  4378. @end example
  4379. @item Time/Date range
  4380. @cindex timerange
  4381. @cindex date range
  4382. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4383. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4384. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4385. @example
  4386. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4387. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4388. @end example
  4389. @item Inactive timestamp
  4390. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4391. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4392. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4393. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4394. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4395. @example
  4396. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4397. @end example
  4398. @end table
  4399. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4400. @section Creating timestamps
  4401. @cindex creating timestamps
  4402. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4403. For Org-mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4404. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4405. format.
  4406. @table @kbd
  4407. @kindex C-c .
  4408. @item C-c .
  4409. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4410. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4411. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4412. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4413. @c
  4414. @kindex C-c !
  4415. @item C-c !
  4416. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4417. an agenda entry.
  4418. @c
  4419. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4420. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4421. @item C-u C-c .
  4422. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4423. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4424. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4425. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4426. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4427. @c
  4428. @kindex C-c <
  4429. @item C-c <
  4430. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4431. @c
  4432. @kindex C-c >
  4433. @item C-c >
  4434. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4435. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4436. instead.
  4437. @c
  4438. @kindex C-c C-o
  4439. @item C-c C-o
  4440. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4441. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4442. @c
  4443. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4444. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4445. @item S-@key{left}
  4446. @itemx S-@key{right}
  4447. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4448. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4449. @c
  4450. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4451. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4452. @item S-@key{up}
  4453. @itemx S-@key{down}
  4454. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4455. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4456. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4457. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4458. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4459. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4460. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4461. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4462. @c
  4463. @kindex C-c C-y
  4464. @cindex evaluate time range
  4465. @item C-c C-y
  4466. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4467. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4468. the following column).
  4469. @end table
  4470. @menu
  4471. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  4472. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4473. @end menu
  4474. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4475. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4476. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4477. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4478. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4479. When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4480. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4481. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4482. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4483. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4484. copied from an email message. Org-mode will find whatever information is in
  4485. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4486. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4487. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4488. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4489. information, Org-mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4490. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4491. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4492. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4493. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4494. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4495. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4496. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4497. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org-mode are
  4498. in @b{bold}.
  4499. @example
  4500. 3-2-5 --> 2003-02-05
  4501. 2/5/3 --> 2003-02-05
  4502. 14 --> @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4503. 12 --> @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4504. 2/5 --> @b{2007}-02-05
  4505. Fri --> nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4506. sep 15 --> @b{2006}-09-15
  4507. feb 15 --> @b{2007}-02-15
  4508. sep 12 9 --> 2009-09-12
  4509. 12:45 --> @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4510. 22 sept 0:34 --> @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4511. w4 --> ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4512. 2012 w4 fri --> Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4513. 2012-w04-5 --> Same as above
  4514. @end example
  4515. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4516. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4517. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4518. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4519. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4520. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4521. the nth such day. E.g.
  4522. @example
  4523. +0 --> today
  4524. . --> today
  4525. +4d --> four days from today
  4526. +4 --> same as above
  4527. +2w --> two weeks from today
  4528. ++5 --> five days from default date
  4529. +2tue --> second Tuesday from now.
  4530. @end example
  4531. @vindex parse-time-months
  4532. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4533. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4534. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4535. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4536. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4537. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use '-' or '--' as the separator
  4538. in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter case. E.g.
  4539. @example
  4540. 11am-1:15pm --> 11:00-13:15
  4541. 11am--1:15pm --> same as above
  4542. 11am+2:15 --> same as above
  4543. @end example
  4544. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4545. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4546. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4547. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4548. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4549. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4550. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4551. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4552. from the minibuffer:
  4553. @kindex <
  4554. @kindex >
  4555. @kindex M-v
  4556. @kindex C-v
  4557. @kindex mouse-1
  4558. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4559. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4560. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4561. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4562. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4563. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4564. @kindex @key{RET}
  4565. @example
  4566. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4567. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4568. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4569. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4570. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4571. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4572. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4573. @end example
  4574. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4575. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4576. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4577. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4578. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4579. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4580. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4581. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4582. @subsection Custom time format
  4583. @cindex custom date/time format
  4584. @cindex time format, custom
  4585. @cindex date format, custom
  4586. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4587. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4588. Org-mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4589. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4590. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4591. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4592. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4593. @table @kbd
  4594. @kindex C-c C-x C-t
  4595. @item C-c C-x C-t
  4596. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4597. @end table
  4598. @noindent
  4599. Org-mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  4600. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  4601. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  4602. following consequences:
  4603. @itemize @bullet
  4604. @item
  4605. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  4606. after.
  4607. @item
  4608. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  4609. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  4610. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  4611. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  4612. time will be changed by one minute.
  4613. @item
  4614. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  4615. will not be overlayed, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  4616. @item
  4617. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  4618. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  4619. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  4620. @item
  4621. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  4622. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  4623. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  4624. @end itemize
  4625. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  4626. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  4627. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  4628. @table @var
  4629. @item DEADLINE
  4630. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  4631. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  4632. to be finished on that date.
  4633. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4634. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  4635. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  4636. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  4637. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  4638. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  4639. @example
  4640. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  4641. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  4642. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  4643. @end example
  4644. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  4645. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  4646. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  4647. @item SCHEDULED
  4648. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  4649. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  4650. date.
  4651. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  4652. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  4653. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  4654. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  4655. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  4656. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE.
  4657. I.e. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  4658. @example
  4659. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  4660. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  4661. @end example
  4662. @noindent
  4663. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org-mode should @i{not} be
  4664. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  4665. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  4666. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  4667. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  4668. Org users. In Org-mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  4669. want to start working on an action item.
  4670. @end table
  4671. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  4672. entries. Org-mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  4673. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  4674. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  4675. @c
  4676. @code{<%%(diary-float t 42)>}
  4677. @c
  4678. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org-mode does not
  4679. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  4680. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  4681. sexp entry matches.
  4682. @menu
  4683. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  4684. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  4685. @end menu
  4686. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  4687. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  4688. The following commands allow you to quickly insert a deadline or to schedule
  4689. an item:
  4690. @table @kbd
  4691. @c
  4692. @kindex C-c C-d
  4693. @item C-c C-d
  4694. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  4695. in the line directly following the headline. When called with a prefix arg,
  4696. an existing deadline will be removed from the entry. Depending on the
  4697. variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  4698. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  4699. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4700. deadline.
  4701. @c FIXME Any CLOSED timestamp will be removed.????????
  4702. @c
  4703. @kindex C-c C-s
  4704. @item C-c C-s
  4705. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  4706. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  4707. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  4708. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  4709. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  4710. keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline}, and
  4711. @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4712. scheduling time.
  4713. @c
  4714. @kindex C-c C-x C-k
  4715. @kindex k a
  4716. @kindex k s
  4717. @item C-c C-x C-k
  4718. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  4719. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  4720. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  4721. schedule the marked item.
  4722. @c
  4723. @kindex C-c / d
  4724. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  4725. @item C-c / d
  4726. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4727. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  4728. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  4729. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  4730. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  4731. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  4732. @c
  4733. @kindex C-c / b
  4734. @item C-c / b
  4735. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  4736. @c
  4737. @kindex C-c / a
  4738. @item C-c / a
  4739. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  4740. @end table
  4741. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  4742. @subsection Repeated tasks
  4743. @cindex tasks, repeated
  4744. @cindex repeated tasks
  4745. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org-mode helps to
  4746. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  4747. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  4748. @example
  4749. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4750. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  4751. @end example
  4752. @noindent
  4753. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  4754. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  4755. from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in
  4756. a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last:
  4757. @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  4758. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  4759. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  4760. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  4761. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  4762. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  4763. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  4764. repeated entry will not be active. Org-mode deals with this in the following
  4765. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  4766. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  4767. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  4768. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  4769. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  4770. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  4771. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  4772. switch the date like this:
  4773. @example
  4774. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4775. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  4776. @end example
  4777. @vindex org-log-repeat
  4778. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  4779. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  4780. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  4781. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  4782. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  4783. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  4784. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  4785. will be visible.
  4786. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  4787. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  4788. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  4789. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  4790. forgot to call you father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  4791. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  4792. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  4793. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org-mode has
  4794. special repeaters markers with @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  4795. @example
  4796. ** TODO Call Father
  4797. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  4798. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  4799. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  4800. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  4801. and marked it done on Saturday.
  4802. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  4803. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  4804. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  4805. today.
  4806. @end example
  4807. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  4808. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  4809. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  4810. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  4811. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  4812. @node Clocking work time, Resolving idle time, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  4813. @section Clocking work time
  4814. Org-mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  4815. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock.
  4816. When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the
  4817. clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It
  4818. also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project. And it
  4819. remembers a history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly
  4820. between a number of tasks absorbing your time.
  4821. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  4822. @lisp
  4823. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  4824. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  4825. @end lisp
  4826. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  4827. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  4828. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  4829. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  4830. what to do with it.
  4831. @table @kbd
  4832. @kindex C-c C-x C-i
  4833. @item C-c C-x C-i
  4834. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  4835. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  4836. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  4837. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  4838. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  4839. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  4840. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  4841. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task.
  4842. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task,
  4843. with letter @kbd{d}.@*
  4844. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  4845. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  4846. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  4847. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  4848. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  4849. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  4850. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  4851. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  4852. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  4853. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  4854. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  4855. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  4856. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  4857. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  4858. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  4859. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  4860. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  4861. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  4862. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  4863. @kindex C-c C-x C-o
  4864. @item C-c C-x C-o
  4865. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  4866. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  4867. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  4868. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  4869. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  4870. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  4871. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  4872. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  4873. @kindex C-c C-x C-e
  4874. @item C-c C-x C-e
  4875. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  4876. @kindex C-c C-y
  4877. @kindex C-c C-c
  4878. @item C-c C-y @ @ @r{or}@ @ C-c C-c
  4879. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  4880. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  4881. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  4882. @kindex C-c C-t
  4883. @item C-c C-t
  4884. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  4885. if it is running in this same item.
  4886. @kindex C-c C-x C-x
  4887. @item C-c C-x C-x
  4888. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  4889. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  4890. @kindex C-c C-x C-j
  4891. @item C-c C-x C-j
  4892. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  4893. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  4894. @kindex C-c C-x C-d
  4895. @item C-c C-x C-d
  4896. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  4897. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This
  4898. puts overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time
  4899. recorded under that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You
  4900. can use visibility cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear
  4901. when you change the buffer (see variable
  4902. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  4903. @kindex C-c C-x C-r
  4904. @item C-c C-x C-r
  4905. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  4906. report as an Org-mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  4907. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  4908. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  4909. update it.
  4910. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  4911. @example
  4912. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  4913. #+END: clocktable
  4914. @end example
  4915. @noindent
  4916. If such a block already exists at point, its content is replaced by the
  4917. new table. The @samp{BEGIN} line can specify options:
  4918. @example
  4919. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  4920. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  4921. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  4922. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  4923. file @r{the full current buffer}
  4924. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  4925. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  4926. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  4927. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  4928. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  4929. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  4930. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  4931. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  4932. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  4933. @r{these formats:}
  4934. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  4935. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  4936. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  4937. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  4938. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  4939. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  4940. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  4941. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  4942. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  4943. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  4944. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  4945. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  4946. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  4947. :stepskip0 @r{Don't show steps that have zero time}
  4948. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute}
  4949. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  4950. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  4951. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  4952. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula.}
  4953. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  4954. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  4955. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  4956. @end example
  4957. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  4958. day, you could write
  4959. @example
  4960. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  4961. #+END: clocktable
  4962. @end example
  4963. @noindent
  4964. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  4965. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  4966. only to fit it into the manual.}
  4967. @example
  4968. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  4969. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  4970. #+END: clocktable
  4971. @end example
  4972. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  4973. @example
  4974. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  4975. #+END: clocktable
  4976. @end example
  4977. @kindex C-c C-c
  4978. @item C-c C-c
  4979. @kindex C-c C-x C-u
  4980. @itemx C-c C-x C-u
  4981. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4982. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4983. @kindex C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4984. @item C-u C-c C-x C-u
  4985. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4986. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  4987. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4988. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4989. @item S-@key{left}
  4990. @itemx S-@key{right}
  4991. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  4992. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  4993. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  4994. @end table
  4995. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  4996. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  4997. worked on or closed during a day.
  4998. @node Resolving idle time, Effort estimates, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  4999. @section Resolving idle time
  5000. @cindex resolve idle time
  5001. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5002. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5003. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5004. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5005. applying it to another one.
  5006. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5007. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5008. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5009. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5010. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5011. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5012. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5013. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5014. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5015. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5016. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5017. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5018. @table @kbd
  5019. @item k
  5020. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5021. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5022. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5023. @item K
  5024. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5025. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5026. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5027. @item s
  5028. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5029. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5030. @item S
  5031. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5032. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5033. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5034. @item C
  5035. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5036. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5037. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5038. log with an empty entry.
  5039. @end table
  5040. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5041. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5042. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5043. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5044. the next task you clock in on.
  5045. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5046. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5047. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5048. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5049. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5050. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5051. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5052. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5053. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5054. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness, it's just happening due
  5055. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5056. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5057. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5058. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Resolving idle time, Dates and Times
  5059. @section Effort estimates
  5060. @cindex effort estimates
  5061. @cindex property, Effort
  5062. @vindex org-effort-property
  5063. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5064. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5065. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5066. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5067. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5068. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5069. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5070. for an entry with the following commands:
  5071. @table @kbd
  5072. @kindex C-c C-x e
  5073. @item C-c C-x e
  5074. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5075. argument, set it to the NTH allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5076. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5077. @kindex C-c C-x C-e
  5078. @item C-c C-x C-e
  5079. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5080. @end table
  5081. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5082. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5083. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5084. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5085. buffer you can use
  5086. @example
  5087. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00
  5088. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5089. @end example
  5090. @noindent
  5091. @vindex org-global-properties
  5092. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5093. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5094. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5095. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5096. setup may be advised.
  5097. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5098. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5099. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5100. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5101. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5102. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5103. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5104. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5105. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5106. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5107. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5108. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5109. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5110. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5111. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5112. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5113. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5114. @node Relative timer, , Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5115. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5116. @cindex relative timer
  5117. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5118. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5119. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5120. @table @kbd
  5121. @kindex C-c C-x .
  5122. @item C-c C-x .
  5123. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5124. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5125. restarted.
  5126. @kindex C-c C-x -
  5127. @item C-c C-x -
  5128. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5129. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5130. @kindex M-@key{RET}
  5131. @item M-@key{RET}
  5132. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5133. new timer items.
  5134. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5135. @item C-c C-x ,
  5136. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused.
  5137. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5138. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5139. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5140. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5141. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5142. @kindex C-c C-x 0
  5143. @item C-c C-x 0
  5144. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5145. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5146. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5147. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5148. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5149. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5150. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5151. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5152. @end table
  5153. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5154. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5155. @cindex capture
  5156. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5157. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5158. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5159. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5160. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5161. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5162. @menu
  5163. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5164. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5165. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5166. * Protocols:: External (e.g. Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5167. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5168. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5169. @end menu
  5170. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5171. @section Capture
  5172. @cindex capture
  5173. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5174. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5175. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org-mode for
  5176. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5177. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5178. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5179. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5180. @example
  5181. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5182. @end example
  5183. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5184. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5185. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5186. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5187. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5188. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5189. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5190. @menu
  5191. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5192. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5193. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5194. @end menu
  5195. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5196. @subsection Setting up capture
  5197. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5198. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5199. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5200. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5201. @example
  5202. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5203. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5204. @end example
  5205. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5206. @subsection Using capture
  5207. @table @kbd
  5208. @kindex C-c c
  5209. @item C-c c
  5210. Call the command @code{org-capture}. If you have templates defined
  5211. @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for selection or use
  5212. a new Org outline node as the default template. It will insert the template
  5213. into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer narrowed to this new
  5214. node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5215. @kindex C-c C-c
  5216. @item C-c C-c
  5217. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer,
  5218. @kbd{C-c C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture
  5219. process, so that you can resume your work without further distraction.
  5220. @kindex C-c C-w
  5221. @item C-c C-w
  5222. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5223. a different place.
  5224. @kindex C-c C-k
  5225. @item C-c C-k
  5226. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5227. @end table
  5228. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5229. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5230. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5231. rather than to the current date.
  5232. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5233. @subsection Capture templates
  5234. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5235. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5236. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5237. through the customize interface.
  5238. @table @kbd
  5239. @kindex C-c c C
  5240. @item C-c c C
  5241. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5242. @end table
  5243. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5244. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5245. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5246. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5247. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5248. would look like:
  5249. @example
  5250. (setq org-capture-templates
  5251. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5252. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5253. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5254. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5255. @end example
  5256. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5257. for you like this:
  5258. @example
  5259. * TODO
  5260. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5261. @end example
  5262. @noindent
  5263. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5264. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5265. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5266. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same
  5267. place where you started the capture process.
  5268. @menu
  5269. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  5270. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  5271. @end menu
  5272. @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates
  5273. @subsubsection Template elements
  5274. Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in
  5275. @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items:
  5276. @table @var
  5277. @item keys
  5278. The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters
  5279. only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a
  5280. single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using
  5281. several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential
  5282. in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the
  5283. prefix key, for example
  5284. @example
  5285. ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy")
  5286. @end example
  5287. @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will
  5288. be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable.
  5289. @item description
  5290. A short string describing the template, which will be shown during
  5291. selection.
  5292. @item type
  5293. The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are:
  5294. @table @code
  5295. @item entry
  5296. An Org-mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the
  5297. target entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org-mode
  5298. file.
  5299. @item item
  5300. A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target
  5301. location. Again the target file should be an Org file.
  5302. @item checkitem
  5303. A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the
  5304. default template.
  5305. @item table-line
  5306. a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the
  5307. line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and
  5308. @code{:table-line-pos} (see below).
  5309. @item plain
  5310. Text to be inserted as it is.
  5311. @end table
  5312. @item target
  5313. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5314. Specification of where the captured item should be placed. In Org-mode
  5315. files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become children of this
  5316. node, other types will be added to the table or list in the body of this
  5317. node. Most target specifications contain a file name. If that file name is
  5318. the empty string, it defaults to @code{org-default-notes-file}.
  5319. Valid values are:
  5320. @table @code
  5321. @item (file "path/to/file")
  5322. Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file.
  5323. @item (id "id of existing org entry")
  5324. Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry.
  5325. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline")
  5326. Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file.
  5327. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...)
  5328. For non-unique headings, the full path is safer.
  5329. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location")
  5330. Use a regular expression to position the cursor.
  5331. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file")
  5332. Will create a heading in a date tree.
  5333. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location)
  5334. A function to find the right location in the file.
  5335. @item (clock)
  5336. File to the entry that is currently being clocked.
  5337. @item (function function-finding-location)
  5338. Most general way, write your own function to find both
  5339. file and location.
  5340. @end table
  5341. @item template
  5342. The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an
  5343. appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with
  5344. escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the
  5345. capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file,
  5346. using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for
  5347. more details.
  5348. @item properties
  5349. The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options.
  5350. Recognized properties are:
  5351. @table @code
  5352. @item :prepend
  5353. Normally new captured information will be appended at
  5354. the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...).
  5355. Setting this property will change that.
  5356. @item :immediate-finish
  5357. When set, do not offer to edit the information, just
  5358. file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs
  5359. information that can be added automatically.
  5360. @item :empty-lines
  5361. Set this to the number of lines to insert
  5362. before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1.
  5363. @item :clock-in
  5364. Start the clock in this item.
  5365. @item :clock-resume
  5366. If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished
  5367. with the capture.
  5368. @item :unnarrowed
  5369. Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to
  5370. narrow it so that you only see the new material.
  5371. @end table
  5372. @end table
  5373. @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates
  5374. @subsubsection Template expansion
  5375. In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of
  5376. these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow
  5377. dynamic insertion of content:
  5378. @comment SJE: should these sentences terminate in period?
  5379. @smallexample
  5380. %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
  5381. @r{You may specify a default value and a completion table with}
  5382. @r{%^@{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...@}}
  5383. @r{The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history.}
  5384. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}}
  5385. %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part}
  5386. %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the}
  5387. @r{region is active.}
  5388. @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
  5389. %t @r{timestamp, date only}
  5390. %T @r{timestamp with date and time}
  5391. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps}
  5392. %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}}
  5393. @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}}
  5394. %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name})}
  5395. %c @r{Current kill ring head.}
  5396. %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.}
  5397. %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.}
  5398. %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.}
  5399. %k @r{title of the currently clocked task}
  5400. %K @r{link to the currently clocked task}
  5401. %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.}
  5402. %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.}
  5403. %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}}
  5404. %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below}
  5405. %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}}
  5406. %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result}
  5407. @end smallexample
  5408. @noindent
  5409. For specific link types, the following keywords will be
  5410. defined@footnote{If you define your own link types (@pxref{Adding
  5411. hyperlink types}), any property you store with
  5412. @code{org-store-link-props} can be accessed in capture templates in a
  5413. similar way.}:
  5414. @vindex org-from-is-user-regexp
  5415. @smallexample
  5416. Link type | Available keywords
  5417. -------------------+----------------------------------------------
  5418. bbdb | %:name %:company
  5419. bbdb | %::server %:port %:nick
  5420. vm, wl, mh, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id
  5421. | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress
  5422. | %:to %:toname %:toaddress
  5423. | %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}}
  5424. gnus | %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields}
  5425. w3, w3m | %:url
  5426. info | %:file %:node
  5427. calendar | %:date
  5428. @end smallexample
  5429. @noindent
  5430. To place the cursor after template expansion use:
  5431. @smallexample
  5432. %? @r{After completing the template, position cursor here.}
  5433. @end smallexample
  5434. @node Attachments, RSS Feeds, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5435. @section Attachments
  5436. @cindex attachments
  5437. @vindex org-attach-directory
  5438. It is often useful to associate reference material with an outline node/task.
  5439. Small chunks of plain text can simply be stored in the subtree of a project.
  5440. Hyperlinks (@pxref{Hyperlinks}) can establish associations with
  5441. files that live elsewhere on your computer or in the cloud, like emails or
  5442. source code files belonging to a project. Another method is @i{attachments},
  5443. which are files located in a directory belonging to an outline node. Org
  5444. uses directories named by the unique ID of each entry. These directories are
  5445. located in the @file{data} directory which lives in the same directory where
  5446. your Org file lives@footnote{If you move entries or Org files from one
  5447. directory to another, you may want to configure @code{org-attach-directory}
  5448. to contain an absolute path.}. If you initialize this directory with
  5449. @code{git init}, Org will automatically commit changes when it sees them.
  5450. The attachment system has been contributed to Org by John Wiegley.
  5451. In cases where it seems better to do so, you can also attach a directory of your
  5452. choice to an entry. You can also make children inherit the attachment
  5453. directory from a parent, so that an entire subtree uses the same attached
  5454. directory.
  5455. @noindent The following commands deal with attachments:
  5456. @table @kbd
  5457. @kindex C-c C-a
  5458. @item C-c C-a
  5459. The dispatcher for commands related to the attachment system. After these
  5460. keys, a list of commands is displayed and you must press an additional key
  5461. to select a command:
  5462. @table @kbd
  5463. @kindex C-c C-a a
  5464. @item a
  5465. @vindex org-attach-method
  5466. Select a file and move it into the task's attachment directory. The file
  5467. will be copied, moved, or linked, depending on @code{org-attach-method}.
  5468. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5469. @kindex C-c C-a c
  5470. @kindex C-c C-a m
  5471. @kindex C-c C-a l
  5472. @item c/m/l
  5473. Attach a file using the copy/move/link method.
  5474. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5475. @kindex C-c C-a n
  5476. @item n
  5477. Create a new attachment as an Emacs buffer.
  5478. @kindex C-c C-a z
  5479. @item z
  5480. Synchronize the current task with its attachment directory, in case you added
  5481. attachments yourself.
  5482. @kindex C-c C-a o
  5483. @item o
  5484. @vindex org-file-apps
  5485. Open current task's attachment. If there is more than one, prompt for a
  5486. file name first. Opening will follow the rules set by @code{org-file-apps}.
  5487. For more details, see the information on following hyperlinks
  5488. (@pxref{Handling links}).
  5489. @kindex C-c C-a O
  5490. @item O
  5491. Also open the attachment, but force opening the file in Emacs.
  5492. @kindex C-c C-a f
  5493. @item f
  5494. Open the current task's attachment directory.
  5495. @kindex C-c C-a F
  5496. @item F
  5497. Also open the directory, but force using @command{dired} in Emacs.
  5498. @kindex C-c C-a d
  5499. @item d
  5500. Select and delete a single attachment.
  5501. @kindex C-c C-a D
  5502. @item D
  5503. Delete all of a task's attachments. A safer way is to open the directory in
  5504. @command{dired} and delete from there.
  5505. @kindex C-c C-a s
  5506. @item C-c C-a s
  5507. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR
  5508. Set a specific directory as the entry's attachment directory. This works by
  5509. putting the directory path into the @code{ATTACH_DIR} property.
  5510. @kindex C-c C-a i
  5511. @item C-c C-a i
  5512. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT
  5513. Set the @code{ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT} property, so that children will use the
  5514. same directory for attachments as the parent does.
  5515. @end table
  5516. @end table
  5517. @node RSS Feeds, Protocols, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5518. @section RSS feeds
  5519. @cindex RSS feeds
  5520. @cindex Atom feeds
  5521. Org can add and change entries based on information found in RSS feeds and
  5522. Atom feeds. You could use this to make a task out of each new podcast in a
  5523. podcast feed. Or you could use a phone-based note-creating service on the
  5524. web to import tasks into Org. To access feeds, configure the variable
  5525. @code{org-feed-alist}. The docstring of this variable has detailed
  5526. information. Here is just an example:
  5527. @example
  5528. (setq org-feed-alist
  5529. '(("Slashdot"
  5530. "http://rss.slashdot.org/Slashdot/slashdot"
  5531. "~/txt/org/feeds.org" "Slashdot Entries")))
  5532. @end example
  5533. @noindent
  5534. will configure that new items from the feed provided by
  5535. @code{rss.slashdot.org} will result in new entries in the file
  5536. @file{~/org/feeds.org} under the heading @samp{Slashdot Entries}, whenever
  5537. the following command is used:
  5538. @table @kbd
  5539. @kindex C-c C-x g
  5540. @item C-c C-x g
  5541. Collect items from the feeds configured in @code{org-feed-alist} and act upon
  5542. them.
  5543. @kindex C-c C-x G
  5544. @item C-c C-x G
  5545. Prompt for a feed name and go to the inbox configured for this feed.
  5546. @end table
  5547. Under the same headline, Org will create a drawer @samp{FEEDSTATUS} in which
  5548. it will store information about the status of items in the feed, to avoid
  5549. adding the same item several times. You should add @samp{FEEDSTATUS} to the
  5550. list of drawers in that file:
  5551. @example
  5552. #+DRAWERS: LOGBOOK PROPERTIES FEEDSTATUS
  5553. @end example
  5554. For more information, including how to read atom feeds, see
  5555. @file{org-feed.el} and the docstring of @code{org-feed-alist}.
  5556. @node Protocols, Refiling notes, RSS Feeds, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5557. @section Protocols for external access
  5558. @cindex protocols, for external access
  5559. @cindex emacsserver
  5560. You can set up Org for handling protocol calls from outside applications that
  5561. are passed to Emacs through the @file{emacsserver}. For example, you can
  5562. configure bookmarks in your web browser to send a link to the current page to
  5563. Org and create a note from it using capture (@pxref{Capture}). Or you
  5564. could create a bookmark that will tell Emacs to open the local source file of
  5565. a remote website you are looking at with the browser. See
  5566. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/org-protocol.php} for detailed
  5567. documentation and setup instructions.
  5568. @node Refiling notes, Archiving, Protocols, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5569. @section Refiling notes
  5570. @cindex refiling notes
  5571. When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile some of the entries
  5572. into a different list, for example into a project. Cutting, finding the
  5573. right location, and then pasting the note is cumbersome. To simplify this
  5574. process, you can use the following special command:
  5575. @table @kbd
  5576. @kindex C-c C-w
  5577. @item C-c C-w
  5578. @vindex org-reverse-note-order
  5579. @vindex org-refile-targets
  5580. @vindex org-refile-use-outline-path
  5581. @vindex org-outline-path-complete-in-steps
  5582. @vindex org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes
  5583. @vindex org-log-refile
  5584. @vindex org-refile-use-cache
  5585. Refile the entry or region at point. This command offers possible locations
  5586. for refiling the entry and lets you select one with completion. The item (or
  5587. all items in the region) is filed below the target heading as a subitem.
  5588. Depending on @code{org-reverse-note-order}, it will be either the first or
  5589. last subitem.@*
  5590. By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are considered to be
  5591. targets, but you can have more complex definitions across a number of files.
  5592. See the variable @code{org-refile-targets} for details. If you would like to
  5593. select a location via a file-path-like completion along the outline path, see
  5594. the variables @code{org-refile-use-outline-path} and
  5595. @code{org-outline-path-complete-in-steps}. If you would like to be able to
  5596. create new nodes as new parents for refiling on the fly, check the
  5597. variable @code{org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes}.
  5598. When the variable @code{org-log-refile}@footnote{with corresponding
  5599. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logrefile}, @code{lognoterefile},
  5600. and @code{nologrefile}} is set, a time stamp or a note will be
  5601. recorded when an entry has been refiled.
  5602. @kindex C-u C-c C-w
  5603. @item C-u C-c C-w
  5604. Use the refile interface to jump to a heading.
  5605. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5606. @item C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5607. Jump to the location where @code{org-refile} last moved a tree to.
  5608. @item C-2 C-c C-w
  5609. Refile as the child of the item currently being clocked.
  5610. @item C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5611. Clear the target cache. Caching of refile targets can be turned on by
  5612. setting @code{org-refile-use-cache}. To make the command seen new possible
  5613. targets, you have to clear the cache with this command.
  5614. @end table
  5615. @node Archiving, , Refiling notes, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5616. @section Archiving
  5617. @cindex archiving
  5618. When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
  5619. to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
  5620. agenda. Archiving is important to keep your working files compact and global
  5621. searches like the construction of agenda views fast.
  5622. @table @kbd
  5623. @kindex C-c C-x C-a
  5624. @item C-c C-x C-a
  5625. @vindex org-archive-default-command
  5626. Archive the current entry using the command specified in the variable
  5627. @code{org-archive-default-command}.
  5628. @end table
  5629. @menu
  5630. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  5631. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  5632. @end menu
  5633. @node Moving subtrees, Internal archiving, Archiving, Archiving
  5634. @subsection Moving a tree to the archive file
  5635. @cindex external archiving
  5636. The most common archiving action is to move a project tree to another file,
  5637. the archive file.
  5638. @table @kbd
  5639. @kindex C-c $
  5640. @kindex C-c C-x C-s
  5641. @item C-c C-x C-s@ @r{or short} @ C-c $
  5642. @vindex org-archive-location
  5643. Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
  5644. given by @code{org-archive-location}.
  5645. @kindex C-u C-c C-x C-s
  5646. @item C-u C-c C-x C-s
  5647. Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to
  5648. the archive. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.
  5649. If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive
  5650. location. If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command
  5651. is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.
  5652. @end table
  5653. @cindex archive locations
  5654. The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
  5655. current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
  5656. current file name. For information and examples on how to change this,
  5657. see the documentation string of the variable
  5658. @code{org-archive-location}. There is also an in-buffer option for
  5659. setting this variable, for example@footnote{For backward compatibility,
  5660. the following also works: If there are several such lines in a file,
  5661. each specifies the archive location for the text below it. The first
  5662. such line also applies to any text before its definition. However,
  5663. using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is incompatible
  5664. with the outline structure of the document. The correct method for
  5665. setting multiple archive locations in a buffer is using properties.}:
  5666. @cindex #+ARCHIVE
  5667. @example
  5668. #+ARCHIVE: %s_done::
  5669. @end example
  5670. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  5671. @noindent
  5672. If you would like to have a special ARCHIVE location for a single entry
  5673. or a (sub)tree, give the entry an @code{:ARCHIVE:} property with the
  5674. location as the value (@pxref{Properties and Columns}).
  5675. @vindex org-archive-save-context-info
  5676. When a subtree is moved, it receives a number of special properties that
  5677. record context information like the file from where the entry came, its
  5678. outline path the archiving time etc. Configure the variable
  5679. @code{org-archive-save-context-info} to adjust the amount of information
  5680. added.
  5681. @node Internal archiving, , Moving subtrees, Archiving
  5682. @subsection Internal archiving
  5683. If you want to just switch off (for agenda views) certain subtrees without
  5684. moving them to a different file, you can use the @code{ARCHIVE tag}.
  5685. A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at
  5686. its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way:
  5687. @itemize @minus
  5688. @item
  5689. @vindex org-cycle-open-archived-trees
  5690. It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling
  5691. command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}). You can force cycling archived
  5692. subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option
  5693. @code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}. Also normal outline commands like
  5694. @code{show-all} will open archived subtrees.
  5695. @item
  5696. @vindex org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees
  5697. During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in
  5698. archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option
  5699. @code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}.
  5700. @item
  5701. @vindex org-agenda-skip-archived-trees
  5702. During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda Views}), the content of
  5703. archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option
  5704. @code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}, in which case these trees will always
  5705. be included. In the agenda you can press @kbd{v a} to get archives
  5706. temporarily included.
  5707. @item
  5708. @vindex org-export-with-archived-trees
  5709. Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline
  5710. is. Configure the details using the variable
  5711. @code{org-export-with-archived-trees}.
  5712. @item
  5713. @vindex org-columns-skip-archived-trees
  5714. Archived trees are excluded from column view unless the variable
  5715. @code{org-columns-skip-archived-trees} is configured to @code{nil}.
  5716. @end itemize
  5717. The following commands help manage the ARCHIVE tag:
  5718. @table @kbd
  5719. @kindex C-c C-x a
  5720. @item C-c C-x a
  5721. Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline. When the tag is set,
  5722. the headline changes to a shadowed face, and the subtree below it is
  5723. hidden.
  5724. @kindex C-u C-c C-x a
  5725. @item C-u C-c C-x a
  5726. Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived.
  5727. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries. If none are
  5728. found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child. If the
  5729. cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the
  5730. level 1 trees will be checked.
  5731. @kindex C-@kbd{TAB}
  5732. @item C-@kbd{TAB}
  5733. Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE.
  5734. @kindex C-c C-x A
  5735. @item C-c C-x A
  5736. Move the current entry to the @emph{Archive Sibling}. This is a sibling of
  5737. the entry with the heading @samp{Archive} and the tag @samp{ARCHIVE}. The
  5738. entry becomes a child of that sibling and in this way retains a lot of its
  5739. original context, including inherited tags and approximate position in the
  5740. outline.
  5741. @end table
  5742. @node Agenda Views, Markup, Capture - Refile - Archive, Top
  5743. @chapter Agenda views
  5744. @cindex agenda views
  5745. Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and
  5746. tagged headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of
  5747. files. To get an overview of open action items, or of events that are
  5748. important for a particular date, this information must be collected,
  5749. sorted and displayed in an organized way.
  5750. Org can select items based on various criteria and display them
  5751. in a separate buffer. Seven different view types are provided:
  5752. @itemize @bullet
  5753. @item
  5754. an @emph{agenda} that is like a calendar and shows information
  5755. for specific dates,
  5756. @item
  5757. a @emph{TODO list} that covers all unfinished
  5758. action items,
  5759. @item
  5760. a @emph{match view}, showings headlines based on the tags, properties, and
  5761. TODO state associated with them,
  5762. @item
  5763. a @emph{timeline view} that shows all events in a single Org file,
  5764. in time-sorted view,
  5765. @item
  5766. a @emph{text search view} that shows all entries from multiple files
  5767. that contain specified keywords,
  5768. @item
  5769. a @emph{stuck projects view} showing projects that currently don't move
  5770. along, and
  5771. @item
  5772. @emph{custom views} that are special searches and combinations of different
  5773. views.
  5774. @end itemize
  5775. @noindent
  5776. The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda
  5777. buffer}. This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the
  5778. corresponding locations in the original Org files, and even to
  5779. edit these files remotely.
  5780. @vindex org-agenda-window-setup
  5781. @vindex org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit
  5782. Two variables control how the agenda buffer is displayed and whether the
  5783. window configuration is restored when the agenda exits:
  5784. @code{org-agenda-window-setup} and
  5785. @code{org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit}.
  5786. @menu
  5787. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  5788. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  5789. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  5790. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  5791. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  5792. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  5793. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  5794. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  5795. @end menu
  5796. @node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views, Agenda Views
  5797. @section Agenda files
  5798. @cindex agenda files
  5799. @cindex files for agenda
  5800. @vindex org-agenda-files
  5801. The information to be shown is normally collected from all @emph{agenda
  5802. files}, the files listed in the variable
  5803. @code{org-agenda-files}@footnote{If the value of that variable is not a
  5804. list, but a single file name, then the list of agenda files will be
  5805. maintained in that external file.}. If a directory is part of this list,
  5806. all files with the extension @file{.org} in this directory will be part
  5807. of the list.
  5808. Thus, even if you only work with a single Org file, that file should
  5809. be put into the list@footnote{When using the dispatcher, pressing
  5810. @kbd{<} before selecting a command will actually limit the command to
  5811. the current file, and ignore @code{org-agenda-files} until the next
  5812. dispatcher command.}. You can customize @code{org-agenda-files}, but
  5813. the easiest way to maintain it is through the following commands
  5814. @cindex files, adding to agenda list
  5815. @table @kbd
  5816. @kindex C-c [
  5817. @item C-c [
  5818. Add current file to the list of agenda files. The file is added to
  5819. the front of the list. If it was already in the list, it is moved to
  5820. the front. With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the end.
  5821. @kindex C-c ]
  5822. @item C-c ]
  5823. Remove current file from the list of agenda files.
  5824. @kindex C-,
  5825. @kindex C-'
  5826. @item C-,
  5827. @itemx C-'
  5828. Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.
  5829. @kindex M-x org-iswitchb
  5830. @item M-x org-iswitchb
  5831. Command to use an @code{iswitchb}-like interface to switch to and between Org
  5832. buffers.
  5833. @end table
  5834. @noindent
  5835. The Org menu contains the current list of files and can be used
  5836. to visit any of them.
  5837. If you would like to focus the agenda temporarily on a file not in
  5838. this list, or on just one file in the list, or even on only a subtree in a
  5839. file, then this can be done in different ways. For a single agenda command,
  5840. you may press @kbd{<} once or several times in the dispatcher
  5841. (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}). To restrict the agenda scope for an
  5842. extended period, use the following commands:
  5843. @table @kbd
  5844. @kindex C-c C-x <
  5845. @item C-c C-x <
  5846. Permanently restrict the agenda to the current subtree. When with a
  5847. prefix argument, or with the cursor before the first headline in a file,
  5848. the agenda scope is set to the entire file. This restriction remains in
  5849. effect until removed with @kbd{C-c C-x >}, or by typing either @kbd{<}
  5850. or @kbd{>} in the agenda dispatcher. If there is a window displaying an
  5851. agenda view, the new restriction takes effect immediately.
  5852. @kindex C-c C-x >
  5853. @item C-c C-x >
  5854. Remove the permanent restriction created by @kbd{C-c C-x <}.
  5855. @end table
  5856. @noindent
  5857. When working with @file{speedbar.el}, you can use the following commands in
  5858. the Speedbar frame:
  5859. @table @kbd
  5860. @kindex <
  5861. @item < @r{in the speedbar frame}
  5862. Permanently restrict the agenda to the item---either an Org file or a subtree
  5863. in such a file---at the cursor in the Speedbar frame.
  5864. If there is a window displaying an agenda view, the new restriction takes
  5865. effect immediately.
  5866. @kindex >
  5867. @item > @r{in the speedbar frame}
  5868. Lift the restriction.
  5869. @end table
  5870. @node Agenda dispatcher, Built-in agenda views, Agenda files, Agenda Views
  5871. @section The agenda dispatcher
  5872. @cindex agenda dispatcher
  5873. @cindex dispatching agenda commands
  5874. The views are created through a dispatcher, which should be bound to a
  5875. global key---for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Installation}). In the
  5876. following we will assume that @kbd{C-c a} is indeed how the dispatcher
  5877. is accessed and list keyboard access to commands accordingly. After
  5878. pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a
  5879. command. The dispatcher offers the following default commands:
  5880. @table @kbd
  5881. @item a
  5882. Create the calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  5883. @item t @r{/} T
  5884. Create a list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}).
  5885. @item m @r{/} M
  5886. Create a list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching
  5887. tags and properties}).
  5888. @item L
  5889. Create the timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}).
  5890. @item s
  5891. Create a list of entries selected by a boolean expression of keywords
  5892. and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in the entry.
  5893. @item /
  5894. @vindex org-agenda-text-search-extra-files
  5895. Search for a regular expression in all agenda files and additionally in
  5896. the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}. This
  5897. uses the Emacs command @code{multi-occur}. A prefix argument can be
  5898. used to specify the number of context lines for each match, default is
  5899. 1.
  5900. @item # @r{/} !
  5901. Create a list of stuck projects (@pxref{Stuck projects}).
  5902. @item <
  5903. Restrict an agenda command to the current buffer@footnote{For backward
  5904. compatibility, you can also press @kbd{1} to restrict to the current
  5905. buffer.}. After pressing @kbd{<}, you still need to press the character
  5906. selecting the command.
  5907. @item < <
  5908. If there is an active region, restrict the following agenda command to
  5909. the region. Otherwise, restrict it to the current subtree@footnote{For
  5910. backward compatibility, you can also press @kbd{0} to restrict to the
  5911. current region/subtree.}. After pressing @kbd{< <}, you still need to press the
  5912. character selecting the command.
  5913. @end table
  5914. You can also define custom commands that will be accessible through the
  5915. dispatcher, just like the default commands. This includes the
  5916. possibility to create extended agenda buffers that contain several
  5917. blocks together, for example the weekly agenda, the global TODO list and
  5918. a number of special tags matches. @xref{Custom agenda views}.
  5919. @node Built-in agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views
  5920. @section The built-in agenda views
  5921. In this section we describe the built-in views.
  5922. @menu
  5923. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  5924. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  5925. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  5926. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  5927. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  5928. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  5929. @end menu
  5930. @node Weekly/daily agenda, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views, Built-in agenda views
  5931. @subsection The weekly/daily agenda
  5932. @cindex agenda
  5933. @cindex weekly agenda
  5934. @cindex daily agenda
  5935. The purpose of the weekly/daily @emph{agenda} is to act like a page of a
  5936. paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day.
  5937. @table @kbd
  5938. @cindex org-agenda, command
  5939. @kindex C-c a a
  5940. @item C-c a a
  5941. @vindex org-agenda-ndays
  5942. Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of Org files. The agenda
  5943. shows the entries for each day. With a numeric prefix@footnote{For backward
  5944. compatibility, the universal prefix @kbd{C-u} causes all TODO entries to be
  5945. listed before the agenda. This feature is deprecated, use the dedicated TODO
  5946. list, or a block agenda instead (@pxref{Block agenda}).} (like @kbd{C-u 2 1
  5947. C-c a a}) you may set the number of days to be displayed (see also the
  5948. variable @code{org-agenda-ndays})
  5949. @end table
  5950. Remote editing from the agenda buffer means, for example, that you can
  5951. change the dates of deadlines and appointments from the agenda buffer.
  5952. The commands available in the Agenda buffer are listed in @ref{Agenda
  5953. commands}.
  5954. @subsubheading Calendar/Diary integration
  5955. @cindex calendar integration
  5956. @cindex diary integration
  5957. Emacs contains the calendar and diary by Edward M. Reingold. The
  5958. calendar displays a three-month calendar with holidays from different
  5959. countries and cultures. The diary allows you to keep track of
  5960. anniversaries, lunar phases, sunrise/set, recurrent appointments
  5961. (weekly, monthly) and more. In this way, it is quite complementary to
  5962. Org. It can be very useful to combine output from Org with
  5963. the diary.
  5964. In order to include entries from the Emacs diary into Org-mode's
  5965. agenda, you only need to customize the variable
  5966. @lisp
  5967. (setq org-agenda-include-diary t)
  5968. @end lisp
  5969. @noindent After that, everything will happen automatically. All diary
  5970. entries including holidays, anniversaries, etc., will be included in the
  5971. agenda buffer created by Org-mode. @key{SPC}, @key{TAB}, and
  5972. @key{RET} can be used from the agenda buffer to jump to the diary
  5973. file in order to edit existing diary entries. The @kbd{i} command to
  5974. insert new entries for the current date works in the agenda buffer, as
  5975. well as the commands @kbd{S}, @kbd{M}, and @kbd{C} to display
  5976. Sunrise/Sunset times, show lunar phases and to convert to other
  5977. calendars, respectively. @kbd{c} can be used to switch back and forth
  5978. between calendar and agenda.
  5979. If you are using the diary only for sexp entries and holidays, it is
  5980. faster to not use the above setting, but instead to copy or even move
  5981. the entries into an Org file. Org-mode evaluates diary-style sexp
  5982. entries, and does it faster because there is no overhead for first
  5983. creating the diary display. Note that the sexp entries must start at
  5984. the left margin, no whitespace is allowed before them. For example,
  5985. the following segment of an Org file will be processed and entries
  5986. will be made in the agenda:
  5987. @example
  5988. * Birthdays and similar stuff
  5989. #+CATEGORY: Holiday
  5990. %%(org-calendar-holiday) ; special function for holiday names
  5991. #+CATEGORY: Ann
  5992. %%(diary-anniversary 5 14 1956)@footnote{Note that the order of the arguments (month, day, year) depends on the setting of @code{calendar-date-style}.} Arthur Dent is %d years old
  5993. %%(diary-anniversary 10 2 1869) Mahatma Gandhi would be %d years old
  5994. @end example
  5995. @subsubheading Anniversaries from BBDB
  5996. @cindex BBDB, anniversaries
  5997. @cindex anniversaries, from BBDB
  5998. If you are using the Big Brothers Database to store your contacts, you will
  5999. very likely prefer to store anniversaries in BBDB rather than in a
  6000. separate Org or diary file. Org supports this and will show BBDB
  6001. anniversaries as part of the agenda. All you need to do is to add the
  6002. following to one your your agenda files:
  6003. @example
  6004. * Anniversaries
  6005. :PROPERTIES:
  6006. :CATEGORY: Anniv
  6007. :END:
  6008. %%(org-bbdb-anniversaries)
  6009. @end example
  6010. You can then go ahead and define anniversaries for a BBDB record. Basically,
  6011. you need to press @kbd{C-o anniversary @key{RET}} with the cursor in a BBDB
  6012. record and then add the date in the format @code{YYYY-MM-DD}, followed by a
  6013. space and the class of the anniversary (@samp{birthday} or @samp{wedding}, or
  6014. a format string). If you omit the class, it will default to @samp{birthday}.
  6015. Here are a few examples, the header for the file @file{org-bbdb.el} contains
  6016. more detailed information.
  6017. @example
  6018. 1973-06-22
  6019. 1955-08-02 wedding
  6020. 2008-04-14 %s released version 6.01 of org-mode, %d years ago
  6021. @end example
  6022. After a change to BBDB, or for the first agenda display during an Emacs
  6023. session, the agenda display will suffer a short delay as Org updates its
  6024. hash with anniversaries. However, from then on things will be very fast---much
  6025. faster in fact than a long list of @samp{%%(diary-anniversary)} entries
  6026. in an Org or Diary file.
  6027. @subsubheading Appointment reminders
  6028. @cindex @file{appt.el}
  6029. @cindex appointment reminders
  6030. Org can interact with Emacs appointments notification facility. To add all
  6031. the appointments of your agenda files, use the command
  6032. @code{org-agenda-to-appt}. This command also lets you filter through the
  6033. list of your appointments and add only those belonging to a specific category
  6034. or matching a regular expression. See the docstring for details.
  6035. @node Global TODO list, Matching tags and properties, Weekly/daily agenda, Built-in agenda views
  6036. @subsection The global TODO list
  6037. @cindex global TODO list
  6038. @cindex TODO list, global
  6039. The global TODO list contains all unfinished TODO items formatted and
  6040. collected into a single place.
  6041. @table @kbd
  6042. @kindex C-c a t
  6043. @item C-c a t
  6044. Show the global TODO list. This collects the TODO items from all agenda
  6045. files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. By default, this lists
  6046. items with a state the is not a DONE state. The buffer is in
  6047. @code{agenda-mode}, so there are commands to examine and manipulate the TODO
  6048. entries directly from that buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  6049. @kindex C-c a T
  6050. @item C-c a T
  6051. @cindex TODO keyword matching
  6052. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  6053. Like the above, but allows selection of a specific TODO keyword. You can
  6054. also do this by specifying a prefix argument to @kbd{C-c a t}. You are
  6055. prompted for a keyword, and you may also specify several keywords by
  6056. separating them with @samp{|} as the boolean OR operator. With a numeric
  6057. prefix, the nth keyword in @code{org-todo-keywords} is selected.
  6058. @kindex r
  6059. The @kbd{r} key in the agenda buffer regenerates it, and you can give
  6060. a prefix argument to this command to change the selected TODO keyword,
  6061. for example @kbd{3 r}. If you often need a search for a specific
  6062. keyword, define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).@*
  6063. Matching specific TODO keywords can also be done as part of a tags
  6064. search (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  6065. @end table
  6066. Remote editing of TODO items means that you can change the state of a
  6067. TODO entry with a single key press. The commands available in the
  6068. TODO list are described in @ref{Agenda commands}.
  6069. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into TODO list
  6070. Normally the global TODO list simply shows all headlines with TODO
  6071. keywords. This list can become very long. There are two ways to keep
  6072. it more compact:
  6073. @itemize @minus
  6074. @item
  6075. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled
  6076. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines
  6077. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date
  6078. Some people view a TODO item that has been @emph{scheduled} for execution or
  6079. have a @emph{deadline} (@pxref{Timestamps}) as no longer @emph{open}.
  6080. Configure the variables @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled},
  6081. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines}, and/or
  6082. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date} to exclude such items from the
  6083. global TODO list.
  6084. @item
  6085. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  6086. TODO items may have sublevels to break up the task into subtasks. In
  6087. such cases it may be enough to list only the highest level TODO headline
  6088. and omit the sublevels from the global list. Configure the variable
  6089. @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels} to get this behavior.
  6090. @end itemize
  6091. @node Matching tags and properties, Timeline, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views
  6092. @subsection Matching tags and properties
  6093. @cindex matching, of tags
  6094. @cindex matching, of properties
  6095. @cindex tags view
  6096. @cindex match view
  6097. If headlines in the agenda files are marked with @emph{tags} (@pxref{Tags}),
  6098. or have properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), you can select headlines
  6099. based on this metadata and collect them into an agenda buffer. The match
  6100. syntax described here also applies when creating sparse trees with @kbd{C-c /
  6101. m}.
  6102. @table @kbd
  6103. @kindex C-c a m
  6104. @item C-c a m
  6105. Produce a list of all headlines that match a given set of tags. The
  6106. command prompts for a selection criterion, which is a boolean logic
  6107. expression with tags, like @samp{+work+urgent-withboss} or
  6108. @samp{work|home} (@pxref{Tags}). If you often need a specific search,
  6109. define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  6110. @kindex C-c a M
  6111. @item C-c a M
  6112. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  6113. @vindex org-agenda-tags-todo-honor-ignore-options
  6114. Like @kbd{C-c a m}, but only select headlines that are also TODO items in a
  6115. not-DONE state and force checking subitems (see variable
  6116. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}). To exclude scheduled/deadline items,
  6117. see the variable @code{org-agenda-tags-todo-honor-ignore-options}. Matching
  6118. specific TODO keywords together with a tags match is also possible, see
  6119. @ref{Tag searches}.
  6120. @end table
  6121. The commands available in the tags list are described in @ref{Agenda
  6122. commands}.
  6123. @subsubheading Match syntax
  6124. @cindex Boolean logic, for tag/property searches
  6125. A search string can use Boolean operators @samp{&} for AND and @samp{|} for
  6126. OR. @samp{&} binds more strongly than @samp{|}. Parentheses are currently
  6127. not implemented. Each element in the search is either a tag, a regular
  6128. expression matching tags, or an expression like @code{PROPERTY OPERATOR
  6129. VALUE} with a comparison operator, accessing a property value. Each element
  6130. may be preceded by @samp{-}, to select against it, and @samp{+} is syntactic
  6131. sugar for positive selection. The AND operator @samp{&} is optional when
  6132. @samp{+} or @samp{-} is present. Here are some examples, using only tags.
  6133. @table @samp
  6134. @item +work-boss
  6135. Select headlines tagged @samp{:work:}, but discard those also tagged
  6136. @samp{:boss:}.
  6137. @item work|laptop
  6138. Selects lines tagged @samp{:work:} or @samp{:laptop:}.
  6139. @item work|laptop+night
  6140. Like before, but require the @samp{:laptop:} lines to be tagged also
  6141. @samp{:night:}.
  6142. @end table
  6143. @cindex regular expressions, with tags search
  6144. Instead of a tag, you may also specify a regular expression enclosed in curly
  6145. braces. For example,
  6146. @samp{work+@{^boss.*@}} matches headlines that contain the tag
  6147. @samp{:work:} and any tag @i{starting} with @samp{boss}.
  6148. @cindex TODO keyword matching, with tags search
  6149. @cindex level, require for tags/property match
  6150. @cindex category, require for tags/property match
  6151. @vindex org-odd-levels-only
  6152. You may also test for properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) at the same
  6153. time as matching tags. The properties may be real properties, or special
  6154. properties that represent other metadata (@pxref{Special properties}). For
  6155. example, the ``property'' @code{TODO} represents the TODO keyword of the
  6156. entry. Or, the ``property'' @code{LEVEL} represents the level of an entry.
  6157. So a search @samp{+LEVEL=3+boss-TODO="DONE"} lists all level three headlines
  6158. that have the tag @samp{boss} and are @emph{not} marked with the TODO keyword
  6159. DONE. In buffers with @code{org-odd-levels-only} set, @samp{LEVEL} does not
  6160. count the number of stars, but @samp{LEVEL=2} will correspond to 3 stars etc.
  6161. Here are more examples:
  6162. @table @samp
  6163. @item work+TODO="WAITING"
  6164. Select @samp{:work:}-tagged TODO lines with the specific TODO
  6165. keyword @samp{WAITING}.
  6166. @item work+TODO="WAITING"|home+TODO="WAITING"
  6167. Waiting tasks both at work and at home.
  6168. @end table
  6169. When matching properties, a number of different operators can be used to test
  6170. the value of a property. Here is a complex example:
  6171. @example
  6172. +work-boss+PRIORITY="A"+Coffee="unlimited"+Effort<2 \
  6173. +With=@{Sarah\|Denny@}+SCHEDULED>="<2008-10-11>"
  6174. @end example
  6175. @noindent
  6176. The type of comparison will depend on how the comparison value is written:
  6177. @itemize @minus
  6178. @item
  6179. If the comparison value is a plain number, a numerical comparison is done,
  6180. and the allowed operators are @samp{<}, @samp{=}, @samp{>}, @samp{<=},
  6181. @samp{>=}, and @samp{<>}.
  6182. @item
  6183. If the comparison value is enclosed in double-quotes,
  6184. a string comparison is done, and the same operators are allowed.
  6185. @item
  6186. If the comparison value is enclosed in double-quotes @emph{and} angular
  6187. brackets (like @samp{DEADLINE<="<2008-12-24 18:30>"}), both values are
  6188. assumed to be date/time specifications in the standard Org way, and the
  6189. comparison will be done accordingly. Special values that will be recognized
  6190. are @code{"<now>"} for now (including time), and @code{"<today>"}, and
  6191. @code{"<tomorrow>"} for these days at 0:00 hours, i.e. without a time
  6192. specification. Also strings like @code{"<+5d>"} or @code{"<-2m>"} with units
  6193. @code{d}, @code{w}, @code{m}, and @code{y} for day, week, month, and year,
  6194. respectively, can be used.
  6195. @item
  6196. If the comparison value is enclosed
  6197. in curly braces, a regexp match is performed, with @samp{=} meaning that the
  6198. regexp matches the property value, and @samp{<>} meaning that it does not
  6199. match.
  6200. @end itemize
  6201. So the search string in the example finds entries tagged @samp{:work:} but
  6202. not @samp{:boss:}, which also have a priority value @samp{A}, a
  6203. @samp{:Coffee:} property with the value @samp{unlimited}, an @samp{Effort}
  6204. property that is numerically smaller than 2, a @samp{:With:} property that is
  6205. matched by the regular expression @samp{Sarah\|Denny}, and that are scheduled
  6206. on or after October 11, 2008.
  6207. Accessing TODO, LEVEL, and CATEGORY during a search is fast. Accessing any
  6208. other properties will slow down the search. However, once you have paid the
  6209. price by accessing one property, testing additional properties is cheap
  6210. again.
  6211. You can configure Org-mode to use property inheritance during a search, but
  6212. beware that this can slow down searches considerably. See @ref{Property
  6213. inheritance}, for details.
  6214. For backward compatibility, and also for typing speed, there is also a
  6215. different way to test TODO states in a search. For this, terminate the
  6216. tags/property part of the search string (which may include several terms
  6217. connected with @samp{|}) with a @samp{/} and then specify a Boolean
  6218. expression just for TODO keywords. The syntax is then similar to that for
  6219. tags, but should be applied with care: for example, a positive selection on
  6220. several TODO keywords cannot meaningfully be combined with boolean AND.
  6221. However, @emph{negative selection} combined with AND can be meaningful. To
  6222. make sure that only lines are checked that actually have any TODO keyword
  6223. (resulting in a speed-up), use @kbd{C-c a M}, or equivalently start the TODO
  6224. part after the slash with @samp{!}. Using @kbd{C-c a M} or @samp{/!} will
  6225. not match TODO keywords in a DONE state. Examples:
  6226. @table @samp
  6227. @item work/WAITING
  6228. Same as @samp{work+TODO="WAITING"}
  6229. @item work/!-WAITING-NEXT
  6230. Select @samp{:work:}-tagged TODO lines that are neither @samp{WAITING}
  6231. nor @samp{NEXT}
  6232. @item work/!+WAITING|+NEXT
  6233. Select @samp{:work:}-tagged TODO lines that are either @samp{WAITING} or
  6234. @samp{NEXT}.
  6235. @end table
  6236. @node Timeline, Search view, Matching tags and properties, Built-in agenda views
  6237. @subsection Timeline for a single file
  6238. @cindex timeline, single file
  6239. @cindex time-sorted view
  6240. The timeline summarizes all time-stamped items from a single Org-mode
  6241. file in a @emph{time-sorted view}. The main purpose of this command is
  6242. to give an overview over events in a project.
  6243. @table @kbd
  6244. @kindex C-c a L
  6245. @item C-c a L
  6246. Show a time-sorted view of the Org file, with all time-stamped items.
  6247. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all unfinished TODO entries
  6248. (scheduled or not) are also listed under the current date.
  6249. @end table
  6250. @noindent
  6251. The commands available in the timeline buffer are listed in
  6252. @ref{Agenda commands}.
  6253. @node Search view, Stuck projects, Timeline, Built-in agenda views
  6254. @subsection Search view
  6255. @cindex search view
  6256. @cindex text search
  6257. @cindex searching, for text
  6258. This agenda view is a general text search facility for Org-mode entries.
  6259. It is particularly useful to find notes.
  6260. @table @kbd
  6261. @kindex C-c a s
  6262. @item C-c a s
  6263. This is a special search that lets you select entries by matching a substring
  6264. or specific words using a boolean logic.
  6265. @end table
  6266. For example, the search string @samp{computer equipment} will find entries
  6267. that contain @samp{computer equipment} as a substring. If the two words are
  6268. separated by more space or a line break, the search will still match.
  6269. Search view can also search for specific keywords in the entry, using Boolean
  6270. logic. The search string @samp{+computer +wifi -ethernet -@{8\.11[bg]@}}
  6271. will search for note entries that contain the keywords @code{computer}
  6272. and @code{wifi}, but not the keyword @code{ethernet}, and which are also
  6273. not matched by the regular expression @code{8\.11[bg]}, meaning to
  6274. exclude both 8.11b and 8.11g. The first @samp{+} is necessary to turn on
  6275. word search, other @samp{+} characters are optional. For more details, see
  6276. the docstring of the command @code{org-search-view}.
  6277. @vindex org-agenda-text-search-extra-files
  6278. Note that in addition to the agenda files, this command will also search
  6279. the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}.
  6280. @node Stuck projects, , Search view, Built-in agenda views
  6281. @subsection Stuck projects
  6282. If you are following a system like David Allen's GTD to organize your
  6283. work, one of the ``duties'' you have is a regular review to make sure
  6284. that all projects move along. A @emph{stuck} project is a project that
  6285. has no defined next actions, so it will never show up in the TODO lists
  6286. Org-mode produces. During the review, you need to identify such
  6287. projects and define next actions for them.
  6288. @table @kbd
  6289. @kindex C-c a #
  6290. @item C-c a #
  6291. List projects that are stuck.
  6292. @kindex C-c a !
  6293. @item C-c a !
  6294. @vindex org-stuck-projects
  6295. Customize the variable @code{org-stuck-projects} to define what a stuck
  6296. project is and how to find it.
  6297. @end table
  6298. You almost certainly will have to configure this view before it will
  6299. work for you. The built-in default assumes that all your projects are
  6300. level-2 headlines, and that a project is not stuck if it has at least
  6301. one entry marked with a TODO keyword TODO or NEXT or NEXTACTION.
  6302. Let's assume that you, in your own way of using Org-mode, identify
  6303. projects with a tag PROJECT, and that you use a TODO keyword MAYBE to
  6304. indicate a project that should not be considered yet. Let's further
  6305. assume that the TODO keyword DONE marks finished projects, and that NEXT
  6306. and TODO indicate next actions. The tag @@SHOP indicates shopping and
  6307. is a next action even without the NEXT tag. Finally, if the project
  6308. contains the special word IGNORE anywhere, it should not be listed
  6309. either. In this case you would start by identifying eligible projects
  6310. with a tags/todo match@footnote{@xref{Tag searches}.}
  6311. @samp{+PROJECT/-MAYBE-DONE}, and then check for TODO, NEXT, @@SHOP, and
  6312. IGNORE in the subtree to identify projects that are not stuck. The
  6313. correct customization for this is
  6314. @lisp
  6315. (setq org-stuck-projects
  6316. '("+PROJECT/-MAYBE-DONE" ("NEXT" "TODO") ("@@SHOP")
  6317. "\\<IGNORE\\>"))
  6318. @end lisp
  6319. Note that if a project is identified as non-stuck, the subtree of this entry
  6320. will still be searched for stuck projects.
  6321. @node Presentation and sorting, Agenda commands, Built-in agenda views, Agenda Views
  6322. @section Presentation and sorting
  6323. @cindex presentation, of agenda items
  6324. @vindex org-agenda-prefix-format
  6325. Before displaying items in an agenda view, Org-mode visually prepares
  6326. the items and sorts them. Each item occupies a single line. The line
  6327. starts with a @emph{prefix} that contains the @emph{category}
  6328. (@pxref{Categories}) of the item and other important information. You can
  6329. customize the prefix using the option @code{org-agenda-prefix-format}.
  6330. The prefix is followed by a cleaned-up version of the outline headline
  6331. associated with the item.
  6332. @menu
  6333. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  6334. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  6335. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  6336. @end menu
  6337. @node Categories, Time-of-day specifications, Presentation and sorting, Presentation and sorting
  6338. @subsection Categories
  6339. @cindex category
  6340. The category is a broad label assigned to each agenda item. By default,
  6341. the category is simply derived from the file name, but you can also
  6342. specify it with a special line in the buffer, like this@footnote{For
  6343. backward compatibility, the following also works: if there are several
  6344. such lines in a file, each specifies the category for the text below it.
  6345. The first category also applies to any text before the first CATEGORY
  6346. line. However, using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is
  6347. incompatible with the outline structure of the document. The correct
  6348. method for setting multiple categories in a buffer is using a
  6349. property.}:
  6350. @example
  6351. #+CATEGORY: Thesis
  6352. @end example
  6353. @noindent
  6354. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  6355. If you would like to have a special CATEGORY for a single entry or a
  6356. (sub)tree, give the entry a @code{:CATEGORY:} property with the
  6357. special category you want to apply as the value.
  6358. @noindent
  6359. The display in the agenda buffer looks best if the category is not
  6360. longer than 10 characters.
  6361. @node Time-of-day specifications, Sorting of agenda items, Categories, Presentation and sorting
  6362. @subsection Time-of-day specifications
  6363. @cindex time-of-day specification
  6364. Org-mode checks each agenda item for a time-of-day specification. The
  6365. time can be part of the timestamp that triggered inclusion into the
  6366. agenda, for example as in @w{@samp{<2005-05-10 Tue 19:00>}}. Time
  6367. ranges can be specified with two timestamps, like
  6368. @c
  6369. @w{@samp{<2005-05-10 Tue 20:30>--<2005-05-10 Tue 22:15>}}.
  6370. In the headline of the entry itself, a time(range) may also appear as
  6371. plain text (like @samp{12:45} or a @samp{8:30-1pm}). If the agenda
  6372. integrates the Emacs diary (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), time
  6373. specifications in diary entries are recognized as well.
  6374. For agenda display, Org-mode extracts the time and displays it in a
  6375. standard 24 hour format as part of the prefix. The example times in
  6376. the previous paragraphs would end up in the agenda like this:
  6377. @example
  6378. 8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer
  6379. 12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub
  6380. 19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem
  6381. 20:30-22:15 Marvin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge
  6382. @end example
  6383. @cindex time grid
  6384. If the agenda is in single-day mode, or for the display of today, the
  6385. timed entries are embedded in a time grid, like
  6386. @example
  6387. 8:00...... ------------------
  6388. 8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer
  6389. 10:00...... ------------------
  6390. 12:00...... ------------------
  6391. 12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub
  6392. 14:00...... ------------------
  6393. 16:00...... ------------------
  6394. 18:00...... ------------------
  6395. 19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem
  6396. 20:00...... ------------------
  6397. 20:30-22:15 Marvin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge
  6398. @end example
  6399. @vindex org-agenda-use-time-grid
  6400. @vindex org-agenda-time-grid
  6401. The time grid can be turned on and off with the variable
  6402. @code{org-agenda-use-time-grid}, and can be configured with
  6403. @code{org-agenda-time-grid}.
  6404. @node Sorting of agenda items, , Time-of-day specifications, Presentation and sorting
  6405. @subsection Sorting of agenda items
  6406. @cindex sorting, of agenda items
  6407. @cindex priorities, of agenda items
  6408. Before being inserted into a view, the items are sorted. How this is
  6409. done depends on the type of view.
  6410. @itemize @bullet
  6411. @item
  6412. @vindex org-agenda-files
  6413. For the daily/weekly agenda, the items for each day are sorted. The
  6414. default order is to first collect all items containing an explicit
  6415. time-of-day specification. These entries will be shown at the beginning
  6416. of the list, as a @emph{schedule} for the day. After that, items remain
  6417. grouped in categories, in the sequence given by @code{org-agenda-files}.
  6418. Within each category, items are sorted by priority (@pxref{Priorities}),
  6419. which is composed of the base priority (2000 for priority @samp{A}, 1000
  6420. for @samp{B}, and 0 for @samp{C}), plus additional increments for
  6421. overdue scheduled or deadline items.
  6422. @item
  6423. For the TODO list, items remain in the order of categories, but within
  6424. each category, sorting takes place according to priority
  6425. (@pxref{Priorities}). The priority used for sorting derives from the
  6426. priority cookie, with additions depending on how close an item is to its due
  6427. or scheduled date.
  6428. @item
  6429. For tags matches, items are not sorted at all, but just appear in the
  6430. sequence in which they are found in the agenda files.
  6431. @end itemize
  6432. @vindex org-agenda-sorting-strategy
  6433. Sorting can be customized using the variable
  6434. @code{org-agenda-sorting-strategy}, and may also include criteria based on
  6435. the estimated effort of an entry (@pxref{Effort estimates}).
  6436. @node Agenda commands, Custom agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda Views
  6437. @section Commands in the agenda buffer
  6438. @cindex commands, in agenda buffer
  6439. Entries in the agenda buffer are linked back to the Org file or diary
  6440. file where they originate. You are not allowed to edit the agenda
  6441. buffer itself, but commands are provided to show and jump to the
  6442. original entry location, and to edit the Org files ``remotely'' from
  6443. the agenda buffer. In this way, all information is stored only once,
  6444. removing the risk that your agenda and note files may diverge.
  6445. Some commands can be executed with mouse clicks on agenda lines. For
  6446. the other commands, the cursor needs to be in the desired line.
  6447. @table @kbd
  6448. @tsubheading{Motion}
  6449. @cindex motion commands in agenda
  6450. @kindex n
  6451. @item n
  6452. Next line (same as @key{up} and @kbd{C-p}).
  6453. @kindex p
  6454. @item p
  6455. Previous line (same as @key{down} and @kbd{C-n}).
  6456. @tsubheading{View/Go to Org file}
  6457. @kindex mouse-3
  6458. @kindex @key{SPC}
  6459. @item mouse-3
  6460. @itemx @key{SPC}
  6461. Display the original location of the item in another window.
  6462. With prefix arg, make sure that the entire entry is made visible in the
  6463. outline, not only the heading.
  6464. @c
  6465. @kindex L
  6466. @item L
  6467. Display original location and recenter that window.
  6468. @c
  6469. @kindex mouse-2
  6470. @kindex mouse-1
  6471. @kindex @key{TAB}
  6472. @item mouse-2
  6473. @itemx mouse-1
  6474. @itemx @key{TAB}
  6475. Go to the original location of the item in another window. Under Emacs
  6476. 22, @kbd{mouse-1} will also works for this.
  6477. @c
  6478. @kindex @key{RET}
  6479. @itemx @key{RET}
  6480. Go to the original location of the item and delete other windows.
  6481. @c
  6482. @kindex F
  6483. @item F
  6484. @vindex org-agenda-start-with-follow-mode
  6485. Toggle Follow mode. In Follow mode, as you move the cursor through
  6486. the agenda buffer, the other window always shows the corresponding
  6487. location in the Org file. The initial setting for this mode in new
  6488. agenda buffers can be set with the variable
  6489. @code{org-agenda-start-with-follow-mode}.
  6490. @c
  6491. @kindex C-c C-x b
  6492. @item C-c C-x b
  6493. Display the entire subtree of the current item in an indirect buffer. With a
  6494. numeric prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  6495. negative, go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove the
  6496. previously used indirect buffer.
  6497. @kindex C-c C-o
  6498. @item C-c C-o
  6499. Follow a link in the entry. This will offer a selection of any links in the
  6500. text belonging to the referenced Org node. If there is only one link, it
  6501. will be followed without a selection prompt.
  6502. @tsubheading{Change display}
  6503. @cindex display changing, in agenda
  6504. @kindex o
  6505. @item o
  6506. Delete other windows.
  6507. @c
  6508. @kindex v d
  6509. @kindex d
  6510. @kindex v w
  6511. @kindex w
  6512. @kindex v m
  6513. @kindex v y
  6514. @item v d @ @r{or short} @ d
  6515. @itemx v w @ @r{or short} @ w
  6516. @itemx v m
  6517. @itemx v y
  6518. Switch to day/week/month/year view. When switching to day or week view,
  6519. this setting becomes the default for subsequent agenda commands. Since
  6520. month and year views are slow to create, they do not become the default.
  6521. A numeric prefix argument may be used to jump directly to a specific day
  6522. of the year, ISO week, month, or year, respectively. For example,
  6523. @kbd{32 d} jumps to February 1st, @kbd{9 w} to ISO week number 9. When
  6524. setting day, week, or month view, a year may be encoded in the prefix
  6525. argument as well. For example, @kbd{200712 w} will jump to week 12 in
  6526. 2007. If such a year specification has only one or two digits, it will
  6527. be mapped to the interval 1938-2037.
  6528. @c
  6529. @kindex f
  6530. @item f
  6531. @vindex org-agenda-ndays
  6532. Go forward in time to display the following @code{org-agenda-ndays} days.
  6533. For example, if the display covers a week, switch to the following week.
  6534. With prefix arg, go forward that many times @code{org-agenda-ndays} days.
  6535. @c
  6536. @kindex b
  6537. @item b
  6538. Go backward in time to display earlier dates.
  6539. @c
  6540. @kindex .
  6541. @item .
  6542. Go to today.
  6543. @c
  6544. @kindex j
  6545. @item j
  6546. Prompt for a date and go there.
  6547. @c
  6548. @kindex J
  6549. @item J
  6550. Go to the currently clocked in task in the agenda buffer.
  6551. @c
  6552. @kindex D
  6553. @item D
  6554. Toggle the inclusion of diary entries. See @ref{Weekly/daily agenda}.
  6555. @c
  6556. @kindex v l
  6557. @kindex v L
  6558. @kindex l
  6559. @item v l @ @r{or short} @ l
  6560. @vindex org-log-done
  6561. @vindex org-agenda-log-mode-items
  6562. Toggle Logbook mode. In Logbook mode, entries that were marked DONE while
  6563. logging was on (variable @code{org-log-done}) are shown in the agenda, as are
  6564. entries that have been clocked on that day. You can configure the entry
  6565. types that should be included in log mode using the variable
  6566. @code{org-agenda-log-mode-items}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, show
  6567. all possible logbook entries, including state changes. When called with two
  6568. prefix args @kbd{C-u C-u}, show only logging information, nothing else.
  6569. @kbd{v L} is equivalent to @kbd{C-u v l}.
  6570. @c
  6571. @kindex v [
  6572. @kindex [
  6573. @item v [ @ @r{or short} @ [
  6574. Include inactive timestamps into the current view. Only for weekly/daily
  6575. agenda and timeline views.
  6576. @c
  6577. @kindex v a
  6578. @kindex v A
  6579. @item v a
  6580. @itemx v A
  6581. Toggle Archives mode. In Archives mode, trees that are marked
  6582. @code{ARCHIVED} are also scanned when producing the agenda. When you use the
  6583. capital @kbd{A}, even all archive files are included. To exit archives mode,
  6584. press @kbd{v a} again.
  6585. @c
  6586. @kindex v R
  6587. @kindex R
  6588. @item v R @ @r{or short} @ R
  6589. @vindex org-agenda-start-with-clockreport-mode
  6590. Toggle Clockreport mode. In Clockreport mode, the daily/weekly agenda will
  6591. always show a table with the clocked times for the timespan and file scope
  6592. covered by the current agenda view. The initial setting for this mode in new
  6593. agenda buffers can be set with the variable
  6594. @code{org-agenda-start-with-clockreport-mode}.
  6595. @c
  6596. @kindex v E
  6597. @kindex E
  6598. @item v E @ @r{or short} @ E
  6599. @vindex org-agenda-start-with-entry-text-mode
  6600. @vindex org-agenda-entry-text-maxlines
  6601. Toggle entry text mode. In entry text mode, a number of lines from the Org
  6602. outline node referenced by an agenda line will be displayed below the line.
  6603. The maximum number of lines is given by the variable
  6604. @code{org-agenda-entry-text-maxlines}. Calling this command with a numeric
  6605. prefix argument will temporarily modify that number to the prefix value.
  6606. @c
  6607. @kindex G
  6608. @item G
  6609. @vindex org-agenda-use-time-grid
  6610. @vindex org-agenda-time-grid
  6611. Toggle the time grid on and off. See also the variables
  6612. @code{org-agenda-use-time-grid} and @code{org-agenda-time-grid}.
  6613. @c
  6614. @kindex r
  6615. @item r
  6616. Recreate the agenda buffer, for example to reflect the changes after
  6617. modification of the timestamps of items with @kbd{S-@key{left}} and
  6618. @kbd{S-@key{right}}. When the buffer is the global TODO list, a prefix
  6619. argument is interpreted to create a selective list for a specific TODO
  6620. keyword.
  6621. @kindex g
  6622. @item g
  6623. Same as @kbd{r}.
  6624. @c
  6625. @kindex s
  6626. @kindex C-x C-s
  6627. @item s
  6628. @itemx C-x C-s
  6629. Save all Org buffers in the current Emacs session, and also the locations of
  6630. IDs.
  6631. @c
  6632. @kindex C-c C-x C-c
  6633. @item C-c C-x C-c
  6634. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  6635. Invoke column view (@pxref{Column view}) in the agenda buffer. The column
  6636. view format is taken from the entry at point, or (if there is no entry at
  6637. point), from the first entry in the agenda view. So whatever the format for
  6638. that entry would be in the original buffer (taken from a property, from a
  6639. @code{#+COLUMNS} line, or from the default variable
  6640. @code{org-columns-default-format}), will be used in the agenda.
  6641. @kindex C-c C-x >
  6642. @item C-c C-x >
  6643. Remove the restriction lock on the agenda, if it is currently restricted to a
  6644. file or subtree (@pxref{Agenda files}).
  6645. @tsubheading{Secondary filtering and query editing}
  6646. @cindex filtering, by tag and effort, in agenda
  6647. @cindex tag filtering, in agenda
  6648. @cindex effort filtering, in agenda
  6649. @cindex query editing, in agenda
  6650. @kindex /
  6651. @item /
  6652. @vindex org-agenda-filter-preset
  6653. Filter the current agenda view with respect to a tag and/or effort estimates.
  6654. The difference between this and a custom agenda command is that filtering is
  6655. very fast, so that you can switch quickly between different filters without
  6656. having to recreate the agenda@footnote{Custom commands can preset a filter by
  6657. binding the variable @code{org-agenda-filter-preset} as an option. This
  6658. filter will then be applied to the view and persist as a basic filter through
  6659. refreshes and more secondary filtering. The filter is a global property of
  6660. the entire agenda view - in a block agenda, you should only set this in the
  6661. global options section, not in the section of an individual block.}
  6662. You will be prompted for a tag selection letter, SPC will mean any tag at
  6663. all. Pressing @key{TAB} at that prompt will offer use completion to select a
  6664. tag (including any tags that do not have a selection character). The command
  6665. then hides all entries that do not contain or inherit this tag. When called
  6666. with prefix arg, remove the entries that @emph{do} have the tag. A second
  6667. @kbd{/} at the prompt will turn off the filter and unhide any hidden entries.
  6668. If the first key you press is either @kbd{+} or @kbd{-}, the previous filter
  6669. will be narrowed by requiring or forbidding the selected additional tag.
  6670. Instead of pressing @kbd{+} or @kbd{-} after @kbd{/}, you can also
  6671. immediately use the @kbd{\} command.
  6672. @vindex org-sort-agenda-noeffort-is-high
  6673. In order to filter for effort estimates, you should set-up allowed
  6674. efforts globally, for example
  6675. @lisp
  6676. (setq org-global-properties
  6677. '(("Effort_ALL". "0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00")))
  6678. @end lisp
  6679. You can then filter for an effort by first typing an operator, one of
  6680. @kbd{<}, @kbd{>}, and @kbd{=}, and then the one-digit index of an effort
  6681. estimate in your array of allowed values, where @kbd{0} means the 10th value.
  6682. The filter will then restrict to entries with effort smaller-or-equal, equal,
  6683. or larger-or-equal than the selected value. If the digits 0-9 are not used
  6684. as fast access keys to tags, you can also simply press the index digit
  6685. directly without an operator. In this case, @kbd{<} will be assumed. For
  6686. application of the operator, entries without a defined effort will be treated
  6687. according to the value of @code{org-sort-agenda-noeffort-is-high}. To filter
  6688. for tasks without effort definition, press @kbd{?} as the operator.
  6689. Org also supports automatic, context-aware tag filtering. If the variable
  6690. @code{org-agenda-auto-exclude-function} is set to a user-defined function,
  6691. that function can decide which tags should be excluded from the agenda
  6692. automatically. Once this is set, the @kbd{/} command then accepts @kbd{RET}
  6693. as a sub-option key and runs the auto exclusion logic. For example, let's
  6694. say you use a @code{Net} tag to identify tasks which need network access, an
  6695. @code{Errand} tag for errands in town, and a @code{Call} tag for making phone
  6696. calls. You could auto-exclude these tags based on the availability of the
  6697. Internet, and outside of business hours, with something like this:
  6698. @lisp
  6699. @group
  6700. (defun org-my-auto-exclude-function (tag)
  6701. (and (cond
  6702. ((string= tag "Net")
  6703. (/= 0 (call-process "/sbin/ping" nil nil nil
  6704. "-c1" "-q" "-t1" "mail.gnu.org")))
  6705. ((or (string= tag "Errand") (string= tag "Call"))
  6706. (let ((hour (nth 2 (decode-time))))
  6707. (or (< hour 8) (> hour 21)))))
  6708. (concat "-" tag)))
  6709. (setq org-agenda-auto-exclude-function 'org-my-auto-exclude-function)
  6710. @end group
  6711. @end lisp
  6712. @kindex \
  6713. @item \
  6714. Narrow the current agenda filter by an additional condition. When called with
  6715. prefix arg, remove the entries that @emph{do} have the tag, or that do match
  6716. the effort criterion. You can achieve the same effect by pressing @kbd{+} or
  6717. @kbd{-} as the first key after the @kbd{/} command.
  6718. @kindex [
  6719. @kindex ]
  6720. @kindex @{
  6721. @kindex @}
  6722. @item [ ] @{ @}
  6723. @table @i
  6724. @item @r{in} search view
  6725. add new search words (@kbd{[} and @kbd{]}) or new regular expressions
  6726. (@kbd{@{} and @kbd{@}}) to the query string. The opening bracket/brace will
  6727. add a positive search term prefixed by @samp{+}, indicating that this search
  6728. term @i{must} occur/match in the entry. The closing bracket/brace will add a
  6729. negative search term which @i{must not} occur/match in the entry for it to be
  6730. selected.
  6731. @end table
  6732. @page
  6733. @tsubheading{Remote editing}
  6734. @cindex remote editing, from agenda
  6735. @item 0-9
  6736. Digit argument.
  6737. @c
  6738. @cindex undoing remote-editing events
  6739. @cindex remote editing, undo
  6740. @kindex C-_
  6741. @item C-_
  6742. Undo a change due to a remote editing command. The change is undone
  6743. both in the agenda buffer and in the remote buffer.
  6744. @c
  6745. @kindex t
  6746. @item t
  6747. Change the TODO state of the item, both in the agenda and in the
  6748. original org file.
  6749. @c
  6750. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  6751. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  6752. @item C-S-@key{right}@r{/}@key{left}
  6753. Switch to the next/previous set of TODO keywords.
  6754. @c
  6755. @kindex C-k
  6756. @item C-k
  6757. @vindex org-agenda-confirm-kill
  6758. Delete the current agenda item along with the entire subtree belonging
  6759. to it in the original Org file. If the text to be deleted remotely
  6760. is longer than one line, the kill needs to be