org.texi 621 KB

12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576777879808182838485868788899091929394959697989910010110210310410510610710810911011111211311411511611711811912012112212312412512612712812913013113213313413513613713813914014114214314414514614714814915015115215315415515615715815916016116216316416516616716816917017117217317417517617717817918018118218318418518618718818919019119219319419519619719819920020120220320420520620720820921021121221321421521621721821922022122222322422522622722822923023123223323423523623723823924024124224324424524624724824925025125225325425525625725825926026126226326426526626726826927027127227327427527627727827928028128228328428528628728828929029129229329429529629729829930030130230330430530630730830931031131231331431531631731831932032132232332432532632732832933033133233333433533633733833934034134234334434534634734834935035135235335435535635735835936036136236336436536636736836937037137237337437537637737837938038138238338438538638738838939039139239339439539639739839940040140240340440540640740840941041141241341441541641741841942042142242342442542642742842943043143243343443543643743843944044144244344444544644744844945045145245345445545645745845946046146246346446546646746846947047147247347447547647747847948048148248348448548648748848949049149249349449549649749849950050150250350450550650750850951051151251351451551651751851952052152252352452552652752852953053153253353453553653753853954054154254354454554654754854955055155255355455555655755855956056156256356456556656756856957057157257357457557657757857958058158258358458558658758858959059159259359459559659759859960060160260360460560660760860961061161261361461561661761861962062162262362462562662762862963063163263363463563663763863964064164264364464564664764864965065165265365465565665765865966066166266366466566666766866967067167267367467567667767867968068168268368468568668768868969069169269369469569669769869970070170270370470570670770870971071171271371471571671771871972072172272372472572672772872973073173273373473573673773873974074174274374474574674774874975075175275375475575675775875976076176276376476576676776876977077177277377477577677777877978078178278378478578678778878979079179279379479579679779879980080180280380480580680780880981081181281381481581681781881982082182282382482582682782882983083183283383483583683783883984084184284384484584684784884985085185285385485585685785885986086186286386486586686786886987087187287387487587687787887988088188288388488588688788888989089189289389489589689789889990090190290390490590690790890991091191291391491591691791891992092192292392492592692792892993093193293393493593693793893994094194294394494594694794894995095195295395495595695795895996096196296396496596696796896997097197297397497597697797897998098198298398498598698798898999099199299399499599699799899910001001100210031004100510061007100810091010101110121013101410151016101710181019102010211022102310241025102610271028102910301031103210331034103510361037103810391040104110421043104410451046104710481049105010511052105310541055105610571058105910601061106210631064106510661067106810691070107110721073107410751076107710781079108010811082108310841085108610871088108910901091109210931094109510961097109810991100110111021103110411051106110711081109111011111112111311141115111611171118111911201121112211231124112511261127112811291130113111321133113411351136113711381139114011411142114311441145114611471148114911501151115211531154115511561157115811591160116111621163116411651166116711681169117011711172117311741175117611771178117911801181118211831184118511861187118811891190119111921193119411951196119711981199120012011202120312041205120612071208120912101211121212131214121512161217121812191220122112221223122412251226122712281229123012311232123312341235123612371238123912401241124212431244124512461247124812491250125112521253125412551256125712581259126012611262126312641265126612671268126912701271127212731274127512761277127812791280128112821283128412851286128712881289129012911292129312941295129612971298129913001301130213031304130513061307130813091310131113121313131413151316131713181319132013211322132313241325132613271328132913301331133213331334133513361337133813391340134113421343134413451346134713481349135013511352135313541355135613571358135913601361136213631364136513661367136813691370137113721373137413751376137713781379138013811382138313841385138613871388138913901391139213931394139513961397139813991400140114021403140414051406140714081409141014111412141314141415141614171418141914201421142214231424142514261427142814291430143114321433143414351436143714381439144014411442144314441445144614471448144914501451145214531454145514561457145814591460146114621463146414651466146714681469147014711472147314741475147614771478147914801481148214831484148514861487148814891490149114921493149414951496149714981499150015011502150315041505150615071508150915101511151215131514151515161517151815191520152115221523152415251526152715281529153015311532153315341535153615371538153915401541154215431544154515461547154815491550155115521553155415551556155715581559156015611562156315641565156615671568156915701571157215731574157515761577157815791580158115821583158415851586158715881589159015911592159315941595159615971598159916001601160216031604160516061607160816091610161116121613161416151616161716181619162016211622162316241625162616271628162916301631163216331634163516361637163816391640164116421643164416451646164716481649165016511652165316541655165616571658165916601661166216631664166516661667166816691670167116721673167416751676167716781679168016811682168316841685168616871688168916901691169216931694169516961697169816991700170117021703170417051706170717081709171017111712171317141715171617171718171917201721172217231724172517261727172817291730173117321733173417351736173717381739174017411742174317441745174617471748174917501751175217531754175517561757175817591760176117621763176417651766176717681769177017711772177317741775177617771778177917801781178217831784178517861787178817891790179117921793179417951796179717981799180018011802180318041805180618071808180918101811181218131814181518161817181818191820182118221823182418251826182718281829183018311832183318341835183618371838183918401841184218431844184518461847184818491850185118521853185418551856185718581859186018611862186318641865186618671868186918701871187218731874187518761877187818791880188118821883188418851886188718881889189018911892189318941895189618971898189919001901190219031904190519061907190819091910191119121913191419151916191719181919192019211922192319241925192619271928192919301931193219331934193519361937193819391940194119421943194419451946194719481949195019511952195319541955195619571958195919601961196219631964196519661967196819691970197119721973197419751976197719781979198019811982198319841985198619871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620172018201920202021202220232024202520262027202820292030203120322033203420352036203720382039204020412042204320442045204620472048204920502051205220532054205520562057205820592060206120622063206420652066206720682069207020712072207320742075207620772078207920802081208220832084208520862087208820892090209120922093209420952096209720982099210021012102210321042105210621072108210921102111211221132114211521162117211821192120212121222123212421252126212721282129213021312132213321342135213621372138213921402141214221432144214521462147214821492150215121522153215421552156215721582159216021612162216321642165216621672168216921702171217221732174217521762177217821792180218121822183218421852186218721882189219021912192219321942195219621972198219922002201220222032204220522062207220822092210221122122213221422152216221722182219222022212222222322242225222622272228222922302231223222332234223522362237223822392240224122422243224422452246224722482249225022512252225322542255225622572258225922602261226222632264226522662267226822692270227122722273227422752276227722782279228022812282228322842285228622872288228922902291229222932294229522962297229822992300230123022303230423052306230723082309231023112312231323142315231623172318231923202321232223232324232523262327232823292330233123322333233423352336233723382339234023412342234323442345234623472348234923502351235223532354235523562357235823592360236123622363236423652366236723682369237023712372237323742375237623772378237923802381238223832384238523862387238823892390239123922393239423952396239723982399240024012402240324042405240624072408240924102411241224132414241524162417241824192420242124222423242424252426242724282429243024312432243324342435243624372438243924402441244224432444244524462447244824492450245124522453245424552456245724582459246024612462246324642465246624672468246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249324942495249624972498249925002501250225032504250525062507250825092510251125122513251425152516251725182519252025212522252325242525252625272528252925302531253225332534253525362537253825392540254125422543254425452546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561256225632564256525662567256825692570257125722573257425752576257725782579258025812582258325842585258625872588258925902591259225932594259525962597259825992600260126022603260426052606260726082609261026112612261326142615261626172618261926202621262226232624262526262627262826292630263126322633263426352636263726382639264026412642264326442645264626472648264926502651265226532654265526562657265826592660266126622663266426652666266726682669267026712672267326742675267626772678267926802681268226832684268526862687268826892690269126922693269426952696269726982699270027012702270327042705270627072708270927102711271227132714271527162717271827192720272127222723272427252726272727282729273027312732273327342735273627372738273927402741274227432744274527462747274827492750275127522753275427552756275727582759276027612762276327642765276627672768276927702771277227732774277527762777277827792780278127822783278427852786278727882789279027912792279327942795279627972798279928002801280228032804280528062807280828092810281128122813281428152816281728182819282028212822282328242825282628272828282928302831283228332834283528362837283828392840284128422843284428452846284728482849285028512852285328542855285628572858285928602861286228632864286528662867286828692870287128722873287428752876287728782879288028812882288328842885288628872888288928902891289228932894289528962897289828992900290129022903290429052906290729082909291029112912291329142915291629172918291929202921292229232924292529262927292829292930293129322933293429352936293729382939294029412942294329442945294629472948294929502951295229532954295529562957295829592960296129622963296429652966296729682969297029712972297329742975297629772978297929802981298229832984298529862987298829892990299129922993299429952996299729982999300030013002300330043005300630073008300930103011301230133014301530163017301830193020302130223023302430253026302730283029303030313032303330343035303630373038303930403041304230433044304530463047304830493050305130523053305430553056305730583059306030613062306330643065306630673068306930703071307230733074307530763077307830793080308130823083308430853086308730883089309030913092309330943095309630973098309931003101310231033104310531063107310831093110311131123113311431153116311731183119312031213122312331243125312631273128312931303131313231333134313531363137313831393140314131423143314431453146314731483149315031513152315331543155315631573158315931603161316231633164316531663167316831693170317131723173317431753176317731783179318031813182318331843185318631873188318931903191319231933194319531963197319831993200320132023203320432053206320732083209321032113212321332143215321632173218321932203221322232233224322532263227322832293230323132323233323432353236323732383239324032413242324332443245324632473248324932503251325232533254325532563257325832593260326132623263326432653266326732683269327032713272327332743275327632773278327932803281328232833284328532863287328832893290329132923293329432953296329732983299330033013302330333043305330633073308330933103311331233133314331533163317331833193320332133223323332433253326332733283329333033313332333333343335333633373338333933403341334233433344334533463347334833493350335133523353335433553356335733583359336033613362336333643365336633673368336933703371337233733374337533763377337833793380338133823383338433853386338733883389339033913392339333943395339633973398339934003401340234033404340534063407340834093410341134123413341434153416341734183419342034213422342334243425342634273428342934303431343234333434343534363437343834393440344134423443344434453446344734483449345034513452345334543455345634573458345934603461346234633464346534663467346834693470347134723473347434753476347734783479348034813482348334843485348634873488348934903491349234933494349534963497349834993500350135023503350435053506350735083509351035113512351335143515351635173518351935203521352235233524352535263527352835293530353135323533353435353536353735383539354035413542354335443545354635473548354935503551355235533554355535563557355835593560356135623563356435653566356735683569357035713572357335743575357635773578357935803581358235833584358535863587358835893590359135923593359435953596359735983599360036013602360336043605360636073608360936103611361236133614361536163617361836193620362136223623362436253626362736283629363036313632363336343635363636373638363936403641364236433644364536463647364836493650365136523653365436553656365736583659366036613662366336643665366636673668366936703671367236733674367536763677367836793680368136823683368436853686368736883689369036913692369336943695369636973698369937003701370237033704370537063707370837093710371137123713371437153716371737183719372037213722372337243725372637273728372937303731373237333734373537363737373837393740374137423743374437453746374737483749375037513752375337543755375637573758375937603761376237633764376537663767376837693770377137723773377437753776377737783779378037813782378337843785378637873788378937903791379237933794379537963797379837993800380138023803380438053806380738083809381038113812381338143815381638173818381938203821382238233824382538263827382838293830383138323833383438353836383738383839384038413842384338443845384638473848384938503851385238533854385538563857385838593860386138623863386438653866386738683869387038713872387338743875387638773878387938803881388238833884388538863887388838893890389138923893389438953896389738983899390039013902390339043905390639073908390939103911391239133914391539163917391839193920392139223923392439253926392739283929393039313932393339343935393639373938393939403941394239433944394539463947394839493950395139523953395439553956395739583959396039613962396339643965396639673968396939703971397239733974397539763977397839793980398139823983398439853986398739883989399039913992399339943995399639973998399940004001400240034004400540064007400840094010401140124013401440154016401740184019402040214022402340244025402640274028402940304031403240334034403540364037403840394040404140424043404440454046404740484049405040514052405340544055405640574058405940604061406240634064406540664067406840694070407140724073407440754076407740784079408040814082408340844085408640874088408940904091409240934094409540964097409840994100410141024103410441054106410741084109411041114112411341144115411641174118411941204121412241234124412541264127412841294130413141324133413441354136413741384139414041414142414341444145414641474148414941504151415241534154415541564157415841594160416141624163416441654166416741684169417041714172417341744175417641774178417941804181418241834184418541864187418841894190419141924193419441954196419741984199420042014202420342044205420642074208420942104211421242134214421542164217421842194220422142224223422442254226422742284229423042314232423342344235423642374238423942404241424242434244424542464247424842494250425142524253425442554256425742584259426042614262426342644265426642674268426942704271427242734274427542764277427842794280428142824283428442854286428742884289429042914292429342944295429642974298429943004301430243034304430543064307430843094310431143124313431443154316431743184319432043214322432343244325432643274328432943304331433243334334433543364337433843394340434143424343434443454346434743484349435043514352435343544355435643574358435943604361436243634364436543664367436843694370437143724373437443754376437743784379438043814382438343844385438643874388438943904391439243934394439543964397439843994400440144024403440444054406440744084409441044114412441344144415441644174418441944204421442244234424442544264427442844294430443144324433443444354436443744384439444044414442444344444445444644474448444944504451445244534454445544564457445844594460446144624463446444654466446744684469447044714472447344744475447644774478447944804481448244834484448544864487448844894490449144924493449444954496449744984499450045014502450345044505450645074508450945104511451245134514451545164517451845194520452145224523452445254526452745284529453045314532453345344535453645374538453945404541454245434544454545464547454845494550455145524553455445554556455745584559456045614562456345644565456645674568456945704571457245734574457545764577457845794580458145824583458445854586458745884589459045914592459345944595459645974598459946004601460246034604460546064607460846094610461146124613461446154616461746184619462046214622462346244625462646274628462946304631463246334634463546364637463846394640464146424643464446454646464746484649465046514652465346544655465646574658465946604661466246634664466546664667466846694670467146724673467446754676467746784679468046814682468346844685468646874688468946904691469246934694469546964697469846994700470147024703470447054706470747084709471047114712471347144715471647174718471947204721472247234724472547264727472847294730473147324733473447354736473747384739474047414742474347444745474647474748474947504751475247534754475547564757475847594760476147624763476447654766476747684769477047714772477347744775477647774778477947804781478247834784478547864787478847894790479147924793479447954796479747984799480048014802480348044805480648074808480948104811481248134814481548164817481848194820482148224823482448254826482748284829483048314832483348344835483648374838483948404841484248434844484548464847484848494850485148524853485448554856485748584859486048614862486348644865486648674868486948704871487248734874487548764877487848794880488148824883488448854886488748884889489048914892489348944895489648974898489949004901490249034904490549064907490849094910491149124913491449154916491749184919492049214922492349244925492649274928492949304931493249334934493549364937493849394940494149424943494449454946494749484949495049514952495349544955495649574958495949604961496249634964496549664967496849694970497149724973497449754976497749784979498049814982498349844985498649874988498949904991499249934994499549964997499849995000500150025003500450055006500750085009501050115012501350145015501650175018501950205021502250235024502550265027502850295030503150325033503450355036503750385039504050415042504350445045504650475048504950505051505250535054505550565057505850595060506150625063506450655066506750685069507050715072507350745075507650775078507950805081508250835084508550865087508850895090509150925093509450955096509750985099510051015102510351045105510651075108510951105111511251135114511551165117511851195120512151225123512451255126512751285129513051315132513351345135513651375138513951405141514251435144514551465147514851495150515151525153515451555156515751585159516051615162516351645165516651675168516951705171517251735174517551765177517851795180518151825183518451855186518751885189519051915192519351945195519651975198519952005201520252035204520552065207520852095210521152125213521452155216521752185219522052215222522352245225522652275228522952305231523252335234523552365237523852395240524152425243524452455246524752485249525052515252525352545255525652575258525952605261526252635264526552665267526852695270527152725273527452755276527752785279528052815282528352845285528652875288528952905291529252935294529552965297529852995300530153025303530453055306530753085309531053115312531353145315531653175318531953205321532253235324532553265327532853295330533153325333533453355336533753385339534053415342534353445345534653475348534953505351535253535354535553565357535853595360536153625363536453655366536753685369537053715372537353745375537653775378537953805381538253835384538553865387538853895390539153925393539453955396539753985399540054015402540354045405540654075408540954105411541254135414541554165417541854195420542154225423542454255426542754285429543054315432543354345435543654375438543954405441544254435444544554465447544854495450545154525453545454555456545754585459546054615462546354645465546654675468546954705471547254735474547554765477547854795480548154825483548454855486548754885489549054915492549354945495549654975498549955005501550255035504550555065507550855095510551155125513551455155516551755185519552055215522552355245525552655275528552955305531553255335534553555365537553855395540554155425543554455455546554755485549555055515552555355545555555655575558555955605561556255635564556555665567556855695570557155725573557455755576557755785579558055815582558355845585558655875588558955905591559255935594559555965597559855995600560156025603560456055606560756085609561056115612561356145615561656175618561956205621562256235624562556265627562856295630563156325633563456355636563756385639564056415642564356445645564656475648564956505651565256535654565556565657565856595660566156625663566456655666566756685669567056715672567356745675567656775678567956805681568256835684568556865687568856895690569156925693569456955696569756985699570057015702570357045705570657075708570957105711571257135714571557165717571857195720572157225723572457255726572757285729573057315732573357345735573657375738573957405741574257435744574557465747574857495750575157525753575457555756575757585759576057615762576357645765576657675768576957705771577257735774577557765777577857795780578157825783578457855786578757885789579057915792579357945795579657975798579958005801580258035804580558065807580858095810581158125813581458155816581758185819582058215822582358245825582658275828582958305831583258335834583558365837583858395840584158425843584458455846584758485849585058515852585358545855585658575858585958605861586258635864586558665867586858695870587158725873587458755876587758785879588058815882588358845885588658875888588958905891589258935894589558965897589858995900590159025903590459055906590759085909591059115912591359145915591659175918591959205921592259235924592559265927592859295930593159325933593459355936593759385939594059415942594359445945594659475948594959505951595259535954595559565957595859595960596159625963596459655966596759685969597059715972597359745975597659775978597959805981598259835984598559865987598859895990599159925993599459955996599759985999600060016002600360046005600660076008600960106011601260136014601560166017601860196020602160226023602460256026602760286029603060316032603360346035603660376038603960406041604260436044604560466047604860496050605160526053605460556056605760586059606060616062606360646065606660676068606960706071607260736074607560766077607860796080608160826083608460856086608760886089609060916092609360946095609660976098609961006101610261036104610561066107610861096110611161126113611461156116611761186119612061216122612361246125612661276128612961306131613261336134613561366137613861396140614161426143614461456146614761486149615061516152615361546155615661576158615961606161616261636164616561666167616861696170617161726173617461756176617761786179618061816182618361846185618661876188618961906191619261936194619561966197619861996200620162026203620462056206620762086209621062116212621362146215621662176218621962206221622262236224622562266227622862296230623162326233623462356236623762386239624062416242624362446245624662476248624962506251625262536254625562566257625862596260626162626263626462656266626762686269627062716272627362746275627662776278627962806281628262836284628562866287628862896290629162926293629462956296629762986299630063016302630363046305630663076308630963106311631263136314631563166317631863196320632163226323632463256326632763286329633063316332633363346335633663376338633963406341634263436344634563466347634863496350635163526353635463556356635763586359636063616362636363646365636663676368636963706371637263736374637563766377637863796380638163826383638463856386638763886389639063916392639363946395639663976398639964006401640264036404640564066407640864096410641164126413641464156416641764186419642064216422642364246425642664276428642964306431643264336434643564366437643864396440644164426443644464456446644764486449645064516452645364546455645664576458645964606461646264636464646564666467646864696470647164726473647464756476647764786479648064816482648364846485648664876488648964906491649264936494649564966497649864996500650165026503650465056506650765086509651065116512651365146515651665176518651965206521652265236524652565266527652865296530653165326533653465356536653765386539654065416542654365446545654665476548654965506551655265536554655565566557655865596560656165626563656465656566656765686569657065716572657365746575657665776578657965806581658265836584658565866587658865896590659165926593659465956596659765986599660066016602660366046605660666076608660966106611661266136614661566166617661866196620662166226623662466256626662766286629663066316632663366346635663666376638663966406641664266436644664566466647664866496650665166526653665466556656665766586659666066616662666366646665666666676668666966706671667266736674667566766677667866796680668166826683668466856686668766886689669066916692669366946695669666976698669967006701670267036704670567066707670867096710671167126713671467156716671767186719672067216722672367246725672667276728672967306731673267336734673567366737673867396740674167426743674467456746674767486749675067516752675367546755675667576758675967606761676267636764676567666767676867696770677167726773677467756776677767786779678067816782678367846785678667876788678967906791679267936794679567966797679867996800680168026803680468056806680768086809681068116812681368146815681668176818681968206821682268236824682568266827682868296830683168326833683468356836683768386839684068416842684368446845684668476848684968506851685268536854685568566857685868596860686168626863686468656866686768686869687068716872687368746875687668776878687968806881688268836884688568866887688868896890689168926893689468956896689768986899690069016902690369046905690669076908690969106911691269136914691569166917691869196920692169226923692469256926692769286929693069316932693369346935693669376938693969406941694269436944694569466947694869496950695169526953695469556956695769586959696069616962696369646965696669676968696969706971697269736974697569766977697869796980698169826983698469856986698769886989699069916992699369946995699669976998699970007001700270037004700570067007700870097010701170127013701470157016701770187019702070217022702370247025702670277028702970307031703270337034703570367037703870397040704170427043704470457046704770487049705070517052705370547055705670577058705970607061706270637064706570667067706870697070707170727073707470757076707770787079708070817082708370847085708670877088708970907091709270937094709570967097709870997100710171027103710471057106710771087109711071117112711371147115711671177118711971207121712271237124712571267127712871297130713171327133713471357136713771387139714071417142714371447145714671477148714971507151715271537154715571567157715871597160716171627163716471657166716771687169717071717172717371747175717671777178717971807181718271837184718571867187718871897190719171927193719471957196719771987199720072017202720372047205720672077208720972107211721272137214721572167217721872197220722172227223722472257226722772287229723072317232723372347235723672377238723972407241724272437244724572467247724872497250725172527253725472557256725772587259726072617262726372647265726672677268726972707271727272737274727572767277727872797280728172827283728472857286728772887289729072917292729372947295729672977298729973007301730273037304730573067307730873097310731173127313731473157316731773187319732073217322732373247325732673277328732973307331733273337334733573367337733873397340734173427343734473457346734773487349735073517352735373547355735673577358735973607361736273637364736573667367736873697370737173727373737473757376737773787379738073817382738373847385738673877388738973907391739273937394739573967397739873997400740174027403740474057406740774087409741074117412741374147415741674177418741974207421742274237424742574267427742874297430743174327433743474357436743774387439744074417442744374447445744674477448744974507451745274537454745574567457745874597460746174627463746474657466746774687469747074717472747374747475747674777478747974807481748274837484748574867487748874897490749174927493749474957496749774987499750075017502750375047505750675077508750975107511751275137514751575167517751875197520752175227523752475257526752775287529753075317532753375347535753675377538753975407541754275437544754575467547754875497550755175527553755475557556755775587559756075617562756375647565756675677568756975707571757275737574757575767577757875797580758175827583758475857586758775887589759075917592759375947595759675977598759976007601760276037604760576067607760876097610761176127613761476157616761776187619762076217622762376247625762676277628762976307631763276337634763576367637763876397640764176427643764476457646764776487649765076517652765376547655765676577658765976607661766276637664766576667667766876697670767176727673767476757676767776787679768076817682768376847685768676877688768976907691769276937694769576967697769876997700770177027703770477057706770777087709771077117712771377147715771677177718771977207721772277237724772577267727772877297730773177327733773477357736773777387739774077417742774377447745774677477748774977507751775277537754775577567757775877597760776177627763776477657766776777687769777077717772777377747775777677777778777977807781778277837784778577867787778877897790779177927793779477957796779777987799780078017802780378047805780678077808780978107811781278137814781578167817781878197820782178227823782478257826782778287829783078317832783378347835783678377838783978407841784278437844784578467847784878497850785178527853785478557856785778587859786078617862786378647865786678677868786978707871787278737874787578767877787878797880788178827883788478857886788778887889789078917892789378947895789678977898789979007901790279037904790579067907790879097910791179127913791479157916791779187919792079217922792379247925792679277928792979307931793279337934793579367937793879397940794179427943794479457946794779487949795079517952795379547955795679577958795979607961796279637964796579667967796879697970797179727973797479757976797779787979798079817982798379847985798679877988798979907991799279937994799579967997799879998000800180028003800480058006800780088009801080118012801380148015801680178018801980208021802280238024802580268027802880298030803180328033803480358036803780388039804080418042804380448045804680478048804980508051805280538054805580568057805880598060806180628063806480658066806780688069807080718072807380748075807680778078807980808081808280838084808580868087808880898090809180928093809480958096809780988099810081018102810381048105810681078108810981108111811281138114811581168117811881198120812181228123812481258126812781288129813081318132813381348135813681378138813981408141814281438144814581468147814881498150815181528153815481558156815781588159816081618162816381648165816681678168816981708171817281738174817581768177817881798180818181828183818481858186818781888189819081918192819381948195819681978198819982008201820282038204820582068207820882098210821182128213821482158216821782188219822082218222822382248225822682278228822982308231823282338234823582368237823882398240824182428243824482458246824782488249825082518252825382548255825682578258825982608261826282638264826582668267826882698270827182728273827482758276827782788279828082818282828382848285828682878288828982908291829282938294829582968297829882998300830183028303830483058306830783088309831083118312831383148315831683178318831983208321832283238324832583268327832883298330833183328333833483358336833783388339834083418342834383448345834683478348834983508351835283538354835583568357835883598360836183628363836483658366836783688369837083718372837383748375837683778378837983808381838283838384838583868387838883898390839183928393839483958396839783988399840084018402840384048405840684078408840984108411841284138414841584168417841884198420842184228423842484258426842784288429843084318432843384348435843684378438843984408441844284438444844584468447844884498450845184528453845484558456845784588459846084618462846384648465846684678468846984708471847284738474847584768477847884798480848184828483848484858486848784888489849084918492849384948495849684978498849985008501850285038504850585068507850885098510851185128513851485158516851785188519852085218522852385248525852685278528852985308531853285338534853585368537853885398540854185428543854485458546854785488549855085518552855385548555855685578558855985608561856285638564856585668567856885698570857185728573857485758576857785788579858085818582858385848585858685878588858985908591859285938594859585968597859885998600860186028603860486058606860786088609861086118612861386148615861686178618861986208621862286238624862586268627862886298630863186328633863486358636863786388639864086418642864386448645864686478648864986508651865286538654865586568657865886598660866186628663866486658666866786688669867086718672867386748675867686778678867986808681868286838684868586868687868886898690869186928693869486958696869786988699870087018702870387048705870687078708870987108711871287138714871587168717871887198720872187228723872487258726872787288729873087318732873387348735873687378738873987408741874287438744874587468747874887498750875187528753875487558756875787588759876087618762876387648765876687678768876987708771877287738774877587768777877887798780878187828783878487858786878787888789879087918792879387948795879687978798879988008801880288038804880588068807880888098810881188128813881488158816881788188819882088218822882388248825882688278828882988308831883288338834883588368837883888398840884188428843884488458846884788488849885088518852885388548855885688578858885988608861886288638864886588668867886888698870887188728873887488758876887788788879888088818882888388848885888688878888888988908891889288938894889588968897889888998900890189028903890489058906890789088909891089118912891389148915891689178918891989208921892289238924892589268927892889298930893189328933893489358936893789388939894089418942894389448945894689478948894989508951895289538954895589568957895889598960896189628963896489658966896789688969897089718972897389748975897689778978897989808981898289838984898589868987898889898990899189928993899489958996899789988999900090019002900390049005900690079008900990109011901290139014901590169017901890199020902190229023902490259026902790289029903090319032903390349035903690379038903990409041904290439044904590469047904890499050905190529053905490559056905790589059906090619062906390649065906690679068906990709071907290739074907590769077907890799080908190829083908490859086908790889089909090919092909390949095909690979098909991009101910291039104910591069107910891099110911191129113911491159116911791189119912091219122912391249125912691279128912991309131913291339134913591369137913891399140914191429143914491459146914791489149915091519152915391549155915691579158915991609161916291639164916591669167916891699170917191729173917491759176917791789179918091819182918391849185918691879188918991909191919291939194919591969197919891999200920192029203920492059206920792089209921092119212921392149215921692179218921992209221922292239224922592269227922892299230923192329233923492359236923792389239924092419242924392449245924692479248924992509251925292539254925592569257925892599260926192629263926492659266926792689269927092719272927392749275927692779278927992809281928292839284928592869287928892899290929192929293929492959296929792989299930093019302930393049305930693079308930993109311931293139314931593169317931893199320932193229323932493259326932793289329933093319332933393349335933693379338933993409341934293439344934593469347934893499350935193529353935493559356935793589359936093619362936393649365936693679368936993709371937293739374937593769377937893799380938193829383938493859386938793889389939093919392939393949395939693979398939994009401940294039404940594069407940894099410941194129413941494159416941794189419942094219422942394249425942694279428942994309431943294339434943594369437943894399440944194429443944494459446944794489449945094519452945394549455945694579458945994609461946294639464946594669467946894699470947194729473947494759476947794789479948094819482948394849485948694879488948994909491949294939494949594969497949894999500950195029503950495059506950795089509951095119512951395149515951695179518951995209521952295239524952595269527952895299530953195329533953495359536953795389539954095419542954395449545954695479548954995509551955295539554955595569557955895599560956195629563956495659566956795689569957095719572957395749575957695779578957995809581958295839584958595869587958895899590959195929593959495959596959795989599960096019602960396049605960696079608960996109611961296139614961596169617961896199620962196229623962496259626962796289629963096319632963396349635963696379638963996409641964296439644964596469647964896499650965196529653965496559656965796589659966096619662966396649665966696679668966996709671967296739674967596769677967896799680968196829683968496859686968796889689969096919692969396949695969696979698969997009701970297039704970597069707970897099710971197129713971497159716971797189719972097219722972397249725972697279728972997309731973297339734973597369737973897399740974197429743974497459746974797489749975097519752975397549755975697579758975997609761976297639764976597669767976897699770977197729773977497759776977797789779978097819782978397849785978697879788978997909791979297939794979597969797979897999800980198029803980498059806980798089809981098119812981398149815981698179818981998209821982298239824982598269827982898299830983198329833983498359836983798389839984098419842984398449845984698479848984998509851985298539854985598569857985898599860986198629863986498659866986798689869987098719872987398749875987698779878987998809881988298839884988598869887988898899890989198929893989498959896989798989899990099019902990399049905990699079908990999109911991299139914991599169917991899199920992199229923992499259926992799289929993099319932993399349935993699379938993999409941994299439944994599469947994899499950995199529953995499559956995799589959996099619962996399649965996699679968996999709971997299739974997599769977997899799980998199829983998499859986998799889989999099919992999399949995999699979998999910000100011000210003100041000510006100071000810009100101001110012100131001410015100161001710018100191002010021100221002310024100251002610027100281002910030100311003210033100341003510036100371003810039100401004110042100431004410045100461004710048100491005010051100521005310054100551005610057100581005910060100611006210063100641006510066100671006810069100701007110072100731007410075100761007710078100791008010081100821008310084100851008610087100881008910090100911009210093100941009510096100971009810099101001010110102101031010410105101061010710108101091011010111101121011310114101151011610117101181011910120101211012210123101241012510126101271012810129101301013110132101331013410135101361013710138101391014010141101421014310144101451014610147101481014910150101511015210153101541015510156101571015810159101601016110162101631016410165101661016710168101691017010171101721017310174101751017610177101781017910180101811018210183101841018510186101871018810189101901019110192101931019410195101961019710198101991020010201102021020310204102051020610207102081020910210102111021210213102141021510216102171021810219102201022110222102231022410225102261022710228102291023010231102321023310234102351023610237102381023910240102411024210243102441024510246102471024810249102501025110252102531025410255102561025710258102591026010261102621026310264102651026610267102681026910270102711027210273102741027510276102771027810279102801028110282102831028410285102861028710288102891029010291102921029310294102951029610297102981029910300103011030210303103041030510306103071030810309103101031110312103131031410315103161031710318103191032010321103221032310324103251032610327103281032910330103311033210333103341033510336103371033810339103401034110342103431034410345103461034710348103491035010351103521035310354103551035610357103581035910360103611036210363103641036510366103671036810369103701037110372103731037410375103761037710378103791038010381103821038310384103851038610387103881038910390103911039210393103941039510396103971039810399104001040110402104031040410405104061040710408104091041010411104121041310414104151041610417104181041910420104211042210423104241042510426104271042810429104301043110432104331043410435104361043710438104391044010441104421044310444104451044610447104481044910450104511045210453104541045510456104571045810459104601046110462104631046410465104661046710468104691047010471104721047310474104751047610477104781047910480104811048210483104841048510486104871048810489104901049110492104931049410495104961049710498104991050010501105021050310504105051050610507105081050910510105111051210513105141051510516105171051810519105201052110522105231052410525105261052710528105291053010531105321053310534105351053610537105381053910540105411054210543105441054510546105471054810549105501055110552105531055410555105561055710558105591056010561105621056310564105651056610567105681056910570105711057210573105741057510576105771057810579105801058110582105831058410585105861058710588105891059010591105921059310594105951059610597105981059910600106011060210603106041060510606106071060810609106101061110612106131061410615106161061710618106191062010621106221062310624106251062610627106281062910630106311063210633106341063510636106371063810639106401064110642106431064410645106461064710648106491065010651106521065310654106551065610657106581065910660106611066210663106641066510666106671066810669106701067110672106731067410675106761067710678106791068010681106821068310684106851068610687106881068910690106911069210693106941069510696106971069810699107001070110702107031070410705107061070710708107091071010711107121071310714107151071610717107181071910720107211072210723107241072510726107271072810729107301073110732107331073410735107361073710738107391074010741107421074310744107451074610747107481074910750107511075210753107541075510756107571075810759107601076110762107631076410765107661076710768107691077010771107721077310774107751077610777107781077910780107811078210783107841078510786107871078810789107901079110792107931079410795107961079710798107991080010801108021080310804108051080610807108081080910810108111081210813108141081510816108171081810819108201082110822108231082410825108261082710828108291083010831108321083310834108351083610837108381083910840108411084210843108441084510846108471084810849108501085110852108531085410855108561085710858108591086010861108621086310864108651086610867108681086910870108711087210873108741087510876108771087810879108801088110882108831088410885108861088710888108891089010891108921089310894108951089610897108981089910900109011090210903109041090510906109071090810909109101091110912109131091410915109161091710918109191092010921109221092310924109251092610927109281092910930109311093210933109341093510936109371093810939109401094110942109431094410945109461094710948109491095010951109521095310954109551095610957109581095910960109611096210963109641096510966109671096810969109701097110972109731097410975109761097710978109791098010981109821098310984109851098610987109881098910990109911099210993109941099510996109971099810999110001100111002110031100411005110061100711008110091101011011110121101311014110151101611017110181101911020110211102211023110241102511026110271102811029110301103111032110331103411035110361103711038110391104011041110421104311044110451104611047110481104911050110511105211053110541105511056110571105811059110601106111062110631106411065110661106711068110691107011071110721107311074110751107611077110781107911080110811108211083110841108511086110871108811089110901109111092110931109411095110961109711098110991110011101111021110311104111051110611107111081110911110111111111211113111141111511116111171111811119111201112111122111231112411125111261112711128111291113011131111321113311134111351113611137111381113911140111411114211143111441114511146111471114811149111501115111152111531115411155111561115711158111591116011161111621116311164111651116611167111681116911170111711117211173111741117511176111771117811179111801118111182111831118411185111861118711188111891119011191111921119311194111951119611197111981119911200112011120211203112041120511206112071120811209112101121111212112131121411215112161121711218112191122011221112221122311224112251122611227112281122911230112311123211233112341123511236112371123811239112401124111242112431124411245112461124711248112491125011251112521125311254112551125611257112581125911260112611126211263112641126511266112671126811269112701127111272112731127411275112761127711278112791128011281112821128311284112851128611287112881128911290112911129211293112941129511296112971129811299113001130111302113031130411305113061130711308113091131011311113121131311314113151131611317113181131911320113211132211323113241132511326113271132811329113301133111332113331133411335113361133711338113391134011341113421134311344113451134611347113481134911350113511135211353113541135511356113571135811359113601136111362113631136411365113661136711368113691137011371113721137311374113751137611377113781137911380113811138211383113841138511386113871138811389113901139111392113931139411395113961139711398113991140011401114021140311404114051140611407114081140911410114111141211413114141141511416114171141811419114201142111422114231142411425114261142711428114291143011431114321143311434114351143611437114381143911440114411144211443114441144511446114471144811449114501145111452114531145411455114561145711458114591146011461114621146311464114651146611467114681146911470114711147211473114741147511476114771147811479114801148111482114831148411485114861148711488114891149011491114921149311494114951149611497114981149911500115011150211503115041150511506115071150811509115101151111512115131151411515115161151711518115191152011521115221152311524115251152611527115281152911530115311153211533115341153511536115371153811539115401154111542115431154411545115461154711548115491155011551115521155311554115551155611557115581155911560115611156211563115641156511566115671156811569115701157111572115731157411575115761157711578115791158011581115821158311584115851158611587115881158911590115911159211593115941159511596115971159811599116001160111602116031160411605116061160711608116091161011611116121161311614116151161611617116181161911620116211162211623116241162511626116271162811629116301163111632116331163411635116361163711638116391164011641116421164311644116451164611647116481164911650116511165211653116541165511656116571165811659116601166111662116631166411665116661166711668116691167011671116721167311674116751167611677116781167911680116811168211683116841168511686116871168811689116901169111692116931169411695116961169711698116991170011701117021170311704117051170611707117081170911710117111171211713117141171511716117171171811719117201172111722117231172411725117261172711728117291173011731117321173311734117351173611737117381173911740117411174211743117441174511746117471174811749117501175111752117531175411755117561175711758117591176011761117621176311764117651176611767117681176911770117711177211773117741177511776117771177811779117801178111782117831178411785117861178711788117891179011791117921179311794117951179611797117981179911800118011180211803118041180511806118071180811809118101181111812118131181411815118161181711818118191182011821118221182311824118251182611827118281182911830118311183211833118341183511836118371183811839118401184111842118431184411845118461184711848118491185011851118521185311854118551185611857118581185911860118611186211863118641186511866118671186811869118701187111872118731187411875118761187711878118791188011881118821188311884118851188611887118881188911890118911189211893118941189511896118971189811899119001190111902119031190411905119061190711908119091191011911119121191311914119151191611917119181191911920119211192211923119241192511926119271192811929119301193111932119331193411935119361193711938119391194011941119421194311944119451194611947119481194911950119511195211953119541195511956119571195811959119601196111962119631196411965119661196711968119691197011971119721197311974119751197611977119781197911980119811198211983119841198511986119871198811989119901199111992119931199411995119961199711998119991200012001120021200312004120051200612007120081200912010120111201212013120141201512016120171201812019120201202112022120231202412025120261202712028120291203012031120321203312034120351203612037120381203912040120411204212043120441204512046120471204812049120501205112052120531205412055120561205712058120591206012061120621206312064120651206612067120681206912070120711207212073120741207512076120771207812079120801208112082120831208412085120861208712088120891209012091120921209312094120951209612097120981209912100121011210212103121041210512106121071210812109121101211112112121131211412115121161211712118121191212012121121221212312124121251212612127121281212912130121311213212133121341213512136121371213812139121401214112142121431214412145121461214712148121491215012151121521215312154121551215612157121581215912160121611216212163121641216512166121671216812169121701217112172121731217412175121761217712178121791218012181121821218312184121851218612187121881218912190121911219212193121941219512196121971219812199122001220112202122031220412205122061220712208122091221012211122121221312214122151221612217122181221912220122211222212223122241222512226122271222812229122301223112232122331223412235122361223712238122391224012241122421224312244122451224612247122481224912250122511225212253122541225512256122571225812259122601226112262122631226412265122661226712268122691227012271122721227312274122751227612277122781227912280122811228212283122841228512286122871228812289122901229112292122931229412295122961229712298122991230012301123021230312304123051230612307123081230912310123111231212313123141231512316123171231812319123201232112322123231232412325123261232712328123291233012331123321233312334123351233612337123381233912340123411234212343123441234512346123471234812349123501235112352123531235412355123561235712358123591236012361123621236312364123651236612367123681236912370123711237212373123741237512376123771237812379123801238112382123831238412385123861238712388123891239012391123921239312394123951239612397123981239912400124011240212403124041240512406124071240812409124101241112412124131241412415124161241712418124191242012421124221242312424124251242612427124281242912430124311243212433124341243512436124371243812439124401244112442124431244412445124461244712448124491245012451124521245312454124551245612457124581245912460124611246212463124641246512466124671246812469124701247112472124731247412475124761247712478124791248012481124821248312484124851248612487124881248912490124911249212493124941249512496124971249812499125001250112502125031250412505125061250712508125091251012511125121251312514125151251612517125181251912520125211252212523125241252512526125271252812529125301253112532125331253412535125361253712538125391254012541125421254312544125451254612547125481254912550125511255212553125541255512556125571255812559125601256112562125631256412565125661256712568125691257012571125721257312574125751257612577125781257912580125811258212583125841258512586125871258812589125901259112592125931259412595125961259712598125991260012601126021260312604126051260612607126081260912610126111261212613126141261512616126171261812619126201262112622126231262412625126261262712628126291263012631126321263312634126351263612637126381263912640126411264212643126441264512646126471264812649126501265112652126531265412655126561265712658126591266012661126621266312664126651266612667126681266912670126711267212673126741267512676126771267812679126801268112682126831268412685126861268712688126891269012691126921269312694126951269612697126981269912700127011270212703127041270512706127071270812709127101271112712127131271412715127161271712718127191272012721127221272312724127251272612727127281272912730127311273212733127341273512736127371273812739127401274112742127431274412745127461274712748127491275012751127521275312754127551275612757127581275912760127611276212763127641276512766127671276812769127701277112772127731277412775127761277712778127791278012781127821278312784127851278612787127881278912790127911279212793127941279512796127971279812799128001280112802128031280412805128061280712808128091281012811128121281312814128151281612817128181281912820128211282212823128241282512826128271282812829128301283112832128331283412835128361283712838128391284012841128421284312844128451284612847128481284912850128511285212853128541285512856128571285812859128601286112862128631286412865128661286712868128691287012871128721287312874128751287612877128781287912880128811288212883128841288512886128871288812889128901289112892128931289412895128961289712898128991290012901129021290312904129051290612907129081290912910129111291212913129141291512916129171291812919129201292112922129231292412925129261292712928129291293012931129321293312934129351293612937129381293912940129411294212943129441294512946129471294812949129501295112952129531295412955129561295712958129591296012961129621296312964129651296612967129681296912970129711297212973129741297512976129771297812979129801298112982129831298412985129861298712988129891299012991129921299312994129951299612997129981299913000130011300213003130041300513006130071300813009130101301113012130131301413015130161301713018130191302013021130221302313024130251302613027130281302913030130311303213033130341303513036130371303813039130401304113042130431304413045130461304713048130491305013051130521305313054130551305613057130581305913060130611306213063130641306513066130671306813069130701307113072130731307413075130761307713078130791308013081130821308313084130851308613087130881308913090130911309213093130941309513096130971309813099131001310113102131031310413105131061310713108131091311013111131121311313114131151311613117131181311913120131211312213123131241312513126131271312813129131301313113132131331313413135131361313713138131391314013141131421314313144131451314613147131481314913150131511315213153131541315513156131571315813159131601316113162131631316413165131661316713168131691317013171131721317313174131751317613177131781317913180131811318213183131841318513186131871318813189131901319113192131931319413195131961319713198131991320013201132021320313204132051320613207132081320913210132111321213213132141321513216132171321813219132201322113222132231322413225132261322713228132291323013231132321323313234132351323613237132381323913240132411324213243132441324513246132471324813249132501325113252132531325413255132561325713258132591326013261132621326313264132651326613267132681326913270132711327213273132741327513276132771327813279132801328113282132831328413285132861328713288132891329013291132921329313294132951329613297132981329913300133011330213303133041330513306133071330813309133101331113312133131331413315133161331713318133191332013321133221332313324133251332613327133281332913330133311333213333133341333513336133371333813339133401334113342133431334413345133461334713348133491335013351133521335313354133551335613357133581335913360133611336213363133641336513366133671336813369133701337113372133731337413375133761337713378133791338013381133821338313384133851338613387133881338913390133911339213393133941339513396133971339813399134001340113402134031340413405134061340713408134091341013411134121341313414134151341613417134181341913420134211342213423134241342513426134271342813429134301343113432134331343413435134361343713438134391344013441134421344313444134451344613447134481344913450134511345213453134541345513456134571345813459134601346113462134631346413465134661346713468134691347013471134721347313474134751347613477134781347913480134811348213483134841348513486134871348813489134901349113492134931349413495134961349713498134991350013501135021350313504135051350613507135081350913510135111351213513135141351513516135171351813519135201352113522135231352413525135261352713528135291353013531135321353313534135351353613537135381353913540135411354213543135441354513546135471354813549135501355113552135531355413555135561355713558135591356013561135621356313564135651356613567135681356913570135711357213573135741357513576135771357813579135801358113582135831358413585135861358713588135891359013591135921359313594135951359613597135981359913600136011360213603136041360513606136071360813609136101361113612136131361413615136161361713618136191362013621136221362313624136251362613627136281362913630136311363213633136341363513636136371363813639136401364113642136431364413645136461364713648136491365013651136521365313654136551365613657136581365913660136611366213663136641366513666136671366813669136701367113672136731367413675136761367713678136791368013681136821368313684136851368613687136881368913690136911369213693136941369513696136971369813699137001370113702137031370413705137061370713708137091371013711137121371313714137151371613717137181371913720137211372213723137241372513726137271372813729137301373113732137331373413735137361373713738137391374013741137421374313744137451374613747137481374913750137511375213753137541375513756137571375813759137601376113762137631376413765137661376713768137691377013771137721377313774137751377613777137781377913780137811378213783137841378513786137871378813789137901379113792137931379413795137961379713798137991380013801138021380313804138051380613807138081380913810138111381213813138141381513816138171381813819138201382113822138231382413825138261382713828138291383013831138321383313834138351383613837138381383913840138411384213843138441384513846138471384813849138501385113852138531385413855138561385713858138591386013861138621386313864138651386613867138681386913870138711387213873138741387513876138771387813879138801388113882138831388413885138861388713888138891389013891138921389313894138951389613897138981389913900139011390213903139041390513906139071390813909139101391113912139131391413915139161391713918139191392013921139221392313924139251392613927139281392913930139311393213933139341393513936139371393813939139401394113942139431394413945139461394713948139491395013951139521395313954139551395613957139581395913960139611396213963139641396513966139671396813969139701397113972139731397413975139761397713978139791398013981139821398313984139851398613987139881398913990139911399213993139941399513996139971399813999140001400114002140031400414005140061400714008140091401014011140121401314014140151401614017140181401914020140211402214023140241402514026140271402814029140301403114032140331403414035140361403714038140391404014041140421404314044140451404614047140481404914050140511405214053140541405514056140571405814059140601406114062140631406414065140661406714068140691407014071140721407314074140751407614077140781407914080140811408214083140841408514086140871408814089140901409114092140931409414095140961409714098140991410014101141021410314104141051410614107141081410914110141111411214113141141411514116141171411814119141201412114122141231412414125141261412714128141291413014131141321413314134141351413614137141381413914140141411414214143141441414514146141471414814149141501415114152141531415414155141561415714158141591416014161141621416314164141651416614167141681416914170141711417214173141741417514176141771417814179141801418114182141831418414185141861418714188141891419014191141921419314194141951419614197141981419914200142011420214203142041420514206142071420814209142101421114212142131421414215142161421714218142191422014221142221422314224142251422614227142281422914230142311423214233142341423514236142371423814239142401424114242142431424414245142461424714248142491425014251142521425314254142551425614257142581425914260142611426214263142641426514266142671426814269142701427114272142731427414275142761427714278142791428014281142821428314284142851428614287142881428914290142911429214293142941429514296142971429814299143001430114302143031430414305143061430714308143091431014311143121431314314143151431614317143181431914320143211432214323143241432514326143271432814329143301433114332143331433414335143361433714338143391434014341143421434314344143451434614347143481434914350143511435214353143541435514356143571435814359143601436114362143631436414365143661436714368143691437014371143721437314374143751437614377143781437914380143811438214383143841438514386143871438814389143901439114392143931439414395143961439714398143991440014401144021440314404144051440614407144081440914410144111441214413144141441514416144171441814419144201442114422144231442414425144261442714428144291443014431144321443314434144351443614437144381443914440144411444214443144441444514446144471444814449144501445114452144531445414455144561445714458144591446014461144621446314464144651446614467144681446914470144711447214473144741447514476144771447814479144801448114482144831448414485144861448714488144891449014491144921449314494144951449614497144981449914500145011450214503145041450514506145071450814509145101451114512145131451414515145161451714518145191452014521145221452314524145251452614527145281452914530145311453214533145341453514536145371453814539145401454114542145431454414545145461454714548145491455014551145521455314554145551455614557145581455914560145611456214563145641456514566145671456814569145701457114572145731457414575145761457714578145791458014581145821458314584145851458614587145881458914590145911459214593145941459514596145971459814599146001460114602146031460414605146061460714608146091461014611146121461314614146151461614617146181461914620146211462214623146241462514626146271462814629146301463114632146331463414635146361463714638146391464014641146421464314644146451464614647146481464914650146511465214653146541465514656146571465814659146601466114662146631466414665146661466714668146691467014671146721467314674146751467614677146781467914680146811468214683146841468514686146871468814689146901469114692146931469414695146961469714698146991470014701147021470314704147051470614707147081470914710147111471214713147141471514716147171471814719147201472114722147231472414725147261472714728147291473014731147321473314734147351473614737147381473914740147411474214743147441474514746147471474814749147501475114752147531475414755147561475714758147591476014761147621476314764147651476614767147681476914770147711477214773147741477514776147771477814779147801478114782147831478414785147861478714788147891479014791147921479314794147951479614797147981479914800148011480214803148041480514806148071480814809148101481114812148131481414815148161481714818148191482014821148221482314824148251482614827148281482914830148311483214833148341483514836148371483814839148401484114842148431484414845148461484714848148491485014851148521485314854148551485614857148581485914860148611486214863148641486514866148671486814869148701487114872148731487414875148761487714878148791488014881148821488314884148851488614887148881488914890148911489214893148941489514896148971489814899149001490114902149031490414905149061490714908149091491014911149121491314914149151491614917149181491914920149211492214923149241492514926149271492814929149301493114932149331493414935149361493714938149391494014941149421494314944149451494614947149481494914950149511495214953149541495514956149571495814959149601496114962149631496414965149661496714968149691497014971149721497314974149751497614977149781497914980149811498214983149841498514986149871498814989149901499114992149931499414995149961499714998149991500015001150021500315004150051500615007150081500915010150111501215013150141501515016150171501815019150201502115022150231502415025150261502715028150291503015031150321503315034150351503615037150381503915040150411504215043150441504515046150471504815049150501505115052150531505415055150561505715058150591506015061150621506315064150651506615067150681506915070150711507215073150741507515076150771507815079150801508115082150831508415085150861508715088150891509015091150921509315094150951509615097
  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @set VERSION 7.5
  6. @set DATE March 2011
  7. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  8. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  9. @set txicodequoteundirected
  10. @set txicodequotebacktick
  11. @c Version and Contact Info
  12. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  13. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  14. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  15. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  16. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  17. @c %**end of header
  18. @finalout
  19. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  20. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  21. @c =======================================
  22. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  23. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  24. @set cmdnames
  25. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  26. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  27. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  28. @c xorgcmd{key,cmmand} Key with command name as @itemx
  29. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  30. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  31. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  32. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  33. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  34. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  35. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  36. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  37. @c a key but no command
  38. @c Inserts: @item key
  39. @macro orgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @item @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @macro xorgkey{key}
  44. @kindex \key\
  45. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  46. @end macro
  47. @c one key with a command
  48. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  49. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  50. @ifset cmdnames
  51. @kindex \key\
  52. @findex \command\
  53. @iftex
  54. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  55. @end iftex
  56. @ifnottex
  57. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  58. @end ifnottex
  59. @end ifset
  60. @ifclear cmdnames
  61. @kindex \key\
  62. @item @kbd{\key\}
  63. @end ifclear
  64. @end macro
  65. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  66. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  67. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  68. @ifset cmdnames
  69. @kindex \key\
  70. @findex \command\
  71. @iftex
  72. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  73. @end iftex
  74. @ifnottex
  75. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  76. @end ifnottex
  77. @end ifset
  78. @ifclear cmdnames
  79. @kindex \key\
  80. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  81. @end ifclear
  82. @end macro
  83. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  84. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  85. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  86. @ifset cmdnames
  87. @findex \command\
  88. @iftex
  89. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  90. @end iftex
  91. @ifnottex
  92. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  93. @end ifnottex
  94. @end ifset
  95. @ifclear cmdnames
  96. @item @kbd{\key\}
  97. @end ifclear
  98. @end macro
  99. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  100. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  101. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  102. @ifset cmdnames
  103. @kindex \key\
  104. @findex \command\
  105. @iftex
  106. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  107. @end iftex
  108. @ifnottex
  109. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  110. @end ifnottex
  111. @end ifset
  112. @ifclear cmdnames
  113. @kindex \key\
  114. @item @kbd{\text\}
  115. @end ifclear
  116. @end macro
  117. @c two keys with one command
  118. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  119. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  120. @ifset cmdnames
  121. @kindex \key1\
  122. @kindex \key2\
  123. @findex \command\
  124. @iftex
  125. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  126. @end iftex
  127. @ifnottex
  128. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  129. @end ifnottex
  130. @end ifset
  131. @ifclear cmdnames
  132. @kindex \key1\
  133. @kindex \key2\
  134. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  135. @end ifclear
  136. @end macro
  137. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  138. @c @itemx
  139. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  140. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  141. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  142. @ifset cmdnames
  143. @kindex \key1\
  144. @kindex \key2\
  145. @findex \command\
  146. @iftex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  149. @end iftex
  150. @ifnottex
  151. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  152. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  153. @end ifnottex
  154. @end ifset
  155. @ifclear cmdnames
  156. @kindex \key1\
  157. @kindex \key2\
  158. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  159. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  160. @end ifclear
  161. @end macro
  162. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  163. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  164. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  165. @ifset cmdnames
  166. @kindex \key1\
  167. @kindex \key2\
  168. @findex \command\
  169. @iftex
  170. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  171. @end iftex
  172. @ifnottex
  173. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  174. @end ifnottex
  175. @end ifset
  176. @ifclear cmdnames
  177. @kindex \key1\
  178. @kindex \key2\
  179. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  180. @end ifclear
  181. @end macro
  182. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  183. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  184. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  185. @ifset cmdnames
  186. @kindex \key1\
  187. @kindex \key2\
  188. @findex \command\
  189. @iftex
  190. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  191. @end iftex
  192. @ifnottex
  193. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  194. @end ifnottex
  195. @end ifset
  196. @ifclear cmdnames
  197. @kindex \key1\
  198. @kindex \key2\
  199. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  200. @end ifclear
  201. @end macro
  202. @c two keys with two commands
  203. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  204. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  205. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  206. @ifset cmdnames
  207. @kindex \key1\
  208. @kindex \key2\
  209. @findex \command1\
  210. @findex \command2\
  211. @iftex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  214. @end iftex
  215. @ifnottex
  216. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  217. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  218. @end ifnottex
  219. @end ifset
  220. @ifclear cmdnames
  221. @kindex \key1\
  222. @kindex \key2\
  223. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  224. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  225. @end ifclear
  226. @end macro
  227. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  228. @iftex
  229. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  230. @end iftex
  231. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  232. @macro tsubheading{text}
  233. @ifinfo
  234. @subsubheading \text\
  235. @end ifinfo
  236. @ifnotinfo
  237. @item @b{\text\}
  238. @end ifnotinfo
  239. @end macro
  240. @copying
  241. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  242. Copyright @copyright{} 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  243. Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  244. @quotation
  245. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  246. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  247. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  248. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  249. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  250. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  251. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  252. modify this GNU manual. Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
  253. developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
  254. This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
  255. Documentation License. If you want to distribute this document
  256. separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
  257. license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
  258. @end quotation
  259. @end copying
  260. @dircategory Emacs
  261. @direntry
  262. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  263. @end direntry
  264. @titlepage
  265. @title The Org Manual
  266. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  267. @author by Carsten Dominik
  268. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, and Thomas Dye
  269. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  270. @page
  271. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  272. @insertcopying
  273. @end titlepage
  274. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  275. @contents
  276. @ifnottex
  277. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  278. @top Org Mode Manual
  279. @insertcopying
  280. @end ifnottex
  281. @menu
  282. * Introduction:: Getting started
  283. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  284. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  285. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  286. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  287. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  288. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  289. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  290. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  291. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  292. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  293. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing of notes
  294. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  295. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  296. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  297. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  298. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  299. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  300. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  301. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  302. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  303. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  304. @detailmenu
  305. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  306. Introduction
  307. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  308. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  309. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  310. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  311. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  312. Document structure
  313. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  314. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  315. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  316. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  317. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  318. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  319. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  320. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  321. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  322. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  323. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  324. Tables
  325. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  326. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  327. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  328. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  329. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  330. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  331. The spreadsheet
  332. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  333. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  334. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  335. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  336. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  337. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  338. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  339. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  340. Hyperlinks
  341. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  342. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  343. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  344. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  345. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  346. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  347. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  348. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  349. Internal links
  350. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  351. TODO items
  352. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  353. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  354. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  355. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  356. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  357. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  358. Extended use of TODO keywords
  359. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  360. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  361. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  362. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  363. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  364. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  365. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  366. Progress logging
  367. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  368. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  369. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  370. Tags
  371. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  372. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  373. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  374. Properties and columns
  375. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  376. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  377. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  378. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  379. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  380. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  381. Column view
  382. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  383. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  384. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  385. Defining columns
  386. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  387. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  388. Dates and times
  389. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  390. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  391. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  392. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  393. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  394. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  395. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  396. Creating timestamps
  397. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  398. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  399. Deadlines and scheduling
  400. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  401. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  402. Clocking work time
  403. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  404. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  405. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  406. Capture - Refile - Archive
  407. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  408. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  409. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  410. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  411. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  412. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  413. Capture
  414. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  415. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  416. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  417. Capture templates
  418. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  419. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  420. Archiving
  421. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  422. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  423. Agenda views
  424. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  425. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  426. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  427. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  428. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  429. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  430. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  431. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  432. The built-in agenda views
  433. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  434. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  435. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  436. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  437. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  438. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  439. Presentation and sorting
  440. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  441. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  442. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  443. Custom agenda views
  444. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  445. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  446. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  447. Markup for rich export
  448. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  449. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  450. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  451. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  452. * Index entries:: Making an index
  453. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  454. * Embedded LaTeX:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  455. Structural markup elements
  456. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  457. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  458. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  459. * Initial text:: Text before the first heading?
  460. * Lists:: Lists
  461. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  462. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  463. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  464. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  465. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  466. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  467. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  468. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  469. * LaTeX fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  470. * Previewing LaTeX fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  471. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  472. Exporting
  473. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  474. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  475. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  476. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  477. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  478. * LaTeX and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  479. * DocBook export:: Exporting to DocBook
  480. * TaskJuggler export:: Exporting to TaskJuggler
  481. * Freemind export:: Exporting to Freemind mind maps
  482. * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO
  483. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  484. HTML export
  485. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  486. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org-mode
  487. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  488. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  489. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  490. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  491. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  492. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  493. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  494. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  495. * LaTeX/PDF export commands:: Which key invokes which commands
  496. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  497. * Quoting LaTeX code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  498. * Tables in LaTeX export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  499. * Images in LaTeX export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  500. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  501. DocBook export
  502. * DocBook export commands:: How to invoke DocBook export
  503. * Quoting DocBook code:: Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
  504. * Recursive sections:: Recursive sections in DocBook
  505. * Tables in DocBook export:: Tables are exported as HTML tables
  506. * Images in DocBook export:: How to insert figures into DocBook output
  507. * Special characters:: How to handle special characters
  508. Publishing
  509. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  510. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  511. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  512. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  513. Configuration
  514. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  515. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  516. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  517. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  518. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML export
  519. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  520. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  521. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  522. Sample configuration
  523. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  524. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  525. Working with source code
  526. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  527. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  528. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  529. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  530. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org-mode buffer
  531. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  532. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  533. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  534. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  535. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org-mode
  536. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  537. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  538. Header arguments
  539. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  540. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  541. Using header arguments
  542. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  543. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  544. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  545. * Header arguments in Org-mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  546. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  547. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  548. Specific header arguments
  549. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  550. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  551. be collected and handled
  552. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  553. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  554. directory for code block execution
  555. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  556. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  557. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  558. files during tangling
  559. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  560. code files
  561. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  562. expansion during tangling
  563. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  564. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  565. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  566. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  567. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  568. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  569. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  570. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  571. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  572. Miscellaneous
  573. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  574. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  575. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  576. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  577. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  578. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  579. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  580. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  581. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  582. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  583. Interaction with other packages
  584. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  585. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  586. Hacking
  587. * Hooks:: Who to reach into Org's internals
  588. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  589. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  590. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  591. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  592. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  593. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  594. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  595. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  596. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  597. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  598. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  599. * A LaTeX example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  600. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  601. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  602. MobileOrg
  603. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  604. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  605. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  606. @end detailmenu
  607. @end menu
  608. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  609. @chapter Introduction
  610. @cindex introduction
  611. @menu
  612. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  613. * Installation:: How to install a downloaded version of Org
  614. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  615. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  616. * Conventions:: Type-setting conventions in the manual
  617. @end menu
  618. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  619. @section Summary
  620. @cindex summary
  621. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  622. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  623. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  624. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  625. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  626. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  627. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  628. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  629. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  630. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  631. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  632. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  633. For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  634. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  635. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  636. linked web pages.
  637. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  638. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  639. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  640. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  641. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  642. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  643. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  644. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  645. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  646. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  647. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  648. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  649. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  650. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  651. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  652. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  653. ends, for example:
  654. @example
  655. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  656. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  657. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  658. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  659. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  660. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  661. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  662. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  663. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  664. @end example
  665. @cindex FAQ
  666. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  667. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  668. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@. This page is located at
  669. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  670. @cindex print edition
  671. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  672. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  673. Theory Ltd.}
  674. @page
  675. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  676. @section Installation
  677. @cindex installation
  678. @cindex XEmacs
  679. @b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
  680. distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
  681. to @ref{Activation}. To see what version of Org (if any) is part of your
  682. Emacs distribution, type @kbd{M-x load-library RET org} and then @kbd{M-x
  683. org-version}.}
  684. If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
  685. or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
  686. to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
  687. top section of the file @file{Makefile}. You must set the name of the Emacs
  688. binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
  689. directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept. If you don't have
  690. access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
  691. the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
  692. Emacs load path. To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
  693. @example
  694. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
  695. @end example
  696. @noindent
  697. If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
  698. step for this directory:
  699. @example
  700. (setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
  701. @end example
  702. @noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
  703. @example
  704. make
  705. @end example
  706. @noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
  707. all. If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
  708. administrator)
  709. @example
  710. make install
  711. @end example
  712. Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
  713. @file{install-info} program. In Debian it copies the info files into the
  714. correct directory and modifies the info directory file. In many other
  715. systems, the files need to be copied to the correct directory separately, and
  716. @file{install-info} then only modifies the directory file. Check your system
  717. documentation to find out which of the following commands you need:
  718. @example
  719. make install-info
  720. make install-info-debian
  721. @end example
  722. Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}. It is needed so that
  723. Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
  724. when Org-mode starts.
  725. @lisp
  726. (require 'org-install)
  727. @end lisp
  728. Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
  729. @page
  730. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  731. @section Activation
  732. @cindex activation
  733. @cindex autoload
  734. @cindex global key bindings
  735. @cindex key bindings, global
  736. To make sure files with extension @file{.org} use Org mode, add the following
  737. line to your @file{.emacs} file.
  738. @lisp
  739. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  740. @end lisp
  741. @noindent Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on - this is the
  742. default in Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in
  743. Org buffer with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  744. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  745. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  746. global keys (i.e.@: anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  747. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  748. liking.
  749. @lisp
  750. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  751. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  752. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  753. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  754. @end lisp
  755. @cindex Org-mode, turning on
  756. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  757. into Org-mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  758. like this:
  759. @example
  760. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  761. @end example
  762. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  763. @noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what
  764. the file's name is. See also the variable
  765. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  766. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  767. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  768. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  769. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  770. @lisp
  771. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  772. @end lisp
  773. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  774. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  775. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  776. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  777. @section Feedback
  778. @cindex feedback
  779. @cindex bug reports
  780. @cindex maintainer
  781. @cindex author
  782. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  783. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  784. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  785. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  786. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  787. moderators have to do.}.
  788. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  789. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  790. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  791. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  792. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  793. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  794. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  795. @example
  796. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  797. @end example
  798. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  799. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  800. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  801. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  802. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  803. about:
  804. @enumerate
  805. @item What exactly did you do?
  806. @item What did you expect to happen?
  807. @item What happened instead?
  808. @end enumerate
  809. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  810. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  811. @cindex backtrace of an error
  812. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  813. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  814. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  815. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  816. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  817. @enumerate
  818. @item
  819. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org-mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  820. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  821. To do this, use
  822. @example
  823. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  824. @end example
  825. @noindent
  826. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  827. menu.
  828. @item
  829. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  830. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  831. @item
  832. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  833. document the steps you take.
  834. @item
  835. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  836. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  837. attach it to your bug report.
  838. @end enumerate
  839. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  840. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  841. Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
  842. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  843. @table @code
  844. @item TODO
  845. @itemx WAITING
  846. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  847. user-defined.
  848. @item boss
  849. @itemx ARCHIVE
  850. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  851. meaning are written with all capitals.
  852. @item Release
  853. @itemx PRIORITY
  854. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  855. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  856. @end table
  857. The manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for accessing
  858. functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different functions,
  859. depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has a generic
  860. name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever possible,
  861. give the function that is internally called by the generic command. For
  862. example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will be
  863. listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it will
  864. be listed to call org-table-move-column-right.
  865. If you prefer, you can compile the manual without the command names by
  866. unsetting the flag @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  867. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  868. @chapter Document structure
  869. @cindex document structure
  870. @cindex structure of document
  871. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  872. edit the structure of the document.
  873. @menu
  874. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  875. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  876. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  877. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  878. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  879. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  880. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  881. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  882. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  883. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  884. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  885. @end menu
  886. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  887. @section Outlines
  888. @cindex outlines
  889. @cindex Outline mode
  890. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  891. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  892. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  893. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  894. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  895. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  896. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  897. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  898. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  899. @section Headlines
  900. @cindex headlines
  901. @cindex outline tree
  902. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  903. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  904. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  905. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  906. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  907. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  908. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  909. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.}. For example:
  910. @example
  911. * Top level headline
  912. ** Second level
  913. *** 3rd level
  914. some text
  915. *** 3rd level
  916. more text
  917. * Another top level headline
  918. @end example
  919. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  920. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  921. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  922. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  923. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  924. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  925. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  926. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  927. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  928. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  929. @section Visibility cycling
  930. @cindex cycling, visibility
  931. @cindex visibility cycling
  932. @cindex trees, visibility
  933. @cindex show hidden text
  934. @cindex hide text
  935. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  936. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  937. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  938. @cindex subtree visibility states
  939. @cindex subtree cycling
  940. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  941. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  942. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  943. @table @asis
  944. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  945. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  946. @example
  947. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  948. '-----------------------------------'
  949. @end example
  950. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  951. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  952. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  953. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  954. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  955. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  956. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  957. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  958. @cindex global visibility states
  959. @cindex global cycling
  960. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  961. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  962. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  963. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  964. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  965. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  966. @example
  967. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  968. '--------------------------------------'
  969. @end example
  970. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  971. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  972. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  973. @cindex show all, command
  974. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  975. Show all, including drawers.
  976. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  977. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  978. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  979. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  980. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  981. level, all sibling headings. With double prefix arg, also show the entire
  982. subtree of the parent.
  983. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  984. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  985. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  986. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  987. buffer
  988. @ifinfo
  989. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  990. @end ifinfo
  991. @ifnotinfo
  992. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  993. @end ifnotinfo
  994. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  995. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  996. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  997. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  998. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  999. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1000. @end table
  1001. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1002. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1003. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1004. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1005. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1006. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
  1007. OVERVIEW, i.e.@: only the top level headlines are visible. This can be
  1008. configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
  1009. per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
  1010. buffer:
  1011. @example
  1012. #+STARTUP: overview
  1013. #+STARTUP: content
  1014. #+STARTUP: showall
  1015. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1016. @end example
  1017. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1018. @noindent
  1019. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1020. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1021. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1022. @code{all}.
  1023. @table @asis
  1024. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1025. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e.@: whatever is
  1026. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1027. entries.
  1028. @end table
  1029. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1030. @section Motion
  1031. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1032. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1033. @cindex headline navigation
  1034. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1035. @table @asis
  1036. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1037. Next heading.
  1038. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1039. Previous heading.
  1040. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1041. Next heading same level.
  1042. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1043. Previous heading same level.
  1044. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1045. Backward to higher level heading.
  1046. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1047. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1048. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1049. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1050. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1051. @example
  1052. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1053. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1054. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1055. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1056. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1057. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1058. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1059. u @r{One level up.}
  1060. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1061. q @r{Quit}
  1062. @end example
  1063. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1064. @noindent
  1065. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1066. @end table
  1067. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1068. @section Structure editing
  1069. @cindex structure editing
  1070. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1071. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1072. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1073. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1074. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1075. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1076. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1077. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1078. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1079. @table @asis
  1080. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1081. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1082. Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain
  1083. list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of
  1084. a new headline, use a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1085. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new
  1086. headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the
  1087. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If the command is used at the
  1088. beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line.
  1089. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the
  1090. new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e.@:
  1091. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the
  1092. current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree.
  1093. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1094. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1095. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1096. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1097. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1098. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1099. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1100. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1101. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1102. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1103. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1104. subtree.
  1105. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1106. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1107. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1108. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1109. to the initial level.
  1110. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1111. Promote current heading by one level.
  1112. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1113. Demote current heading by one level.
  1114. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1115. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1116. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1117. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1118. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1119. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1120. level).
  1121. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1122. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1123. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1124. Kill subtree, i.e.@: remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1125. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1126. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1127. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1128. sequential subtrees.
  1129. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1130. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1131. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1132. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1133. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1134. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1135. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1136. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1137. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1138. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1139. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1140. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1141. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1142. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1143. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1144. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1145. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1146. folding.
  1147. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1148. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1149. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1150. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1151. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1152. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1153. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1154. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1155. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refiling notes}.
  1156. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort-entries-or-items}
  1157. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1158. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1159. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1160. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1161. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1162. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1163. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1164. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1165. sorting will be case-sensitive. With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, duplicate
  1166. entries will also be removed.
  1167. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1168. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1169. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1170. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1171. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1172. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1173. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1174. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1175. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1176. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1177. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1178. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1179. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1180. @end table
  1181. @cindex region, active
  1182. @cindex active region
  1183. @cindex transient mark mode
  1184. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1185. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1186. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1187. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1188. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1189. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1190. functionality.
  1191. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1192. @section Sparse trees
  1193. @cindex sparse trees
  1194. @cindex trees, sparse
  1195. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1196. @cindex occur, command
  1197. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1198. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1199. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1200. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1201. An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1202. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1203. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1204. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1205. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1206. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1207. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1208. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1209. Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1210. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1211. @table @asis
  1212. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1213. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1214. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1215. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1216. Occur. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1217. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1218. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1219. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1220. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1221. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1222. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1223. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1224. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1225. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1226. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1227. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1228. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1229. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1230. @end table
  1231. @noindent
  1232. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1233. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1234. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1235. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1236. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1237. For example:
  1238. @lisp
  1239. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1240. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1241. @end lisp
  1242. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1243. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1244. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1245. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1246. @kindex C-c C-e v
  1247. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1248. @cindex visible text, printing
  1249. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1250. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1251. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1252. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1253. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
  1254. part of the document and print the resulting file.
  1255. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1256. @section Plain lists
  1257. @cindex plain lists
  1258. @cindex lists, plain
  1259. @cindex lists, ordered
  1260. @cindex ordered lists
  1261. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1262. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1263. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1264. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1265. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1266. @itemize @bullet
  1267. @item
  1268. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1269. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1270. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1271. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1272. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1273. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1274. bullets.
  1275. @item
  1276. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1277. @vindex org-alphabetical-lists
  1278. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1279. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1280. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1281. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1282. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-alphabetical-lists}. To minimize
  1283. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1284. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1285. list to start with a different value (e.g.@: 20), start the text of the item
  1286. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1287. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1288. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1289. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1290. @item
  1291. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1292. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1293. description.
  1294. @end itemize
  1295. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1296. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1297. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1298. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1299. than its bullet/number.
  1300. @vindex org-list-ending-method
  1301. @vindex org-list-end-regexp
  1302. @vindex org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1303. Two methods@footnote{To disable either of them, configure
  1304. @code{org-list-ending-method}.} are provided to terminate lists. A list ends
  1305. whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less or equally
  1306. indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1307. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}. In
  1308. that case, all items are closed. For finer control, you can end lists with
  1309. any pattern set in @code{org-list-end-regexp}. Here is an example:
  1310. @example
  1311. @group
  1312. ** Lord of the Rings
  1313. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1314. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1315. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1316. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1317. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1318. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1319. - on DVD only
  1320. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1321. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1322. Important actors in this film are:
  1323. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1324. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1325. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1326. @end group
  1327. @end example
  1328. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1329. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1330. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1331. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1332. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1333. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1334. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1335. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1336. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1337. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1338. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}.
  1339. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1340. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1341. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1342. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1343. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1344. to disable them individually.
  1345. @table @asis
  1346. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1347. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1348. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1349. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1350. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1351. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1352. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the
  1353. indentation of the bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real
  1354. headlines, however; the hierarchies remain completely separated.
  1355. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1356. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1357. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1358. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1359. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1360. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1361. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1362. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1363. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1364. one.
  1365. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1366. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1367. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1368. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1369. In a new item with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the item to
  1370. become a child of the previous one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to
  1371. meaningful levels in the list and eventually get it back to its initial
  1372. position.
  1373. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1374. @item S-@key{up}
  1375. @itemx S-@key{down}
  1376. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1377. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1378. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list, but only if
  1379. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1380. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1381. similar effect.
  1382. @kindex M-S-@key{up}
  1383. @kindex M-S-@key{down}
  1384. @item M-S-@key{up}
  1385. @itemx M-S-@key{down}
  1386. Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item
  1387. of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering is
  1388. automatic.
  1389. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1390. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1391. @item M-@key{left}
  1392. @itemx M-@key{right}
  1393. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1394. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1395. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1396. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1397. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1398. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1399. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1400. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1401. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1402. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1403. motion or so.
  1404. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1405. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1406. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1407. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1408. @kindex C-c C-c
  1409. @item C-c C-c
  1410. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1411. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1412. consistency in the whole list.
  1413. @kindex C-c -
  1414. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1415. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1416. @item C-c -
  1417. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1418. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1419. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1420. and its position@footnote{See @code{bullet} rule in
  1421. @code{org-list-automatic-rules} for more information.}. With a numeric
  1422. prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list. If there is an
  1423. active region when calling this, selected text will be changed into an item.
  1424. With a prefix argument, all lines will be converted to list items. If the
  1425. first line already was a list item, any item marker will be removed from the
  1426. list. Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
  1427. converted into a list item.
  1428. @kindex C-c *
  1429. @item C-c *
  1430. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1431. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1432. @kindex C-c C-*
  1433. @item C-c C-*
  1434. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1435. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1436. (resp. checked).
  1437. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1438. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1439. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  1440. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1441. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1442. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1443. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1444. @kindex C-c ^
  1445. @item C-c ^
  1446. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1447. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1448. @end table
  1449. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1450. @section Drawers
  1451. @cindex drawers
  1452. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1453. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1454. @vindex org-drawers
  1455. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1456. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org-mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1457. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1458. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
  1459. with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}. Drawers
  1460. look like this:
  1461. @example
  1462. ** This is a headline
  1463. Still outside the drawer
  1464. :DRAWERNAME:
  1465. This is inside the drawer.
  1466. :END:
  1467. After the drawer.
  1468. @end example
  1469. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1470. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1471. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1472. press @key{TAB} there. Org-mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1473. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1474. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1475. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1476. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1477. @table @kbd
  1478. @kindex C-c C-z
  1479. @item C-c C-z
  1480. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1481. @end table
  1482. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1483. @section Blocks
  1484. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1485. @cindex blocks, folding
  1486. Org-mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1487. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1488. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1489. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1490. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1491. or on a per-file basis by using
  1492. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1493. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1494. @example
  1495. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1496. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1497. @end example
  1498. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1499. @section Footnotes
  1500. @cindex footnotes
  1501. Org-mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1502. @file{footnote.el} package, Org-mode's footnotes are designed for work on a
  1503. larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails. The basic
  1504. syntax is similar to the one used by @file{footnote.el}, i.e.@: a footnote is
  1505. defined in a paragraph that is started by a footnote marker in square
  1506. brackets in column 0, no indentation allowed. If you need a paragraph break
  1507. inside a footnote, use the @LaTeX{} idiom @samp{\par}. The footnote reference
  1508. is simply the marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1509. @example
  1510. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1511. ...
  1512. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1513. @end example
  1514. Org-mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1515. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1516. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1517. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1518. LaTeX}). Here are the valid references:
  1519. @table @code
  1520. @item [1]
  1521. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1522. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1523. snippet.
  1524. @item [fn:name]
  1525. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1526. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1527. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1528. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1529. reference point.
  1530. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1531. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1532. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1533. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1534. @end table
  1535. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1536. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1537. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1538. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1539. for details.
  1540. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1541. @table @kbd
  1542. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1543. @item C-c C-x f
  1544. The footnote action command.
  1545. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1546. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1547. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1548. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1549. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1550. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1551. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1552. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1553. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1554. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1555. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1556. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1557. options is offered:
  1558. @example
  1559. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1560. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1561. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1562. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1563. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1564. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1565. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1566. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1567. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1568. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1569. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1570. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1571. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1572. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g.@: sending}
  1573. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1574. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1575. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1576. @r{to it.}
  1577. @end example
  1578. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1579. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1580. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1581. deletion.
  1582. @kindex C-c C-c
  1583. @item C-c C-c
  1584. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1585. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1586. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1587. @kindex C-c C-o
  1588. @kindex mouse-1
  1589. @kindex mouse-2
  1590. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1591. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1592. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1593. @end table
  1594. @node Orgstruct mode, , Footnotes, Document Structure
  1595. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1596. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1597. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1598. If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode structure editing and list
  1599. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1600. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1601. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1602. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1603. @lisp
  1604. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1605. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1606. @end lisp
  1607. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1608. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1609. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1610. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1611. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows. When you use
  1612. @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and autofill
  1613. settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first line of an
  1614. item.
  1615. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1616. @chapter Tables
  1617. @cindex tables
  1618. @cindex editing tables
  1619. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1620. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1621. @ifinfo
  1622. (@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1623. @end ifinfo
  1624. @ifnotinfo
  1625. (see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
  1626. calculator).
  1627. @end ifnotinfo
  1628. @menu
  1629. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1630. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1631. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1632. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1633. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1634. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1635. @end menu
  1636. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1637. @section The built-in table editor
  1638. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1639. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with
  1640. @samp{|} as the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a
  1641. table. @samp{|} is also the column separator. A table might look like
  1642. this:
  1643. @example
  1644. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1645. |-------+-------+-----|
  1646. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1647. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1648. @end example
  1649. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1650. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1651. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1652. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1653. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1654. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1655. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1656. create the above table, you would only type
  1657. @example
  1658. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1659. |-
  1660. @end example
  1661. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1662. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1663. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1664. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1665. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1666. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1667. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1668. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1669. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1670. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1671. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1672. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1673. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1674. @table @kbd
  1675. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1676. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1677. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1678. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1679. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1680. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1681. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1682. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1683. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1684. @*
  1685. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1686. table. But it's easier just to start typing, like
  1687. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1688. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1689. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1690. Re-align the table without moving the cursor.
  1691. @c
  1692. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1693. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1694. necessary.
  1695. @c
  1696. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1697. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1698. @c
  1699. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1700. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1701. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1702. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1703. @c
  1704. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1705. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1706. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1707. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1708. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1709. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1710. Move the current column left/right.
  1711. @c
  1712. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1713. Kill the current column.
  1714. @c
  1715. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1716. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1717. @c
  1718. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1719. Move the current row up/down.
  1720. @c
  1721. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1722. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1723. @c
  1724. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1725. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1726. created below the current one.
  1727. @c
  1728. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1729. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1730. is created above the current line.
  1731. @c
  1732. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1733. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1734. below that line.
  1735. @c
  1736. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1737. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1738. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1739. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1740. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1741. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1742. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1743. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1744. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1745. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1746. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1747. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1748. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1749. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1750. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1751. @c
  1752. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1753. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1754. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1755. @c
  1756. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1757. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1758. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1759. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1760. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1761. lines.
  1762. @c
  1763. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1764. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1765. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1766. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1767. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1768. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1769. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1770. above.
  1771. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1772. @cindex formula, in tables
  1773. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1774. @cindex region, active
  1775. @cindex active region
  1776. @cindex transient mark mode
  1777. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1778. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1779. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1780. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1781. @c
  1782. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1783. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1784. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1785. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1786. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1787. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1788. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1789. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1790. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1791. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1792. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1793. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1794. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1795. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1796. edited in place.
  1797. @c
  1798. @item M-x org-table-import
  1799. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1800. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1801. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1802. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1803. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1804. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1805. separator.
  1806. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1807. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1808. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1809. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1810. @c
  1811. @item M-x org-table-export
  1812. @findex org-table-export
  1813. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1814. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1815. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1816. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1817. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1818. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1819. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1820. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1821. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1822. detailed description.
  1823. @end table
  1824. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1825. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1826. it off with
  1827. @lisp
  1828. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1829. @end lisp
  1830. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1831. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1832. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1833. @section Column width and alignment
  1834. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1835. @cindex alignment in tables
  1836. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1837. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1838. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1839. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1840. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1841. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1842. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1843. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1844. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1845. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1846. @example
  1847. @group
  1848. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1849. | | | | | <6> |
  1850. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  1851. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  1852. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  1853. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  1854. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1855. @end group
  1856. @end example
  1857. @noindent
  1858. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  1859. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  1860. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  1861. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  1862. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  1863. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  1864. C-c}.
  1865. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1866. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  1867. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  1868. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  1869. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  1870. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  1871. on a per-file basis with:
  1872. @example
  1873. #+STARTUP: align
  1874. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1875. @end example
  1876. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  1877. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  1878. @samp{c}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  1879. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  1880. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<l10>}.
  1881. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  1882. automatically when exporting the document.
  1883. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  1884. @section Column groups
  1885. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  1886. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  1887. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  1888. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  1889. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  1890. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  1891. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  1892. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  1893. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} to make a column
  1894. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  1895. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  1896. @example
  1897. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1898. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1899. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  1900. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  1901. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  1902. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  1903. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1904. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  1905. @end example
  1906. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  1907. every vertical line you would like to have:
  1908. @example
  1909. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  1910. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  1911. | / | < | | | < | |
  1912. @end example
  1913. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  1914. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  1915. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  1916. @cindex minor mode for tables
  1917. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  1918. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  1919. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  1920. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  1921. example in Message mode, use
  1922. @lisp
  1923. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  1924. @end lisp
  1925. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  1926. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  1927. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  1928. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  1929. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  1930. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  1931. @section The spreadsheet
  1932. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1933. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  1934. @cindex @file{calc} package
  1935. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  1936. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  1937. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  1938. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  1939. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  1940. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  1941. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  1942. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  1943. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  1944. @menu
  1945. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  1946. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  1947. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  1948. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  1949. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  1950. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  1951. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  1952. * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
  1953. @end menu
  1954. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  1955. @subsection References
  1956. @cindex references
  1957. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  1958. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  1959. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  1960. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  1961. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  1962. @subsubheading Field references
  1963. @cindex field references
  1964. @cindex references, to fields
  1965. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  1966. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  1967. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  1968. @noindent
  1969. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  1970. Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the user as
  1971. @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula for
  1972. editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  1973. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  1974. operator that looks like this:
  1975. @example
  1976. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  1977. @end example
  1978. @noindent
  1979. and allows relative references, i.e. references relative to the
  1980. row/column of the field whose value is being computed. These relative
  1981. references make it possible to store a formula only once and use it in many
  1982. fields without copying and modifying it.
  1983. Column references can be absolute like @samp{1}, @samp{2},...@samp{@var{N}},
  1984. or relative to the current column like @samp{+1} or @samp{-2}. @code{$>}
  1985. references the last column in the table, and you can use offsets like
  1986. @code{$>-2}, meaning the third column from the right.
  1987. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  1988. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  1989. @samp{1}...@samp{@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the current row like
  1990. @samp{+3} or @samp{-1}, and @code{@@>} references the last row in the
  1991. table@footnote{For backward compatibility you can also use special names like
  1992. @samp{$LR5} and @samp{$LR12} to refer in a stable way to the 5th and 12th
  1993. field in the last row of the table. However, this syntax is deprecated, it
  1994. should not be used for new documents.}. You may also specify the row
  1995. relative to one of the hlines: @samp{I} refers to the first
  1996. hline@footnote{Note that only hlines are counted that @emph{separate} table
  1997. lines. If the table starts with a hline above the header, it does not
  1998. count.}, @samp{II} to the second, etc@. @samp{-I} refers to the first such
  1999. line above the current line, @samp{+I} to the first such line below the
  2000. current line. You can also write @samp{III+2} which is the second data line
  2001. after the third hline in the table.
  2002. @samp{0} refers to the current row and column. Also, if you omit
  2003. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current
  2004. row/column is implied.
  2005. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2006. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2007. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2008. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2009. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2010. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2011. Here are a few examples:
  2012. @example
  2013. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column}
  2014. C2 @r{same as previous}
  2015. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row}
  2016. E& @r{same as previous}
  2017. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2018. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2019. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2020. @end example
  2021. @subsubheading Range references
  2022. @cindex range references
  2023. @cindex references, to ranges
  2024. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2025. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2026. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2027. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2028. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2029. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2030. @example
  2031. $1..$3 @r{First three fields in the current row}
  2032. $P..$Q @r{Range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2033. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields}
  2034. A2..C4 @r{Same as above}
  2035. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row}
  2036. @@I..II @r{Between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2037. @end example
  2038. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2039. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2040. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2041. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2042. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2043. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2044. @cindex field coordinates
  2045. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2046. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2047. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2048. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2049. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2050. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2051. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2052. @example
  2053. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2054. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2055. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2056. @end example
  2057. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2058. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2059. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2060. number of rows.
  2061. @subsubheading Named references
  2062. @cindex named references
  2063. @cindex references, named
  2064. @cindex name, of column or field
  2065. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2066. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2067. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2068. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2069. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2070. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2071. line like
  2072. @example
  2073. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2074. @end example
  2075. @noindent
  2076. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2077. @pindex constants.el
  2078. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2079. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2080. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2081. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2082. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2083. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2084. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2085. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2086. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2087. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2088. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2089. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2090. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2091. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2092. numbers.
  2093. @subsubheading Remote references
  2094. @cindex remote references
  2095. @cindex references, remote
  2096. @cindex references, to a different table
  2097. @cindex name, of column or field
  2098. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2099. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2100. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2101. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2102. @example
  2103. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2104. @end example
  2105. @noindent
  2106. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2107. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2108. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2109. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2110. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2111. referenced table.
  2112. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2113. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2114. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2115. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2116. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2117. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2118. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2119. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2120. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2121. Your Programs,calc-eval,Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs,Calc,GNU
  2122. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2123. @c FIXME: The link to the Calc manual in HTML does not work.
  2124. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2125. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2126. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2127. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2128. @cindex format specifier
  2129. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2130. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2131. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2132. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2133. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2134. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2135. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2136. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2137. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2138. @example
  2139. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2140. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2141. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2142. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2143. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2144. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2145. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2146. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
  2147. T @r{force text interpretation}
  2148. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
  2149. L @r{literal}
  2150. @end example
  2151. @noindent
  2152. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2153. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2154. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2155. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2156. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2157. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2158. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2159. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2160. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2161. A few examples:
  2162. @example
  2163. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2164. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2165. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2166. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2167. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2168. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2169. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2170. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2171. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function}
  2172. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2173. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2174. @end example
  2175. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2176. @example
  2177. if($1<20,teen,string("")) @r{``teen'' if age $1 less than 20, else empty}
  2178. @end example
  2179. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2180. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2181. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2182. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful for
  2183. string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is not
  2184. enough. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening
  2185. parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should
  2186. return either a string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you
  2187. can specify modes and a printf format after a semicolon. With Emacs Lisp
  2188. forms, you need to be conscious about the way field references are
  2189. interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be interpolated as
  2190. a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If you provide the
  2191. @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers (non-number
  2192. fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without quotes. If
  2193. you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated literally,
  2194. without quotes. i.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted as a string
  2195. by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in double-quotes,
  2196. like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can
  2197. embed them in list or vector syntax. Here are a few examples---note how the
  2198. @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in Lisp:
  2199. @example
  2200. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2201. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2202. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2203. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2204. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2205. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2206. @end example
  2207. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2208. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2209. @cindex field formula
  2210. @cindex range formula
  2211. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2212. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2213. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2214. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2215. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2216. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2217. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2218. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2219. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:}
  2220. directly below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of
  2221. the 3rd data line in the table, the formula will look like
  2222. @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows
  2223. with the appropriate commands, @i{absolute references} (but not relative
  2224. ones) in stored formulas are modified in order to still reference the
  2225. same field. Of course this is not true if you edit the table structure
  2226. with normal editing commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2227. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2228. following command
  2229. @table @kbd
  2230. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2231. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2232. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2233. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2234. @end table
  2235. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2236. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2237. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2238. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2239. directly.
  2240. @table @code
  2241. @item $2=
  2242. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2243. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2244. @item @@3=
  2245. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@L=} means
  2246. the last row.
  2247. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2248. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2249. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2250. @item $name=
  2251. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2252. @end table
  2253. @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2254. @subsection Column formulas
  2255. @cindex column formula
  2256. @cindex formula, for table column
  2257. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2258. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2259. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2260. hlines, everything before the first such line is considered part of the table
  2261. @emph{header} and will not be modified by column formulas. (ii) Fields that
  2262. already get a value from a field/range formula will be left alone by column
  2263. formulas. These conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2264. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2265. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2266. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2267. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2268. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2269. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2270. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2271. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2272. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2273. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2274. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2275. following command:
  2276. @table @kbd
  2277. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2278. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2279. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2280. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2281. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g.@: @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2282. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2283. @end table
  2284. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2285. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2286. @cindex formula editing
  2287. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2288. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2289. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2290. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2291. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2292. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2293. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2294. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2295. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2296. @table @kbd
  2297. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2298. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2299. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2300. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2301. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2302. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2303. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2304. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2305. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2306. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2307. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2308. @kindex C-c @}
  2309. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2310. @item C-c @}
  2311. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2312. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2313. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2314. @kindex C-c @{
  2315. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2316. @item C-c @{
  2317. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2318. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2319. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2320. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2321. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2322. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2323. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2324. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2325. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2326. @table @kbd
  2327. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2328. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2329. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2330. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2331. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2332. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2333. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2334. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2335. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2336. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2337. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2338. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2339. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2340. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2341. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2342. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2343. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2344. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2345. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2346. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2347. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2348. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2349. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2350. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2351. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2352. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2353. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2354. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2355. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2356. down.
  2357. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2358. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2359. @kindex C-c @}
  2360. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2361. @item C-c @}
  2362. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2363. @end table
  2364. @end table
  2365. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2366. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2367. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2368. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2369. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2370. @kindex C-c C-c
  2371. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2372. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2373. recalculation commands in the table.
  2374. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2375. @cindex formula debugging
  2376. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2377. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2378. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2379. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2380. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2381. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2382. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2383. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2384. @subsection Updating the table
  2385. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2386. @cindex updating, table
  2387. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2388. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2389. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2390. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2391. following commands:
  2392. @table @kbd
  2393. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2394. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2395. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2396. @c
  2397. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2398. @item C-u C-c *
  2399. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2400. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2401. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2402. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2403. @c
  2404. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2405. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2406. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2407. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2408. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2409. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2410. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2411. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2412. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2413. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2414. dependencies.
  2415. @end table
  2416. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2417. @subsection Advanced features
  2418. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if
  2419. you want to be able to assign @i{names} to fields and columns, you need
  2420. to reserve the first column of the table for special marking characters.
  2421. @table @kbd
  2422. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2423. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2424. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2425. change all marks in the region.
  2426. @end table
  2427. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2428. makes use of these features:
  2429. @example
  2430. @group
  2431. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2432. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2433. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2434. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2435. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2436. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2437. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2438. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2439. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2440. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2441. | | Average | | | | 29.7 | |
  2442. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2443. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2444. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2445. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2446. @end group
  2447. @end example
  2448. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2449. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2450. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2451. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2452. empty first field.
  2453. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2454. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2455. @table @samp
  2456. @item !
  2457. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2458. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2459. @item ^
  2460. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2461. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2462. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2463. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2464. @item _
  2465. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2466. @emph{below}.
  2467. @item $
  2468. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2469. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2470. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2471. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2472. a per-table basis.
  2473. @item #
  2474. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2475. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2476. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2477. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2478. @item *
  2479. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2480. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2481. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2482. @item
  2483. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2484. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2485. or @samp{*}.
  2486. @item /
  2487. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2488. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2489. @end table
  2490. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2491. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2492. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2493. functions.
  2494. @example
  2495. @group
  2496. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2497. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2498. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2499. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2500. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2501. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2502. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2503. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2504. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2505. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2506. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2507. @end group
  2508. @end example
  2509. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2510. @section Org-Plot
  2511. @cindex graph, in tables
  2512. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2513. @cindex #+PLOT
  2514. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2515. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2516. @uref{http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~ravel/software/gnuplot-mode.html}. To see
  2517. this in action, ensure that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed
  2518. on your system, then call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2519. @example
  2520. @group
  2521. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2522. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2523. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2524. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2525. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2526. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2527. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2528. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2529. @end group
  2530. @end example
  2531. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2532. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2533. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2534. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2535. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2536. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2537. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2538. @table @code
  2539. @item set
  2540. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2541. @item title
  2542. Specify the title of the plot.
  2543. @item ind
  2544. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2545. @item deps
  2546. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2547. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2548. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2549. column).
  2550. @item type
  2551. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2552. @item with
  2553. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2554. (e.g.@: @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2555. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2556. @item file
  2557. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2558. @item labels
  2559. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2560. if they exist).
  2561. @item line
  2562. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2563. @item map
  2564. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2565. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2566. @item timefmt
  2567. Specify format of Org-mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2568. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2569. @item script
  2570. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2571. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2572. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2573. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2574. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2575. the data file.
  2576. @end table
  2577. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2578. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2579. @cindex hyperlinks
  2580. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2581. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2582. @menu
  2583. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2584. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2585. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2586. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2587. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2588. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2589. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2590. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2591. @end menu
  2592. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2593. @section Link format
  2594. @cindex link format
  2595. @cindex format, of links
  2596. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2597. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2598. @example
  2599. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2600. @end example
  2601. @noindent
  2602. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2603. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2604. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2605. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2606. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2607. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2608. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2609. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2610. cursor on the link.
  2611. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2612. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2613. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2614. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2615. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2616. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2617. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2618. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2619. @section Internal links
  2620. @cindex internal links
  2621. @cindex links, internal
  2622. @cindex targets, for links
  2623. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2624. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2625. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2626. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2627. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2628. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2629. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2630. in a file.
  2631. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2632. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2633. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2634. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2635. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2636. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2637. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2638. comment line. For example
  2639. @example
  2640. # <<My Target>>
  2641. @end example
  2642. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2643. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2644. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2645. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2646. first headline.}.
  2647. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2648. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2649. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2650. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2651. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2652. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2653. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2654. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2655. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2656. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2657. earlier.
  2658. @menu
  2659. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2660. @end menu
  2661. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2662. @subsection Radio targets
  2663. @cindex radio targets
  2664. @cindex targets, radio
  2665. @cindex links, radio targets
  2666. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2667. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2668. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2669. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2670. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2671. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2672. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2673. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2674. cursor on or at a target.
  2675. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2676. @section External links
  2677. @cindex links, external
  2678. @cindex external links
  2679. @cindex links, external
  2680. @cindex Gnus links
  2681. @cindex BBDB links
  2682. @cindex IRC links
  2683. @cindex URL links
  2684. @cindex file links
  2685. @cindex VM links
  2686. @cindex RMAIL links
  2687. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2688. @cindex MH-E links
  2689. @cindex USENET links
  2690. @cindex SHELL links
  2691. @cindex Info links
  2692. @cindex Elisp links
  2693. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2694. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2695. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2696. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2697. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2698. @example
  2699. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2700. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2701. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2702. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2703. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2704. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2705. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2706. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2707. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file with line number to jump to}
  2708. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2709. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}
  2710. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2711. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open file in doc-view mode at page NNN}
  2712. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2713. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2714. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2715. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2716. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2717. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2718. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2719. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2720. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2721. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2722. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2723. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2724. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2725. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2726. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2727. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2728. info:org#External%20links @r{Info node link (with encoded space)}
  2729. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2730. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2731. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2732. @end example
  2733. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2734. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2735. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2736. format}), for example:
  2737. @example
  2738. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2739. @end example
  2740. @noindent
  2741. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2742. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2743. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2744. image,
  2745. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2746. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2747. @cindex plain text external links
  2748. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2749. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2750. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2751. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2752. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2753. @section Handling links
  2754. @cindex links, handling
  2755. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2756. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  2757. @table @kbd
  2758. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  2759. @cindex storing links
  2760. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  2761. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  2762. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  2763. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  2764. buffer:
  2765. @b{Org-mode buffers}@*
  2766. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  2767. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  2768. be the description.
  2769. @vindex org-link-to-org-use-id
  2770. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2771. @cindex property, ID
  2772. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  2773. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  2774. @code{org-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will be
  2775. created and/or used to construct a link. So using this command in Org
  2776. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  2777. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  2778. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  2779. to use.
  2780. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  2781. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  2782. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  2783. constructed from the author and the subject.
  2784. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  2785. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  2786. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  2787. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  2788. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  2789. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  2790. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  2791. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  2792. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  2793. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  2794. @b{Other files}@*
  2795. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  2796. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  2797. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  2798. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  2799. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  2800. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  2801. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  2802. @b{Agenda view}@*
  2803. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  2804. entry referenced by the current line.
  2805. @c
  2806. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  2807. @cindex link completion
  2808. @cindex completion, of links
  2809. @cindex inserting links
  2810. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  2811. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  2812. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  2813. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  2814. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  2815. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  2816. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  2817. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  2818. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  2819. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  2820. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  2821. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  2822. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  2823. becomes the default description.
  2824. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  2825. All links stored during the
  2826. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  2827. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  2828. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  2829. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  2830. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  2831. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  2832. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  2833. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  2834. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  2835. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  2836. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  2837. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  2838. @cindex file name completion
  2839. @cindex completion, of file names
  2840. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  2841. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  2842. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  2843. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  2844. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  2845. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  2846. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  2847. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  2848. @c
  2849. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  2850. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  2851. link and description parts of the link.
  2852. @c
  2853. @cindex following links
  2854. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  2855. @vindex org-file-apps
  2856. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  2857. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  2858. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  2859. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  2860. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  2861. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  2862. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  2863. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  2864. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  2865. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  2866. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  2867. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  2868. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  2869. headline and entry text.
  2870. @orgkey @key{RET}
  2871. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  2872. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  2873. the link at point.
  2874. @c
  2875. @kindex mouse-2
  2876. @kindex mouse-1
  2877. @item mouse-2
  2878. @itemx mouse-1
  2879. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  2880. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  2881. @c
  2882. @kindex mouse-3
  2883. @item mouse-3
  2884. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  2885. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  2886. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  2887. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  2888. @c
  2889. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  2890. @cindex inlining images
  2891. @cindex images, inlining
  2892. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  2893. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2894. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  2895. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  2896. images that have no description part in the link, i.e.@: images that will also
  2897. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  2898. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  2899. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  2900. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  2901. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  2902. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  2903. @cindex mark ring
  2904. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  2905. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  2906. @c
  2907. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  2908. @cindex links, returning to
  2909. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  2910. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  2911. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  2912. previously recorded positions.
  2913. @c
  2914. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  2915. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  2916. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  2917. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  2918. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  2919. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  2920. @lisp
  2921. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  2922. (lambda ()
  2923. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  2924. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  2925. @end lisp
  2926. @end table
  2927. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  2928. @section Using links outside Org
  2929. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  2930. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  2931. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  2932. yourself):
  2933. @lisp
  2934. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  2935. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  2936. @end lisp
  2937. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  2938. @section Link abbreviations
  2939. @cindex link abbreviations
  2940. @cindex abbreviation, links
  2941. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  2942. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  2943. abbreviated link looks like this
  2944. @example
  2945. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  2946. @end example
  2947. @noindent
  2948. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  2949. where the tag is optional.
  2950. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  2951. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  2952. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  2953. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  2954. @smalllisp
  2955. @group
  2956. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  2957. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  2958. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  2959. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  2960. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  2961. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  2962. @end group
  2963. @end smalllisp
  2964. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  2965. replaced with the tag. Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
  2966. in order to create the link. You may also specify a function that will
  2967. be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  2968. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  2969. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  2970. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  2971. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  2972. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  2973. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  2974. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  2975. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  2976. can define them in the file with
  2977. @cindex #+LINK
  2978. @example
  2979. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  2980. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  2981. @end example
  2982. @noindent
  2983. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  2984. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  2985. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g.@: completion)
  2986. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  2987. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  2988. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  2989. @section Search options in file links
  2990. @cindex search option in file links
  2991. @cindex file links, searching
  2992. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  2993. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  2994. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  2995. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  2996. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  2997. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  2998. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  2999. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3000. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3001. link, together with an explanation:
  3002. @example
  3003. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3004. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3005. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3006. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3007. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3008. @end example
  3009. @table @code
  3010. @item 255
  3011. Jump to line 255.
  3012. @item My Target
  3013. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3014. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3015. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3016. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3017. the linked file.
  3018. @item *My Target
  3019. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3020. @item #my-custom-id
  3021. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3022. @item /regexp/
  3023. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3024. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3025. target file is in Org-mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3026. sparse tree with the matches.
  3027. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3028. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3029. @end table
  3030. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3031. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3032. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3033. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3034. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3035. @section Custom Searches
  3036. @cindex custom search strings
  3037. @cindex search strings, custom
  3038. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3039. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3040. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3041. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3042. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3043. citation key.
  3044. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3045. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3046. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3047. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3048. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3049. to be added to the hook variables
  3050. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3051. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3052. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3053. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3054. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3055. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3056. @chapter TODO items
  3057. @cindex TODO items
  3058. Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3059. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3060. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3061. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3062. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3063. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3064. item emerged is always present.
  3065. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3066. throughout your notes file. Org-mode compensates for this by providing
  3067. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3068. @menu
  3069. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3070. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3071. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3072. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3073. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3074. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3075. @end menu
  3076. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3077. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3078. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3079. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3080. @example
  3081. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3082. @end example
  3083. @noindent
  3084. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3085. @table @kbd
  3086. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3087. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3088. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3089. @example
  3090. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3091. '--------------------------------'
  3092. @end example
  3093. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
  3094. agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3095. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3096. Select a specific keyword using completion or (if it has been set up)
  3097. the fast selection interface. For the latter, you need to assign keys
  3098. to TODO states, see @ref{Per-file keywords}, and @ref{Setting tags}, for
  3099. more information.
  3100. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3101. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3102. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3103. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3104. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3105. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3106. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3107. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3108. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3109. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-key}
  3110. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3111. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3112. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3113. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3114. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3115. / T}), search for a specific TODO. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3116. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3117. entries that match any one of these keywords. With numeric prefix argument
  3118. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3119. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3120. both un-done and done.
  3121. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3122. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3123. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3124. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3125. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3126. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3127. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3128. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3129. @end table
  3130. @noindent
  3131. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3132. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3133. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3134. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3135. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3136. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3137. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3138. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3139. DONE. Org-mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3140. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3141. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3142. files.
  3143. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3144. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3145. @menu
  3146. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3147. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3148. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3149. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3150. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3151. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3152. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3153. @end menu
  3154. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3155. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3156. @cindex TODO workflow
  3157. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3158. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3159. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3160. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org-mode in a
  3161. buffer.}:
  3162. @lisp
  3163. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3164. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3165. @end lisp
  3166. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3167. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3168. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3169. state.
  3170. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3171. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3172. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED. You may
  3173. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3174. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
  3175. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3176. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3177. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3178. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3179. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3180. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3181. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3182. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3183. @cindex TODO types
  3184. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3185. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3186. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3187. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3188. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3189. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3190. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3191. be set up like this:
  3192. @lisp
  3193. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3194. @end lisp
  3195. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3196. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3197. person, and later to mark it DONE. Org-mode supports this style by adapting
  3198. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3199. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3200. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3201. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3202. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3203. to DONE. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3204. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3205. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3206. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3207. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3208. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3209. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3210. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3211. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3212. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3213. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3214. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3215. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3216. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3217. like this:
  3218. @lisp
  3219. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3220. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3221. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3222. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3223. @end lisp
  3224. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org-mode to keep track
  3225. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3226. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3227. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3228. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3229. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3230. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3231. @table @kbd
  3232. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3233. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3234. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3235. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3236. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3237. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3238. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3239. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3240. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3241. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3242. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3243. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3244. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3245. @item S-@key{right}
  3246. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3247. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3248. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3249. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3250. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3251. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3252. @end table
  3253. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3254. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3255. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3256. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for
  3257. single-letter access to the states. This is done by adding the section
  3258. key after each keyword, in parentheses. For example:
  3259. @lisp
  3260. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3261. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3262. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3263. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3264. @end lisp
  3265. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3266. If you then press @code{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3267. will be switched to this state. @key{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3268. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3269. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3270. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3271. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3272. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3273. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3274. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3275. @cindex keyword options
  3276. @cindex per-file keywords
  3277. @cindex #+TODO
  3278. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3279. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3280. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3281. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3282. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3283. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3284. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3285. file:
  3286. @example
  3287. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3288. @end example
  3289. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3290. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3291. @example
  3292. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3293. @end example
  3294. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3295. @example
  3296. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3297. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3298. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3299. @end example
  3300. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3301. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3302. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3303. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3304. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3305. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3306. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3307. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3308. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3309. known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode parses these lines only when
  3310. Org-mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3311. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org-mode
  3312. for the current buffer.}.
  3313. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3314. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3315. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3316. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3317. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3318. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3319. Org-mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3320. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3321. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3322. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3323. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3324. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3325. @lisp
  3326. @group
  3327. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3328. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3329. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3330. @end group
  3331. @end lisp
  3332. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3333. work, this does not aways seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3334. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3335. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3336. foreground or a background color.
  3337. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3338. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3339. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3340. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3341. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3342. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3343. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3344. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3345. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE. And sometimes
  3346. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3347. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3348. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3349. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE.
  3350. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3351. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE. Here is an
  3352. example:
  3353. @example
  3354. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3355. ** DONE one
  3356. ** TODO two
  3357. * Parent
  3358. :PROPERTIES:
  3359. :ORDERED: t
  3360. :END:
  3361. ** TODO a
  3362. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3363. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3364. @end example
  3365. @table @kbd
  3366. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3367. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3368. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3369. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3370. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3371. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3372. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3373. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3374. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3375. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3376. @end table
  3377. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3378. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3379. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3380. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3381. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3382. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3383. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3384. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3385. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3386. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3387. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3388. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3389. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3390. @page
  3391. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3392. @section Progress logging
  3393. @cindex progress logging
  3394. @cindex logging, of progress
  3395. Org-mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3396. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3397. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable, settings can be on a
  3398. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3399. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3400. work time}.
  3401. @menu
  3402. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3403. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3404. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3405. @end menu
  3406. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3407. @subsection Closing items
  3408. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3409. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3410. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3411. @lisp
  3412. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3413. @end lisp
  3414. @noindent
  3415. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3416. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3417. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3418. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3419. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3420. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3421. @lisp
  3422. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3423. @end lisp
  3424. @noindent
  3425. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3426. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3427. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3428. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3429. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3430. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3431. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3432. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3433. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3434. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3435. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3436. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3437. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3438. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3439. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3440. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3441. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3442. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3443. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3444. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this
  3445. behavior---the recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}. You can
  3446. also overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3447. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3448. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org-mode
  3449. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3450. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) and @samp{@@} (for a note)
  3451. in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the setting
  3452. @lisp
  3453. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3454. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3455. @end lisp
  3456. @noindent
  3457. @vindex org-log-done
  3458. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3459. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3460. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org-mode will record two timestamps
  3461. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3462. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3463. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3464. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3465. WAIT or CANCELED. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3466. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3467. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3468. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3469. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3470. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3471. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3472. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3473. configured.
  3474. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3475. to a buffer:
  3476. @example
  3477. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3478. @end example
  3479. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3480. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3481. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3482. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3483. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3484. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3485. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3486. @example
  3487. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3488. :PROPERTIES:
  3489. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3490. :END:
  3491. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3492. :PROPERTIES:
  3493. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3494. :END:
  3495. * TODO No logging at all
  3496. :PROPERTIES:
  3497. :LOGGING: nil
  3498. :END:
  3499. @end example
  3500. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3501. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3502. @cindex habits
  3503. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3504. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3505. @enumerate
  3506. @item
  3507. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3508. @code{org-modules}.
  3509. @item
  3510. The habit is a TODO, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3511. @item
  3512. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3513. @item
  3514. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3515. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3516. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3517. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3518. @item
  3519. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3520. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3521. three days, but at most every two days.
  3522. @item
  3523. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled, in order
  3524. for historical data to be represented in the consistency graph. If it's not
  3525. enabled it's not an error, but the consistency graphs will be largely
  3526. meaningless.
  3527. @end enumerate
  3528. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3529. actual habit with some history:
  3530. @example
  3531. ** TODO Shave
  3532. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3533. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3534. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3535. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3536. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3537. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3538. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3539. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3540. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3541. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3542. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3543. :PROPERTIES:
  3544. :STYLE: habit
  3545. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3546. :END:
  3547. @end example
  3548. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3549. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3550. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3551. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3552. after four days have elapsed.
  3553. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3554. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3555. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3556. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3557. @table @code
  3558. @item Blue
  3559. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3560. @item Green
  3561. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3562. @item Yellow
  3563. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3564. @item Red
  3565. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3566. @end table
  3567. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3568. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3569. the current day falls in the graph.
  3570. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3571. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3572. @table @code
  3573. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3574. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3575. overwrite any text in that column, so it's a good idea to keep your habits'
  3576. titles brief and to the point.
  3577. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3578. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3579. @item org-habit-following-days
  3580. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3581. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3582. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3583. default.
  3584. @end table
  3585. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3586. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3587. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3588. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3589. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3590. @section Priorities
  3591. @cindex priorities
  3592. If you use Org-mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3593. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3594. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3595. @example
  3596. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3597. @end example
  3598. @noindent
  3599. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3600. By default, Org-mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3601. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3602. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3603. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3604. have no inherent meaning to Org-mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3605. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3606. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3607. items.
  3608. @table @kbd
  3609. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3610. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3611. @findex org-priority
  3612. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3613. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3614. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3615. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3616. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3617. @c
  3618. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3619. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3620. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3621. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3622. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3623. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3624. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3625. @end table
  3626. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3627. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3628. @vindex org-default-priority
  3629. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3630. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3631. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3632. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3633. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3634. priority):
  3635. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3636. @example
  3637. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3638. @end example
  3639. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3640. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3641. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3642. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3643. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3644. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3645. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3646. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3647. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3648. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3649. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3650. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3651. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3652. @example
  3653. * Organize Party [33%]
  3654. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3655. *** TODO Peter
  3656. *** DONE Sarah
  3657. ** TODO Buy food
  3658. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3659. @end example
  3660. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3661. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3662. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3663. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3664. this issue.
  3665. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3666. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3667. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3668. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3669. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3670. property.
  3671. @example
  3672. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3673. :PROPERTIES:
  3674. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3675. :END:
  3676. @end example
  3677. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3678. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3679. @example
  3680. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3681. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3682. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3683. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3684. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3685. @end example
  3686. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3687. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3688. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3689. @section Checkboxes
  3690. @cindex checkboxes
  3691. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3692. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3693. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3694. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3695. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3696. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3697. into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3698. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3699. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3700. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3701. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3702. @example
  3703. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3704. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3705. - [ ] Peter
  3706. - [X] Sarah
  3707. - [ ] Sam
  3708. - [X] order food
  3709. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3710. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3711. @end example
  3712. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3713. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3714. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3715. checked.
  3716. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3717. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3718. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3719. @vindex org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics
  3720. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3721. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3722. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3723. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3724. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3725. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3726. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3727. @code{org-hierarchical-checkbox-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3728. represent the all checkboxes below the cookie, not just the direct
  3729. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3730. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3731. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3732. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  3733. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  3734. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  3735. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3736. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  3737. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  3738. @cindex checkbox blocking
  3739. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3740. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  3741. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  3742. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  3743. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  3744. @table @kbd
  3745. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3746. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3747. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3748. intermediate state.
  3749. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  3750. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  3751. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  3752. intermediate state.
  3753. @itemize @minus
  3754. @item
  3755. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  3756. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  3757. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  3758. @item
  3759. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  3760. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  3761. @item
  3762. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  3763. @end itemize
  3764. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3765. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  3766. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  3767. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3768. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3769. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3770. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  3771. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  3772. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  3773. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  3774. for better visibility, customize the variable
  3775. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3776. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  3777. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  3778. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  3779. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  3780. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  3781. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  3782. hand, use this command to get things back into sync. Or simply toggle any
  3783. entry twice (checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c}).
  3784. @end table
  3785. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  3786. @chapter Tags
  3787. @cindex tags
  3788. @cindex headline tagging
  3789. @cindex matching, tags
  3790. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  3791. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  3792. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org-mode has extensive
  3793. support for tags.
  3794. @vindex org-tag-faces
  3795. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  3796. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  3797. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  3798. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  3799. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  3800. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  3801. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  3802. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  3803. @menu
  3804. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  3805. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  3806. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  3807. @end menu
  3808. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  3809. @section Tag inheritance
  3810. @cindex tag inheritance
  3811. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  3812. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  3813. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  3814. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  3815. well. For example, in the list
  3816. @example
  3817. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  3818. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  3819. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  3820. @end example
  3821. @noindent
  3822. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  3823. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  3824. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  3825. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  3826. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  3827. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  3828. changes in the line.}:
  3829. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  3830. @example
  3831. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  3832. @end example
  3833. @noindent
  3834. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  3835. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  3836. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, or to turn it off entirely, use
  3837. the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
  3838. @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  3839. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  3840. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  3841. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  3842. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  3843. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  3844. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  3845. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  3846. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  3847. @node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
  3848. @section Setting tags
  3849. @cindex setting tags
  3850. @cindex tags, setting
  3851. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3852. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  3853. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  3854. also a special command for inserting tags:
  3855. @table @kbd
  3856. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  3857. @cindex completion, of tags
  3858. @vindex org-tags-column
  3859. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org-mode will either offer
  3860. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  3861. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  3862. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  3863. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  3864. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  3865. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  3866. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  3867. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  3868. @end table
  3869. @vindex org-tag-alist
  3870. Org will support tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  3871. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  3872. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  3873. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  3874. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  3875. @cindex #+TAGS
  3876. @example
  3877. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  3878. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  3879. @end example
  3880. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  3881. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  3882. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  3883. @example
  3884. #+TAGS:
  3885. @end example
  3886. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  3887. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  3888. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  3889. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  3890. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  3891. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  3892. @example
  3893. #+STARTUP: noptag
  3894. @end example
  3895. By default Org-mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  3896. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  3897. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  3898. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  3899. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  3900. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  3901. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  3902. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  3903. like:
  3904. @lisp
  3905. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  3906. @end lisp
  3907. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  3908. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  3909. @example
  3910. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  3911. @end example
  3912. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  3913. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  3914. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  3915. @example
  3916. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  3917. @end example
  3918. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  3919. @example
  3920. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  3921. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  3922. @end example
  3923. @noindent
  3924. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  3925. braces, as in:
  3926. @example
  3927. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  3928. @end example
  3929. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  3930. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  3931. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  3932. these lines to activate any changes.
  3933. @noindent
  3934. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  3935. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  3936. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  3937. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  3938. configuration:
  3939. @lisp
  3940. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  3941. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  3942. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  3943. (:endgroup . nil)
  3944. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  3945. @end lisp
  3946. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  3947. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  3948. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  3949. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  3950. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  3951. keys:
  3952. @table @kbd
  3953. @item a-z...
  3954. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  3955. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  3956. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  3957. @kindex @key{TAB}
  3958. @item @key{TAB}
  3959. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  3960. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  3961. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  3962. @kindex @key{SPC}
  3963. @item @key{SPC}
  3964. Clear all tags for this line.
  3965. @kindex @key{RET}
  3966. @item @key{RET}
  3967. Accept the modified set.
  3968. @item C-g
  3969. Abort without installing changes.
  3970. @item q
  3971. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  3972. @item !
  3973. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  3974. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  3975. @item C-c
  3976. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  3977. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  3978. selection window.
  3979. @end table
  3980. @noindent
  3981. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  3982. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  3983. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  3984. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  3985. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  3986. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  3987. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  3988. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  3989. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  3990. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  3991. modify your list of tags, set the variable
  3992. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}. Then you no longer have to
  3993. press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it will immediately exit
  3994. after the first change. If you then occasionally need more keys, press
  3995. @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
  3996. (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
  3997. C-c}). If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
  3998. window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
  3999. when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4000. @node Tag searches, , Setting tags, Tags
  4001. @section Tag searches
  4002. @cindex tag searches
  4003. @cindex searching for tags
  4004. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4005. information into special lists.
  4006. @table @kbd
  4007. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4008. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4009. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4010. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4011. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4012. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4013. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4014. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4015. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4016. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4017. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4018. @end table
  4019. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4020. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4021. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4022. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4023. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4024. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4025. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4026. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4027. @chapter Properties and columns
  4028. @cindex properties
  4029. Properties are a set of key-value pairs associated with an entry. There
  4030. are two main applications for properties in Org-mode. First, properties
  4031. are like tags, but with a value. Second, you can use properties to
  4032. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. For
  4033. an example of the first application, imagine maintaining a file where
  4034. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4035. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, one can use a
  4036. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4037. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. For an example of the second
  4038. application of properties, imagine keeping track of your music CDs,
  4039. where properties could be things such as the album, artist, date of
  4040. release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4041. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4042. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4043. @menu
  4044. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4045. * Special properties:: Access to other Org-mode features
  4046. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4047. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4048. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4049. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4050. @end menu
  4051. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4052. @section Property syntax
  4053. @cindex property syntax
  4054. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4055. Properties are key-value pairs. They need to be inserted into a special
  4056. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4057. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4058. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4059. @example
  4060. * CD collection
  4061. ** Classic
  4062. *** Goldberg Variations
  4063. :PROPERTIES:
  4064. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4065. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4066. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4067. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4068. :NDisks: 1
  4069. :END:
  4070. @end example
  4071. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4072. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4073. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4074. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4075. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4076. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4077. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4078. @example
  4079. * CD collection
  4080. :PROPERTIES:
  4081. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4082. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4083. :END:
  4084. @end example
  4085. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4086. file, use a line like
  4087. @cindex property, _ALL
  4088. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4089. @example
  4090. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4091. @end example
  4092. @vindex org-global-properties
  4093. Property values set with the global variable
  4094. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4095. Org files.
  4096. @noindent
  4097. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4098. @table @kbd
  4099. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4100. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4101. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4102. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4103. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4104. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4105. @item M-x org-insert-property-drawer
  4106. @findex org-insert-property-drawer
  4107. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4108. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4109. information like deadlines.
  4110. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4111. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4112. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4113. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4114. can be inserted using completion.
  4115. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4116. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4117. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4118. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4119. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4120. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4121. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4122. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4123. nearest column format definition.
  4124. @end table
  4125. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4126. @section Special properties
  4127. @cindex properties, special
  4128. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org-mode features,
  4129. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4130. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4131. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4132. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4133. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4134. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4135. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4136. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4137. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4138. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4139. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4140. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4141. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4142. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4143. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4144. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4145. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4146. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4147. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4148. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4149. @example
  4150. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4151. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4152. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4153. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4154. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4155. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4156. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4157. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4158. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4159. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4160. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4161. @r{must be run first to compute the values.}
  4162. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4163. ITEM @r{The content of the entry.}
  4164. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4165. @end example
  4166. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4167. @section Property searches
  4168. @cindex properties, searching
  4169. @cindex searching, of properties
  4170. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4171. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4172. @table @kbd
  4173. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4174. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4175. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4176. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4177. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4178. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4179. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4180. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4181. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4182. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4183. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4184. @end table
  4185. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4186. properties}.
  4187. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4188. single property:
  4189. @table @kbd
  4190. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4191. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4192. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4193. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4194. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4195. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4196. @end table
  4197. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4198. @section Property Inheritance
  4199. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4200. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4201. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4202. The outline structure of Org-mode documents lends itself to an
  4203. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4204. property, the children can inherit this property. Org-mode does not
  4205. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4206. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4207. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4208. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4209. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4210. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4211. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4212. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4213. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4214. Org-mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4215. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4216. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4217. @table @code
  4218. @item COLUMNS
  4219. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4220. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4221. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4222. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4223. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4224. @item CATEGORY
  4225. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4226. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4227. applies to the entire subtree.
  4228. @item ARCHIVE
  4229. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4230. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4231. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4232. @item LOGGING
  4233. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4234. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4235. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4236. @end table
  4237. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4238. @section Column view
  4239. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4240. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4241. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4242. entries. Org-mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4243. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4244. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4245. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4246. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4247. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4248. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4249. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4250. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4251. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4252. @menu
  4253. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4254. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4255. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4256. @end menu
  4257. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4258. @subsection Defining columns
  4259. @cindex column view, for properties
  4260. @cindex properties, column view
  4261. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4262. done by defining a column format line.
  4263. @menu
  4264. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4265. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4266. @end menu
  4267. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4268. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4269. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4270. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4271. @example
  4272. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4273. @end example
  4274. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4275. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4276. @example
  4277. ** Top node for columns view
  4278. :PROPERTIES:
  4279. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4280. :END:
  4281. @end example
  4282. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4283. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4284. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4285. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4286. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4287. deeper part of the tree.
  4288. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4289. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4290. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4291. definition looks like this:
  4292. @example
  4293. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4294. @end example
  4295. @noindent
  4296. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4297. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4298. @example
  4299. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4300. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4301. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4302. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4303. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4304. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4305. @r{name is used.}
  4306. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4307. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4308. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4309. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4310. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4311. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4312. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4313. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4314. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4315. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4316. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4317. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4318. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4319. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4320. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4321. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4322. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4323. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4324. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4325. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4326. @end example
  4327. @noindent
  4328. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4329. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4330. same summary information.
  4331. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4332. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4333. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4334. 5-6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4335. 1-10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4336. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4337. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4338. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4339. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4340. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4341. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4342. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4343. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4344. full job more realistically, at 10-15 days.
  4345. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4346. values.
  4347. @example
  4348. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4349. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  4350. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4351. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4352. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4353. @end example
  4354. @noindent
  4355. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4356. item itself, i.e.@: of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4357. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4358. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4359. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4360. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4361. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4362. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4363. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4364. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4365. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4366. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4367. @samp{CLOCKSUM} column is special, it lists the sum of CLOCK intervals
  4368. in the subtree.
  4369. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4370. @subsection Using column view
  4371. @table @kbd
  4372. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4373. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4374. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4375. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4376. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4377. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4378. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4379. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4380. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4381. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4382. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4383. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4384. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4385. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4386. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4387. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4388. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4389. Exit column view.
  4390. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4391. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4392. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4393. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4394. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4395. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4396. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4397. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4398. @item 1..9,0
  4399. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4400. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4401. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4402. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4403. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4404. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4405. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4406. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4407. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4408. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4409. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4410. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4411. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4412. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4413. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4414. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4415. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4416. current column view.
  4417. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4418. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4419. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4420. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4421. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4422. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4423. Delete the current column.
  4424. @end table
  4425. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4426. @subsection Capturing column view
  4427. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4428. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4429. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4430. of this block looks like this:
  4431. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4432. @example
  4433. * The column view
  4434. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4435. #+END:
  4436. @end example
  4437. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4438. @table @code
  4439. @item :id
  4440. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4441. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4442. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4443. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4444. @cindex property, ID
  4445. @example
  4446. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4447. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4448. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4449. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4450. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4451. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4452. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4453. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4454. @end example
  4455. @item :hlines
  4456. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4457. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4458. @item :vlines
  4459. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4460. @item :maxlevel
  4461. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4462. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4463. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4464. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4465. @end table
  4466. @noindent
  4467. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4468. @table @kbd
  4469. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4470. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4471. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4472. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4473. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4474. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4475. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4476. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4477. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4478. blocks in a buffer.
  4479. @end table
  4480. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4481. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4482. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4483. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4484. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4485. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4486. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4487. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4488. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4489. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4490. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4491. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4492. @section The Property API
  4493. @cindex properties, API
  4494. @cindex API, for properties
  4495. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4496. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4497. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4498. property API}.
  4499. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4500. @chapter Dates and times
  4501. @cindex dates
  4502. @cindex times
  4503. @cindex timestamp
  4504. @cindex date stamp
  4505. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4506. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4507. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org-mode. This may be a
  4508. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4509. something was created or last changed. However, in Org-mode this term
  4510. is used in a much wider sense.
  4511. @menu
  4512. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4513. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4514. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4515. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4516. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4517. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4518. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4519. @end menu
  4520. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4521. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4522. @cindex timestamps
  4523. @cindex ranges, time
  4524. @cindex date stamps
  4525. @cindex deadlines
  4526. @cindex scheduling
  4527. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4528. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or
  4529. @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue
  4530. 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601 date/time
  4531. format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time format}.}. A
  4532. timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org tree entry.
  4533. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda
  4534. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4535. @table @var
  4536. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4537. @cindex timestamp
  4538. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4539. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4540. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4541. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4542. @example
  4543. * Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4544. * Discussion on climate change <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4545. @end example
  4546. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4547. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4548. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4549. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4550. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4551. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4552. @example
  4553. * Pick up Sam at school <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4554. @end example
  4555. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4556. For more complex date specifications, Org-mode supports using the
  4557. special sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4558. package. For example
  4559. @example
  4560. * The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4561. <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  4562. @end example
  4563. @item Time/Date range
  4564. @cindex timerange
  4565. @cindex date range
  4566. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4567. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4568. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4569. @example
  4570. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4571. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4572. @end example
  4573. @item Inactive timestamp
  4574. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4575. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4576. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4577. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4578. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4579. @example
  4580. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4581. @end example
  4582. @end table
  4583. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4584. @section Creating timestamps
  4585. @cindex creating timestamps
  4586. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4587. For Org-mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4588. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4589. format.
  4590. @table @kbd
  4591. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4592. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4593. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4594. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4595. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4596. @c
  4597. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4598. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4599. an agenda entry.
  4600. @c
  4601. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4602. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4603. @item C-u C-c .
  4604. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4605. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4606. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4607. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4608. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4609. @c
  4610. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4611. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4612. @c
  4613. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4614. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4615. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4616. instead.
  4617. @c
  4618. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4619. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4620. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4621. @c
  4622. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4623. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4624. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4625. @c
  4626. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4627. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4628. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4629. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  4630. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  4631. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  4632. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  4633. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  4634. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4635. @c
  4636. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  4637. @cindex evaluate time range
  4638. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  4639. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  4640. the following column).
  4641. @end table
  4642. @menu
  4643. * The date/time prompt:: How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
  4644. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  4645. @end menu
  4646. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  4647. @subsection The date/time prompt
  4648. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  4649. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  4650. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  4651. When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  4652. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  4653. format. But it will in fact accept any string containing some date and/or
  4654. time information, and it is really smart about interpreting your input. You
  4655. can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a (possibly multi-line) string
  4656. copied from an email message. Org-mode will find whatever information is in
  4657. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  4658. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  4659. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  4660. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  4661. information, Org-mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  4662. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  4663. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  4664. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  4665. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  4666. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  4667. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  4668. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  4669. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org-mode are
  4670. in @b{bold}.
  4671. @example
  4672. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4673. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  4674. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  4675. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  4676. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  4677. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  4678. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  4679. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  4680. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  4681. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  4682. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  4683. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  4684. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  4685. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  4686. @end example
  4687. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  4688. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  4689. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  4690. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  4691. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  4692. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  4693. the Nth such day. e.g.@:
  4694. @example
  4695. +0 @result{} today
  4696. . @result{} today
  4697. +4d @result{} four days from today
  4698. +4 @result{} same as above
  4699. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  4700. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  4701. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  4702. @end example
  4703. @vindex parse-time-months
  4704. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  4705. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  4706. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  4707. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  4708. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  4709. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use `-' or `-@{@}-' as the separator
  4710. in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter case. E.g.@:
  4711. @example
  4712. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  4713. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  4714. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  4715. @end example
  4716. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  4717. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  4718. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  4719. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  4720. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  4721. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  4722. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  4723. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  4724. from the minibuffer:
  4725. @kindex <
  4726. @kindex >
  4727. @kindex M-v
  4728. @kindex C-v
  4729. @kindex mouse-1
  4730. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4731. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4732. @kindex S-@key{down}
  4733. @kindex S-@key{up}
  4734. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  4735. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  4736. @kindex @key{RET}
  4737. @example
  4738. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  4739. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  4740. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  4741. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  4742. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  4743. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  4744. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  4745. @end example
  4746. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  4747. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  4748. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  4749. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  4750. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  4751. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  4752. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  4753. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  4754. @subsection Custom time format
  4755. @cindex custom date/time format
  4756. @cindex time format, custom
  4757. @cindex date format, custom
  4758. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  4759. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  4760. Org-mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  4761. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  4762. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  4763. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  4764. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  4765. @table @kbd
  4766. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  4767. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  4768. @end table
  4769. @noindent
  4770. Org-mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  4771. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  4772. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  4773. following consequences:
  4774. @itemize @bullet
  4775. @item
  4776. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  4777. after.
  4778. @item
  4779. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  4780. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  4781. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  4782. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  4783. time will be changed by one minute.
  4784. @item
  4785. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  4786. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  4787. @item
  4788. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  4789. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  4790. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  4791. @item
  4792. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  4793. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  4794. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  4795. @end itemize
  4796. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  4797. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  4798. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  4799. @table @var
  4800. @item DEADLINE
  4801. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  4802. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  4803. to be finished on that date.
  4804. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4805. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  4806. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  4807. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  4808. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  4809. until the entry is marked DONE. An example:
  4810. @example
  4811. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  4812. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  4813. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  4814. @end example
  4815. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  4816. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  4817. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}.
  4818. @item SCHEDULED
  4819. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  4820. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  4821. date.
  4822. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  4823. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  4824. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE. If you don't like
  4825. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  4826. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  4827. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.@:
  4828. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  4829. @example
  4830. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  4831. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  4832. @end example
  4833. @noindent
  4834. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org-mode should @i{not} be
  4835. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  4836. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  4837. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  4838. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  4839. Org users. In Org-mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  4840. want to start working on an action item.
  4841. @end table
  4842. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  4843. entries. Org-mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  4844. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  4845. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  4846. @c
  4847. @code{<%%(diary-float t 42)>}
  4848. @c
  4849. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org-mode does not
  4850. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  4851. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  4852. sexp entry matches.
  4853. @menu
  4854. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  4855. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  4856. @end menu
  4857. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  4858. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  4859. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  4860. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  4861. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  4862. an item:
  4863. @table @kbd
  4864. @c
  4865. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  4866. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  4867. in the line directly following the headline. When called with a prefix arg,
  4868. an existing deadline will be removed from the entry. Depending on the
  4869. variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  4870. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  4871. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4872. deadline.
  4873. @c FIXME Any CLOSED timestamp will be removed.????????
  4874. @c
  4875. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  4876. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  4877. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  4878. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  4879. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  4880. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  4881. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  4882. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  4883. scheduling time.
  4884. @c
  4885. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  4886. @kindex k a
  4887. @kindex k s
  4888. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  4889. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  4890. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  4891. schedule the marked item.
  4892. @c
  4893. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  4894. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  4895. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  4896. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  4897. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  4898. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  4899. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  4900. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  4901. @c
  4902. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  4903. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  4904. @c
  4905. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  4906. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  4907. @end table
  4908. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  4909. @subsection Repeated tasks
  4910. @cindex tasks, repeated
  4911. @cindex repeated tasks
  4912. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org-mode helps to
  4913. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  4914. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  4915. @example
  4916. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4917. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  4918. @end example
  4919. @noindent
  4920. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  4921. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  4922. from that time. If you need both a repeater and a special warning period in
  4923. a deadline entry, the repeater should come first and the warning period last:
  4924. @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  4925. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  4926. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  4927. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  4928. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  4929. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  4930. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  4931. repeated entry will not be active. Org-mode deals with this in the following
  4932. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  4933. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  4934. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  4935. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  4936. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  4937. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  4938. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  4939. switch the date like this:
  4940. @example
  4941. ** TODO Pay the rent
  4942. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  4943. @end example
  4944. @vindex org-log-repeat
  4945. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  4946. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  4947. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  4948. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  4949. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  4950. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  4951. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  4952. will be visible.
  4953. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  4954. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  4955. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  4956. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  4957. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  4958. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  4959. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  4960. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org-mode has
  4961. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  4962. @example
  4963. ** TODO Call Father
  4964. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  4965. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  4966. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  4967. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  4968. and marked it done on Saturday.
  4969. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  4970. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  4971. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  4972. today.
  4973. @end example
  4974. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific
  4975. task---just make sure that the repeater intervals on both are the same.
  4976. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  4977. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  4978. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  4979. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  4980. @section Clocking work time
  4981. @cindex clocking time
  4982. @cindex time clocking
  4983. Org-mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  4984. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock.
  4985. When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the
  4986. clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It
  4987. also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project. And it
  4988. remembers a history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly
  4989. between a number of tasks absorbing your time.
  4990. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  4991. @lisp
  4992. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  4993. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  4994. @end lisp
  4995. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  4996. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  4997. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  4998. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  4999. what to do with it.
  5000. @menu
  5001. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5002. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5003. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5004. @end menu
  5005. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5006. @subsection Clocking commands
  5007. @table @kbd
  5008. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5009. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5010. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5011. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5012. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5013. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5014. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5015. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5016. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task.
  5017. The default task will always be available when selecting a clocking task,
  5018. with letter @kbd{d}.@*
  5019. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5020. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5021. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5022. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5023. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5024. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5025. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5026. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5027. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5028. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5029. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5030. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5031. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5032. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5033. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5034. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5035. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5036. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5037. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5038. @c
  5039. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5040. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5041. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5042. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5043. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5044. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5045. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5046. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5047. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5048. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5049. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5050. @kindex C-c C-y
  5051. @kindex C-c C-c
  5052. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5053. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5054. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5055. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5056. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5057. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5058. if it is running in this same item.
  5059. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-cancel}
  5060. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5061. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5062. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5063. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5064. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5065. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5066. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5067. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This
  5068. puts overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time
  5069. recorded under that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You
  5070. can use visibility cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear
  5071. when you change the buffer (see variable
  5072. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5073. @end table
  5074. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5075. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5076. worked on or closed during a day.
  5077. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5078. @subsection The clock table
  5079. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5080. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5081. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5082. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5083. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5084. @table @kbd
  5085. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5086. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5087. report as an Org-mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5088. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5089. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5090. update it.
  5091. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5092. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5093. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5094. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5095. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5096. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5097. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5098. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5099. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5100. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5101. @end table
  5102. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5103. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5104. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5105. @example
  5106. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5107. #+END: clocktable
  5108. @end example
  5109. @noindent
  5110. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5111. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5112. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5113. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5114. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5115. be selected:
  5116. @example
  5117. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5118. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5119. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5120. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5121. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5122. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5123. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5124. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5125. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5126. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5127. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5128. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5129. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5130. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5131. @r{these formats:}
  5132. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5133. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5134. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5135. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5136. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5137. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5138. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5139. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5140. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5141. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5142. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5143. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5144. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5145. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5146. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5147. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5148. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute}.
  5149. @end example
  5150. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5151. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5152. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5153. @example
  5154. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5155. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5156. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5157. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5158. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5159. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5160. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5161. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5162. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5163. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5164. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5165. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5166. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5167. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5168. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5169. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5170. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5171. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5172. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5173. @end example
  5174. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5175. day, you could write
  5176. @example
  5177. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5178. #+END: clocktable
  5179. @end example
  5180. @noindent
  5181. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5182. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5183. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5184. @example
  5185. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5186. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5187. #+END: clocktable
  5188. @end example
  5189. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5190. @example
  5191. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5192. #+END: clocktable
  5193. @end example
  5194. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5195. would be
  5196. @example
  5197. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5198. #+END: clocktable
  5199. @end example
  5200. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5201. @subsection Resolving idle time
  5202. @cindex resolve idle time
  5203. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5204. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5205. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5206. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5207. applying it to another one.
  5208. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5209. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5210. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5211. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5212. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5213. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5214. UTILITIES directory of the Org git distribution, to get the same general
  5215. treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to Emacs idle time
  5216. only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time. There will be a
  5217. question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how much idle time has
  5218. passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as well as a set of
  5219. choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5220. @table @kbd
  5221. @item k
  5222. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5223. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5224. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5225. @item K
  5226. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5227. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5228. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5229. @item s
  5230. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5231. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5232. @item S
  5233. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5234. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5235. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5236. @item C
  5237. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5238. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5239. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5240. log with an empty entry.
  5241. @end table
  5242. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5243. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5244. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5245. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5246. the next task you clock in on.
  5247. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5248. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5249. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5250. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5251. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5252. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5253. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5254. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5255. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5256. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it's just happening due
  5257. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5258. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5259. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks}.
  5260. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5261. @section Effort estimates
  5262. @cindex effort estimates
  5263. @cindex property, Effort
  5264. @vindex org-effort-property
  5265. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5266. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5267. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clocking your work, you
  5268. may later want to compare the planned effort with the actual working time, a
  5269. great way to improve planning estimates. Effort estimates are stored in a
  5270. special property @samp{Effort}@footnote{You may change the property being
  5271. used with the variable @code{org-effort-property}.}. You can set the effort
  5272. for an entry with the following commands:
  5273. @table @kbd
  5274. @orgcmd{C-c C-x e,org-set-effort}
  5275. Set the effort estimate for the current entry. With a numeric prefix
  5276. argument, set it to the Nth allowed value (see below). This command is also
  5277. accessible from the agenda with the @kbd{e} key.
  5278. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5279. Modify the effort estimate of the item currently being clocked.
  5280. @end table
  5281. Clearly the best way to work with effort estimates is through column view
  5282. (@pxref{Column view}). You should start by setting up discrete values for
  5283. effort estimates, and a @code{COLUMNS} format that displays these values
  5284. together with clock sums (if you want to clock your time). For a specific
  5285. buffer you can use
  5286. @example
  5287. #+PROPERTY: Effort_ALL 0 0:10 0:30 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00
  5288. #+COLUMNS: %40ITEM(Task) %17Effort(Estimated Effort)@{:@} %CLOCKSUM
  5289. @end example
  5290. @noindent
  5291. @vindex org-global-properties
  5292. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  5293. or, even better, you can set up these values globally by customizing the
  5294. variables @code{org-global-properties} and @code{org-columns-default-format}.
  5295. In particular if you want to use this setup also in the agenda, a global
  5296. setup may be advised.
  5297. The way to assign estimates to individual items is then to switch to column
  5298. mode, and to use @kbd{S-@key{right}} and @kbd{S-@key{left}} to change the
  5299. value. The values you enter will immediately be summed up in the hierarchy.
  5300. In the column next to it, any clocked time will be displayed.
  5301. @vindex org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum
  5302. If you switch to column view in the daily/weekly agenda, the effort column
  5303. will summarize the estimated work effort for each day@footnote{Please note
  5304. the pitfalls of summing hierarchical data in a flat list (@pxref{Agenda
  5305. column view}).}, and you can use this to find space in your schedule. To get
  5306. an overview of the entire part of the day that is committed, you can set the
  5307. option @code{org-agenda-columns-add-appointments-to-effort-sum}. The
  5308. appointments on a day that take place over a specified time interval will
  5309. then also be added to the load estimate of the day.
  5310. Effort estimates can be used in secondary agenda filtering that is triggered
  5311. with the @kbd{/} key in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda commands}). If you have
  5312. these estimates defined consistently, two or three key presses will narrow
  5313. down the list to stuff that fits into an available time slot.
  5314. @node Relative timer, Countdown timer, Effort estimates, Dates and Times
  5315. @section Taking notes with a relative timer
  5316. @cindex relative timer
  5317. When taking notes during, for example, a meeting or a video viewing, it can
  5318. be useful to have access to times relative to a starting time. Org provides
  5319. such a relative timer and make it easy to create timed notes.
  5320. @table @kbd
  5321. @orgcmd{C-c C-x .,org-timer}
  5322. Insert a relative time into the buffer. The first time you use this, the
  5323. timer will be started. When called with a prefix argument, the timer is
  5324. restarted.
  5325. @orgcmd{C-c C-x -,org-timer-item}
  5326. Insert a description list item with the current relative time. With a prefix
  5327. argument, first reset the timer to 0.
  5328. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  5329. Once the timer list is started, you can also use @kbd{M-@key{RET}} to insert
  5330. new timer items.
  5331. @c for key sequences with a comma, command name macros fail :(
  5332. @kindex C-c C-x ,
  5333. @item C-c C-x ,
  5334. Pause the timer, or continue it if it is already paused
  5335. (@command{org-timer-pause-or-continue}).
  5336. @c removed the sentence because it is redundant to the following item
  5337. @kindex C-u C-c C-x ,
  5338. @item C-u C-c C-x ,
  5339. Stop the timer. After this, you can only start a new timer, not continue the
  5340. old one. This command also removes the timer from the mode line.
  5341. @orgcmd{C-c C-x 0,org-timer-start}
  5342. Reset the timer without inserting anything into the buffer. By default, the
  5343. timer is reset to 0. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, reset the timer to
  5344. specific starting offset. The user is prompted for the offset, with a
  5345. default taken from a timer string at point, if any, So this can be used to
  5346. restart taking notes after a break in the process. When called with a double
  5347. prefix argument @kbd{C-u C-u}, change all timer strings in the active region
  5348. by a certain amount. This can be used to fix timer strings if the timer was
  5349. not started at exactly the right moment.
  5350. @end table
  5351. @node Countdown timer, , Relative timer, Dates and Times
  5352. @section Countdown timer
  5353. @cindex Countdown timer
  5354. @kindex C-c C-x ;
  5355. @kindex ;
  5356. Calling @code{org-timer-set-timer} from an Org-mode buffer runs a countdown
  5357. timer. Use @key{;} from agenda buffers, @key{C-c C-x ;} everwhere else.
  5358. @code{org-timer-set-timer} prompts the user for a duration and displays a
  5359. countdown timer in the modeline. @code{org-timer-default-timer} sets the
  5360. default countdown value. Giving a prefix numeric argument overrides this
  5361. default value.
  5362. @node Capture - Refile - Archive, Agenda Views, Dates and Times, Top
  5363. @chapter Capture - Refile - Archive
  5364. @cindex capture
  5365. An important part of any organization system is the ability to quickly
  5366. capture new ideas and tasks, and to associate reference material with them.
  5367. Org does this using a process called @i{capture}. It also can store files
  5368. related to a task (@i{attachments}) in a special directory. Once in the
  5369. system, tasks and projects need to be moved around. Moving completed project
  5370. trees to an archive file keeps the system compact and fast.
  5371. @menu
  5372. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  5373. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  5374. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  5375. * Protocols:: External (e.g.@: Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  5376. * Refiling notes:: Moving a tree from one place to another
  5377. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  5378. @end menu
  5379. @node Capture, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5380. @section Capture
  5381. @cindex capture
  5382. Org's method for capturing new items is heavily inspired by John Wiegley
  5383. excellent remember package. Up to version 6.36 Org used a special setup
  5384. for @file{remember.el}. @file{org-remember.el} is still part of Org-mode for
  5385. backward compatibility with existing setups. You can find the documentation
  5386. for org-remember at @url{http://orgmode.org/org-remember.pdf}.
  5387. The new capturing setup described here is preferred and should be used by new
  5388. users. To convert your @code{org-remember-templates}, run the command
  5389. @example
  5390. @kbd{M-x org-capture-import-remember-templates @key{RET}}
  5391. @end example
  5392. @noindent and then customize the new variable with @kbd{M-x
  5393. customize-variable org-capture-templates}, check the result, and save the
  5394. customization. You can then use both remember and capture until
  5395. you are familiar with the new mechanism.
  5396. Capture lets you quickly store notes with little interruption of your work
  5397. flow. The basic process of capturing is very similar to remember, but Org
  5398. does enhance it with templates and more.
  5399. @menu
  5400. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  5401. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  5402. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  5403. @end menu
  5404. @node Setting up capture, Using capture, Capture, Capture
  5405. @subsection Setting up capture
  5406. The following customization sets a default target file for notes, and defines
  5407. a global key@footnote{Please select your own key, @kbd{C-c c} is only a
  5408. suggestion.} for capturing new material.
  5409. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5410. @example
  5411. (setq org-default-notes-file (concat org-directory "/notes.org"))
  5412. (define-key global-map "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  5413. @end example
  5414. @node Using capture, Capture templates, Setting up capture, Capture
  5415. @subsection Using capture
  5416. @table @kbd
  5417. @orgcmd{C-c c,org-capture}
  5418. Call the command @code{org-capture}. Note that this keybinding is global and
  5419. not active by default - you need to install it. If you have templates
  5420. @cindex date tree
  5421. defined @pxref{Capture templates}, it will offer these templates for
  5422. selection or use a new Org outline node as the default template. It will
  5423. insert the template into the target file and switch to an indirect buffer
  5424. narrowed to this new node. You may then insert the information you want.
  5425. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-capture-finalize}
  5426. Once you have finished entering information into the capture buffer, @kbd{C-c
  5427. C-c} will return you to the window configuration before the capture process,
  5428. so that you can resume your work without further distraction. When called
  5429. with a prefix arg, finalize and then jump to the captured item.
  5430. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-capture-refile}
  5431. Finalize the capture process by refiling (@pxref{Refiling notes}) the note to
  5432. a different place. Please realize that this is a normal refiling command
  5433. that will be executed---so the cursor position at the moment you run this
  5434. command is important. If you have inserted a tree with a parent and
  5435. children, first move the cursor back to the parent. Any prefix argument
  5436. given to this command will be passed on to the @code{org-refile} command.
  5437. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,org-capture-kill}
  5438. Abort the capture process and return to the previous state.
  5439. @end table
  5440. You can also call @code{org-capture} in a special way from the agenda, using
  5441. the @kbd{k c} key combination. With this access, any timestamps inserted by
  5442. the selected capture template will default to the cursor date in the agenda,
  5443. rather than to the current date.
  5444. To find the locations of the last stored capture, use @code{org-capture} with
  5445. prefix commands:
  5446. @table @kbd
  5447. @orgkey{C-u C-c c}
  5448. Visit the target location of a cpature template. You get to select the
  5449. template in the usual way.
  5450. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-c c}
  5451. Visit the last stored capture item in its buffer.
  5452. @end table
  5453. @node Capture templates, , Using capture, Capture
  5454. @subsection Capture templates
  5455. @cindex templates, for Capture
  5456. You can use templates for different types of capture items, and
  5457. for different target locations. The easiest way to create such templates is
  5458. through the customize interface.
  5459. @table @kbd
  5460. @orgkey{C-c c C}
  5461. Customize the variable @code{org-capture-templates}.
  5462. @end table
  5463. Before we give the formal description of template definitions, let's look at
  5464. an example. Say you would like to use one template to create general TODO
  5465. entries, and you want to put these entries under the heading @samp{Tasks} in
  5466. your file @file{~/org/gtd.org}. Also, a date tree in the file
  5467. @file{journal.org} should capture journal entries. A possible configuration
  5468. would look like:
  5469. @example
  5470. (setq org-capture-templates
  5471. '(("t" "Todo" entry (file+headline "~/org/gtd.org" "Tasks")
  5472. "* TODO %?\n %i\n %a")
  5473. ("j" "Journal" entry (file+datetree "~/org/journal.org")
  5474. "* %?\nEntered on %U\n %i\n %a")))
  5475. @end example
  5476. @noindent If you then press @kbd{C-c c t}, Org will prepare the template
  5477. for you like this:
  5478. @example
  5479. * TODO
  5480. [[file:@var{link to where you initiated capture}]]
  5481. @end example
  5482. @noindent
  5483. During expansion of the template, @code{%a} has been replaced by a link to
  5484. the location from where you called the capture command. This can be
  5485. extremely useful for deriving tasks from emails, for example. You fill in
  5486. the task definition, press @code{C-c C-c} and Org returns you to the same
  5487. place where you started the capture process.
  5488. To define special keys to capture to a particular template without going
  5489. through the interactive template selection, you can create your key binding
  5490. like this:
  5491. @lisp
  5492. (define-key global-map "\C-cx"
  5493. (lambda () (interactive) (org-capture nil "x")))
  5494. @end lisp
  5495. @menu
  5496. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  5497. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  5498. @end menu
  5499. @node Template elements, Template expansion, Capture templates, Capture templates
  5500. @subsubsection Template elements
  5501. Now lets look at the elements of a template definition. Each entry in
  5502. @code{org-capture-templates} is a list with the following items:
  5503. @table @var
  5504. @item keys
  5505. The keys that will select the template, as a string, characters
  5506. only, for example @code{"a"} for a template to be selected with a
  5507. single key, or @code{"bt"} for selection with two keys. When using
  5508. several keys, keys using the same prefix key must be sequential
  5509. in the list and preceded by a 2-element entry explaining the
  5510. prefix key, for example
  5511. @example
  5512. ("b" "Templates for marking stuff to buy")
  5513. @end example
  5514. @noindent If you do not define a template for the @kbd{C} key, this key will
  5515. be used to open the customize buffer for this complex variable.
  5516. @item description
  5517. A short string describing the template, which will be shown during
  5518. selection.
  5519. @item type
  5520. The type of entry, a symbol. Valid values are:
  5521. @table @code
  5522. @item entry
  5523. An Org-mode node, with a headline. Will be filed as the child of the
  5524. target entry or as a top-level entry. The target file should be an Org-mode
  5525. file.
  5526. @item item
  5527. A plain list item, placed in the first plain list at the target
  5528. location. Again the target file should be an Org file.
  5529. @item checkitem
  5530. A checkbox item. This only differs from the plain list item by the
  5531. default template.
  5532. @item table-line
  5533. a new line in the first table at the target location. Where exactly the
  5534. line will be inserted depends on the properties @code{:prepend} and
  5535. @code{:table-line-pos} (see below).
  5536. @item plain
  5537. Text to be inserted as it is.
  5538. @end table
  5539. @item target
  5540. @vindex org-default-notes-file
  5541. Specification of where the captured item should be placed. In Org-mode
  5542. files, targets usually define a node. Entries will become children of this
  5543. node. Other types will be added to the table or list in the body of this
  5544. node. Most target specifications contain a file name. If that file name is
  5545. the empty string, it defaults to @code{org-default-notes-file}. A file can
  5546. also be given as a variable, function, or Emacs Lisp form.
  5547. Valid values are:
  5548. @table @code
  5549. @item (file "path/to/file")
  5550. Text will be placed at the beginning or end of that file.
  5551. @item (id "id of existing org entry")
  5552. Filing as child of this entry, or in the body of the entry.
  5553. @item (file+headline "path/to/file" "node headline")
  5554. Fast configuration if the target heading is unique in the file.
  5555. @item (file+olp "path/to/file" "Level 1 heading" "Level 2" ...)
  5556. For non-unique headings, the full path is safer.
  5557. @item (file+regexp "path/to/file" "regexp to find location")
  5558. Use a regular expression to position the cursor.
  5559. @item (file+datetree "path/to/file")
  5560. Will create a heading in a date tree for today's date.
  5561. @item (file+datetree+prompt "path/to/file")
  5562. Will create a heading in a date tree, but will prompt for the date.
  5563. @item (file+function "path/to/file" function-finding-location)
  5564. A function to find the right location in the file.
  5565. @item (clock)
  5566. File to the entry that is currently being clocked.
  5567. @item (function function-finding-location)
  5568. Most general way, write your own function to find both
  5569. file and location.
  5570. @end table
  5571. @item template
  5572. The template for creating the capture item. If you leave this empty, an
  5573. appropriate default template will be used. Otherwise this is a string with
  5574. escape codes, which will be replaced depending on time and context of the
  5575. capture call. The string with escapes may be loaded from a template file,
  5576. using the special syntax @code{(file "path/to/template")}. See below for
  5577. more details.
  5578. @item properties
  5579. The rest of the entry is a property list of additional options.
  5580. Recognized properties are:
  5581. @table @code
  5582. @item :prepend
  5583. Normally new captured information will be appended at
  5584. the target location (last child, last table line, last list item...).
  5585. Setting this property will change that.
  5586. @item :immediate-finish
  5587. When set, do not offer to edit the information, just
  5588. file it away immediately. This makes sense if the template only needs
  5589. information that can be added automatically.
  5590. @item :empty-lines
  5591. Set this to the number of lines to insert
  5592. before and after the new item. Default 0, only common other value is 1.
  5593. @item :clock-in
  5594. Start the clock in this item.
  5595. @item :clock-keep
  5596. Keep the clock running when filing the captured entry.
  5597. @item :clock-resume
  5598. If starting the capture interrupted a clock, restart that clock when finished
  5599. with the capture. Note that @code{:clock-keep} has precedence over
  5600. @code{:clock-resume}. When setting both to @code{t}, the current clock will
  5601. run and the previous one will not be resumed.
  5602. @item :unnarrowed
  5603. Do not narrow the target buffer, simply show the full buffer. Default is to
  5604. narrow it so that you only see the new material.
  5605. @item :kill-buffer
  5606. If the target file was not yet visited when capture was invoked, kill the
  5607. buffer again after capture is completed.
  5608. @end table
  5609. @end table
  5610. @node Template expansion, , Template elements, Capture templates
  5611. @subsubsection Template expansion
  5612. In the template itself, special @kbd{%}-escapes@footnote{If you need one of
  5613. these sequences literally, escape the @kbd{%} with a backslash.} allow
  5614. dynamic insertion of content:
  5615. @comment SJE: should these sentences terminate in period?
  5616. @smallexample
  5617. %^@{@var{prompt}@} @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
  5618. @r{You may specify a default value and a completion table with}
  5619. @r{%^@{prompt|default|completion2|completion3...@}}
  5620. @r{The arrow keys access a prompt-specific history.}
  5621. %a @r{annotation, normally the link created with @code{org-store-link}}
  5622. %A @r{like @code{%a}, but prompt for the description part}
  5623. %i @r{initial content, the region when capture is called while the}
  5624. @r{region is active.}
  5625. @r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
  5626. %t @r{timestamp, date only}
  5627. %T @r{timestamp with date and time}
  5628. %u, %U @r{like the above, but inactive timestamps}
  5629. %^t @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date. Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}}
  5630. @r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}}
  5631. %n @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name})}
  5632. %c @r{Current kill ring head.}
  5633. %x @r{Content of the X clipboard.}
  5634. %^C @r{Interactive selection of which kill or clip to use.}
  5635. %^L @r{Like @code{%^C}, but insert as link.}
  5636. %k @r{title of the currently clocked task}
  5637. %K @r{link to the currently clocked task}
  5638. %f @r{file visited by current buffer when org-capture was called}
  5639. %F @r{like @code{%f}, but include full path}
  5640. %^g @r{prompt for tags, with completion on tags in target file.}
  5641. %^G @r{prompt for tags, with completion all tags in all agenda files.}
  5642. %^@{@var{prop}@}p @r{Prompt the user for a value for property @var{prop}}
  5643. %:keyword @r{specific information for certain link types, see below}
  5644. %[@var{file}] @r{insert the contents of the file given by @var{file}}
  5645. %(@var{sexp}) @r{evaluate Elisp @var{sexp} and replace with the result}
  5646. @end smallexample
  5647. @noindent
  5648. For specific link types, the following keywords will be
  5649. defined@footnote{If you define your own link types (@pxref{Adding
  5650. hyperlink types}), any property you store with
  5651. @code{org-store-link-props} can be accessed in capture templates in a
  5652. similar way.}:
  5653. @vindex org-from-is-user-regexp
  5654. @smallexample
  5655. Link type | Available keywords
  5656. -------------------+----------------------------------------------
  5657. bbdb | %:name %:company
  5658. irc | %:server %:port %:nick
  5659. vm, wl, mh, mew, rmail | %:type %:subject %:message-id
  5660. | %:from %:fromname %:fromaddress
  5661. | %:to %:toname %:toaddress
  5662. | %:date @r{(message date header field)}
  5663. | %:date-timestamp @r{(date as active timestamp)}
  5664. | %:date-timestamp-inactive @r{(date as inactive timestamp)}
  5665. | %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user. See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}}
  5666. gnus | %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields}
  5667. w3, w3m | %:url
  5668. info | %:file %:node
  5669. calendar | %:date
  5670. @end smallexample
  5671. @noindent
  5672. To place the cursor after template expansion use:
  5673. @smallexample
  5674. %? @r{After completing the template, position cursor here.}
  5675. @end smallexample
  5676. @node Attachments, RSS Feeds, Capture, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5677. @section Attachments
  5678. @cindex attachments
  5679. @vindex org-attach-directory
  5680. It is often useful to associate reference material with an outline node/task.
  5681. Small chunks of plain text can simply be stored in the subtree of a project.
  5682. Hyperlinks (@pxref{Hyperlinks}) can establish associations with
  5683. files that live elsewhere on your computer or in the cloud, like emails or
  5684. source code files belonging to a project. Another method is @i{attachments},
  5685. which are files located in a directory belonging to an outline node. Org
  5686. uses directories named by the unique ID of each entry. These directories are
  5687. located in the @file{data} directory which lives in the same directory where
  5688. your Org file lives@footnote{If you move entries or Org files from one
  5689. directory to another, you may want to configure @code{org-attach-directory}
  5690. to contain an absolute path.}. If you initialize this directory with
  5691. @code{git init}, Org will automatically commit changes when it sees them.
  5692. The attachment system has been contributed to Org by John Wiegley.
  5693. In cases where it seems better to do so, you can also attach a directory of your
  5694. choice to an entry. You can also make children inherit the attachment
  5695. directory from a parent, so that an entire subtree uses the same attached
  5696. directory.
  5697. @noindent The following commands deal with attachments:
  5698. @table @kbd
  5699. @orgcmd{C-c C-a,org-attach}
  5700. The dispatcher for commands related to the attachment system. After these
  5701. keys, a list of commands is displayed and you must press an additional key
  5702. to select a command:
  5703. @table @kbd
  5704. @orgcmdtkc{a,C-c C-a a,org-attach-attach}
  5705. @vindex org-attach-method
  5706. Select a file and move it into the task's attachment directory. The file
  5707. will be copied, moved, or linked, depending on @code{org-attach-method}.
  5708. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5709. @kindex C-c C-a c
  5710. @kindex C-c C-a m
  5711. @kindex C-c C-a l
  5712. @item c/m/l
  5713. Attach a file using the copy/move/link method.
  5714. Note that hard links are not supported on all systems.
  5715. @orgcmdtkc{n,C-c C-a n,org-attach-new}
  5716. Create a new attachment as an Emacs buffer.
  5717. @orgcmdtkc{z,C-c C-a z,org-attach-sync}
  5718. Synchronize the current task with its attachment directory, in case you added
  5719. attachments yourself.
  5720. @orgcmdtkc{o,C-c C-a o,org-attach-open}
  5721. @vindex org-file-apps
  5722. Open current task's attachment. If there is more than one, prompt for a
  5723. file name first. Opening will follow the rules set by @code{org-file-apps}.
  5724. For more details, see the information on following hyperlinks
  5725. (@pxref{Handling links}).
  5726. @orgcmdtkc{O,C-c C-a O,org-attach-open-in-emacs}
  5727. Also open the attachment, but force opening the file in Emacs.
  5728. @orgcmdtkc{f,C-c C-a f,org-attach-reveal}
  5729. Open the current task's attachment directory.
  5730. @orgcmdtkc{F,C-c C-a F,org-attach-reveal-in-emacs}
  5731. Also open the directory, but force using @command{dired} in Emacs.
  5732. @orgcmdtkc{d,C-c C-a d,org-attach-delete-one}
  5733. Select and delete a single attachment.
  5734. @orgcmdtkc{D,C-c C-a D,org-attach-delete-all}
  5735. Delete all of a task's attachments. A safer way is to open the directory in
  5736. @command{dired} and delete from there.
  5737. @orgcmdtkc{s,C-c C-a s,org-attach-set-directory}
  5738. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR
  5739. Set a specific directory as the entry's attachment directory. This works by
  5740. putting the directory path into the @code{ATTACH_DIR} property.
  5741. @orgcmdtkc{i,C-c C-a i,org-attach-set-inherit}
  5742. @cindex property, ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT
  5743. Set the @code{ATTACH_DIR_INHERIT} property, so that children will use the
  5744. same directory for attachments as the parent does.
  5745. @end table
  5746. @end table
  5747. @node RSS Feeds, Protocols, Attachments, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5748. @section RSS feeds
  5749. @cindex RSS feeds
  5750. @cindex Atom feeds
  5751. Org can add and change entries based on information found in RSS feeds and
  5752. Atom feeds. You could use this to make a task out of each new podcast in a
  5753. podcast feed. Or you could use a phone-based note-creating service on the
  5754. web to import tasks into Org. To access feeds, configure the variable
  5755. @code{org-feed-alist}. The docstring of this variable has detailed
  5756. information. Here is just an example:
  5757. @example
  5758. (setq org-feed-alist
  5759. '(("Slashdot"
  5760. "http://rss.slashdot.org/Slashdot/slashdot"
  5761. "~/txt/org/feeds.org" "Slashdot Entries")))
  5762. @end example
  5763. @noindent
  5764. will configure that new items from the feed provided by
  5765. @code{rss.slashdot.org} will result in new entries in the file
  5766. @file{~/org/feeds.org} under the heading @samp{Slashdot Entries}, whenever
  5767. the following command is used:
  5768. @table @kbd
  5769. @orgcmd{C-c C-x g,org-feed-update-all}
  5770. @item C-c C-x g
  5771. Collect items from the feeds configured in @code{org-feed-alist} and act upon
  5772. them.
  5773. @orgcmd{C-c C-x G,org-feed-goto-inbox}
  5774. Prompt for a feed name and go to the inbox configured for this feed.
  5775. @end table
  5776. Under the same headline, Org will create a drawer @samp{FEEDSTATUS} in which
  5777. it will store information about the status of items in the feed, to avoid
  5778. adding the same item several times. You should add @samp{FEEDSTATUS} to the
  5779. list of drawers in that file:
  5780. @example
  5781. #+DRAWERS: LOGBOOK PROPERTIES FEEDSTATUS
  5782. @end example
  5783. For more information, including how to read atom feeds, see
  5784. @file{org-feed.el} and the docstring of @code{org-feed-alist}.
  5785. @node Protocols, Refiling notes, RSS Feeds, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5786. @section Protocols for external access
  5787. @cindex protocols, for external access
  5788. @cindex emacsserver
  5789. You can set up Org for handling protocol calls from outside applications that
  5790. are passed to Emacs through the @file{emacsserver}. For example, you can
  5791. configure bookmarks in your web browser to send a link to the current page to
  5792. Org and create a note from it using capture (@pxref{Capture}). Or you
  5793. could create a bookmark that will tell Emacs to open the local source file of
  5794. a remote website you are looking at with the browser. See
  5795. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-contrib/org-protocol.php} for detailed
  5796. documentation and setup instructions.
  5797. @node Refiling notes, Archiving, Protocols, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5798. @section Refiling notes
  5799. @cindex refiling notes
  5800. When reviewing the captured data, you may want to refile some of the entries
  5801. into a different list, for example into a project. Cutting, finding the
  5802. right location, and then pasting the note is cumbersome. To simplify this
  5803. process, you can use the following special command:
  5804. @table @kbd
  5805. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  5806. @vindex org-reverse-note-order
  5807. @vindex org-refile-targets
  5808. @vindex org-refile-use-outline-path
  5809. @vindex org-outline-path-complete-in-steps
  5810. @vindex org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes
  5811. @vindex org-log-refile
  5812. @vindex org-refile-use-cache
  5813. Refile the entry or region at point. This command offers possible locations
  5814. for refiling the entry and lets you select one with completion. The item (or
  5815. all items in the region) is filed below the target heading as a subitem.
  5816. Depending on @code{org-reverse-note-order}, it will be either the first or
  5817. last subitem.@*
  5818. By default, all level 1 headlines in the current buffer are considered to be
  5819. targets, but you can have more complex definitions across a number of files.
  5820. See the variable @code{org-refile-targets} for details. If you would like to
  5821. select a location via a file-path-like completion along the outline path, see
  5822. the variables @code{org-refile-use-outline-path} and
  5823. @code{org-outline-path-complete-in-steps}. If you would like to be able to
  5824. create new nodes as new parents for refiling on the fly, check the
  5825. variable @code{org-refile-allow-creating-parent-nodes}.
  5826. When the variable @code{org-log-refile}@footnote{with corresponding
  5827. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logrefile}, @code{lognoterefile},
  5828. and @code{nologrefile}} is set, a timestamp or a note will be
  5829. recorded when an entry has been refiled.
  5830. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-w}
  5831. Use the refile interface to jump to a heading.
  5832. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c C-w,org-refile-goto-last-stored}
  5833. Jump to the location where @code{org-refile} last moved a tree to.
  5834. @item C-2 C-c C-w
  5835. Refile as the child of the item currently being clocked.
  5836. @item C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w
  5837. @orgcmdtkc{C-0 C-c C-w @ @r{or} @ C-u C-u C-u C-c C-w,C-0 C-c C-w,org-refile-cache-clear}
  5838. Clear the target cache. Caching of refile targets can be turned on by
  5839. setting @code{org-refile-use-cache}. To make the command see new possible
  5840. targets, you have to clear the cache with this command.
  5841. @end table
  5842. @node Archiving, , Refiling notes, Capture - Refile - Archive
  5843. @section Archiving
  5844. @cindex archiving
  5845. When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
  5846. to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
  5847. agenda. Archiving is important to keep your working files compact and global
  5848. searches like the construction of agenda views fast.
  5849. @table @kbd
  5850. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-a,org-archive-subtree-default}
  5851. @vindex org-archive-default-command
  5852. Archive the current entry using the command specified in the variable
  5853. @code{org-archive-default-command}.
  5854. @end table
  5855. @menu
  5856. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  5857. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  5858. @end menu
  5859. @node Moving subtrees, Internal archiving, Archiving, Archiving
  5860. @subsection Moving a tree to the archive file
  5861. @cindex external archiving
  5862. The most common archiving action is to move a project tree to another file,
  5863. the archive file.
  5864. @table @kbd
  5865. @orgcmdkskc{C-c C-x C-s,C-c $,org-archive-subtree}
  5866. @vindex org-archive-location
  5867. Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
  5868. given by @code{org-archive-location}.
  5869. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-s}
  5870. Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to
  5871. the archive. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.
  5872. If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive
  5873. location. If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command
  5874. is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.
  5875. @end table
  5876. @cindex archive locations
  5877. The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
  5878. current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
  5879. current file name. For information and examples on how to change this,
  5880. see the documentation string of the variable
  5881. @code{org-archive-location}. There is also an in-buffer option for
  5882. setting this variable, for example@footnote{For backward compatibility,
  5883. the following also works: If there are several such lines in a file,
  5884. each specifies the archive location for the text below it. The first
  5885. such line also applies to any text before its definition. However,
  5886. using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is incompatible
  5887. with the outline structure of the document. The correct method for
  5888. setting multiple archive locations in a buffer is using properties.}:
  5889. @cindex #+ARCHIVE
  5890. @example
  5891. #+ARCHIVE: %s_done::
  5892. @end example
  5893. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  5894. @noindent
  5895. If you would like to have a special ARCHIVE location for a single entry
  5896. or a (sub)tree, give the entry an @code{:ARCHIVE:} property with the
  5897. location as the value (@pxref{Properties and Columns}).
  5898. @vindex org-archive-save-context-info
  5899. When a subtree is moved, it receives a number of special properties that
  5900. record context information like the file from where the entry came, its
  5901. outline path the archiving time etc. Configure the variable
  5902. @code{org-archive-save-context-info} to adjust the amount of information
  5903. added.
  5904. @node Internal archiving, , Moving subtrees, Archiving
  5905. @subsection Internal archiving
  5906. If you want to just switch off (for agenda views) certain subtrees without
  5907. moving them to a different file, you can use the @code{ARCHIVE tag}.
  5908. A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at
  5909. its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way:
  5910. @itemize @minus
  5911. @item
  5912. @vindex org-cycle-open-archived-trees
  5913. It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling
  5914. command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}). You can force cycling archived
  5915. subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option
  5916. @code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}. Also normal outline commands like
  5917. @code{show-all} will open archived subtrees.
  5918. @item
  5919. @vindex org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees
  5920. During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in
  5921. archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option
  5922. @code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}.
  5923. @item
  5924. @vindex org-agenda-skip-archived-trees
  5925. During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda Views}), the content of
  5926. archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option
  5927. @code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}, in which case these trees will always
  5928. be included. In the agenda you can press @kbd{v a} to get archives
  5929. temporarily included.
  5930. @item
  5931. @vindex org-export-with-archived-trees
  5932. Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline
  5933. is. Configure the details using the variable
  5934. @code{org-export-with-archived-trees}.
  5935. @item
  5936. @vindex org-columns-skip-archived-trees
  5937. Archived trees are excluded from column view unless the variable
  5938. @code{org-columns-skip-archived-trees} is configured to @code{nil}.
  5939. @end itemize
  5940. The following commands help manage the ARCHIVE tag:
  5941. @table @kbd
  5942. @orgcmd{C-c C-x a,org-toggle-archive-tag}
  5943. Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline. When the tag is set,
  5944. the headline changes to a shadowed face, and the subtree below it is
  5945. hidden.
  5946. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x a}
  5947. Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived.
  5948. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries. If none are
  5949. found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child. If the
  5950. cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the
  5951. level 1 trees will be checked.
  5952. @orgcmd{C-@kbd{TAB},org-force-cycle-archived}
  5953. Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE.
  5954. @orgcmd{C-c C-x A,org-archive-to-archive-sibling}
  5955. Move the current entry to the @emph{Archive Sibling}. This is a sibling of
  5956. the entry with the heading @samp{Archive} and the tag @samp{ARCHIVE}. The
  5957. entry becomes a child of that sibling and in this way retains a lot of its
  5958. original context, including inherited tags and approximate position in the
  5959. outline.
  5960. @end table
  5961. @node Agenda Views, Markup, Capture - Refile - Archive, Top
  5962. @chapter Agenda views
  5963. @cindex agenda views
  5964. Due to the way Org works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and
  5965. tagged headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of
  5966. files. To get an overview of open action items, or of events that are
  5967. important for a particular date, this information must be collected,
  5968. sorted and displayed in an organized way.
  5969. Org can select items based on various criteria and display them
  5970. in a separate buffer. Seven different view types are provided:
  5971. @itemize @bullet
  5972. @item
  5973. an @emph{agenda} that is like a calendar and shows information
  5974. for specific dates,
  5975. @item
  5976. a @emph{TODO list} that covers all unfinished
  5977. action items,
  5978. @item
  5979. a @emph{match view}, showings headlines based on the tags, properties, and
  5980. TODO state associated with them,
  5981. @item
  5982. a @emph{timeline view} that shows all events in a single Org file,
  5983. in time-sorted view,
  5984. @item
  5985. a @emph{text search view} that shows all entries from multiple files
  5986. that contain specified keywords,
  5987. @item
  5988. a @emph{stuck projects view} showing projects that currently don't move
  5989. along, and
  5990. @item
  5991. @emph{custom views} that are special searches and combinations of different
  5992. views.
  5993. @end itemize
  5994. @noindent
  5995. The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda
  5996. buffer}. This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the
  5997. corresponding locations in the original Org files, and even to
  5998. edit these files remotely.
  5999. @vindex org-agenda-window-setup
  6000. @vindex org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit
  6001. Two variables control how the agenda buffer is displayed and whether the
  6002. window configuration is restored when the agenda exits:
  6003. @code{org-agenda-window-setup} and
  6004. @code{org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit}.
  6005. @menu
  6006. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  6007. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  6008. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  6009. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  6010. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  6011. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  6012. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  6013. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  6014. @end menu
  6015. @node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views, Agenda Views
  6016. @section Agenda files
  6017. @cindex agenda files
  6018. @cindex files for agenda
  6019. @vindex org-agenda-files
  6020. The information to be shown is normally collected from all @emph{agenda
  6021. files}, the files listed in the variable
  6022. @code{org-agenda-files}@footnote{If the value of that variable is not a
  6023. list, but a single file name, then the list of agenda files will be
  6024. maintained in that external file.}. If a directory is part of this list,
  6025. all files with the extension @file{.org} in this directory will be part
  6026. of the list.
  6027. Thus, even if you only work with a single Org file, that file should
  6028. be put into the list@footnote{When using the dispatcher, pressing
  6029. @kbd{<} before selecting a command will actually limit the command to
  6030. the current file, and ignore @code{org-agenda-files} until the next
  6031. dispatcher command.}. You can customize @code{org-agenda-files}, but
  6032. the easiest way to maintain it is through the following commands
  6033. @cindex files, adding to agenda list
  6034. @table @kbd
  6035. @orgcmd{C-c [,org-agenda-file-to-front}
  6036. Add current file to the list of agenda files. The file is added to
  6037. the front of the list. If it was already in the list, it is moved to
  6038. the front. With a prefix argument, file is added/moved to the end.
  6039. @orgcmd{C-c ],org-remove-file}
  6040. Remove current file from the list of agenda files.
  6041. @kindex C-,
  6042. @orgcmd{C-',org-cycle-agenda-files}
  6043. @itemx C-,
  6044. Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.
  6045. @kindex M-x org-iswitchb
  6046. @item M-x org-iswitchb
  6047. Command to use an @code{iswitchb}-like interface to switch to and between Org
  6048. buffers.
  6049. @end table
  6050. @noindent
  6051. The Org menu contains the current list of files and can be used
  6052. to visit any of them.
  6053. If you would like to focus the agenda temporarily on a file not in
  6054. this list, or on just one file in the list, or even on only a subtree in a
  6055. file, then this can be done in different ways. For a single agenda command,
  6056. you may press @kbd{<} once or several times in the dispatcher
  6057. (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}). To restrict the agenda scope for an
  6058. extended period, use the following commands:
  6059. @table @kbd
  6060. @orgcmd{C-c C-x <,org-agenda-set-restriction-lock}
  6061. Permanently restrict the agenda to the current subtree. When with a
  6062. prefix argument, or with the cursor before the first headline in a file,
  6063. the agenda scope is set to the entire file. This restriction remains in
  6064. effect until removed with @kbd{C-c C-x >}, or by typing either @kbd{<}
  6065. or @kbd{>} in the agenda dispatcher. If there is a window displaying an
  6066. agenda view, the new restriction takes effect immediately.
  6067. @orgcmd{C-c C-x >,org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock}
  6068. Remove the permanent restriction created by @kbd{C-c C-x <}.
  6069. @end table
  6070. @noindent
  6071. When working with @file{speedbar.el}, you can use the following commands in
  6072. the Speedbar frame:
  6073. @table @kbd
  6074. @orgcmdtkc{< @r{in the speedbar frame},<,org-speedbar-set-agenda-restriction}
  6075. Permanently restrict the agenda to the item---either an Org file or a subtree
  6076. in such a file---at the cursor in the Speedbar frame.
  6077. If there is a window displaying an agenda view, the new restriction takes
  6078. effect immediately.
  6079. @orgcmdtkc{> @r{in the speedbar frame},>,org-agenda-remove-restriction-lock}
  6080. Lift the restriction.
  6081. @end table
  6082. @node Agenda dispatcher, Built-in agenda views, Agenda files, Agenda Views
  6083. @section The agenda dispatcher
  6084. @cindex agenda dispatcher
  6085. @cindex dispatching agenda commands
  6086. The views are created through a dispatcher, which should be bound to a
  6087. global key---for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Installation}). In the
  6088. following we will assume that @kbd{C-c a} is indeed how the dispatcher
  6089. is accessed and list keyboard access to commands accordingly. After
  6090. pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a
  6091. command. The dispatcher offers the following default commands:
  6092. @table @kbd
  6093. @item a
  6094. Create the calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  6095. @item t @r{/} T
  6096. Create a list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}).
  6097. @item m @r{/} M
  6098. Create a list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching
  6099. tags and properties}).
  6100. @item L
  6101. Create the timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}).
  6102. @item s
  6103. Create a list of entries selected by a boolean expression of keywords
  6104. and/or regular expressions that must or must not occur in the entry.
  6105. @item /
  6106. @vindex org-agenda-text-search-extra-files
  6107. Search for a regular expression in all agenda files and additionally in
  6108. the files listed in @code{org-agenda-text-search-extra-files}. This
  6109. uses the Emacs command @code{multi-occur}. A prefix argument can be
  6110. used to specify the number of context lines for each match, default is
  6111. 1.
  6112. @item # @r{/} !
  6113. Create a list of stuck projects (@pxref{Stuck projects}).
  6114. @item <
  6115. Restrict an agenda command to the current buffer@footnote{For backward
  6116. compatibility, you can also press @kbd{1} to restrict to the current
  6117. buffer.}. After pressing @kbd{<}, you still need to press the character
  6118. selecting the command.
  6119. @item < <
  6120. If there is an active region, restrict the following agenda command to
  6121. the region. Otherwise, restrict it to the current subtree@footnote{For
  6122. backward compatibility, you can also press @kbd{0} to restrict to the
  6123. current region/subtree.}. After pressing @kbd{< <}, you still need to press the
  6124. character selecting the command.
  6125. @end table
  6126. You can also define custom commands that will be accessible through the
  6127. dispatcher, just like the default commands. This includes the
  6128. possibility to create extended agenda buffers that contain several
  6129. blocks together, for example the weekly agenda, the global TODO list and
  6130. a number of special tags matches. @xref{Custom agenda views}.
  6131. @node Built-in agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda Views
  6132. @section The built-in agenda views
  6133. In this section we describe the built-in views.
  6134. @menu
  6135. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  6136. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  6137. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  6138. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  6139. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  6140. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  6141. @end menu
  6142. @node Weekly/daily agenda, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views, Built-in agenda views
  6143. @subsection The weekly/daily agenda
  6144. @cindex agenda
  6145. @cindex weekly agenda
  6146. @cindex daily agenda
  6147. The purpose of the weekly/daily @emph{agenda} is to act like a page of a
  6148. paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day.
  6149. @table @kbd
  6150. @cindex org-agenda, command
  6151. @orgcmd{C-c a a,org-agenda-list}
  6152. Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of Org files. The agenda
  6153. shows the entries for each day. With a numeric prefix@footnote{For backward
  6154. compatibility, the universal prefix @kbd{C-u} causes all TODO entries to be
  6155. listed before the agenda. This feature is deprecated, use the dedicated TODO
  6156. list, or a block agenda instead (@pxref{Block agenda}).} (like @kbd{C-u 2 1
  6157. C-c a a}) you may set the number of days to be displayed.
  6158. @end table
  6159. @vindex org-agenda-span
  6160. @vindex org-agenda-ndays
  6161. The default number of days displayed in the agenda is set by the variable
  6162. @code{org-agenda-span} (or the obsolete @code{org-agenda-ndays}). This
  6163. variable can be set to any number of days you want to see by default in the
  6164. agenda, or to a span name, such a @code{day}, @code{week}, @code{month} or
  6165. @code{year}.
  6166. Remote editing from the agenda buffer means, for example, that you can
  6167. change the dates of deadlines and appointments from the agenda buffer.
  6168. The commands available in the Agenda buffer are listed in @ref{Agenda
  6169. commands}.
  6170. @subsubheading Calendar/Diary integration
  6171. @cindex calendar integration
  6172. @cindex diary integration
  6173. Emacs contains the calendar and diary by Edward M. Reingold. The
  6174. calendar displays a three-month calendar with holidays from different
  6175. countries and cultures. The diary allows you to keep track of
  6176. anniversaries, lunar phases, sunrise/set, recurrent appointments
  6177. (weekly, monthly) and more. In this way, it is quite complementary to
  6178. Org. It can be very useful to combine output from Org with
  6179. the diary.
  6180. In order to include entries from the Emacs diary into Org-mode's
  6181. agenda, you only need to customize the variable
  6182. @lisp
  6183. (setq org-agenda-include-diary t)
  6184. @end lisp
  6185. @noindent After that, everything will happen automatically. All diary
  6186. entries including holidays, anniversaries, etc., will be included in the
  6187. agenda buffer created by Org-mode. @key{SPC}, @key{TAB}, and
  6188. @key{RET} can be used from the agenda buffer to jump to the diary
  6189. file in order to edit existing diary entries. The @kbd{i} command to
  6190. insert new entries for the current date works in the agenda buffer, as
  6191. well as the commands @kbd{S}, @kbd{M}, and @kbd{C} to display
  6192. Sunrise/Sunset times, show lunar phases and to convert to other
  6193. calendars, respectively. @kbd{c} can be used to switch back and forth
  6194. between calendar and agenda.
  6195. If you are using the diary only for sexp entries and holidays, it is
  6196. faster to not use the above setting, but instead to copy or even move
  6197. the entries into an Org file. Org-mode evaluates diary-style sexp
  6198. entries, and does it faster because there is no overhead for first
  6199. creating the diary display. Note that the sexp entries must start at
  6200. the left margin, no whitespace is allowed before them. For example,
  6201. the following segment of an Org file will be processed and entries
  6202. will be made in the agenda:
  6203. @example
  6204. * Birthdays and similar stuff
  6205. #+CATEGORY: Holiday
  6206. %%(org-calendar-holiday) ; special function for holiday names
  6207. #+CATEGORY: Ann
  6208. %%(diary-anniversary 5 14 1956)@footnote{Note that the order of the arguments (month, day, year) depends on the setting of @code{calendar-date-style}.} Arthur Dent is %d years old
  6209. %%(diary-anniversary 10 2 1869) Mahatma Gandhi would be %d years old
  6210. @end example
  6211. @subsubheading Anniversaries from BBDB
  6212. @cindex BBDB, anniversaries
  6213. @cindex anniversaries, from BBDB
  6214. If you are using the Big Brothers Database to store your contacts, you will
  6215. very likely prefer to store anniversaries in BBDB rather than in a
  6216. separate Org or diary file. Org supports this and will show BBDB
  6217. anniversaries as part of the agenda. All you need to do is to add the
  6218. following to one your your agenda files:
  6219. @example
  6220. * Anniversaries
  6221. :PROPERTIES:
  6222. :CATEGORY: Anniv
  6223. :END:
  6224. %%(org-bbdb-anniversaries)
  6225. @end example
  6226. You can then go ahead and define anniversaries for a BBDB record. Basically,
  6227. you need to press @kbd{C-o anniversary @key{RET}} with the cursor in a BBDB
  6228. record and then add the date in the format @code{YYYY-MM-DD} or @code{MM-DD},
  6229. followed by a space and the class of the anniversary (@samp{birthday} or
  6230. @samp{wedding}, or a format string). If you omit the class, it will default to
  6231. @samp{birthday}. Here are a few examples, the header for the file
  6232. @file{org-bbdb.el} contains more detailed information.
  6233. @example
  6234. 1973-06-22
  6235. 06-22
  6236. 1955-08-02 wedding
  6237. 2008-04-14 %s released version 6.01 of org-mode, %d years ago
  6238. @end example
  6239. After a change to BBDB, or for the first agenda display during an Emacs
  6240. session, the agenda display will suffer a short delay as Org updates its
  6241. hash with anniversaries. However, from then on things will be very fast---much
  6242. faster in fact than a long list of @samp{%%(diary-anniversary)} entries
  6243. in an Org or Diary file.
  6244. @subsubheading Appointment reminders
  6245. @cindex @file{appt.el}
  6246. @cindex appointment reminders
  6247. Org can interact with Emacs appointments notification facility. To add all
  6248. the appointments of your agenda files, use the command
  6249. @code{org-agenda-to-appt}. This command also lets you filter through the
  6250. list of your appointments and add only those belonging to a specific category
  6251. or matching a regular expression. See the docstring for details.
  6252. @node Global TODO list, Matching tags and properties, Weekly/daily agenda, Built-in agenda views
  6253. @subsection The global TODO list
  6254. @cindex global TODO list
  6255. @cindex TODO list, global
  6256. The global TODO list contains all unfinished TODO items formatted and
  6257. collected into a single place.
  6258. @table @kbd
  6259. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  6260. Show the global TODO list. This collects the TODO items from all agenda
  6261. files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. By default, this lists
  6262. items with a state the is not a DONE state. The buffer is in
  6263. @code{agenda-mode}, so there are commands to examine and manipulate the TODO
  6264. entries directly from that buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  6265. @orgcmd{C-c a T,org-todo-list}
  6266. @cindex TODO keyword matching
  6267. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  6268. Like the above, but allows selection of a specific TODO keyword. You can
  6269. also do this by specifying a prefix argument to @kbd{C-c a t}. You are
  6270. prompted for a keyword, and you may also specify several keywords by
  6271. separating them with @samp{|} as the boolean OR operator. With a numeric
  6272. prefix, the Nth keyword in @code{org-todo-keywords} is selected.
  6273. @kindex r
  6274. The @kbd{r} key in the agenda buffer regenerates it, and you can give
  6275. a prefix argument to this command to change the selected TODO keyword,
  6276. for example @kbd{3 r}. If you often need a search for a specific
  6277. keyword, define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).@*
  6278. Matching specific TODO keywords can also be done as part of a tags
  6279. search (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  6280. @end table
  6281. Remote editing of TODO items means that you can change the state of a
  6282. TODO entry with a single key press. The commands available in the
  6283. TODO list are described in @ref{Agenda commands}.
  6284. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into TODO list
  6285. Normally the global TODO list simply shows all headlines with TODO
  6286. keywords. This list can become very long. There are two ways to keep
  6287. it more compact:
  6288. @itemize @minus
  6289. @item
  6290. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled
  6291. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines
  6292. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-timestamp
  6293. @vindex org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date
  6294. Some people view a TODO item that has been @emph{scheduled} for execution or
  6295. have a @emph{deadline} (@pxref{Timestamps}) as no longer @emph{open}.
  6296. Configure the variables @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled},
  6297. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-deadlines},
  6298. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-timestamp} and/or
  6299. @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-with-date} to exclude such items from the global
  6300. TODO list.
  6301. @item
  6302. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  6303. TODO items may have sublevels to break up the task into subtasks. In
  6304. such cases it may be enough to list only the highest level TODO headline
  6305. and omit the sublevels from the global list. Configure the variable
  6306. @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels} to get this behavior.
  6307. @end itemize
  6308. @node Matching tags and properties, Timeline, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views
  6309. @subsection Matching tags and properties
  6310. @cindex matching, of tags
  6311. @cindex matching, of properties
  6312. @cindex tags view
  6313. @cindex match view
  6314. If headlines in the agenda files are marked with @emph{tags} (@pxref{Tags}),
  6315. or have properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), you can select headlines
  6316. based on this metadata and collect them into an agenda buffer. The match
  6317. syntax described here also applies when creating sparse trees with @kbd{C-c /
  6318. m}.
  6319. @table @kbd
  6320. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  6321. Produce a list of all headlines that match a given set of tags. The
  6322. command prompts for a selection criterion, which is a boolean logic
  6323. expression with tags, like @samp{+work+urgent-withboss} or
  6324. @samp{work|home} (@pxref{Tags}). If you often need a specific search,
  6325. define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  6326. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  6327. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  6328. @vindex org-agenda-tags-todo-honor-ignore-options
  6329. Like @kbd{C-c a m}, but only select headlines that are also TODO items in a
  6330. not-DONE state and force checking subitems (see variable
  6331. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}). To exclude scheduled/deadline items,
  6332. see the variable @code{org-agenda-tags-todo-honor-ignore-options}. Matching
  6333. specific TODO keywords together with a tags match is also possible, see
  6334. @ref{Tag searches}.
  6335. @end table
  6336. The commands available in the tags list are described in @ref{Agenda
  6337. commands}.
  6338. @subsubheading Match syntax
  6339. @cindex Boolean logic, for tag/property searches
  6340. A search string can use Boolean operators @samp{&} for AND and @samp{|} for
  6341. OR. @samp{&} binds more strongly than @samp{|}. Parentheses are currently
  6342. not implemented. Each element in the search is either a tag, a regular
  6343. expression matching tags, or an expression like @code{PROPERTY OPERATOR
  6344. VALUE} with a comparison operator, accessing a property value. Each element
  6345. may be preceded by @samp{-}, to select against it, and @samp{+} is syntactic
  6346. sugar for positive selection. The AND operator @samp{&} is optional when
  6347. @samp{+} or @samp{-} is present. Here are some examples, using only tags.
  6348. @table @samp
  6349. @item +work-boss
  6350. Select headlines tagged @samp{:work:}, but discard those also tagged
  6351. @samp{:boss:}.
  6352. @item work|laptop
  6353. Selects lines tagged @samp{:work:} or @samp{:laptop:}.
  6354. @item work|laptop+night
  6355. Like before, but require the @samp{:laptop:} lines to be tagged also
  6356. @samp{:night:}.
  6357. @end table
  6358. @cindex regular expressions, with tags search
  6359. Instead of a tag, you may also specify a regular expression enclosed in curly
  6360. braces. For example,
  6361. @samp{work+@{^boss.*@}} matches headlines that contain the tag
  6362. @samp{:work:} and any tag @i{starting} with @samp{boss}.
  6363. @cindex TODO keyword matching, with tags search
  6364. @cindex level, require for tags/property match
  6365. @cindex category, require for tags/property match
  6366. @vindex org-odd-levels-only
  6367. You may also test for properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) at the same
  6368. time as matching tags. The properties may be real properties, or special
  6369. properties that represent other metadata (@pxref{Special properties}). For
  6370. example, the ``property'' @code{TODO} represents the TODO keyword of the
  6371. entry. Or, the ``property'' @code{LEVEL} represents the level of an entry.
  6372. So a search @samp{+LEVEL=3+boss-TODO="DONE"} lists all level three headlines
  6373. that have the tag @samp{boss} and are @emph{not} marked with the TODO keyword
  6374. DONE. In buffers with @code{org-odd-levels-only} set, @samp{LEVEL} does not
  6375. count the number of stars, but @samp{LEVEL=2} will correspond to 3 stars etc.
  6376. Here are more examples:
  6377. @table @samp
  6378. @item work+TODO="WAITING"
  6379. Select @samp{:work:}-tagged TODO lines with the specific TODO
  6380. keyword @samp{WAITING}.
  6381. @item work+TODO="WAITING"|home+TODO="WAITING"
  6382. Waiting tasks both at work and at home.
  6383. @end table
  6384. When matching properties, a number of different operators can be used to test
  6385. the value of a property. Here is a complex example:
  6386. @example
  6387. +work-boss+PRIORITY="A"+Coffee="unlimited"+Effort<2 \
  6388. +With=@{Sarah\|Denny@}+SCHEDULED>="<2008-10-11>"
  6389. @end example
  6390. @noindent
  6391. The type of comparison will depend on how the comparison value is written:
  6392. @itemize @minus
  6393. @item
  6394. If the comparison value is a plain number, a numerical comparison is done,
  6395. and the allowed operators are @samp{<}, @samp{=}, @samp{>}, @samp{<=},
  6396. @samp{>=}, and @samp{<>}.
  6397. @item
  6398. If the comparison value is enclosed in double-quotes,
  6399. a string comparison is done, and the same operators are allowed.
  6400. @item
  6401. If the comparison value is enclosed in double-quotes @emph{and} angular
  6402. <