org.texi 690 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include org-version.inc
  6. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  7. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  8. @set txicodequoteundirected
  9. @set txicodequotebacktick
  10. @c Version and Contact Info
  11. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  12. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  13. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  15. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  16. @c %**end of header
  17. @finalout
  18. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  19. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  20. @c =======================================
  21. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  22. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  23. @set cmdnames
  24. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  25. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  26. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  27. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  28. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  29. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  30. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  31. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  32. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  33. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  34. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  35. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  36. @c a key but no command
  37. @c Inserts: @item key
  38. @macro orgkey{key}
  39. @kindex \key\
  40. @item @kbd{\key\}
  41. @end macro
  42. @macro xorgkey{key}
  43. @kindex \key\
  44. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  45. @end macro
  46. @c one key with a command
  47. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  48. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  49. @ifset cmdnames
  50. @kindex \key\
  51. @findex \command\
  52. @iftex
  53. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  54. @end iftex
  55. @ifnottex
  56. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  57. @end ifnottex
  58. @end ifset
  59. @ifclear cmdnames
  60. @kindex \key\
  61. @item @kbd{\key\}
  62. @end ifclear
  63. @end macro
  64. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  65. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  66. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  67. @ifset cmdnames
  68. @kindex \key\
  69. @findex \command\
  70. @iftex
  71. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  72. @end iftex
  73. @ifnottex
  74. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  75. @end ifnottex
  76. @end ifset
  77. @ifclear cmdnames
  78. @kindex \key\
  79. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  80. @end ifclear
  81. @end macro
  82. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  83. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  84. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  85. @ifset cmdnames
  86. @findex \command\
  87. @iftex
  88. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  89. @end iftex
  90. @ifnottex
  91. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  92. @end ifnottex
  93. @end ifset
  94. @ifclear cmdnames
  95. @item @kbd{\key\}
  96. @end ifclear
  97. @end macro
  98. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  99. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  100. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  101. @ifset cmdnames
  102. @kindex \key\
  103. @findex \command\
  104. @iftex
  105. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  106. @end iftex
  107. @ifnottex
  108. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  109. @end ifnottex
  110. @end ifset
  111. @ifclear cmdnames
  112. @kindex \key\
  113. @item @kbd{\text\}
  114. @end ifclear
  115. @end macro
  116. @c two keys with one command
  117. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  118. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  119. @ifset cmdnames
  120. @kindex \key1\
  121. @kindex \key2\
  122. @findex \command\
  123. @iftex
  124. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  125. @end iftex
  126. @ifnottex
  127. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  128. @end ifnottex
  129. @end ifset
  130. @ifclear cmdnames
  131. @kindex \key1\
  132. @kindex \key2\
  133. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  134. @end ifclear
  135. @end macro
  136. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  137. @c @itemx
  138. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  139. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  140. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  141. @ifset cmdnames
  142. @kindex \key1\
  143. @kindex \key2\
  144. @findex \command\
  145. @iftex
  146. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  147. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  148. @end iftex
  149. @ifnottex
  150. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  151. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  152. @end ifnottex
  153. @end ifset
  154. @ifclear cmdnames
  155. @kindex \key1\
  156. @kindex \key2\
  157. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  158. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  159. @end ifclear
  160. @end macro
  161. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  162. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  163. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  164. @ifset cmdnames
  165. @kindex \key1\
  166. @kindex \key2\
  167. @findex \command\
  168. @iftex
  169. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  170. @end iftex
  171. @ifnottex
  172. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  173. @end ifnottex
  174. @end ifset
  175. @ifclear cmdnames
  176. @kindex \key1\
  177. @kindex \key2\
  178. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  179. @end ifclear
  180. @end macro
  181. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  182. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  183. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  184. @ifset cmdnames
  185. @kindex \key1\
  186. @kindex \key2\
  187. @findex \command\
  188. @iftex
  189. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  190. @end iftex
  191. @ifnottex
  192. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  193. @end ifnottex
  194. @end ifset
  195. @ifclear cmdnames
  196. @kindex \key1\
  197. @kindex \key2\
  198. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  199. @end ifclear
  200. @end macro
  201. @c two keys with two commands
  202. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  203. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  204. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  205. @ifset cmdnames
  206. @kindex \key1\
  207. @kindex \key2\
  208. @findex \command1\
  209. @findex \command2\
  210. @iftex
  211. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  212. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  213. @end iftex
  214. @ifnottex
  215. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  216. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  217. @end ifnottex
  218. @end ifset
  219. @ifclear cmdnames
  220. @kindex \key1\
  221. @kindex \key2\
  222. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  223. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  224. @end ifclear
  225. @end macro
  226. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  227. @iftex
  228. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  229. @end iftex
  230. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  231. @macro tsubheading{text}
  232. @ifinfo
  233. @subsubheading \text\
  234. @end ifinfo
  235. @ifnotinfo
  236. @item @b{\text\}
  237. @end ifnotinfo
  238. @end macro
  239. @copying
  240. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  241. Copyright @copyright{} 2004-2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  242. @quotation
  243. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  244. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  245. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  246. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  247. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  248. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  249. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  250. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  251. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  252. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  253. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  254. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  255. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  256. @end quotation
  257. @end copying
  258. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  259. @direntry
  260. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  261. @end direntry
  262. @titlepage
  263. @title The Org Manual
  264. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  265. @author by Carsten Dominik
  266. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, Thomas Dye and Jambunathan K.
  267. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  268. @page
  269. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  270. @insertcopying
  271. @end titlepage
  272. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  273. @contents
  274. @ifnottex
  275. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  276. @top Org Mode Manual
  277. @insertcopying
  278. @end ifnottex
  279. @menu
  280. * Introduction:: Getting started
  281. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  282. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  283. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  284. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  285. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  286. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  287. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  288. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  289. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  290. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  291. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  292. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  293. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  294. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  295. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  296. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  297. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  298. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  299. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  300. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  301. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  302. @detailmenu
  303. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  304. Introduction
  305. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  306. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  307. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  308. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  309. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  310. Document structure
  311. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  312. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  313. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  314. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  315. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  316. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  317. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  318. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  319. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  320. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  321. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  322. Tables
  323. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  324. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  325. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  326. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  327. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  328. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  329. The spreadsheet
  330. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  331. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  332. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  333. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  334. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  335. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  336. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  337. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  338. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  339. Hyperlinks
  340. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  341. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  342. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  343. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  344. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  345. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  346. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  347. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  348. Internal links
  349. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  350. TODO items
  351. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  352. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  353. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  354. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  355. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  356. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  357. Extended use of TODO keywords
  358. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  359. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  360. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  361. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  362. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  363. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  364. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  365. Progress logging
  366. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  367. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  368. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  369. Tags
  370. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  371. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  372. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  373. Properties and columns
  374. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  375. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  376. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  377. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  378. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  379. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  380. Column view
  381. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  382. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  383. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  384. Defining columns
  385. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  386. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  387. Dates and times
  388. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  389. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  390. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  391. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  392. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  393. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  394. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  395. Creating timestamps
  396. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  397. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  398. Deadlines and scheduling
  399. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  400. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  401. Clocking work time
  402. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  403. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  404. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  405. Capture - Refile - Archive
  406. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  407. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  408. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  409. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  410. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  411. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  412. Capture
  413. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  414. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  415. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  416. Capture templates
  417. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  418. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  419. Archiving
  420. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  421. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  422. Agenda views
  423. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  424. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  425. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  426. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  427. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  428. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  429. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  430. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  431. The built-in agenda views
  432. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  433. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  434. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  435. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  436. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  437. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  438. Presentation and sorting
  439. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  440. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  441. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  442. Custom agenda views
  443. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  444. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  445. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  446. Markup for rich export
  447. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  448. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  449. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  450. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  451. * Index entries:: Making an index
  452. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  453. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  454. Structural markup elements
  455. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  456. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  457. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  458. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  459. * Lists:: Lists
  460. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  461. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  462. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  463. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  464. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  465. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  466. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  467. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  468. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  469. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  470. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  471. Exporting
  472. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  473. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  474. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  475. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  476. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  477. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  478. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  479. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  480. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  481. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  482. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  483. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  484. HTML export
  485. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  486. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  487. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org mode
  488. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  489. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  490. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  491. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  492. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  493. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  494. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  495. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  496. * @LaTeX{}/PDF export commands::
  497. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  498. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  499. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  500. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  501. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  502. DocBook export
  503. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  504. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  505. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  506. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  507. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  508. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  509. OpenDocument Text export
  510. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: What packages ODT exporter relies on
  511. * ODT export commands:: How to invoke ODT export
  512. * Extending ODT export:: How to produce @samp{doc}, @samp{pdf} files
  513. * Applying custom styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  514. * Links in ODT export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  515. * Tables in ODT export:: How Tables are exported
  516. * Images in ODT export:: How to insert images
  517. * Math formatting in ODT export:: How @LaTeX{} fragments are formatted
  518. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: How captions are rendered
  519. * Literal examples in ODT export:: How source and example blocks are formatted
  520. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: Read this if you are a power user
  521. Math formatting in ODT export
  522. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: How to embed @LaTeX{} math fragments
  523. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: How to embed equations in native format
  524. Advanced topics in ODT export
  525. * Configuring a document converter:: How to register a document converter
  526. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Explore the internals
  527. * Creating one-off styles:: How to produce custom highlighting etc
  528. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: How to define and use Table templates
  529. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: How to debug corrupt OpenDocument files
  530. Publishing
  531. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  532. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  533. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  534. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  535. Configuration
  536. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  537. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  538. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  539. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  540. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  541. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  542. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  543. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  544. Sample configuration
  545. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  546. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  547. Working with source code
  548. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  549. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  550. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  551. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  552. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  553. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  554. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  555. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  556. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  557. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  558. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  559. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  560. Header arguments
  561. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  562. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  563. Using header arguments
  564. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  565. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  566. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  567. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  568. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  569. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  570. Specific header arguments
  571. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  572. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  573. be collected and handled
  574. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  575. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  576. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  577. directory for code block execution
  578. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  579. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  580. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  581. files during tangling
  582. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  583. code files
  584. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  585. code files
  586. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  587. expansion during tangling
  588. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  589. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  590. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  591. * noweb-sep:: String used to separate noweb references
  592. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  593. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  594. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  595. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  596. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  597. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  598. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  599. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  600. Miscellaneous
  601. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  602. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  603. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  604. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  605. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  606. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  607. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  608. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  609. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  610. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  611. * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files
  612. Interaction with other packages
  613. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  614. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  615. Hacking
  616. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  617. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  618. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  619. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  620. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  621. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  622. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  623. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  624. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  625. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  626. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  627. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  628. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  629. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  630. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  631. MobileOrg
  632. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  633. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  634. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  635. @end detailmenu
  636. @end menu
  637. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  638. @chapter Introduction
  639. @cindex introduction
  640. @menu
  641. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  642. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  643. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  644. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  645. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  646. @end menu
  647. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  648. @section Summary
  649. @cindex summary
  650. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  651. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  652. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  653. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  654. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  655. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  656. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  657. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  658. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  659. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  660. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  661. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  662. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  663. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  664. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  665. linked web pages.
  666. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  667. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  668. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  669. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  670. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  671. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  672. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  673. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  674. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  675. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  676. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  677. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  678. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  679. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  680. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  681. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  682. ends, for example:
  683. @example
  684. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  685. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  686. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  687. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  688. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  689. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  690. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  691. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  692. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  693. @end example
  694. @cindex FAQ
  695. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  696. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  697. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  698. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  699. @cindex print edition
  700. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  701. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  702. Theory Ltd.}
  703. @page
  704. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  705. @section Installation
  706. @cindex installation
  707. @cindex XEmacs
  708. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  709. distribution, GNU ELPA or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go
  710. directly to @ref{Activation}. To see what version of Org (if any) is part of
  711. your Emacs distribution, type @kbd{M-x org-version} (if your Emacs
  712. distribution does not come with Org, this function will not be defined).}
  713. If you have downloaded Org from the Web as a distribution @file{.zip} or
  714. @file{.tar} archive, you must take the following steps to install it:
  715. @itemize @bullet
  716. @item Unpack the distribution archive.
  717. @item Change into (@code{cd}) the Org directory.
  718. @item Run @code{make help}
  719. and then check and edit the file @file{local.mk}. You must set the name of
  720. the Emacs binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths
  721. to the directories where local Lisp and Info files will be installed.
  722. @item Run @code{make config}
  723. to check the configuration.
  724. @item Run @code{make install} or @code{sudo make install}
  725. to build and install Org mode on your system. If you use a local Git
  726. repository, preferrably us @code{make update2} or, if you want to run the
  727. complete test suite before installation, @code{make up2}.
  728. @end itemize
  729. If you use a cloned Git repository, then the procedure is slightly different:
  730. @itemize @bullet
  731. @item Change into (@code{cd}) the Org repository.
  732. @item Run @code{git checkout master}
  733. to switch to the @code{master} branch of the Org repository.
  734. @item Run @code{make help}
  735. and then check and edit the file @file{local.mk}. You must set the name of
  736. the Emacs binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths
  737. to the directories where local Lisp and Info files will be installed.
  738. @item Run @code{make config}
  739. to check the configuration.
  740. @item Run @code{make update2} or @code{make up2}
  741. to update the Git repository and build and install Org mode. The latter
  742. invocation runs the complete test suite before installation and installs only
  743. if the build passes all tests.
  744. @end itemize
  745. If you don't have access to the system-wide directories and you don't want to
  746. install somewhere into your home directory, you can run Org directly from the
  747. distribution directory or Org repository by compiling Org mode in place:
  748. @itemize @bullet
  749. @item Change into (@code{cd}) the Org repository.
  750. @item Run @code{git checkout master}
  751. to switch to the @code{master} branch of the Org repository.
  752. @item Run @code{make compile}
  753. @end itemize
  754. Last but not least you can also run Org mode directly from an Org repository
  755. without any compilation. Simply replace the last step in the recipe above
  756. with @code{make uncompiled}.
  757. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  758. @example
  759. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  760. @end example
  761. @noindent
  762. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  763. step for this directory:
  764. @example
  765. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp")
  766. @end example
  767. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  768. @file{install-info} program. The Info documentation is installed together
  769. with the rest of Org mode. If you don't install Org mode, it is possible to
  770. install the Info documentation seperately (you need to have
  771. install-info@footnote{The output from install-info (if any) is system
  772. dependent. In particular Debian and its derivatives use two different
  773. versions of install-info and you may see the message:
  774. @example
  775. This is not dpkg install-info anymore, but GNU install-info
  776. See the man page for ginstall-info for command line arguments
  777. @end example
  778. @noindent which can be safely ignored.}
  779. on your system).
  780. @example
  781. make install-info
  782. @end example
  783. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  784. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  785. when Org mode starts.
  786. @lisp
  787. (require 'org-install)
  788. @end lisp
  789. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  790. @page
  791. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  792. @section Activation
  793. @cindex activation
  794. @cindex autoload
  795. @cindex global key bindings
  796. @cindex key bindings, global
  797. @findex org-agenda
  798. @findex org-capture
  799. @findex org-store-link
  800. @findex org-iswitchb
  801. To make sure files with extension @file{.org} use Org mode, add the following
  802. line to your @file{.emacs} file.
  803. @lisp
  804. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  805. @end lisp
  806. @noindent Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on - this is the
  807. default in Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in
  808. Org buffer with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  809. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  810. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  811. global keys (i.e.@: anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  812. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  813. liking.
  814. @lisp
  815. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  816. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  817. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  818. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  819. @end lisp
  820. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  821. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  822. into Org mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  823. like this:
  824. @example
  825. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  826. @end example
  827. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  828. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  829. the file's name is. See also the variable
  830. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  831. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  832. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  833. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  834. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  835. @lisp
  836. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  837. @end lisp
  838. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  839. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  840. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  841. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  842. @section Feedback
  843. @cindex feedback
  844. @cindex bug reports
  845. @cindex maintainer
  846. @cindex author
  847. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  848. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  849. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  850. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  851. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  852. moderators have to do.}.
  853. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  854. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  855. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  856. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  857. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  858. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  859. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  860. @example
  861. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  862. @end example
  863. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  864. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  865. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  866. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  867. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  868. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  869. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  870. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  871. @example
  872. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  873. @end example
  874. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  875. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as @code{emacs
  876. -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as shown below.
  877. @example
  878. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'
  879. ;; activate debugging
  880. (setq debug-on-error t
  881. debug-on-signal nil
  882. debug-on-quit nil)
  883. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  884. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  885. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp"))
  886. ;; activate org
  887. (require 'org-install)
  888. @end example
  889. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  890. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  891. about:
  892. @enumerate
  893. @item What exactly did you do?
  894. @item What did you expect to happen?
  895. @item What happened instead?
  896. @end enumerate
  897. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  898. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  899. @cindex backtrace of an error
  900. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  901. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  902. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  903. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  904. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  905. @enumerate
  906. @item
  907. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  908. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  909. To do this, use
  910. @example
  911. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  912. @end example
  913. @noindent
  914. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  915. menu.
  916. @item
  917. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  918. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  919. @item
  920. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  921. document the steps you take.
  922. @item
  923. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  924. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  925. attach it to your bug report.
  926. @end enumerate
  927. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  928. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  929. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  930. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  931. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  932. @table @code
  933. @item TODO
  934. @itemx WAITING
  935. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  936. user-defined.
  937. @item boss
  938. @itemx ARCHIVE
  939. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  940. meaning are written with all capitals.
  941. @item Release
  942. @itemx PRIORITY
  943. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  944. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  945. @end table
  946. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  947. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_HTML} to start a @code{HTML}
  948. environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to enhance its
  949. readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org files@footnote{Easy
  950. templates insert lowercase keywords and Babel dynamically inserts
  951. @code{#+results}.}
  952. @subsubheading Keybindings and commands
  953. @kindex C-c a
  954. @findex org-agenda
  955. @kindex C-c c
  956. @findex org-capture
  957. The manual suggests two global keybindings: @kbd{C-c a} for @code{org-agenda}
  958. and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only suggestions, but the
  959. rest of the manual assumes that you are using these keybindings.
  960. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  961. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  962. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  963. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  964. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  965. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will
  966. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  967. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  968. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  969. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  970. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  971. @chapter Document structure
  972. @cindex document structure
  973. @cindex structure of document
  974. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  975. edit the structure of the document.
  976. @menu
  977. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  978. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  979. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  980. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  981. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  982. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  983. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  984. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  985. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  986. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  987. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  988. @end menu
  989. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  990. @section Outlines
  991. @cindex outlines
  992. @cindex Outline mode
  993. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  994. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  995. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  996. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  997. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  998. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  999. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  1000. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  1001. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  1002. @section Headlines
  1003. @cindex headlines
  1004. @cindex outline tree
  1005. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  1006. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  1007. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  1008. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  1009. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  1010. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  1011. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  1012. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  1013. headings indented less then 30 stars.}. For example:
  1014. @example
  1015. * Top level headline
  1016. ** Second level
  1017. *** 3rd level
  1018. some text
  1019. *** 3rd level
  1020. more text
  1021. * Another top level headline
  1022. @end example
  1023. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  1024. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  1025. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  1026. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  1027. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  1028. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  1029. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  1030. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  1031. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  1032. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  1033. @section Visibility cycling
  1034. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1035. @cindex visibility cycling
  1036. @cindex trees, visibility
  1037. @cindex show hidden text
  1038. @cindex hide text
  1039. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1040. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1041. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1042. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1043. @cindex subtree cycling
  1044. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1045. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1046. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1047. @table @asis
  1048. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1049. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1050. @example
  1051. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1052. '-----------------------------------'
  1053. @end example
  1054. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1055. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1056. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1057. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1058. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1059. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1060. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1061. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1062. @cindex global visibility states
  1063. @cindex global cycling
  1064. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1065. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1066. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1067. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1068. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1069. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1070. @example
  1071. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1072. '--------------------------------------'
  1073. @end example
  1074. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1075. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1076. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1077. @cindex show all, command
  1078. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  1079. Show all, including drawers.
  1080. @cindex revealing context
  1081. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1082. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1083. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1084. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1085. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1086. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1087. entire subtree of the parent.
  1088. @cindex show branches, command
  1089. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1090. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1091. @cindex show children, command
  1092. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},show-children}
  1093. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1094. expose all children down to level N.
  1095. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1096. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1097. buffer
  1098. @ifinfo
  1099. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1100. @end ifinfo
  1101. @ifnotinfo
  1102. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1103. @end ifnotinfo
  1104. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1105. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1106. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1107. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1108. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1109. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1110. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1111. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1112. @end table
  1113. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1114. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1115. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1116. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1117. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1118. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1119. OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1120. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1121. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1122. buffer:
  1123. @example
  1124. #+STARTUP: overview
  1125. #+STARTUP: content
  1126. #+STARTUP: showall
  1127. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1128. @end example
  1129. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1130. @noindent
  1131. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1132. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1133. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1134. @code{all}.
  1135. @table @asis
  1136. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1137. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.@: whatever is
  1138. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1139. entries.
  1140. @end table
  1141. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1142. @section Motion
  1143. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1144. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1145. @cindex headline navigation
  1146. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1147. @table @asis
  1148. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1149. Next heading.
  1150. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1151. Previous heading.
  1152. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1153. Next heading same level.
  1154. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1155. Previous heading same level.
  1156. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1157. Backward to higher level heading.
  1158. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1159. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1160. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1161. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1162. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1163. @example
  1164. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1165. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1166. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1167. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1168. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1169. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1170. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1171. u @r{One level up.}
  1172. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1173. q @r{Quit}
  1174. @end example
  1175. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1176. @noindent
  1177. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1178. @end table
  1179. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1180. @section Structure editing
  1181. @cindex structure editing
  1182. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1183. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1184. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1185. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1186. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1187. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1188. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1189. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1190. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1191. @table @asis
  1192. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1193. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1194. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1195. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1196. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1197. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1198. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1199. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1200. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1201. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1202. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.@:
  1203. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1204. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1205. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1206. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1207. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1208. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1209. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1210. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1211. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1212. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1213. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1214. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1215. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1216. subtree.
  1217. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1218. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1219. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1220. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1221. to the initial level.
  1222. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1223. Promote current heading by one level.
  1224. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1225. Demote current heading by one level.
  1226. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1227. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1228. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1229. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1230. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1231. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1232. level).
  1233. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1234. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1235. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1236. Kill subtree, i.e.@: remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1237. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1238. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1239. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1240. sequential subtrees.
  1241. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1242. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1243. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1244. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1245. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1246. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1247. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1248. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1249. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1250. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1251. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1252. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1253. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1254. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1255. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1256. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1257. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1258. folding.
  1259. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1260. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1261. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1262. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1263. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1264. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1265. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1266. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1267. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  1268. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1269. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1270. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1271. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1272. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1273. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1274. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1275. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1276. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1277. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1278. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1279. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1280. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1281. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1282. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1283. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1284. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1285. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1286. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1287. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1288. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1289. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1290. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1291. @end table
  1292. @cindex region, active
  1293. @cindex active region
  1294. @cindex transient mark mode
  1295. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1296. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1297. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1298. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1299. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1300. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1301. functionality.
  1302. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1303. @section Sparse trees
  1304. @cindex sparse trees
  1305. @cindex trees, sparse
  1306. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1307. @cindex occur, command
  1308. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1309. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1310. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1311. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1312. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1313. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1314. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1315. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1316. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1317. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1318. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1319. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1320. Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1321. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1322. @table @asis
  1323. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1324. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1325. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1326. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1327. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1328. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1329. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1330. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1331. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1332. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1333. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1334. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1335. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1336. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1337. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1338. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1339. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1340. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1341. @end table
  1342. @noindent
  1343. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1344. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1345. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1346. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1347. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1348. For example:
  1349. @lisp
  1350. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1351. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1352. @end lisp
  1353. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1354. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1355. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1356. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1357. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1358. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1359. @cindex visible text, printing
  1360. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1361. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1362. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1363. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1364. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1365. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1366. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1367. @section Plain lists
  1368. @cindex plain lists
  1369. @cindex lists, plain
  1370. @cindex lists, ordered
  1371. @cindex ordered lists
  1372. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1373. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1374. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1375. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1376. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1377. @itemize @bullet
  1378. @item
  1379. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1380. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1381. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1382. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1383. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1384. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1385. bullets.
  1386. @item
  1387. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1388. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1389. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1390. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1391. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1392. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1393. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1394. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1395. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1396. list to start with a different value (e.g.@: 20), start the text of the item
  1397. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1398. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1399. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1400. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1401. @item
  1402. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1403. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1404. description.
  1405. @end itemize
  1406. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1407. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1408. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1409. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1410. than its bullet/number.
  1411. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1412. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1413. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1414. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1415. that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1416. @example
  1417. @group
  1418. ** Lord of the Rings
  1419. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1420. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1421. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1422. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1423. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1424. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1425. - on DVD only
  1426. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1427. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1428. Important actors in this film are:
  1429. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1430. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1431. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1432. @end group
  1433. @end example
  1434. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1435. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1436. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1437. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1438. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1439. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1440. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1441. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1442. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1443. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1444. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1445. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1446. indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1447. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1448. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1449. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1450. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1451. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1452. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1453. to disable them individually.
  1454. @table @asis
  1455. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1456. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1457. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1458. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1459. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1460. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1461. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1462. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1463. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1464. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1465. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1466. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1467. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1468. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1469. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1470. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1471. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1472. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1473. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1474. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1475. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1476. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1477. one.
  1478. @end table
  1479. @table @kbd
  1480. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1481. @item M-S-RET
  1482. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1483. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1484. @item S-up
  1485. @itemx S-down
  1486. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1487. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1488. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1489. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1490. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1491. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1492. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1493. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1494. similar effect.
  1495. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1496. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1497. @item M-up
  1498. @itemx M-down
  1499. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1500. @code{org-liste-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1501. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1502. is automatic.
  1503. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1504. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1505. @item M-left
  1506. @itemx M-right
  1507. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1508. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1509. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1510. @item M-S-left
  1511. @itemx M-S-right
  1512. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1513. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1514. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1515. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1516. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1517. motion or so.
  1518. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1519. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1520. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1521. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1522. @kindex C-c C-c
  1523. @item C-c C-c
  1524. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1525. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1526. consistency in the whole list.
  1527. @kindex C-c -
  1528. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1529. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1530. @item C-c -
  1531. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1532. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1533. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1534. and its position@footnote{See @code{bullet} rule in
  1535. @code{org-list-automatic-rules} for more information.}. With a numeric
  1536. prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an
  1537. active region when calling this, selected text will be changed into an item.
  1538. With a prefix argument, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1539. first line already was a list item, any item marker will be removed from the
  1540. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1541. converted into a list item.
  1542. @kindex C-c *
  1543. @item C-c *
  1544. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1545. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1546. @kindex C-c C-*
  1547. @item C-c C-*
  1548. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1549. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1550. (resp. checked).
  1551. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1552. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1553. @item S-left/right
  1554. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1555. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1556. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1557. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1558. @kindex C-c ^
  1559. @item C-c ^
  1560. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1561. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1562. @end table
  1563. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1564. @section Drawers
  1565. @cindex drawers
  1566. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1567. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1568. @vindex org-drawers
  1569. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  1570. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1571. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1572. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1573. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1574. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define additional drawers on a
  1575. per-file basis with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN STATE}}. Drawers
  1576. look like this:
  1577. @example
  1578. ** This is a headline
  1579. Still outside the drawer
  1580. :DRAWERNAME:
  1581. This is inside the drawer.
  1582. :END:
  1583. After the drawer.
  1584. @end example
  1585. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1586. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1587. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1588. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add a
  1589. property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1590. keywords is also possible using @key{M-TAB}.
  1591. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1592. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1593. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1594. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1595. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1596. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1597. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1598. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1599. @table @kbd
  1600. @kindex C-c C-z
  1601. @item C-c C-z
  1602. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1603. @end table
  1604. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1605. @section Blocks
  1606. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1607. @cindex blocks, folding
  1608. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1609. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1610. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1611. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1612. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1613. or on a per-file basis by using
  1614. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1615. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1616. @example
  1617. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1618. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1619. @end example
  1620. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1621. @section Footnotes
  1622. @cindex footnotes
  1623. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1624. @file{footnote.el} package, Org mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1625. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1626. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e.@: a footnote is
  1627. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1628. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1629. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1630. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1631. @example
  1632. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1633. ...
  1634. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1635. @end example
  1636. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1637. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1638. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1639. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1640. @LaTeX{}}). Here are the valid references:
  1641. @table @code
  1642. @item [1]
  1643. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1644. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1645. snippet.
  1646. @item [fn:name]
  1647. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1648. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1649. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1650. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1651. reference point.
  1652. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1653. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1654. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1655. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1656. @end table
  1657. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1658. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1659. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1660. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1661. for details.
  1662. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1663. @table @kbd
  1664. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1665. @item C-c C-x f
  1666. The footnote action command.
  1667. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1668. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1669. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1670. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1671. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1672. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1673. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1674. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1675. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1676. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1677. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1678. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1679. options is offered:
  1680. @example
  1681. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1682. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1683. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1684. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1685. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1686. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1687. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1688. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1689. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1690. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1691. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1692. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1693. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1694. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g.@: sending}
  1695. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1696. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1697. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1698. @r{to it.}
  1699. @end example
  1700. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1701. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1702. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1703. deletion.
  1704. @kindex C-c C-c
  1705. @item C-c C-c
  1706. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1707. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1708. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1709. @kindex C-c C-o
  1710. @kindex mouse-1
  1711. @kindex mouse-2
  1712. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1713. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1714. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1715. @end table
  1716. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1717. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1718. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1719. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1720. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1721. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1722. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1723. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1724. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1725. @lisp
  1726. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1727. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1728. @end lisp
  1729. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1730. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1731. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1732. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1733. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1734. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1735. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1736. item.
  1737. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1738. @chapter Tables
  1739. @cindex tables
  1740. @cindex editing tables
  1741. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1742. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1743. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1744. @menu
  1745. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1746. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1747. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1748. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1749. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1750. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1751. @end menu
  1752. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1753. @section The built-in table editor
  1754. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1755. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1756. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1757. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1758. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1759. might look like this:
  1760. @example
  1761. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1762. |-------+-------+-----|
  1763. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1764. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1765. @end example
  1766. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1767. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1768. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1769. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1770. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1771. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1772. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1773. create the above table, you would only type
  1774. @example
  1775. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1776. |-
  1777. @end example
  1778. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1779. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1780. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1781. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1782. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1783. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1784. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1785. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1786. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1787. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1788. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1789. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1790. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1791. @table @kbd
  1792. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1793. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1794. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1795. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1796. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1797. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1798. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1799. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1800. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1801. @*
  1802. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1803. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1804. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1805. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1806. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1807. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1808. @c
  1809. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1810. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1811. necessary.
  1812. @c
  1813. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1814. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1815. @c
  1816. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1817. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1818. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1819. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1820. @c
  1821. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1822. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1823. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1824. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1825. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1826. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1827. Move the current column left/right.
  1828. @c
  1829. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1830. Kill the current column.
  1831. @c
  1832. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1833. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1834. @c
  1835. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1836. Move the current row up/down.
  1837. @c
  1838. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1839. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1840. @c
  1841. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1842. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1843. created below the current one.
  1844. @c
  1845. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1846. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1847. is created above the current line.
  1848. @c
  1849. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1850. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1851. below that line.
  1852. @c
  1853. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1854. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1855. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1856. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1857. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1858. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1859. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1860. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1861. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1862. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1863. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1864. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1865. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1866. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1867. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1868. @c
  1869. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1870. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1871. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1872. @c
  1873. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1874. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1875. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1876. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1877. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1878. lines.
  1879. @c
  1880. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1881. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1882. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1883. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1884. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1885. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1886. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1887. above.
  1888. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1889. @cindex formula, in tables
  1890. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1891. @cindex region, active
  1892. @cindex active region
  1893. @cindex transient mark mode
  1894. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1895. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1896. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1897. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1898. @c
  1899. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1900. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1901. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1902. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1903. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1904. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1905. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1906. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1907. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1908. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1909. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1910. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1911. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1912. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1913. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1914. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1915. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1916. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1917. @c
  1918. @item M-x org-table-import
  1919. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1920. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1921. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1922. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1923. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1924. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1925. separator.
  1926. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1927. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1928. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1929. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1930. @c
  1931. @item M-x org-table-export
  1932. @findex org-table-export
  1933. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1934. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1935. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1936. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1937. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1938. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1939. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1940. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1941. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1942. detailed description.
  1943. @end table
  1944. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1945. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1946. it off with
  1947. @lisp
  1948. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1949. @end lisp
  1950. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1951. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1952. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1953. @section Column width and alignment
  1954. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1955. @cindex alignment in tables
  1956. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1957. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1958. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1959. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1960. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1961. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1962. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1963. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1964. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1965. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1966. @example
  1967. @group
  1968. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1969. | | | | | <6> |
  1970. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1971. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1972. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1973. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1974. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1975. @end group
  1976. @end example
  1977. @noindent
  1978. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1979. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1980. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1981. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1982. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1983. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1984. C-c}.
  1985. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1986. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1987. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1988. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1989. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1990. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1991. on a per-file basis with:
  1992. @example
  1993. #+STARTUP: align
  1994. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1995. @end example
  1996. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1997. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  1998. @samp{c}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1999. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  2000. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  2001. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  2002. automatically when exporting the document.
  2003. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  2004. @section Column groups
  2005. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  2006. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  2007. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  2008. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  2009. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  2010. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  2011. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  2012. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  2013. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<}
  2014. and @samp{>}) to make a column
  2015. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  2016. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  2017. @example
  2018. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2019. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2020. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  2021. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  2022. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  2023. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  2024. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2025. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  2026. @end example
  2027. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  2028. every vertical line you would like to have:
  2029. @example
  2030. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2031. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2032. | / | < | | | < | |
  2033. @end example
  2034. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  2035. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2036. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2037. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2038. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  2039. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  2040. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  2041. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  2042. example in Message mode, use
  2043. @lisp
  2044. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2045. @end lisp
  2046. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2047. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2048. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2049. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2050. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2051. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  2052. @section The spreadsheet
  2053. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2054. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2055. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2056. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2057. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2058. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2059. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2060. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2061. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2062. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2063. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2064. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2065. @menu
  2066. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2067. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2068. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2069. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2070. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2071. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2072. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2073. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2074. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2075. @end menu
  2076. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  2077. @subsection References
  2078. @cindex references
  2079. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2080. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2081. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2082. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2083. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2084. @subsubheading Field references
  2085. @cindex field references
  2086. @cindex references, to fields
  2087. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2088. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2089. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2090. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2091. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2092. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2093. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  2094. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2095. representation that looks like this:
  2096. @example
  2097. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2098. @end example
  2099. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2100. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e.@: the
  2101. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2102. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2103. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2104. column from the right.
  2105. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2106. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2107. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2108. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2109. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2110. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2111. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2112. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2113. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2114. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2115. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc@. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2116. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2117. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2118. after the third hline in the table.
  2119. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2120. i.e. to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2121. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2122. implied.
  2123. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2124. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2125. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2126. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2127. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2128. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2129. Here are a few examples:
  2130. @example
  2131. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2132. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2133. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2134. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2135. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2136. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2137. @end example
  2138. @subsubheading Range references
  2139. @cindex range references
  2140. @cindex references, to ranges
  2141. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2142. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2143. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2144. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2145. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2146. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2147. @example
  2148. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2149. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2150. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2151. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2152. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2153. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2154. @end example
  2155. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2156. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2157. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2158. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2159. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2160. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2161. @cindex field coordinates
  2162. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2163. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2164. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2165. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2166. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2167. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2168. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2169. @example
  2170. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2171. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2172. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2173. @end example
  2174. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2175. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2176. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2177. number of rows.
  2178. @subsubheading Named references
  2179. @cindex named references
  2180. @cindex references, named
  2181. @cindex name, of column or field
  2182. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2183. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2184. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2185. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2186. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2187. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2188. line like
  2189. @example
  2190. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2191. @end example
  2192. @noindent
  2193. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2194. @pindex constants.el
  2195. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2196. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2197. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2198. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2199. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2200. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2201. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2202. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2203. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2204. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2205. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2206. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2207. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2208. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2209. numbers.
  2210. @subsubheading Remote references
  2211. @cindex remote references
  2212. @cindex references, remote
  2213. @cindex references, to a different table
  2214. @cindex name, of column or field
  2215. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2216. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2217. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2218. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2219. @example
  2220. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2221. @end example
  2222. @noindent
  2223. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2224. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2225. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2226. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2227. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2228. referenced table.
  2229. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2230. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2231. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2232. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2233. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2234. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2235. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2236. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2237. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2238. Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc, GNU
  2239. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2240. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2241. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2242. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2243. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2244. @cindex format specifier
  2245. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2246. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2247. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2248. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2249. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2250. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2251. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2252. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2253. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2254. @example
  2255. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2256. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2257. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2258. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2259. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2260. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2261. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2262. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  2263. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  2264. L @r{literal}
  2265. @end example
  2266. @noindent
  2267. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2268. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2269. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2270. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2271. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2272. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2273. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2274. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2275. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2276. A few examples:
  2277. @example
  2278. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2279. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2280. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2281. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2282. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2283. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2284. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2285. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2286. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  2287. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2288. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2289. @end example
  2290. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2291. @example
  2292. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{"teen" if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  2293. @end example
  2294. Note that you can also use two org-specific flags @code{T} and @code{t} for
  2295. durations computations @ref{Durations and time values}.
  2296. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2297. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2298. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2299. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful for
  2300. string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is not
  2301. enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening
  2302. parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should
  2303. return either a string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you
  2304. can specify modes and a printf format after a semicolon. With Emacs Lisp
  2305. forms, you need to be conscious about the way field references are
  2306. interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be interpolated as
  2307. a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If you provide the
  2308. @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers (non-number
  2309. fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If
  2310. you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally,
  2311. without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string
  2312. by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes,
  2313. like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  2314. embed them in list or vector syntax. Here are a few examples---note how the
  2315. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp:
  2316. @example
  2317. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2318. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2319. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2320. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2321. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2322. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2323. @end example
  2324. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2325. @subsection Durations and time values
  2326. @cindex Duration, computing
  2327. @cindex Time, computing
  2328. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2329. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2330. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2331. @example
  2332. @group
  2333. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2334. |---------+----------+----------|
  2335. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2336. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2337. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2338. @end group
  2339. @end example
  2340. Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2341. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2342. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2343. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the variable
  2344. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2345. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2346. example above).
  2347. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2348. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2349. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2350. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2351. @cindex field formula
  2352. @cindex range formula
  2353. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2354. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2355. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2356. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2357. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2358. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2359. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2360. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2361. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2362. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2363. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2364. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2365. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2366. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2367. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2368. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2369. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2370. of course not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2371. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2372. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2373. command
  2374. @table @kbd
  2375. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2376. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2377. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2378. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2379. @end table
  2380. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2381. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2382. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2383. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2384. directly.
  2385. @table @code
  2386. @item $2=
  2387. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2388. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2389. @item @@3=
  2390. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2391. the last row.
  2392. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2393. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2394. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2395. @item $name=
  2396. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2397. @end table
  2398. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2399. @subsection Column formulas
  2400. @cindex column formula
  2401. @cindex formula, for table column
  2402. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2403. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2404. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2405. hlines, everything before the first such line is considered part of the table
  2406. @emph{header} and will not be modified by column formulas. (ii) Fields that
  2407. already get a value from a field/range formula will be left alone by column
  2408. formulas. These conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2409. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2410. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2411. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2412. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2413. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2414. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2415. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2416. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2417. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2418. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2419. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2420. following command:
  2421. @table @kbd
  2422. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2423. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2424. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2425. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2426. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g.@: @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2427. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2428. @end table
  2429. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2430. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2431. @cindex formula editing
  2432. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2433. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2434. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2435. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2436. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2437. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2438. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2439. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2440. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2441. @table @kbd
  2442. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2443. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2444. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2445. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2446. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2447. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2448. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2449. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2450. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2451. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2452. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2453. @kindex C-c @}
  2454. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2455. @item C-c @}
  2456. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2457. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2458. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2459. @kindex C-c @{
  2460. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2461. @item C-c @{
  2462. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2463. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2464. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2465. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2466. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2467. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2468. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2469. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2470. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2471. @table @kbd
  2472. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2473. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2474. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2475. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2476. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2477. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2478. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2479. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2480. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2481. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2482. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2483. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2484. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2485. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2486. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2487. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2488. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2489. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2490. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2491. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2492. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2493. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2494. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2495. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2496. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2497. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2498. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2499. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2500. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2501. down.
  2502. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2503. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2504. @kindex C-c @}
  2505. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2506. @item C-c @}
  2507. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2508. @end table
  2509. @end table
  2510. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2511. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2512. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2513. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2514. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2515. @kindex C-c C-c
  2516. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2517. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2518. recalculation commands in the table.
  2519. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2520. @cindex formula debugging
  2521. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2522. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2523. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2524. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2525. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2526. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2527. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2528. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2529. @subsection Updating the table
  2530. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2531. @cindex updating, table
  2532. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2533. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2534. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2535. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2536. following commands:
  2537. @table @kbd
  2538. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2539. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2540. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2541. @c
  2542. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2543. @item C-u C-c *
  2544. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2545. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2546. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2547. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2548. @c
  2549. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2550. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2551. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2552. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2553. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2554. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2555. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2556. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2557. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2558. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2559. dependencies.
  2560. @end table
  2561. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2562. @subsection Advanced features
  2563. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2564. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2565. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2566. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2567. special marking characters.
  2568. @table @kbd
  2569. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2570. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2571. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2572. change all marks in the region.
  2573. @end table
  2574. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2575. makes use of these features:
  2576. @example
  2577. @group
  2578. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2579. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2580. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2581. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2582. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2583. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2584. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2585. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2586. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2587. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2588. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2589. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2590. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2591. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2592. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2593. @end group
  2594. @end example
  2595. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2596. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2597. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2598. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2599. empty first field.
  2600. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2601. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2602. @table @samp
  2603. @item !
  2604. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2605. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2606. @item ^
  2607. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2608. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2609. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2610. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2611. @item _
  2612. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2613. @emph{below}.
  2614. @item $
  2615. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2616. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2617. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2618. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2619. a per-table basis.
  2620. @item #
  2621. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2622. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2623. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2624. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2625. @item *
  2626. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2627. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2628. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2629. @item
  2630. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2631. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2632. or @samp{*}.
  2633. @item /
  2634. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2635. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2636. @end table
  2637. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2638. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2639. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2640. functions.
  2641. @example
  2642. @group
  2643. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2644. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2645. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2646. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2647. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2648. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2649. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2650. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2651. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2652. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2653. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2654. @end group
  2655. @end example
  2656. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2657. @section Org-Plot
  2658. @cindex graph, in tables
  2659. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2660. @cindex #+PLOT
  2661. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2662. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2663. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2664. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2665. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2666. @example
  2667. @group
  2668. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2669. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2670. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2671. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2672. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2673. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2674. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2675. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2676. @end group
  2677. @end example
  2678. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2679. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2680. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2681. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2682. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2683. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2684. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2685. @table @code
  2686. @item set
  2687. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2688. @item title
  2689. Specify the title of the plot.
  2690. @item ind
  2691. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2692. @item deps
  2693. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2694. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2695. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2696. column).
  2697. @item type
  2698. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2699. @item with
  2700. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2701. (e.g.@: @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2702. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2703. @item file
  2704. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2705. @item labels
  2706. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2707. if they exist).
  2708. @item line
  2709. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2710. @item map
  2711. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2712. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2713. @item timefmt
  2714. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2715. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2716. @item script
  2717. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2718. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2719. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2720. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2721. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2722. the data file.
  2723. @end table
  2724. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2725. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2726. @cindex hyperlinks
  2727. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2728. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2729. @menu
  2730. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2731. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2732. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2733. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2734. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2735. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2736. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2737. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2738. @end menu
  2739. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2740. @section Link format
  2741. @cindex link format
  2742. @cindex format, of links
  2743. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2744. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2745. @example
  2746. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2747. @end example
  2748. @noindent
  2749. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2750. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2751. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2752. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2753. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2754. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2755. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2756. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2757. cursor on the link.
  2758. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2759. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2760. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2761. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2762. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2763. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2764. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2765. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2766. @section Internal links
  2767. @cindex internal links
  2768. @cindex links, internal
  2769. @cindex targets, for links
  2770. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2771. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2772. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2773. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2774. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2775. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2776. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2777. in a file.
  2778. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2779. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2780. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2781. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2782. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2783. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2784. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2785. comment line. For example
  2786. @example
  2787. # <<My Target>>
  2788. @end example
  2789. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2790. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2791. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2792. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2793. first headline.}.
  2794. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2795. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2796. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2797. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2798. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2799. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2800. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2801. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2802. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2803. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2804. earlier.
  2805. @menu
  2806. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2807. @end menu
  2808. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2809. @subsection Radio targets
  2810. @cindex radio targets
  2811. @cindex targets, radio
  2812. @cindex links, radio targets
  2813. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2814. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2815. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2816. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2817. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2818. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2819. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2820. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2821. cursor on or at a target.
  2822. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2823. @section External links
  2824. @cindex links, external
  2825. @cindex external links
  2826. @cindex links, external
  2827. @cindex Gnus links
  2828. @cindex BBDB links
  2829. @cindex IRC links
  2830. @cindex URL links
  2831. @cindex file links
  2832. @cindex VM links
  2833. @cindex RMAIL links
  2834. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2835. @cindex MH-E links
  2836. @cindex USENET links
  2837. @cindex SHELL links
  2838. @cindex Info links
  2839. @cindex Elisp links
  2840. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2841. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2842. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2843. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2844. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2845. @example
  2846. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2847. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2848. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2849. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2850. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2851. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2852. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2853. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2854. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  2855. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2856. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  2857. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  2858. the variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  2859. is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  2860. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  2861. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  2862. will be queried to create it.}
  2863. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2864. file+sys:/path/to/file @r{open via OS, like double-click}
  2865. file+emacs:/path/to/file @r{force opening by Emacs}
  2866. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  2867. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2868. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2869. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2870. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2871. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2872. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2873. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  2874. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  2875. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2876. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2877. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2878. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2879. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2880. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2881. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2882. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2883. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2884. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2885. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  2886. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2887. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2888. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2889. @end example
  2890. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2891. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2892. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2893. format}), for example:
  2894. @example
  2895. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2896. @end example
  2897. @noindent
  2898. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2899. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2900. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2901. image,
  2902. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2903. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2904. @cindex plain text external links
  2905. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2906. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2907. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2908. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2909. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2910. @section Handling links
  2911. @cindex links, handling
  2912. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2913. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2914. @table @kbd
  2915. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2916. @cindex storing links
  2917. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2918. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2919. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2920. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2921. buffer:
  2922. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  2923. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2924. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2925. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  2926. removed from the link and result in a wrong link -- you should avoid putting
  2927. timestamp in the headline.}.
  2928. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2929. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2930. @cindex property, ID
  2931. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2932. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2933. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2934. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2935. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2936. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2937. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2938. to use.
  2939. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2940. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2941. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2942. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2943. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2944. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2945. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2946. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2947. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2948. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2949. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2950. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2951. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2952. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2953. @b{Other files}@*
  2954. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2955. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2956. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2957. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2958. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2959. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2960. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2961. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2962. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2963. entry referenced by the current line.
  2964. @c
  2965. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  2966. @cindex link completion
  2967. @cindex completion, of links
  2968. @cindex inserting links
  2969. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2970. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2971. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2972. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2973. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2974. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2975. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2976. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2977. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2978. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2979. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2980. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2981. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2982. becomes the default description.
  2983. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2984. All links stored during the
  2985. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2986. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2987. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2988. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2989. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2990. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2991. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2992. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2993. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2994. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2995. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2996. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  2997. @cindex file name completion
  2998. @cindex completion, of file names
  2999. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  3000. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  3001. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  3002. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  3003. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  3004. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  3005. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  3006. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3007. @c
  3008. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  3009. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  3010. link and description parts of the link.
  3011. @c
  3012. @cindex following links
  3013. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  3014. @vindex org-file-apps
  3015. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3016. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  3017. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  3018. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  3019. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  3020. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  3021. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  3022. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  3023. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3024. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3025. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3026. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3027. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3028. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3029. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3030. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3031. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3032. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3033. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3034. the link at point.
  3035. @c
  3036. @kindex mouse-2
  3037. @kindex mouse-1
  3038. @item mouse-2
  3039. @itemx mouse-1
  3040. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  3041. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  3042. @c
  3043. @kindex mouse-3
  3044. @item mouse-3
  3045. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3046. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3047. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3048. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3049. @c
  3050. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3051. @cindex inlining images
  3052. @cindex images, inlining
  3053. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3054. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3055. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3056. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3057. images that have no description part in the link, i.e.@: images that will also
  3058. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3059. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3060. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3061. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3062. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  3063. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3064. @cindex mark ring
  3065. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3066. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3067. @c
  3068. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3069. @cindex links, returning to
  3070. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3071. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3072. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3073. previously recorded positions.
  3074. @c
  3075. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3076. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3077. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3078. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3079. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3080. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3081. @lisp
  3082. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3083. (lambda ()
  3084. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3085. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3086. @end lisp
  3087. @end table
  3088. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  3089. @section Using links outside Org
  3090. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3091. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3092. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3093. yourself):
  3094. @lisp
  3095. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3096. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3097. @end lisp
  3098. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  3099. @section Link abbreviations
  3100. @cindex link abbreviations
  3101. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3102. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3103. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3104. abbreviated link looks like this
  3105. @example
  3106. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3107. @end example
  3108. @noindent
  3109. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3110. where the tag is optional.
  3111. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3112. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3113. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3114. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3115. @smalllisp
  3116. @group
  3117. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3118. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3119. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3120. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3121. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3122. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3123. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3124. @end group
  3125. @end smalllisp
  3126. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3127. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3128. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3129. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3130. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3131. If the replacement text don't contain any specifier, it will simply
  3132. be appended to the string in order to create the link.
  3133. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3134. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3135. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3136. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3137. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3138. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3139. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3140. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3141. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3142. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3143. can define them in the file with
  3144. @cindex #+LINK
  3145. @example
  3146. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3147. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3148. @end example
  3149. @noindent
  3150. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3151. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3152. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g.@: completion)
  3153. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3154. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3155. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3156. @section Search options in file links
  3157. @cindex search option in file links
  3158. @cindex file links, searching
  3159. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3160. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3161. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3162. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3163. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3164. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3165. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3166. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3167. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3168. link, together with an explanation:
  3169. @example
  3170. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3171. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3172. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3173. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3174. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3175. @end example
  3176. @table @code
  3177. @item 255
  3178. Jump to line 255.
  3179. @item My Target
  3180. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3181. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3182. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3183. link will become a HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3184. the linked file.
  3185. @item *My Target
  3186. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3187. @item #my-custom-id
  3188. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3189. @item /regexp/
  3190. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3191. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3192. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3193. sparse tree with the matches.
  3194. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3195. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3196. @end table
  3197. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3198. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3199. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3200. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3201. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3202. @section Custom Searches
  3203. @cindex custom search strings
  3204. @cindex search strings, custom
  3205. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3206. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3207. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3208. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3209. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3210. citation key.
  3211. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3212. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3213. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3214. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3215. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3216. to be added to the hook variables
  3217. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3218. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3219. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3220. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3221. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3222. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3223. @chapter TODO items
  3224. @cindex TODO items
  3225. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3226. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3227. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3228. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3229. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3230. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3231. item emerged is always present.
  3232. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3233. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3234. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3235. @menu
  3236. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3237. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3238. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3239. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3240. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3241. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3242. @end menu
  3243. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3244. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3245. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3246. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3247. @example
  3248. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3249. @end example
  3250. @noindent
  3251. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3252. @table @kbd
  3253. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3254. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3255. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3256. @example
  3257. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3258. '--------------------------------'
  3259. @end example
  3260. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3261. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3262. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3263. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  3264. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  3265. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  3266. more information.
  3267. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3268. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3269. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3270. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3271. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3272. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3273. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3274. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3275. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3276. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-key}
  3277. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3278. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3279. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3280. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3281. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3282. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3283. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3284. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3285. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3286. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3287. both un-done and done.
  3288. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3289. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3290. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3291. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3292. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3293. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3294. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3295. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3296. @end table
  3297. @noindent
  3298. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3299. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3300. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3301. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3302. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3303. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3304. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3305. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3306. DONE. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3307. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3308. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3309. files.
  3310. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3311. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3312. @menu
  3313. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3314. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3315. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3316. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3317. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3318. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3319. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3320. @end menu
  3321. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3322. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3323. @cindex TODO workflow
  3324. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3325. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3326. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3327. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3328. buffer.}:
  3329. @lisp
  3330. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3331. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3332. @end lisp
  3333. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3334. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3335. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3336. state.
  3337. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3338. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3339. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  3340. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3341. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  3342. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3343. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3344. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3345. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3346. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3347. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3348. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3349. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3350. @cindex TODO types
  3351. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3352. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3353. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3354. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3355. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3356. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3357. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3358. be set up like this:
  3359. @lisp
  3360. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3361. @end lisp
  3362. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3363. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3364. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org mode supports this style by adapting
  3365. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3366. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3367. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3368. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3369. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3370. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3371. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3372. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3373. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3374. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3375. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3376. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3377. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3378. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3379. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3380. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3381. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3382. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3383. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3384. like this:
  3385. @lisp
  3386. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3387. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3388. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3389. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3390. @end lisp
  3391. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3392. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3393. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3394. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3395. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3396. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3397. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3398. @table @kbd
  3399. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3400. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3401. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3402. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3403. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3404. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3405. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3406. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3407. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3408. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3409. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3410. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3411. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3412. @item S-@key{right}
  3413. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3414. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3415. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3416. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3417. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3418. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3419. @end table
  3420. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3421. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3422. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3423. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3424. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection
  3425. letter@footnote{Only alphabetical letters are allowed for fast TODO selection
  3426. keys.} after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3427. @lisp
  3428. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3429. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3430. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3431. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3432. @end lisp
  3433. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3434. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3435. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3436. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3437. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3438. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3439. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3440. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3441. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3442. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3443. @cindex keyword options
  3444. @cindex per-file keywords
  3445. @cindex #+TODO
  3446. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3447. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3448. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3449. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3450. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3451. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3452. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3453. file:
  3454. @example
  3455. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3456. @end example
  3457. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3458. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3459. @example
  3460. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3461. @end example
  3462. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3463. @example
  3464. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3465. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3466. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3467. @end example
  3468. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3469. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3470. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3471. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3472. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3473. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3474. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3475. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3476. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3477. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3478. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3479. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3480. for the current buffer.}.
  3481. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3482. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3483. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3484. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3485. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3486. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3487. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3488. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3489. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3490. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3491. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3492. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3493. @lisp
  3494. @group
  3495. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3496. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3497. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3498. @end group
  3499. @end lisp
  3500. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3501. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3502. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3503. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3504. foreground or a background color.
  3505. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3506. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3507. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3508. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3509. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3510. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3511. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3512. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3513. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3514. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3515. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3516. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3517. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3518. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3519. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3520. example:
  3521. @example
  3522. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3523. ** DONE one
  3524. ** TODO two
  3525. * Parent
  3526. :PROPERTIES:
  3527. :ORDERED: t
  3528. :END:
  3529. ** TODO a
  3530. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3531. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3532. @end example
  3533. @table @kbd
  3534. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3535. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3536. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3537. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3538. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3539. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3540. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3541. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3542. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3543. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3544. @end table
  3545. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3546. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3547. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3548. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3549. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3550. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3551. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3552. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3553. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3554. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3555. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3556. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3557. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3558. @page
  3559. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3560. @section Progress logging
  3561. @cindex progress logging
  3562. @cindex logging, of progress
  3563. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3564. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3565. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3566. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3567. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3568. work time}.
  3569. @menu
  3570. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3571. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3572. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3573. @end menu
  3574. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3575. @subsection Closing items
  3576. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3577. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3578. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3579. @lisp
  3580. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3581. @end lisp
  3582. @noindent
  3583. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3584. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3585. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3586. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3587. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3588. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3589. @lisp
  3590. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3591. @end lisp
  3592. @noindent
  3593. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3594. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3595. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3596. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3597. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3598. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3599. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3600. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3601. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3602. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3603. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3604. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3605. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3606. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3607. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3608. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3609. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3610. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3611. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3612. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the
  3613. recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3614. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3615. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3616. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3617. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3618. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3619. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3620. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3621. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3622. setting
  3623. @lisp
  3624. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3625. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3626. @end lisp
  3627. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3628. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3629. @noindent
  3630. @vindex org-log-done
  3631. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3632. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3633. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3634. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3635. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3636. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3637. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3638. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3639. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3640. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3641. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3642. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3643. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3644. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3645. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3646. configured.
  3647. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3648. to a buffer:
  3649. @example
  3650. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3651. @end example
  3652. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3653. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3654. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3655. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3656. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3657. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3658. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3659. @example
  3660. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3661. :PROPERTIES:
  3662. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3663. :END:
  3664. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3665. :PROPERTIES:
  3666. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3667. :END:
  3668. * TODO No logging at all
  3669. :PROPERTIES:
  3670. :LOGGING: nil
  3671. :END:
  3672. @end example
  3673. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3674. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3675. @cindex habits
  3676. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3677. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3678. @enumerate
  3679. @item
  3680. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3681. @code{org-modules}.
  3682. @item
  3683. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3684. @item
  3685. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3686. @item
  3687. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3688. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3689. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3690. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3691. @item
  3692. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3693. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3694. three days, but at most every two days.
  3695. @item
  3696. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3697. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it is not
  3698. enabled it is not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3699. meaningless.
  3700. @end enumerate
  3701. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3702. actual habit with some history:
  3703. @example
  3704. ** TODO Shave
  3705. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3706. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3707. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3708. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3709. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3710. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3711. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3712. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3713. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3714. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3715. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3716. :PROPERTIES:
  3717. :STYLE: habit
  3718. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3719. :END:
  3720. @end example
  3721. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3722. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3723. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3724. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3725. after four days have elapsed.
  3726. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3727. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3728. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3729. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3730. @table @code
  3731. @item Blue
  3732. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3733. @item Green
  3734. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3735. @item Yellow
  3736. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3737. @item Red
  3738. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3739. @end table
  3740. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3741. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3742. the current day falls in the graph.
  3743. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3744. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3745. @table @code
  3746. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3747. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3748. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3749. titles brief and to the point.
  3750. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3751. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3752. @item org-habit-following-days
  3753. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3754. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3755. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3756. default.
  3757. @end table
  3758. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3759. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3760. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3761. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3762. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3763. @section Priorities
  3764. @cindex priorities
  3765. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3766. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3767. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3768. @example
  3769. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3770. @end example
  3771. @noindent
  3772. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3773. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3774. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3775. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3776. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3777. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3778. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3779. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3780. items.
  3781. @table @kbd
  3782. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3783. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3784. @findex org-priority
  3785. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3786. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3787. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3788. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3789. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3790. @c
  3791. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3792. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3793. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3794. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3795. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3796. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3797. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3798. @end table
  3799. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3800. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3801. @vindex org-default-priority
  3802. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3803. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3804. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3805. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3806. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3807. priority):
  3808. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3809. @example
  3810. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3811. @end example
  3812. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3813. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3814. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3815. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3816. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3817. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3818. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3819. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3820. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3821. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3822. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3823. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3824. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3825. @example
  3826. * Organize Party [33%]
  3827. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3828. *** TODO Peter
  3829. *** DONE Sarah
  3830. ** TODO Buy food
  3831. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3832. @end example
  3833. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3834. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3835. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3836. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3837. this issue.
  3838. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3839. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3840. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3841. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3842. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3843. property.
  3844. @example
  3845. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3846. :PROPERTIES:
  3847. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3848. :END:
  3849. @end example
  3850. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3851. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3852. @example
  3853. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3854. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3855. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3856. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3857. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3858. @end example
  3859. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3860. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3861. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3862. @section Checkboxes
  3863. @cindex checkboxes
  3864. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3865. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3866. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3867. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3868. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3869. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3870. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3871. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3872. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3873. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3874. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3875. @example
  3876. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3877. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3878. - [ ] Peter
  3879. - [X] Sarah
  3880. - [ ] Sam
  3881. - [X] order food
  3882. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3883. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3884. @end example
  3885. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3886. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3887. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3888. checked.
  3889. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3890. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3891. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3892. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3893. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3894. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3895. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3896. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3897. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3898. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3899. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3900. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3901. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3902. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3903. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3904. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3905. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3906. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3907. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3908. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3909. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3910. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3911. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3912. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3913. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3914. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3915. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3916. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3917. @table @kbd
  3918. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3919. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
  3920. With a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  3921. one@footnote{`C-u C-c C-c' on the @emph{first} item of a list with no checkbox
  3922. will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is
  3923. considered to be an intermediate state.
  3924. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3925. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3926. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3927. intermediate state.
  3928. @itemize @minus
  3929. @item
  3930. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3931. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3932. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3933. @item
  3934. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3935. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3936. @item
  3937. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3938. @end itemize
  3939. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3940. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  3941. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3942. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3943. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3944. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3945. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3946. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3947. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3948. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3949. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3950. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3951. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  3952. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3953. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3954. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3955. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3956. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3957. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  3958. @end table
  3959. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3960. @chapter Tags
  3961. @cindex tags
  3962. @cindex headline tagging
  3963. @cindex matching, tags
  3964. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3965. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3966. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  3967. support for tags.
  3968. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3969. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3970. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3971. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3972. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3973. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3974. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3975. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3976. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3977. @menu
  3978. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3979. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3980. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3981. @end menu
  3982. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3983. @section Tag inheritance
  3984. @cindex tag inheritance
  3985. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3986. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3987. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3988. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3989. well. For example, in the list
  3990. @example
  3991. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3992. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3993. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3994. @end example
  3995. @noindent
  3996. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3997. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3998. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3999. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  4000. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  4001. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  4002. changes in the line.}:
  4003. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  4004. @example
  4005. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  4006. @end example
  4007. @noindent
  4008. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  4009. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  4010. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  4011. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  4012. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  4013. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4014. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  4015. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  4016. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  4017. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  4018. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  4019. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  4020. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  4021. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  4022. @section Setting tags
  4023. @cindex setting tags
  4024. @cindex tags, setting
  4025. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  4026. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4027. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4028. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4029. @table @kbd
  4030. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4031. @cindex completion, of tags
  4032. @vindex org-tags-column
  4033. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4034. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4035. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4036. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4037. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4038. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4039. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4040. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4041. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4042. @end table
  4043. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4044. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4045. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4046. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4047. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4048. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4049. @cindex #+TAGS
  4050. @example
  4051. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4052. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4053. @end example
  4054. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4055. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4056. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4057. @example
  4058. #+TAGS:
  4059. @end example
  4060. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4061. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4062. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4063. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4064. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4065. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4066. @example
  4067. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4068. @end example
  4069. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4070. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4071. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4072. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4073. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  4074. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  4075. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  4076. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4077. like:
  4078. @lisp
  4079. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4080. @end lisp
  4081. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4082. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4083. @example
  4084. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4085. @end example
  4086. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4087. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4088. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4089. @example
  4090. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4091. @end example
  4092. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4093. @example
  4094. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4095. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4096. @end example
  4097. @noindent
  4098. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4099. braces, as in:
  4100. @example
  4101. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4102. @end example
  4103. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4104. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4105. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4106. these lines to activate any changes.
  4107. @noindent
  4108. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  4109. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4110. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4111. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4112. configuration:
  4113. @lisp
  4114. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4115. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4116. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4117. (:endgroup . nil)
  4118. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4119. @end lisp
  4120. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4121. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4122. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4123. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4124. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4125. keys:
  4126. @table @kbd
  4127. @item a-z...
  4128. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4129. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4130. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4131. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4132. @item @key{TAB}
  4133. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4134. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4135. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4136. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4137. @item @key{SPC}
  4138. Clear all tags for this line.
  4139. @kindex @key{RET}
  4140. @item @key{RET}
  4141. Accept the modified set.
  4142. @item C-g
  4143. Abort without installing changes.
  4144. @item q
  4145. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4146. @item !
  4147. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4148. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4149. @item C-c
  4150. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4151. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4152. selection window.
  4153. @end table
  4154. @noindent
  4155. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4156. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4157. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4158. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4159. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4160. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4161. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4162. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4163. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4164. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4165. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  4166. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  4167. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  4168. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  4169. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  4170. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  4171. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  4172. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  4173. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4174. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4175. @section Tag searches
  4176. @cindex tag searches
  4177. @cindex searching for tags
  4178. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4179. information into special lists.
  4180. @table @kbd
  4181. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4182. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4183. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4184. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4185. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4186. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4187. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4188. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4189. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4190. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4191. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4192. @end table
  4193. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4194. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4195. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4196. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4197. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4198. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4199. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4200. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4201. @chapter Properties and columns
  4202. @cindex properties
  4203. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4204. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4205. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4206. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4207. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4208. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4209. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4210. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4211. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4212. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4213. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4214. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4215. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4216. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4217. @menu
  4218. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4219. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4220. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4221. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4222. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4223. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4224. @end menu
  4225. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4226. @section Property syntax
  4227. @cindex property syntax
  4228. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4229. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4230. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special
  4231. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4232. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4233. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4234. @example
  4235. * CD collection
  4236. ** Classic
  4237. *** Goldberg Variations
  4238. :PROPERTIES:
  4239. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4240. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4241. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4242. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4243. :NDisks: 1
  4244. :END:
  4245. @end example
  4246. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4247. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the sub-tree
  4248. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4249. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4250. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4251. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4252. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4253. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4254. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4255. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4256. @example
  4257. * CD collection
  4258. :PROPERTIES:
  4259. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4260. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4261. :END:
  4262. @end example
  4263. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4264. file, use a line like
  4265. @cindex property, _ALL
  4266. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4267. @example
  4268. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4269. @end example
  4270. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4271. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4272. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4273. @cindex property, +
  4274. @example
  4275. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4276. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4277. @end example
  4278. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4279. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4280. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4281. @cindex property, +
  4282. @example
  4283. * CD collection
  4284. ** Classic
  4285. :PROPERTIES:
  4286. :GENRES: Classic
  4287. :END:
  4288. *** Goldberg Variations
  4289. :PROPERTIES:
  4290. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4291. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4292. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4293. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4294. :NDisks: 1
  4295. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4296. :END:
  4297. @end example
  4298. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4299. @vindex org-global-properties
  4300. Property values set with the global variable
  4301. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4302. Org files.
  4303. @noindent
  4304. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4305. @table @kbd
  4306. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4307. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4308. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4309. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4310. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4311. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4312. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer
  4313. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  4314. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4315. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4316. information like deadlines.
  4317. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4318. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4319. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4320. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4321. can be inserted using completion.
  4322. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4323. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4324. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4325. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4326. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4327. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4328. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4329. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4330. nearest column format definition.
  4331. @end table
  4332. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4333. @section Special properties
  4334. @cindex properties, special
  4335. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4336. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4337. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4338. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4339. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4340. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4341. @cindex property, special, ID
  4342. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4343. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4344. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4345. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4346. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4347. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4348. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4349. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4350. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4351. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4352. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4353. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4354. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4355. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4356. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4357. @example
  4358. ID @r{A globally unique ID used for synchronization during}
  4359. @r{iCalendar or MobileOrg export.}
  4360. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4361. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4362. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4363. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4364. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4365. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4366. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4367. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4368. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4369. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4370. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4371. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4372. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4373. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4374. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4375. @end example
  4376. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4377. @section Property searches
  4378. @cindex properties, searching
  4379. @cindex searching, of properties
  4380. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4381. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4382. @table @kbd
  4383. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4384. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4385. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4386. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4387. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4388. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4389. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4390. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4391. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4392. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4393. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4394. @end table
  4395. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4396. properties}.
  4397. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4398. single property:
  4399. @table @kbd
  4400. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4401. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4402. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4403. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4404. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4405. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4406. @end table
  4407. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4408. @section Property Inheritance
  4409. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4410. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4411. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4412. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4413. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4414. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4415. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4416. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4417. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4418. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4419. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4420. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4421. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4422. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4423. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4424. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4425. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4426. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4427. @table @code
  4428. @item COLUMNS
  4429. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4430. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4431. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4432. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4433. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4434. @item CATEGORY
  4435. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4436. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4437. applies to the entire subtree.
  4438. @item ARCHIVE
  4439. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4440. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4441. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4442. @item LOGGING
  4443. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4444. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4445. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4446. @end table
  4447. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4448. @section Column view
  4449. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4450. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4451. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4452. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4453. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4454. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4455. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4456. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4457. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4458. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4459. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4460. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4461. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4462. @menu
  4463. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4464. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4465. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4466. @end menu
  4467. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4468. @subsection Defining columns
  4469. @cindex column view, for properties
  4470. @cindex properties, column view
  4471. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4472. done by defining a column format line.
  4473. @menu
  4474. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4475. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4476. @end menu
  4477. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4478. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4479. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4480. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4481. @example
  4482. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4483. @end example
  4484. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4485. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4486. @example
  4487. ** Top node for columns view
  4488. :PROPERTIES:
  4489. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4490. :END:
  4491. @end example
  4492. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4493. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4494. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4495. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4496. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4497. deeper part of the tree.
  4498. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4499. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4500. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4501. definition looks like this:
  4502. @example
  4503. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4504. @end example
  4505. @noindent
  4506. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4507. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4508. @example
  4509. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4510. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4511. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4512. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4513. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4514. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4515. @r{name is used.}
  4516. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4517. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4518. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4519. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4520. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4521. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4522. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4523. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4524. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4525. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4526. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4527. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4528. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4529. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4530. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4531. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4532. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4533. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4534. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4535. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4536. @end example
  4537. @noindent
  4538. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4539. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4540. same summary information.
  4541. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4542. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4543. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4544. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4545. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4546. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4547. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4548. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4549. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4550. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4551. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4552. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4553. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4554. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4555. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4556. values.
  4557. @example
  4558. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4559. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4560. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4561. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4562. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4563. @end example
  4564. @noindent
  4565. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4566. item itself, i.e.@: of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4567. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4568. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4569. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4570. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4571. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4572. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4573. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4574. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4575. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4576. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4577. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4578. in the subtree.
  4579. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4580. @subsection Using column view
  4581. @table @kbd
  4582. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4583. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4584. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4585. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4586. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4587. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4588. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4589. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4590. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4591. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4592. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4593. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4594. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4595. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4596. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4597. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4598. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4599. Exit column view.
  4600. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4601. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4602. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4603. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4604. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4605. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4606. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4607. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4608. @item 1..9,0
  4609. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4610. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4611. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4612. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4613. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4614. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4615. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4616. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4617. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4618. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4619. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4620. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4621. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4622. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4623. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4624. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4625. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4626. current column view.
  4627. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4628. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4629. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4630. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4631. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4632. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4633. Delete the current column.
  4634. @end table
  4635. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4636. @subsection Capturing column view
  4637. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4638. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4639. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4640. of this block looks like this:
  4641. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4642. @example
  4643. * The column view
  4644. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4645. #+END:
  4646. @end example
  4647. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4648. @table @code
  4649. @item :id
  4650. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4651. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4652. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4653. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4654. @cindex property, ID
  4655. @example
  4656. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4657. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4658. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4659. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4660. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4661. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4662. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4663. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4664. @end example
  4665. @item :hlines
  4666. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4667. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4668. @item :vlines
  4669. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4670. @item :maxlevel
  4671. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4672. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4673. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4674. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4675. @end table
  4676. @noindent
  4677. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4678. @table @kbd
  4679. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4680. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4681. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4682. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4683. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4684. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4685. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4686. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4687. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4688. blocks in a buffer.
  4689. @end table
  4690. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4691. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4692. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4693. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4694. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4695. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4696. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4697. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4698. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4699. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4700. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4701. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4702. @section The Property API
  4703. @cindex properties, API
  4704. @cindex API, for properties
  4705. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4706. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4707. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4708. property API}.
  4709. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4710. @chapter Dates and times
  4711. @cindex dates
  4712. @cindex times
  4713. @cindex timestamp
  4714. @cindex date stamp
  4715. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4716. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4717. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode. This may be a
  4718. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4719. something was created or last changed. However, in Org mode this term
  4720. is used in a much wider sense.
  4721. @menu
  4722. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4723. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4724. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4725. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4726. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4727. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4728. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4729. @end menu
  4730. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4731. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4732. @cindex timestamps
  4733. @cindex ranges, time
  4734. @cindex date stamps
  4735. @cindex deadlines
  4736. @cindex scheduling
  4737. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4738. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>}@footnote{In this
  4739. simplest form, the day name is optional when you type the date yourself.
  4740. However, any dates inserted or modified by Org will add that day name, for
  4741. reading convenience.} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
  4742. Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601
  4743. date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time
  4744. format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org
  4745. tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the
  4746. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4747. @table @var
  4748. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4749. @cindex timestamp
  4750. @cindex appointment
  4751. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4752. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4753. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4754. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4755. @example
  4756. * Meet Peter at the movies
  4757. <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4758. * Discussion on climate change
  4759. <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4760. @end example
  4761. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4762. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4763. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4764. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4765. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4766. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4767. @example
  4768. * Pick up Sam at school
  4769. <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4770. @end example
  4771. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4772. For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the special
  4773. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4774. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  4775. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  4776. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  4777. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  4778. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  4779. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  4780. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org mode users
  4781. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  4782. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  4783. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  4784. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For
  4785. example with optional time
  4786. @example
  4787. * 22:00-23:00 The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4788. <%%(org-float t 4 2)>
  4789. @end example
  4790. @item Time/Date range
  4791. @cindex timerange
  4792. @cindex date range
  4793. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4794. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4795. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4796. @example
  4797. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4798. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4799. @end example
  4800. @item Inactive timestamp
  4801. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4802. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4803. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4804. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4805. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4806. @example
  4807. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time
  4808. [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4809. @end example
  4810. @end table
  4811. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4812. @section Creating timestamps
  4813. @cindex creating timestamps
  4814. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4815. For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4816. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4817. format.
  4818. @table @kbd
  4819. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4820. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4821. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4822. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4823. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4824. @c
  4825. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4826. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4827. an agenda entry.
  4828. @c
  4829. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4830. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4831. @item C-u C-c .
  4832. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4833. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4834. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4835. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4836. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4837. @c
  4838. @orgkey{C-c C-c}
  4839. Normalize timestamp, insert/fix day name if missing or wrong.
  4840. @c
  4841. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4842. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4843. @c
  4844. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4845. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4846. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4847. instead.
  4848. @c
  4849. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4850. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4851. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4852. @c
  4853. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4854. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4855. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4856. @c
  4857. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4858. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4859. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4860. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4861. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4862. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4863. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4864. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4865. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4866. @c
  4867. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4868. @cindex evaluate time range
  4869. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4870. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4871. the following column).
  4872. @end table
  4873. @menu
  4874. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  4875. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4876. @end menu
  4877. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4878. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4879. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4880. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4881. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4882. When Org mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4883. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4884. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4885. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4886. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4887. copied from an email message. Org mode will find whatever information is in
  4888. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4889. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4890. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4891. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4892. information, Org mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4893. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4894. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4895. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4896. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4897. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4898. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4899. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4900. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org mode are
  4901. in @b{bold}.
  4902. @example
  4903. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4904. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4905. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4906. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4907. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4908. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4909. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4910. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4911. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4912. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4913. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4914. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4915. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4916. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4917. @end example
  4918. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4919. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4920. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4921. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4922. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4923. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4924. the Nth such day, e.g.@:
  4925. @example
  4926. +0 @result{} today
  4927. . @result{} today
  4928. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4929. +4 @result{} same as above
  4930. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4931. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4932. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4933. @end example
  4934. @vindex parse-time-months
  4935. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4936. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4937. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4938. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4939. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  4940. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  4941. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  4942. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  4943. read the docstring of the variable
  4944. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  4945. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4946. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  4947. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  4948. case, e.g.@:
  4949. @example
  4950. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  4951. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  4952. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  4953. @end example
  4954. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4955. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4956. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4957. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4958. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4959. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4960. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4961. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4962. from the minibuffer:
  4963. @kindex <
  4964. @kindex >
  4965. @kindex M-v
  4966. @kindex C-v
  4967. @kindex mouse-1
  4968. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4969. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4970. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4971. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4972. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4973. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4974. @kindex @key{RET}
  4975. @example
  4976. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4977. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4978. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4979. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4980. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4981. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4982. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4983. @end example
  4984. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4985. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4986. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4987. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4988. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4989. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4990. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4991. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4992. @subsection Custom time format
  4993. @cindex custom date/time format
  4994. @cindex time format, custom
  4995. @cindex date format, custom
  4996. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4997. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4998. Org mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4999. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  5000. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  5001. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  5002. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  5003. @table @kbd
  5004. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  5005. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  5006. @end table
  5007. @noindent
  5008. Org mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  5009. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  5010. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  5011. following consequences:
  5012. @itemize @bullet
  5013. @item
  5014. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  5015. after.
  5016. @item
  5017. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  5018. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  5019. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  5020. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  5021. time will be changed by one minute.
  5022. @item
  5023. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  5024. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  5025. @item
  5026. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  5027. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  5028. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  5029. @item
  5030. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  5031. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  5032. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  5033. @end itemize
  5034. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  5035. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  5036. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  5037. @table @var
  5038. @item DEADLINE
  5039. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  5040. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  5041. to be finished on that date.
  5042. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5043. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  5044. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  5045. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  5046. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  5047. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  5048. @example
  5049. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  5050. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  5051. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  5052. @end example
  5053. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  5054. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  5055. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  5056. @item SCHEDULED
  5057. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  5058. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  5059. date.
  5060. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  5061. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  5062. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  5063. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  5064. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  5065. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.@:
  5066. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  5067. @example
  5068. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  5069. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  5070. @end example
  5071. @noindent
  5072. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org mode should @i{not} be
  5073. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  5074. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  5075. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  5076. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  5077. Org users. In Org mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  5078. want to start working on an action item.
  5079. @end table
  5080. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  5081. entries. Org mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  5082. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  5083. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  5084. @c
  5085. @code{<%%(org-float t 42)>}
  5086. @c
  5087. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org mode does not
  5088. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  5089. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  5090. sexp entry matches.
  5091. @menu
  5092. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  5093. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  5094. @end menu
  5095. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  5096. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  5097. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  5098. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  5099. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  5100. an item:
  5101. @table @kbd
  5102. @c
  5103. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  5104. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  5105. in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be
  5106. removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed
  5107. from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  5108. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  5109. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5110. deadline.
  5111. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  5112. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  5113. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  5114. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  5115. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  5116. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  5117. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  5118. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5119. scheduling time.
  5120. @c
  5121. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  5122. @kindex k a
  5123. @kindex k s
  5124. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  5125. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  5126. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  5127. schedule the marked item.
  5128. @c
  5129. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  5130. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  5131. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5132. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  5133. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  5134. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  5135. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  5136. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  5137. @c
  5138. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  5139. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  5140. @c
  5141. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  5142. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  5143. @end table
  5144. Note that @code{org-schedule} and @code{org-deadline} supports
  5145. setting the date by indicating a relative time: e.g. +1d will set
  5146. the date to the next day after today, and --1w will set the date
  5147. to the previous week before any current timestamp.
  5148. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  5149. @subsection Repeated tasks
  5150. @cindex tasks, repeated
  5151. @cindex repeated tasks
  5152. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org mode helps to
  5153. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  5154. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  5155. @example
  5156. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5157. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  5158. @end example
  5159. @noindent
  5160. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  5161. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  5162. from that time. You can use yearly, monthly, weekly, daily and hourly repeat
  5163. cookies by using the @code{y/w/m/d/h} letters. If you need both a repeater
  5164. and a special warning period in a deadline entry, the repeater should come
  5165. first and the warning period last: @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  5166. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  5167. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  5168. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  5169. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  5170. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  5171. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  5172. repeated entry will not be active. Org mode deals with this in the following
  5173. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  5174. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  5175. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  5176. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  5177. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  5178. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  5179. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  5180. switch the date like this:
  5181. @example
  5182. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5183. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  5184. @end example
  5185. @vindex org-log-repeat
  5186. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  5187. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  5188. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  5189. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  5190. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  5191. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  5192. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  5193. will be visible.
  5194. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  5195. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  5196. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  5197. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  5198. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  5199. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  5200. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  5201. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org mode has
  5202. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  5203. @example
  5204. ** TODO Call Father
  5205. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  5206. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  5207. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  5208. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  5209. and marked it done on Saturday.
  5210. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  5211. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  5212. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  5213. today.
  5214. @end example
  5215. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  5216. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  5217. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  5218. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  5219. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  5220. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  5221. @section Clocking work time
  5222. @cindex clocking time
  5223. @cindex time clocking
  5224. Org mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  5225. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock. When
  5226. you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the clock is
  5227. stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It also computes
  5228. the total time spent on each subtree@footnote{Clocking only works if all
  5229. headings are indented with less than 30 stars. This is a hardcoded
  5230. limitation of `lmax' in `org-clock-sum'.} of a project. And it remembers a
  5231. history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly between a
  5232. number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5233. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5234. @lisp
  5235. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5236. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5237. @end lisp
  5238. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5239. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5240. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5241. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5242. what to do with it.
  5243. @menu
  5244. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5245. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5246. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5247. @end menu
  5248. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5249. @subsection Clocking commands
  5250. @table @kbd
  5251. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5252. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5253. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5254. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  5255. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5256. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5257. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5258. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5259. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule
  5260. the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  5261. @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  5262. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5263. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5264. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task;
  5265. the default task will then always be available with letter @kbd{d} when
  5266. selecting a clocking task. With three @kbd{C-u C-u C-u} prefixes, force
  5267. continuous clocking by starting the clock when the last clock stopped.@*
  5268. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5269. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5270. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5271. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5272. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5273. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5274. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5275. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5276. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5277. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5278. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5279. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5280. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5281. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5282. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5283. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5284. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5285. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5286. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5287. @c
  5288. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5289. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5290. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5291. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5292. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5293. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5294. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5295. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5296. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5297. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-in-last}
  5298. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5299. Reclock the last clocked task. With one @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5300. select the task from the clock history. With two @kbd{C-u} prefixes,
  5301. force continuous clocking by starting the clock when the last clock
  5302. stopped.
  5303. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5304. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5305. @kindex C-c C-y
  5306. @kindex C-c C-c
  5307. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5308. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5309. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5310. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5311. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{up/down},org-clock-timestamps-up/down}
  5312. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease both timestamps at the same
  5313. time so that duration keeps the same.
  5314. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5315. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5316. if it is running in this same item.
  5317. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-q,org-clock-cancel}
  5318. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5319. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5320. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5321. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5322. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5323. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5324. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5325. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts
  5326. overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under
  5327. that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility
  5328. cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the
  5329. buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press
  5330. @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5331. @end table
  5332. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5333. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5334. worked on or closed during a day.
  5335. @strong{Important:} note that both @code{org-clock-out} and
  5336. @code{org-clock-in-last} can have a global keybinding and will not
  5337. modify the window disposition.
  5338. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5339. @subsection The clock table
  5340. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5341. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5342. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5343. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5344. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5345. @table @kbd
  5346. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5347. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5348. report as an Org mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5349. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5350. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5351. update it. The clock table always includes also trees with
  5352. @code{:ARCHIVE:} tag.
  5353. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5354. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5355. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5356. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5357. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5358. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5359. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5360. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5361. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5362. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5363. @end table
  5364. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5365. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5366. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5367. @example
  5368. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5369. #+END: clocktable
  5370. @end example
  5371. @noindent
  5372. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5373. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5374. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5375. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5376. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5377. be selected:
  5378. @example
  5379. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5380. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5381. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5382. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5383. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5384. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5385. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5386. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5387. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5388. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5389. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5390. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5391. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5392. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5393. @r{these formats:}
  5394. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5395. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5396. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5397. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5398. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5399. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5400. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5401. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5402. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5403. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5404. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5405. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5406. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5407. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5408. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5409. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5410. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5411. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5412. @end example
  5413. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5414. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5415. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5416. @example
  5417. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5418. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5419. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5420. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5421. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5422. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5423. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5424. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5425. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5426. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5427. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5428. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5429. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5430. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5431. :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each}
  5432. @r{property will get its own column.}
  5433. :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.}
  5434. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5435. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5436. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5437. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5438. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5439. @end example
  5440. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5441. day, you could write
  5442. @example
  5443. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5444. #+END: clocktable
  5445. @end example
  5446. @noindent
  5447. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5448. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5449. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5450. @example
  5451. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5452. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5453. #+END: clocktable
  5454. @end example
  5455. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5456. @example
  5457. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5458. #+END: clocktable
  5459. @end example
  5460. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5461. would be
  5462. @example
  5463. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5464. #+END: clocktable
  5465. @end example
  5466. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5467. @subsection Resolving idle time and continuous clocking
  5468. @subsubheading Resolving idle time
  5469. @cindex resolve idle time
  5470. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5471. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5472. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5473. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5474. applying it to another one.
  5475. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5476. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5477. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5478. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5479. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5480. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5481. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5482. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5483. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5484. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5485. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5486. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5487. @table @kbd
  5488. @item k
  5489. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5490. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5491. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5492. @item K
  5493. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5494. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5495. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5496. @item s
  5497. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5498. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5499. @item S
  5500. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5501. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5502. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5503. @item C
  5504. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5505. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5506. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5507. log with an empty entry.
  5508. @end table
  5509. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5510. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5511. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5512. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5513. the next task you clock in on.
  5514. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5515. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5516. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5517. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5518. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5519. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5520. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5521. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5522. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5523. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due
  5524. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5525. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5526. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5527. @subsubheading Continuous clocking
  5528. @cindex continuous clocking
  5529. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5530. You may want to start clocking from the time when you clocked out the
  5531. previous task. To enable this systematically, set @code{org-clock-continuously}
  5532. to @code{t}. Each time you clock in, Org retrieves the clock-out time of the
  5533. last clocked entry for this session, and start the new clock from there.
  5534. If you only want this from time to time, use three universal prefix arguments
  5535. with @code{org-clock-in} and two @kbd{C-u C-u} with @code{org-clock-in-last}.
  5536. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5537. @section Effort estimates
  5538. @cindex effort estimates
  5539. @cindex property, Effort
  5540. @vindex org-effort-property
  5541. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5542. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5543. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5544. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5545. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5546. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5547. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5548. for an entry with the following commands:
  5549. @table @kbd
  5550. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5551. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5552. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5553. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5554. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5555. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5556. @end table
  5557. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5558. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5559. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5560. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5561. buffer you can use
  5562. @example
  5563. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00
  5564. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5565. @end example
  5566. @noindent
  5567. @vindex org-global-properties
  5568. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5569. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5570. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5571. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5572. setup may be advised.
  5573. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5574. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5575. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5576. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5577. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5578. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5579. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5580. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5581. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5582. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5583. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5584. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5585. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5586. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5587. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5588. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5589. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5590. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5591. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5592. @cindex relative timer
  5593. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5594. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5595. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5596. @table @kbd
  5597. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5598. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5599. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5600. restarted.
  5601. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5602. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5603. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5604. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5605. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5606. new timer items.
  5607. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5608. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5609. @item C-c C-x ,
  5610. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5611. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5612. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5613. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5614. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5615. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5616. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5617. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5618. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5619. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5620. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5621. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5622. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5623. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5624. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5625. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5626. @end table
  5627. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5628. @section Countdown timer
  5629. @cindex Countdown timer
  5630. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5631. @kindex ;
  5632. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org mode buffer runs a countdown
  5633. timer. Use @kbd{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everywhere else.
  5634. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5635. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5636. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5637. default value.
  5638. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5639. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5640. @cindex capture
  5641. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5642. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5643. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5644. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5645. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5646. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5647. @menu
  5648. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5649. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5650. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5651. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5652. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5653. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5654. @end menu
  5655. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5656. @section Capture
  5657. @cindex capture
  5658. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5659. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5660. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org mode for
  5661. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5662. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5663. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5664. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5665. @example
  5666. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5667. @end example
  5668. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5669. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5670. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5671. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5672. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5673. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5674. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5675. @menu
  5676. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5677. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5678. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5679. @end menu
  5680. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5681. @subsection Setting up capture
  5682. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5683. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5684. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5685. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5686. @example
  5687. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5688. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5689. @end example
  5690. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5691. @subsection Using capture
  5692. @table @kbd
  5693. @orgcmd{C-c c,org-capture}
  5694. Call the command @code{org-capture}. Note that this keybinding is global and
  5695. not active by default - you need to install it. If you have templates
  5696. @cindex date tree
  5697. defined @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for
  5698. selection or use a new Org outline node as the default template. It will
  5699. insert the template into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer
  5700. narrowed to this new node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5701. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-capture-finalize}
  5702. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer, @kbd{C-c
  5703. C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture process,
  5704. so that you can resume your work without further distraction. When called
  5705. with a prefix arg, finalize and then jump to the captured item.
  5706. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-capture-refile}
  5707. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5708. a different place. Please realize that this is a normal refiling command
  5709. that will be executed---so the cursor position at the moment you run this
  5710. command is important. If you have inserted a tree with a parent and
  5711. children, first move the cursor back to the parent. Any prefix argument
  5712. given to this command will be passed on to the @code{org-refile} command.
  5713. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,org-capture-kill}
  5714. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5715. @end table
  5716. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5717. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5718. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5719. rather than to the current date.
  5720. To find the locations of the last stored capture, use @code{org-capture} with
  5721. prefix commands:
  5722. @table @kbd
  5723. @orgkey{C-u C-c c}
  5724. Visit the target location of a capture template. You get to select the
  5725. template in the usual way.
  5726. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-c c}
  5727. Visit the last stored capture item in its buffer.
  5728. @end table
  5729. @vindex org-capture-bookmark
  5730. @cindex org-capture-last-stored
  5731. You can also jump to the bookmark @code{org-capture-last-stored}, which will
  5732. automatically be created unless you set @code{org-capture-bookmark} to
  5733. @code{nil}.
  5734. To insert the capture at point in an Org buffer, call @code{org-capture} with
  5735. a @code{C-0} prefix argument.
  5736. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5737. @subsection Capture templates
  5738. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5739. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5740. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5741. through the customize interface.
  5742. @table @kbd
  5743. @orgkey{C-c c C}
  5744. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5745. @end table
  5746. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5747. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5748. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5749. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5750. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5751. would look like:
  5752. @example
  5753. (setq org-capture-templates
  5754. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5755. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5756. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5757. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5758. @end example
  5759. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5760. for you like this:
  5761. @example
  5762. * TODO
  5763. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5764. @end example
  5765. @noindent
  5766. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5767. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5768. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5769. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to t