org.texi 771 KB

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  1. \input texinfo @c -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org.info
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include docstyle.texi
  6. @include org-version.inc
  7. @c Version and Contact Info
  8. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{https://orgmode.org,maintainers web page}
  9. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  10. @set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
  11. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
  12. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
  13. @c %**end of header
  14. @finalout
  15. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  16. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  17. @c =======================================
  18. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  19. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  20. @set cmdnames
  21. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  22. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  23. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  24. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  25. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  26. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  27. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  28. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  29. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  30. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  31. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  32. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  33. @c a key but no command
  34. @c Inserts: @item key
  35. @macro orgkey{key}
  36. @kindex \key\
  37. @item @kbd{\key\}
  38. @end macro
  39. @macro xorgkey{key}
  40. @kindex \key\
  41. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  42. @end macro
  43. @c one key with a command
  44. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  45. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  46. @ifset cmdnames
  47. @kindex \key\
  48. @findex \command\
  49. @iftex
  50. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  51. @end iftex
  52. @ifnottex
  53. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  54. @end ifnottex
  55. @end ifset
  56. @ifclear cmdnames
  57. @kindex \key\
  58. @item @kbd{\key\}
  59. @end ifclear
  60. @end macro
  61. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  62. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  63. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  64. @ifset cmdnames
  65. @kindex \key\
  66. @findex \command\
  67. @iftex
  68. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  69. @end iftex
  70. @ifnottex
  71. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  72. @end ifnottex
  73. @end ifset
  74. @ifclear cmdnames
  75. @kindex \key\
  76. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  77. @end ifclear
  78. @end macro
  79. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  80. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  81. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  82. @ifset cmdnames
  83. @findex \command\
  84. @iftex
  85. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  86. @end iftex
  87. @ifnottex
  88. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  89. @end ifnottex
  90. @end ifset
  91. @ifclear cmdnames
  92. @item @kbd{\key\}
  93. @end ifclear
  94. @end macro
  95. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  96. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  97. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  98. @ifset cmdnames
  99. @kindex \key\
  100. @findex \command\
  101. @iftex
  102. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  103. @end iftex
  104. @ifnottex
  105. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  106. @end ifnottex
  107. @end ifset
  108. @ifclear cmdnames
  109. @kindex \key\
  110. @item @kbd{\text\}
  111. @end ifclear
  112. @end macro
  113. @c two keys with one command
  114. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  115. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  116. @ifset cmdnames
  117. @kindex \key1\
  118. @kindex \key2\
  119. @findex \command\
  120. @iftex
  121. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  122. @end iftex
  123. @ifnottex
  124. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  125. @end ifnottex
  126. @end ifset
  127. @ifclear cmdnames
  128. @kindex \key1\
  129. @kindex \key2\
  130. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  131. @end ifclear
  132. @end macro
  133. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  134. @c @itemx
  135. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  136. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  137. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  138. @ifset cmdnames
  139. @kindex \key1\
  140. @kindex \key2\
  141. @findex \command\
  142. @iftex
  143. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  144. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  145. @end iftex
  146. @ifnottex
  147. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  148. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  149. @end ifnottex
  150. @end ifset
  151. @ifclear cmdnames
  152. @kindex \key1\
  153. @kindex \key2\
  154. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  155. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  156. @end ifclear
  157. @end macro
  158. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  159. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  160. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  161. @ifset cmdnames
  162. @kindex \key1\
  163. @kindex \key2\
  164. @findex \command\
  165. @iftex
  166. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  167. @end iftex
  168. @ifnottex
  169. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  170. @end ifnottex
  171. @end ifset
  172. @ifclear cmdnames
  173. @kindex \key1\
  174. @kindex \key2\
  175. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  176. @end ifclear
  177. @end macro
  178. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  179. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  180. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  181. @ifset cmdnames
  182. @kindex \key1\
  183. @kindex \key2\
  184. @findex \command\
  185. @iftex
  186. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  187. @end iftex
  188. @ifnottex
  189. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  190. @end ifnottex
  191. @end ifset
  192. @ifclear cmdnames
  193. @kindex \key1\
  194. @kindex \key2\
  195. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  196. @end ifclear
  197. @end macro
  198. @c two keys with two commands
  199. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  200. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  201. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  202. @ifset cmdnames
  203. @kindex \key1\
  204. @kindex \key2\
  205. @findex \command1\
  206. @findex \command2\
  207. @iftex
  208. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  209. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  210. @end iftex
  211. @ifnottex
  212. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  213. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  214. @end ifnottex
  215. @end ifset
  216. @ifclear cmdnames
  217. @kindex \key1\
  218. @kindex \key2\
  219. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  220. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  221. @end ifclear
  222. @end macro
  223. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  224. @iftex
  225. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  226. @end iftex
  227. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  228. @macro tsubheading{text}
  229. @ifinfo
  230. @subsubheading \text\
  231. @end ifinfo
  232. @ifnotinfo
  233. @item @b{\text\}
  234. @end ifnotinfo
  235. @end macro
  236. @copying
  237. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  238. Copyright @copyright{} 2004--2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  239. @quotation
  240. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  241. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  242. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  243. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  244. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  245. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  246. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  247. modify this GNU manual.''
  248. @end quotation
  249. @end copying
  250. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  251. @direntry
  252. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  253. @end direntry
  254. @titlepage
  255. @title The Org Manual
  256. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  257. @author by Carsten Dominik
  258. with contributions by Bastien Guerry, Nicolas Goaziou, Eric Schulte,
  259. Jambunathan K, Dan Davison, Thomas Dye, David O'Toole, and Philip Rooke.
  260. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  261. @page
  262. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  263. @insertcopying
  264. @end titlepage
  265. @c Output the short table of contents at the beginning.
  266. @shortcontents
  267. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  268. @contents
  269. @ifnottex
  270. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  271. @top Org Mode Manual
  272. @insertcopying
  273. @end ifnottex
  274. @menu
  275. * Introduction:: Getting started
  276. * Document structure:: A tree works like your brain
  277. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  278. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  279. * TODO items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  280. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  281. * Properties and columns:: Storing information about an entry
  282. * Dates and times:: Making items useful for planning
  283. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  284. * Agenda views:: Collecting information into views
  285. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  286. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing notes
  287. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  288. * Working with source code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  289. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  290. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  291. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  292. * History and acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  293. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
  294. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  295. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  296. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  297. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  298. @detailmenu
  299. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  300. Introduction
  301. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  302. * Installation:: Installing Org
  303. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  304. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  305. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  306. Document structure
  307. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  308. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  309. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  310. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  311. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  312. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  313. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  314. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  315. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  316. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  317. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  318. Visibility cycling
  319. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  320. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  321. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  322. Tables
  323. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  324. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  325. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  326. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  327. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  328. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  329. The spreadsheet
  330. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  331. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  332. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  333. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  334. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  335. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  336. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  337. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  338. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  339. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  340. Hyperlinks
  341. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  342. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  343. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  344. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  345. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  346. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  347. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  348. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  349. Internal links
  350. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  351. TODO items
  352. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  353. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  354. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  355. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  356. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  357. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  358. Extended use of TODO keywords
  359. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  360. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  361. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  362. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  363. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  364. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  365. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  366. Progress logging
  367. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  368. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  369. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  370. Tags
  371. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  372. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  373. * Tag hierarchy:: Create a hierarchy of tags
  374. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  375. Properties and columns
  376. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  377. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  378. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  379. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  380. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  381. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  382. Column view
  383. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  384. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  385. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  386. Defining columns
  387. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  388. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  389. Dates and times
  390. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  391. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  392. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  393. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  394. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  395. * Timers:: Notes with a running timer
  396. Creating timestamps
  397. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  398. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  399. Deadlines and scheduling
  400. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  401. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  402. Clocking work time
  403. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  404. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  405. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  406. Capture - Refile - Archive
  407. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  408. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  409. * RSS feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  410. * Protocols:: External (e.g., Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  411. * Refile and copy:: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another
  412. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  413. Capture
  414. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  415. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  416. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  417. Capture templates
  418. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  419. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  420. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context
  421. Protocols for external access
  422. * @code{store-link} protocol:: Store a link, push URL to kill-ring.
  423. * @code{capture} protocol:: Fill a buffer with external information.
  424. * @code{open-source} protocol:: Edit published contents.
  425. Archiving
  426. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  427. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  428. Agenda views
  429. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  430. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  431. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  432. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  433. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  434. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  435. * Exporting agenda views:: Writing a view to a file
  436. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  437. The built-in agenda views
  438. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  439. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  440. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  441. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  442. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  443. Presentation and sorting
  444. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  445. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  446. * Sorting agenda items:: The order of things
  447. * Filtering/limiting agenda items:: Dynamically narrow the agenda
  448. Custom agenda views
  449. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  450. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  451. * Setting options:: Changing the rules
  452. Markup for rich export
  453. * Paragraphs:: The basic unit of text
  454. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  455. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  456. * Images and tables:: Images, tables and caption mechanism
  457. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  458. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  459. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  460. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  461. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  462. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  463. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  464. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  465. Exporting
  466. * The export dispatcher:: The main interface
  467. * Export settings:: Common export settings
  468. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  469. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  470. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create templates
  471. * Comment lines:: What will not be exported
  472. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  473. * Beamer export:: Exporting as a Beamer presentation
  474. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  475. * @LaTeX{} export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  476. * Markdown export:: Exporting to Markdown
  477. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  478. * Org export:: Exporting to Org
  479. * Texinfo export:: Exporting to Texinfo
  480. * iCalendar export:: Exporting to iCalendar
  481. * Other built-in back-ends:: Exporting to a man page
  482. * Advanced configuration:: Fine-tuning the export output
  483. * Export in foreign buffers:: Author tables and lists in Org syntax
  484. Beamer export
  485. * Beamer export commands:: For creating Beamer documents.
  486. * Beamer specific export settings:: For customizing Beamer export.
  487. * Sectioning Frames and Blocks in Beamer:: For composing Beamer slides.
  488. * Beamer specific syntax:: For using in Org documents.
  489. * Editing support:: For using helper functions.
  490. * A Beamer example:: A complete presentation.
  491. HTML export
  492. * HTML Export commands:: Invoking HTML export
  493. * HTML Specific export settings:: Settings for HTML export
  494. * HTML doctypes:: Exporting various (X)HTML flavors
  495. * HTML preamble and postamble:: Inserting preamble and postamble
  496. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org files
  497. * Links in HTML export:: Interpreting and formatting links
  498. * Tables in HTML export:: Formatting and modifying tables
  499. * Images in HTML export:: Inserting figures with HTML output
  500. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Handling math equations
  501. * Text areas in HTML export:: Showing an alternate approach, an example
  502. * CSS support:: Styling HTML output
  503. * JavaScript support:: Folding scripting in the web browser
  504. @LaTeX{} export
  505. * @LaTeX{} export commands:: For producing @LaTeX{} and PDF documents.
  506. * @LaTeX{} specific export settings:: Unique to this @LaTeX{} back-end.
  507. * @LaTeX{} header and sectioning:: For file structure.
  508. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Directly in the Org document.
  509. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to tables.
  510. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to images.
  511. * Plain lists in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to lists.
  512. * Source blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to source code blocks.
  513. * Example blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to example blocks.
  514. * Special blocks in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to special blocks.
  515. * Horizontal rules in @LaTeX{} export:: Attributes specific to horizontal rules.
  516. OpenDocument Text export
  517. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: Required packages.
  518. * ODT export commands:: Invoking export.
  519. * ODT specific export settings:: Configuration options.
  520. * Extending ODT export:: Producing @file{.doc}, @file{.pdf} files.
  521. * Applying custom styles:: Styling the output.
  522. * Links in ODT export:: Handling and formatting links.
  523. * Tables in ODT export:: Org table conversions.
  524. * Images in ODT export:: Inserting images.
  525. * Math formatting in ODT export:: Formatting @LaTeX{} fragments.
  526. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: Rendering objects.
  527. * Literal examples in ODT export:: For source code and example blocks.
  528. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: For power users.
  529. Math formatting in ODT export
  530. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: Embedding in @LaTeX{} format.
  531. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: Embedding in native format.
  532. Advanced topics in ODT export
  533. * Configuring a document converter:: Registering a document converter.
  534. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Exploring internals.
  535. * Creating one-off styles:: Customizing styles, highlighting.
  536. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: Defining table templates.
  537. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: Debugging corrupted OpenDocument files.
  538. Texinfo export
  539. * Texinfo export commands:: Invoking commands.
  540. * Texinfo specific export settings:: Setting the environment.
  541. * Texinfo file header:: Generating the header.
  542. * Texinfo title and copyright page:: Creating preamble pages.
  543. * Info directory file:: Installing a manual in Info file hierarchy.
  544. * Headings and sectioning structure:: Building document structure.
  545. * Indices:: Creating indices.
  546. * Quoting Texinfo code:: Incorporating literal Texinfo code.
  547. * Plain lists in Texinfo export:: List attributes.
  548. * Tables in Texinfo export:: Table attributes.
  549. * Images in Texinfo export:: Image attributes.
  550. * Special blocks in Texinfo export:: Special block attributes.
  551. * A Texinfo example:: Processing Org to Texinfo.
  552. Publishing
  553. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  554. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  555. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  556. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  557. Configuration
  558. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  559. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  560. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  561. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  562. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  563. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  564. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  565. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  566. Sample configuration
  567. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  568. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  569. Working with source code
  570. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  571. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  572. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  573. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  574. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  575. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  576. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  577. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  578. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  579. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  580. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  581. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  582. Header arguments
  583. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  584. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  585. Using header arguments
  586. * System-wide header arguments:: Set globally, language-specific
  587. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set in the Org file's headers
  588. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set in the Org file
  589. * Language-specific mode properties::
  590. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most commonly used method
  591. * Arguments in function calls:: The most specific level, takes highest priority
  592. Specific header arguments
  593. * var:: Pass arguments to @samp{src} code blocks
  594. * results:: Specify results type; how to collect
  595. * file:: Specify a path for output file
  596. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  597. * file-ext:: Specify an extension for file output
  598. * output-dir:: Specify a directory for output file
  599. * dir:: Specify the default directory for code block execution
  600. * exports:: Specify exporting code, results, both, none
  601. * tangle:: Toggle tangling; or specify file name
  602. * mkdirp:: Toggle for parent directory creation for target files during tangling
  603. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled code files
  604. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled code files
  605. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb expansion during tangling
  606. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  607. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  608. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  609. * noweb-sep:: String to separate noweb references
  610. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  611. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  612. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  613. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  614. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  615. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  616. * tangle-mode:: Set permission of tangled files
  617. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  618. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  619. * post:: Post processing of results of code block evaluation
  620. * prologue:: Text to prepend to body of code block
  621. * epilogue:: Text to append to body of code block
  622. Miscellaneous
  623. * Completion:: M-TAB guesses completions
  624. * Structure templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  625. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  626. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  627. * Customization:: Adapting Org to changing tastes
  628. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  629. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  630. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  631. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  632. * Interaction:: With other Emacs packages
  633. * org-crypt:: Encrypting Org files
  634. Interaction with other packages
  635. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  636. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  637. Hacking
  638. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  639. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  640. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  641. * Adding export back-ends:: How to write new export back-ends
  642. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  643. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  644. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  645. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  646. * Speeding up your agendas:: Tips on how to speed up your agendas
  647. * Extracting agenda information:: Post-processing of agenda information
  648. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  649. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  650. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  651. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  652. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  653. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  654. MobileOrg
  655. * Setting up the staging area:: For the mobile device
  656. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  657. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  658. @end detailmenu
  659. @end menu
  660. @node Introduction
  661. @chapter Introduction
  662. @cindex introduction
  663. @menu
  664. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  665. * Installation:: Installing Org
  666. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  667. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  668. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  669. @end menu
  670. @node Summary
  671. @section Summary
  672. @cindex summary
  673. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and project planning
  674. with a fast and effective plain-text system. It also is an authoring system
  675. with unique support for literate programming and reproducible research.
  676. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep
  677. the content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and structure
  678. editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created with a
  679. built-in table editor. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites,
  680. emails, Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  681. Org develops organizational tasks around notes files that contain lists or
  682. information about projects as plain text. Project planning and task
  683. management makes use of metadata which is part of an outline node. Based on
  684. this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and create dynamic
  685. @i{agenda views} that also integrate the Emacs calendar and diary. Org can
  686. be used to implement many different project planning schemes, such as David
  687. Allen's GTD system.
  688. Org files can serve as a single source authoring system with export to many
  689. different formats such as HTML, @LaTeX{}, Open Document, and Markdown. New
  690. export backends can be derived from existing ones, or defined from scratch.
  691. Org files can include source code blocks, which makes Org uniquely suited for
  692. authoring technical documents with code examples. Org source code blocks are
  693. fully functional; they can be evaluated in place and their results can be
  694. captured in the file. This makes it possible to create a single file
  695. reproducible research compendium.
  696. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should feel like a
  697. straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not imposed, but a
  698. large amount of functionality is available when needed. Org is a toolbox.
  699. Many users actually run only a (very personal) fraction of Org's capabilities, and
  700. know that there is more whenever they need it.
  701. All of this is achieved with strictly plain text files, the most portable and
  702. future-proof file format. Org runs in Emacs. Emacs is one of the most
  703. widely ported programs, so that Org mode is available on every major
  704. platform.
  705. @cindex FAQ
  706. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  707. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  708. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc. This page is located at
  709. @uref{https://orgmode.org}.
  710. @cindex print edition
  711. An earlier version (7.3) of this manual is available as a
  712. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from
  713. Network Theory Ltd.}
  714. @page
  715. @node Installation
  716. @section Installation
  717. @cindex installation
  718. Org is part of recent distributions of GNU Emacs, so you normally don't need
  719. to install it. If, for one reason or another, you want to install Org on top
  720. of this pre-packaged version, there are three ways to do it:
  721. @itemize @bullet
  722. @item By using Emacs package system.
  723. @item By downloading Org as an archive.
  724. @item By using Org's git repository.
  725. @end itemize
  726. We @b{strongly recommend} to stick to a single installation method.
  727. @subsubheading Using Emacs packaging system
  728. Recent Emacs distributions include a packaging system which lets you install
  729. Elisp libraries. You can install Org with @kbd{M-x package-install RET org}.
  730. @noindent @b{Important}: you need to do this in a session where no @code{.org} file has
  731. been visited, i.e., where no Org built-in function have been loaded.
  732. Otherwise autoload Org functions will mess up the installation.
  733. Then, to make sure your Org configuration is taken into account, initialize
  734. the package system with @code{(package-initialize)} in your Emacs init file
  735. before setting any Org option. If you want to use Org's package repository,
  736. check out the @uref{https://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}.
  737. @subsubheading Downloading Org as an archive
  738. You can download Org latest release from @uref{https://orgmode.org/, Org's
  739. website}. In this case, make sure you set the load-path correctly in your
  740. Emacs init file:
  741. @lisp
  742. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  743. @end lisp
  744. The downloaded archive contains contributed libraries that are not included
  745. in Emacs. If you want to use them, add the @file{contrib} directory to your
  746. load-path:
  747. @lisp
  748. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  749. @end lisp
  750. Optionally, you can compile the files and/or install them in your system.
  751. Run @code{make help} to list compilation and installation options.
  752. @subsubheading Using Org's git repository
  753. You can clone Org's repository and install Org like this:
  754. @example
  755. $ cd ~/src/
  756. $ git clone https://code.orgmode.org/bzg/org-mode.git
  757. $ make autoloads
  758. @end example
  759. Note that in this case, @code{make autoloads} is mandatory: it defines Org's
  760. version in @file{org-version.el} and Org's autoloads in
  761. @file{org-loaddefs.el}.
  762. Remember to add the correct load-path as described in the method above.
  763. You can also compile with @code{make}, generate the documentation with
  764. @code{make doc}, create a local configuration with @code{make config} and
  765. install Org with @code{make install}. Please run @code{make help} to get
  766. the list of compilation/installation options.
  767. For more detailed explanations on Org's build system, please check the Org
  768. Build System page on @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html,
  769. Worg}.
  770. @node Activation
  771. @section Activation
  772. @cindex activation
  773. @cindex autoload
  774. @cindex ELPA
  775. @cindex global key bindings
  776. @cindex key bindings, global
  777. @findex org-agenda
  778. @findex org-capture
  779. @findex org-store-link
  780. @findex org-iswitchb
  781. Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on: this is the default in
  782. Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer
  783. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  784. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  785. packages, please take the time to check the list (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  786. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  787. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  788. global keys (i.e., anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  789. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  790. liking.
  791. @lisp
  792. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  793. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  794. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  795. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  796. @end lisp
  797. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  798. Files with the @file{.org} extension use Org mode by default. To turn on Org
  799. mode in a file that does not have the extension @file{.org}, make the first
  800. line of a file look like this:
  801. @example
  802. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  803. @end example
  804. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  805. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  806. the file's name is. See also the variable
  807. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  808. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  809. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode} turned on, which is
  810. the default. If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create
  811. an active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  812. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  813. @node Feedback
  814. @section Feedback
  815. @cindex feedback
  816. @cindex bug reports
  817. @cindex maintainer
  818. @cindex author
  819. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  820. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  821. You can subscribe to the list
  822. @uref{https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/emacs-orgmode, on this web page}.
  823. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  824. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  825. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  826. moderators have to do.}.
  827. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  828. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  829. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  830. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  831. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  832. (@kbd{M-x org-version RET}), as well as the Org related setup in the Emacs
  833. init file. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  834. @example
  835. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report RET}
  836. @end example
  837. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  838. that you only need to add your description. If you are not sending the Email
  839. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  840. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  841. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  842. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  843. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  844. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  845. @example
  846. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  847. @end example
  848. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  849. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as
  850. @code{emacs -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  851. shown below.
  852. @lisp
  853. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest 'org-mode'
  854. ;; activate debugging
  855. (setq debug-on-error t
  856. debug-on-signal nil
  857. debug-on-quit nil)
  858. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  859. (add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/org-mode/lisp")
  860. (add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t)
  861. @end lisp
  862. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  863. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  864. about:
  865. @enumerate
  866. @item What exactly did you do?
  867. @item What did you expect to happen?
  868. @item What happened instead?
  869. @end enumerate
  870. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  871. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  872. @cindex backtrace of an error
  873. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  874. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  875. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  876. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  877. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  878. @enumerate
  879. @item
  880. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  881. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  882. To do this, use
  883. @example
  884. @kbd{C-u M-x org-reload RET}
  885. @end example
  886. @noindent
  887. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  888. menu.
  889. @item
  890. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}.
  891. @item
  892. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  893. document the steps you take.
  894. @item
  895. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  896. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  897. attach it to your bug report.
  898. @end enumerate
  899. @node Conventions
  900. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  901. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  902. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  903. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  904. @table @code
  905. @item TODO
  906. @itemx WAITING
  907. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  908. user-defined.
  909. @item boss
  910. @itemx ARCHIVE
  911. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  912. meaning are written with all capitals.
  913. @item Release
  914. @itemx PRIORITY
  915. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  916. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  917. @end table
  918. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  919. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_EXPORT html} to start
  920. a @code{HTML} environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to
  921. enhance its readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org file.
  922. @subsubheading Key bindings and commands
  923. @kindex C-c a
  924. @findex org-agenda
  925. @kindex C-c c
  926. @findex org-capture
  927. The manual suggests a few global key bindings, in particular @kbd{C-c a} for
  928. @code{org-agenda} and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only
  929. suggestions, but the rest of the manual assumes that these key bindings are in
  930. place in order to list commands by key access.
  931. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  932. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  933. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  934. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  935. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  936. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will
  937. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  938. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  939. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  940. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  941. @node Document structure
  942. @chapter Document structure
  943. @cindex document structure
  944. @cindex structure of document
  945. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  946. edit the structure of the document.
  947. @menu
  948. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  949. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  950. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  951. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  952. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  953. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  954. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  955. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  956. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  957. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  958. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  959. @end menu
  960. @node Outlines
  961. @section Outlines
  962. @cindex outlines
  963. @cindex Outline mode
  964. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  965. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  966. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  967. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  968. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  969. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  970. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  971. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  972. @node Headlines
  973. @section Headlines
  974. @cindex headlines
  975. @cindex outline tree
  976. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  977. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  978. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  979. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  980. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  981. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  982. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  983. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  984. headings indented less than 30 stars.}. For example:
  985. @example
  986. * Top level headline
  987. ** Second level
  988. *** 3rd level
  989. some text
  990. *** 3rd level
  991. more text
  992. * Another top level headline
  993. @end example
  994. @vindex org-footnote-section
  995. @noindent Note that a headline named after @code{org-footnote-section},
  996. which defaults to @samp{Footnotes}, is considered as special. A subtree with
  997. this headline will be silently ignored by exporting functions.
  998. Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  999. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  1000. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  1001. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  1002. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  1003. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  1004. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  1005. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  1006. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  1007. @node Visibility cycling
  1008. @section Visibility cycling
  1009. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1010. @cindex visibility cycling
  1011. @cindex trees, visibility
  1012. @cindex show hidden text
  1013. @cindex hide text
  1014. @menu
  1015. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  1016. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  1017. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  1018. @end menu
  1019. @node Global and local cycling
  1020. @subsection Global and local cycling
  1021. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1022. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1023. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1024. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1025. @cindex subtree cycling
  1026. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1027. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1028. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1029. @table @asis
  1030. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1031. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1032. @example
  1033. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1034. '-----------------------------------'
  1035. @end example
  1036. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1037. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1038. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}.
  1039. @cindex global visibility states
  1040. @cindex global cycling
  1041. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1042. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1043. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1044. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1045. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1046. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1047. @example
  1048. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1049. '--------------------------------------'
  1050. @end example
  1051. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1052. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1053. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1054. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1055. You can run global cycling using @key{TAB} only if point is at the very
  1056. beginning of the buffer, but not on a headline, and
  1057. @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob} is set to a non-@code{nil} value.
  1058. @cindex set startup visibility, command
  1059. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1060. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer (@pxref{Initial visibility}).
  1061. @cindex show all, command
  1062. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},outline-show-all}
  1063. Show all, including drawers.
  1064. @cindex revealing context
  1065. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1066. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1067. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1068. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1069. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1070. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1071. entire subtree of the parent.
  1072. @cindex show branches, command
  1073. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,outline-show-branches}
  1074. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENTS view for just one subtree.
  1075. @cindex show children, command
  1076. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},outline-show-children}
  1077. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1078. expose all children down to level N@.
  1079. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1080. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect buffer
  1081. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual}) will contain the entire
  1082. buffer, but will be narrowed to the current tree. Editing the indirect
  1083. buffer will also change the original buffer, but without affecting visibility
  1084. in that buffer.}. With a numeric prefix argument N, go up to level N and
  1085. then take that tree. If N is negative then go up that many levels. With
  1086. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove the previously used indirect buffer.
  1087. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1088. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1089. @end table
  1090. @node Initial visibility
  1091. @subsection Initial visibility
  1092. @cindex visibility, initialize
  1093. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1094. @vindex org-agenda-inhibit-startup
  1095. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1096. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1097. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1098. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1099. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to OVERVIEW,
  1100. i.e., only the top level headlines are visible@footnote{When
  1101. @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} is non-@code{nil}, Org will not honor the default
  1102. visibility state when first opening a file for the agenda (@pxref{Speeding up
  1103. your agendas}).}. This can be configured through the variable
  1104. @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a per-file basis by adding one of the
  1105. following lines anywhere in the buffer:
  1106. @example
  1107. #+STARTUP: overview
  1108. #+STARTUP: content
  1109. #+STARTUP: showall
  1110. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1111. @end example
  1112. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1113. @noindent
  1114. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1115. and columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1116. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1117. @code{all}.
  1118. @table @asis
  1119. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1120. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e., whatever is
  1121. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1122. entries.
  1123. @end table
  1124. @node Catching invisible edits
  1125. @subsection Catching invisible edits
  1126. @vindex org-catch-invisible-edits
  1127. @cindex edits, catching invisible
  1128. Sometimes you may inadvertently edit an invisible part of the buffer and be
  1129. confused on what has been edited and how to undo the mistake. Setting
  1130. @code{org-catch-invisible-edits} to non-@code{nil} will help prevent this. See the
  1131. docstring of this option on how Org should catch invisible edits and process
  1132. them.
  1133. @node Motion
  1134. @section Motion
  1135. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1136. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1137. @cindex headline navigation
  1138. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1139. @table @asis
  1140. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,org-next-visible-heading}
  1141. Next heading.
  1142. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,org-previous-visible-heading}
  1143. Previous heading.
  1144. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1145. Next heading same level.
  1146. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1147. Previous heading same level.
  1148. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1149. Backward to higher level heading.
  1150. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1151. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1152. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1153. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1154. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1155. @example
  1156. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1157. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1158. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1159. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1160. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1161. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1162. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1163. u @r{One level up.}
  1164. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1165. q @r{Quit}
  1166. @end example
  1167. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1168. @noindent
  1169. See also the option @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1170. @end table
  1171. @node Structure editing
  1172. @section Structure editing
  1173. @cindex structure editing
  1174. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1175. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1176. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1177. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1178. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1179. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1180. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1181. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1182. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1183. @table @asis
  1184. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-meta-return}
  1185. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1186. Insert a new heading, item or row.
  1187. If the command is used at the @emph{beginning} of a line, and if there is
  1188. a heading or a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}) at point, the new
  1189. heading/item is created @emph{before} the current line. When used at the
  1190. beginning of a regular line of text, turn that line into a heading.
  1191. When this command is used in the middle of a line, the line is split and the
  1192. rest of the line becomes the new item or headline. If you do not want the
  1193. line to be split, customize @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.
  1194. Calling the command with a @kbd{C-u} prefix unconditionally inserts a new
  1195. heading at the end of the current subtree, thus preserving its contents.
  1196. With a double @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix, the new heading is created at the end of
  1197. the parent subtree instead.
  1198. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1199. Insert a new heading at the end of the current subtree.
  1200. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1201. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1202. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1203. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1204. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1205. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1206. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1207. subtree.
  1208. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1209. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1210. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1211. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1212. to the initial level.
  1213. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1214. Promote current heading by one level.
  1215. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1216. Demote current heading by one level.
  1217. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1218. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1219. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1220. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1221. @orgcmd{M-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1222. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1223. level).
  1224. @orgcmd{M-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1225. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1226. @orgcmd{M-h,org-mark-element}
  1227. Mark the element at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent elements
  1228. of the one just marked. E.g., hitting @key{M-h} on a paragraph will mark it,
  1229. hitting @key{M-h} immediately again will mark the next one.
  1230. @orgcmd{C-c @@,org-mark-subtree}
  1231. Mark the subtree at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent subtrees
  1232. of the same level than the marked subtree.
  1233. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1234. Kill subtree, i.e., remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1235. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1236. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1237. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1238. sequential subtrees.
  1239. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1240. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1241. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1242. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1243. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1244. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1245. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1246. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1247. Depending on the options @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1248. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1249. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1250. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1251. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1252. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1253. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1254. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1255. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1256. folding.
  1257. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1258. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1259. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1260. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1261. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1262. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1263. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1264. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1265. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refile and copy}.
  1266. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1267. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1268. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1269. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1270. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1271. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1272. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1273. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1274. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1275. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1276. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1277. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1278. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1279. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1280. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1281. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1282. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1283. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1284. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1285. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1286. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1287. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1288. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1289. @end table
  1290. @cindex region, active
  1291. @cindex active region
  1292. @cindex transient mark mode
  1293. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1294. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1295. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1296. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1297. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1298. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1299. functionality.
  1300. @node Sparse trees
  1301. @section Sparse trees
  1302. @cindex sparse trees
  1303. @cindex trees, sparse
  1304. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1305. @cindex occur, command
  1306. @vindex org-show-context-detail
  1307. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1308. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1309. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1310. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1311. variable @code{org-show-context-detail} to decide how much context is shown
  1312. around each match.}. Just try it out and you will see immediately how it
  1313. works.
  1314. Org mode contains several commands for creating such trees, all these
  1315. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1316. @table @asis
  1317. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1318. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1319. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / r,C-c / /,org-occur}
  1320. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1321. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1322. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1323. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1324. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1325. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1326. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1327. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1328. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1329. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1330. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1331. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1332. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1333. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1334. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1335. @end table
  1336. @noindent
  1337. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1338. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1339. use the option @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1340. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1341. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1342. For example:
  1343. @lisp
  1344. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1345. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1346. @end lisp
  1347. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1348. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1349. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1350. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1351. @kindex C-c C-e C-v
  1352. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1353. @cindex visible text, printing
  1354. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1355. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts of the
  1356. document. Or you can use @kbd{C-c C-e C-v} to export only the visible part
  1357. of the document and print the resulting file.
  1358. @node Plain lists
  1359. @section Plain lists
  1360. @cindex plain lists
  1361. @cindex lists, plain
  1362. @cindex lists, ordered
  1363. @cindex ordered lists
  1364. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1365. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1366. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1367. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1368. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1369. @itemize @bullet
  1370. @item
  1371. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1372. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1373. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1374. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1375. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1376. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1377. bullets.
  1378. @item
  1379. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1380. @vindex org-list-allow-alphabetical
  1381. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1382. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1383. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1384. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1385. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-list-allow-alphabetical}. To minimize
  1386. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1387. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1388. list to start with a different value (e.g., 20), start the text of the item
  1389. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1390. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1391. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1392. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1393. @item
  1394. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1395. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1396. description.
  1397. @end itemize
  1398. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1399. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1400. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1401. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1402. than its bullet/number.
  1403. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1404. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1405. lines. In that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1406. @example
  1407. @group
  1408. ** Lord of the Rings
  1409. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1410. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1411. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1412. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1413. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1414. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1415. - on DVD only
  1416. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1417. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1418. Important actors in this film are:
  1419. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1420. - @b{Sean Astin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1421. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1422. @end group
  1423. @end example
  1424. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1425. them correctly, and by exporting them properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since
  1426. indentation is what governs the structure of these lists, many structural
  1427. constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...} blocks can be indented to signal that they
  1428. belong to a particular item.
  1429. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1430. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1431. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1432. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1433. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1434. indentation between items and their sub-items, customize
  1435. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1436. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1437. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1438. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1439. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1440. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1441. to disable them individually.
  1442. @table @asis
  1443. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1444. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1445. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1446. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1447. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1448. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1449. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1450. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1451. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1452. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1453. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1454. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1455. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1456. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1457. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1458. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1459. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1460. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1461. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1462. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1463. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1464. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1465. one.
  1466. @end table
  1467. @table @kbd
  1468. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1469. @item M-S-@key{RET}
  1470. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1471. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1472. @item S-up
  1473. @itemx S-down
  1474. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1475. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1476. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1477. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1478. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1479. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1480. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1481. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1482. similar effect.
  1483. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1484. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1485. @item M-up
  1486. @itemx M-down
  1487. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1488. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1489. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1490. is automatic.
  1491. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1492. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1493. @item M-left
  1494. @itemx M-right
  1495. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1496. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1497. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1498. @item M-S-@key{left}
  1499. @itemx M-S-@key{right}
  1500. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1501. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1502. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1503. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1504. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1505. motion or so.
  1506. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1507. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1508. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1509. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1510. @kindex C-c C-c
  1511. @item C-c C-c
  1512. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1513. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1514. consistency in the whole list.
  1515. @kindex C-c -
  1516. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1517. @item C-c -
  1518. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1519. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1520. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1521. and its indentation. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet
  1522. from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, all selected
  1523. lines are converted to list items. With a prefix argument, selected text is
  1524. changed into a single item. If the first line already was a list item, any
  1525. item marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1526. region, a normal line will be converted into a list item.
  1527. @kindex C-c *
  1528. @item C-c *
  1529. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1530. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1531. @kindex C-c C-*
  1532. @item C-c C-*
  1533. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1534. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1535. (resp. checked).
  1536. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1537. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1538. @item S-left/right
  1539. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1540. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1541. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1542. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1543. @kindex C-c ^
  1544. @cindex sorting, of plain list
  1545. @item C-c ^
  1546. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1547. numerically, alphabetically, by time, by checked status for check lists,
  1548. or by a custom function.
  1549. @end table
  1550. @node Drawers
  1551. @section Drawers
  1552. @cindex drawers
  1553. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1554. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  1555. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1556. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1557. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}. They
  1558. can contain anything but a headline and another drawer. Drawers look like
  1559. this:
  1560. @example
  1561. ** This is a headline
  1562. Still outside the drawer
  1563. :DRAWERNAME:
  1564. This is inside the drawer.
  1565. :END:
  1566. After the drawer.
  1567. @end example
  1568. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1569. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1570. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1571. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add
  1572. a property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1573. keywords is also possible using @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@footnote{Many desktops
  1574. intercept @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows. Use @kbd{C-M-i} or
  1575. @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} instead for completion (@pxref{Completion}).}.
  1576. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1577. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1578. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1579. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1580. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}), and you can also arrange
  1581. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1582. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1583. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state
  1584. changes, use
  1585. @table @kbd
  1586. @kindex C-c C-z
  1587. @item C-c C-z
  1588. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1589. @end table
  1590. @vindex org-export-with-drawers
  1591. @vindex org-export-with-properties
  1592. You can select the name of the drawers which should be exported with
  1593. @code{org-export-with-drawers}. In that case, drawer contents will appear in
  1594. export output. Property drawers are not affected by this variable: configure
  1595. @code{org-export-with-properties} instead.
  1596. @node Blocks
  1597. @section Blocks
  1598. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1599. @cindex blocks, folding
  1600. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1601. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1602. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1603. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1604. folded at startup by configuring the option @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1605. or on a per-file basis by using
  1606. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1607. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1608. @example
  1609. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1610. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1611. @end example
  1612. @node Footnotes
  1613. @section Footnotes
  1614. @cindex footnotes
  1615. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes.
  1616. A footnote is started by a footnote marker in square brackets in column 0, no
  1617. indentation allowed. It ends at the next footnote definition, headline, or
  1618. after two consecutive empty lines. The footnote reference is simply the
  1619. marker in square brackets, inside text. Markers always start with
  1620. @code{fn:}. For example:
  1621. @example
  1622. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1623. ...
  1624. [fn:1] The link is: https://orgmode.org
  1625. @end example
  1626. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1627. optional inline definition. Here are the valid references:
  1628. @table @code
  1629. @item [fn:name]
  1630. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1631. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1632. @item [fn::This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1633. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1634. reference point.
  1635. @item [fn:name:a definition]
  1636. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1637. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1638. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1639. @end table
  1640. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1641. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1642. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1643. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1644. for details.
  1645. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1646. @table @kbd
  1647. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1648. @item C-c C-x f
  1649. The footnote action command.
  1650. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1651. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1652. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1653. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1654. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1655. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the option
  1656. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1657. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1658. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1659. separately into the location determined by the option
  1660. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1661. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1662. options is offered:
  1663. @example
  1664. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1665. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1666. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1667. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1668. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1669. @r{option @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1670. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1671. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the option}
  1672. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1673. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1674. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1675. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1676. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers.}
  1677. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1678. @r{to it.}
  1679. @end example
  1680. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1681. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1682. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1683. deletion.
  1684. @kindex C-c C-c
  1685. @item C-c C-c
  1686. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1687. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1688. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1689. @kindex C-c C-o
  1690. @kindex mouse-1
  1691. @kindex mouse-2
  1692. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1693. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1694. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1695. @vindex org-edit-footnote-reference
  1696. @kindex C-c '
  1697. @item C-c '
  1698. @item C-c '
  1699. Edit the footnote definition corresponding to the reference at point in
  1700. a separate window. The window can be closed by pressing @kbd{C-c '}.
  1701. @end table
  1702. @node Org syntax
  1703. @section Org syntax
  1704. @cindex Org syntax
  1705. A reference document providing a formal description of Org's syntax is
  1706. available as @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-syntax.html, a draft on
  1707. Worg}, written and maintained by Nicolas Goaziou. It defines Org's core
  1708. internal concepts such as @code{headlines}, @code{sections}, @code{affiliated
  1709. keywords}, @code{(greater) elements} and @code{objects}. Each part of an Org
  1710. file falls into one of the categories above.
  1711. To explore the abstract structure of an Org buffer, run this in a buffer:
  1712. @lisp
  1713. M-: (org-element-parse-buffer) RET
  1714. @end lisp
  1715. It will output a list containing the buffer's content represented as an
  1716. abstract structure. The export engine relies on the information stored in
  1717. this list. Most interactive commands (e.g., for structure editing) also
  1718. rely on the syntactic meaning of the surrounding context.
  1719. @cindex syntax checker
  1720. @cindex linter
  1721. You can check syntax in your documents using @code{org-lint} command.
  1722. @node Tables
  1723. @chapter Tables
  1724. @cindex tables
  1725. @cindex editing tables
  1726. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1727. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1728. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1729. @menu
  1730. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1731. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1732. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1733. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1734. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1735. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1736. @end menu
  1737. @node Built-in table editor
  1738. @section The built-in table editor
  1739. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1740. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII@. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1741. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1742. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1743. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1744. might look like this:
  1745. @example
  1746. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1747. |-------+-------+-----|
  1748. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1749. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1750. @end example
  1751. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1752. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1753. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1754. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1755. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1756. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1757. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1758. create the above table, you would only type
  1759. @example
  1760. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1761. |-
  1762. @end example
  1763. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1764. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1765. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1766. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1767. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL}, @key{Backspace}, and all
  1768. character keys in a special way, so that inserting and deleting avoids
  1769. shifting other fields. Also, when typing @emph{immediately after the cursor
  1770. was moved into a new field with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or
  1771. @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is
  1772. too unpredictable for you, configure the option
  1773. @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1774. @table @kbd
  1775. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1776. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1777. Convert the active region to a table. If every line contains at least one
  1778. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1779. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1780. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1781. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1782. C-u} forces TAB, @kbd{C-u C-u C-u} will prompt for a regular expression to
  1783. match the separator, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1784. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1785. @*
  1786. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1787. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1788. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1789. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1790. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1791. Re-align the table and don't move to another field.
  1792. @c
  1793. @orgcmd{C-c SPC,org-table-blank-field}
  1794. Blank the field at point.
  1795. @c
  1796. @orgcmd{TAB,org-table-next-field}
  1797. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1798. necessary.
  1799. @c
  1800. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1801. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1802. @c
  1803. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1804. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1805. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1806. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1807. @c
  1808. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1809. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1810. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1811. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1812. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1813. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1814. Move the current column left/right.
  1815. @c
  1816. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1817. Kill the current column.
  1818. @c
  1819. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1820. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1821. @c
  1822. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1823. Move the current row up/down.
  1824. @c
  1825. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1826. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1827. @c
  1828. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1829. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1830. created below the current one.
  1831. @c
  1832. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1833. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1834. is created above the current line.
  1835. @c
  1836. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1837. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1838. below that line.
  1839. @c
  1840. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1841. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1842. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1843. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1844. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1845. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1846. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1847. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1848. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). You can sort in normal or
  1849. reverse order. You can also supply your own key extraction and comparison
  1850. functions. When called with a prefix argument, alphabetic sorting will be
  1851. case-sensitive.
  1852. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1853. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1854. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1855. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1856. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1857. @c
  1858. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1859. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1860. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1861. @c
  1862. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1863. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1864. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1865. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1866. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1867. lines.
  1868. @c
  1869. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1870. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1871. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1872. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1873. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1874. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1875. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1876. above.
  1877. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1878. @cindex formula, in tables
  1879. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1880. @cindex region, active
  1881. @cindex active region
  1882. @cindex transient mark mode
  1883. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1884. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1885. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1886. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1887. @c
  1888. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1889. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1890. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1891. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1892. Depending on the option @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1893. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1894. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1895. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1896. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1897. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1898. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1899. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1900. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1901. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1902. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1903. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1904. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1905. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1906. @c
  1907. @item M-x org-table-import RET
  1908. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1909. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1910. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1911. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1912. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1913. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1914. separator.
  1915. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1916. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1917. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1918. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1919. @c
  1920. @item M-x org-table-export RET
  1921. @findex org-table-export
  1922. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1923. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1924. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1925. used to export the file can be configured in the option
  1926. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1927. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1928. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1929. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1930. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1931. detailed description.
  1932. @end table
  1933. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1934. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1935. it off with
  1936. @lisp
  1937. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1938. @end lisp
  1939. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1940. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1941. @node Column width and alignment
  1942. @section Column width and alignment
  1943. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1944. @cindex alignment in tables
  1945. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. The
  1946. alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction of
  1947. number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1948. @vindex org-table-automatic-realign
  1949. Editing a field may modify alignment of the table. Moving a contiguous row
  1950. or column---i.e., using @kbd{TAB} or @kbd{RET}---automatically re-aligns it.
  1951. If you want to disable this behavior, set @code{org-table-automatic-realign}
  1952. to @code{nil}. In any case, you can always align manually a table:
  1953. @table @asis
  1954. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1955. Align the current table.
  1956. @end table
  1957. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  1958. @noindent
  1959. Setting the option @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} re-aligns all tables
  1960. in a file upon visiting it. You can also set this option on a per-file basis
  1961. with:
  1962. @example
  1963. #+STARTUP: align
  1964. #+STARTUP: noalign
  1965. @end example
  1966. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1967. inconveniently wide columns. Maybe you want to hide away several columns or
  1968. display them with a fixed width, regardless of content, as shown in the
  1969. following example.
  1970. @example
  1971. @group
  1972. |---+---------------------+--------| |---+-------@dots{}|@dots{}|
  1973. | | <6> | | | | <6> @dots{}|@dots{}|
  1974. | 1 | one | some | ----\ | 1 | one @dots{}|@dots{}|
  1975. | 2 | two | boring | ----/ | 2 | two @dots{}|@dots{}|
  1976. | 3 | This is a long text | column | | 3 | This i@dots{}|@dots{}|
  1977. |---+---------------------+--------| |---+-------@dots{}|@dots{}|
  1978. @end group
  1979. @end example
  1980. To set the width of a column, one field anywhere in the column may contain
  1981. just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} specifies the width as a number of
  1982. characters. You control displayed width of columns with the following tools:
  1983. @table @asis
  1984. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},org-table-toggle-column-width}
  1985. Shrink or expand current column.
  1986. If a width cookie specifies a width W for the column, shrinking it displays
  1987. the first W visible characters only. Otherwise, the column is shrunk to
  1988. a single character.
  1989. When called before the first column or after the last one, ask for a list of
  1990. column ranges to operate on.
  1991. @orgcmd{C-u C-c @key{TAB},org-table-shrink}
  1992. Shrink all columns with a column width. Expand the others.
  1993. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c @key{TAB},org-table-expand}
  1994. Expand all columns.
  1995. @end table
  1996. To see the full text of a shrunk field, hold the mouse over it---a tool-tip
  1997. window then shows the full content. Alternatively @kbd{C-h .}
  1998. (@code{display-local-help}) reveals the full content. For convenience, any
  1999. change to a shrunk column expands it.
  2000. @vindex org-startup-shrink-all-tables
  2001. Setting the option @code{org-startup-shrink-all-tables} shrinks all columns
  2002. containing a width cookie in a file the moment it is visited. You can also
  2003. set this option on a per-file basis with:
  2004. @example
  2005. #+STARTUP: shrink
  2006. @end example
  2007. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  2008. to the right and of string-rich columns to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  2009. @samp{<c>} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may also combine
  2010. alignment and field width like this: @samp{<r10>}.
  2011. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies are removed automatically
  2012. upon exporting the document.
  2013. @node Column groups
  2014. @section Column groups
  2015. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  2016. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical lines because
  2017. that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally however, vertical
  2018. lines can be useful to structure a table into groups of columns, much like
  2019. horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In order to specify column
  2020. groups, you can use a special row where the first field contains only
  2021. @samp{/}. The further fields can either contain @samp{<} to indicate that
  2022. this column should start a group, @samp{>} to indicate the end of a group, or
  2023. @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<} and @samp{>}) to make a column a group
  2024. of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be marked with
  2025. vertical lines. Here is an example:
  2026. @example
  2027. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | ~sqrt(n)~ | ~sqrt[4](N)~ |
  2028. |---+-----+-----+-----+-----------+--------------|
  2029. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  2030. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  2031. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  2032. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  2033. |---+-----+-----+-----+-----------+--------------|
  2034. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  2035. @end example
  2036. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  2037. every vertical line you would like to have:
  2038. @example
  2039. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2040. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2041. | / | < | | | < | |
  2042. @end example
  2043. @node Orgtbl mode
  2044. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2045. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2046. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2047. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  2048. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  2049. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  2050. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode RET}. To turn it on by default, for
  2051. example in Message mode, use
  2052. @lisp
  2053. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2054. @end lisp
  2055. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2056. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2057. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2058. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2059. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2060. @node The spreadsheet
  2061. @section The spreadsheet
  2062. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2063. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2064. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2065. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2066. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2067. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2068. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2069. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2070. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2071. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2072. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2073. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2074. @menu
  2075. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2076. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2077. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2078. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2079. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2080. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2081. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  2082. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2083. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2084. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2085. @end menu
  2086. @node References
  2087. @subsection References
  2088. @cindex references
  2089. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2090. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2091. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2092. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2093. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2094. @subsubheading Field references
  2095. @cindex field references
  2096. @cindex references, to fields
  2097. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2098. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2099. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2100. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2101. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2102. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2103. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the option
  2104. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2105. representation that looks like this:
  2106. @example
  2107. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2108. @end example
  2109. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2110. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e., the
  2111. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2112. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2113. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2114. column from the right.
  2115. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2116. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2117. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2118. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2119. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2120. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2121. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2122. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2123. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2124. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2125. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2126. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2127. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2128. after the third hline in the table.
  2129. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2130. i.e., to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2131. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2132. implied.
  2133. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2134. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2135. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2136. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2137. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2138. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2139. Here are a few examples:
  2140. @example
  2141. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2142. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2143. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2144. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2145. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2146. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2147. @end example
  2148. @subsubheading Range references
  2149. @cindex range references
  2150. @cindex references, to ranges
  2151. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2152. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2153. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2154. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2155. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2156. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2157. @example
  2158. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2159. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2160. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the last but one}
  2161. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2162. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 fields in the row above, starting from 2 columns on the left}
  2163. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2164. @end example
  2165. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2166. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally suppressed,
  2167. so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields. For other options
  2168. with the mode switches @samp{E}, @samp{N} and examples @pxref{Formula syntax
  2169. for Calc}.
  2170. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2171. @cindex field coordinates
  2172. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2173. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2174. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2175. One of the very first actions during evaluation of Calc formulas and Lisp
  2176. formulas is to substitute @code{@@#} and @code{$#} in the formula with the
  2177. row or column number of the field where the current result will go to. The
  2178. traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline} and
  2179. @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2180. @table @code
  2181. @item if(@@# % 2, $#, string(""))
  2182. Insert column number on odd rows, set field to empty on even rows.
  2183. @item $2 = '(identity remote(FOO, @@@@#$1))
  2184. Copy text or values of each row of column 1 of the table named @code{FOO}
  2185. into column 2 of the current table.
  2186. @item @@3 = 2 * remote(FOO, @@1$$#)
  2187. Insert the doubled value of each column of row 1 of the table named
  2188. @code{FOO} into row 3 of the current table.
  2189. @end table
  2190. @noindent For the second/third example, the table named @code{FOO} must have
  2191. at least as many rows/columns as the current table. Note that this is
  2192. inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as O(N^2) because the table
  2193. named @code{FOO} is parsed for each field to be read.} for large number of
  2194. rows/columns.
  2195. @subsubheading Named references
  2196. @cindex named references
  2197. @cindex references, named
  2198. @cindex name, of column or field
  2199. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2200. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2201. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2202. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2203. constant. Constants are defined globally through the option
  2204. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2205. line like
  2206. @example
  2207. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2208. @end example
  2209. @noindent
  2210. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2211. @pindex constants.el
  2212. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and columns}) can be used as
  2213. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2214. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2215. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2216. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2217. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2218. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2219. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2220. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2221. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2222. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2223. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2224. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2225. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2226. numbers.
  2227. @subsubheading Remote references
  2228. @cindex remote references
  2229. @cindex references, remote
  2230. @cindex references, to a different table
  2231. @cindex name, of column or field
  2232. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2233. @cindex #+NAME, for table
  2234. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2235. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2236. @example
  2237. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2238. @end example
  2239. @noindent
  2240. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2241. @code{#+NAME: Name} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2242. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2243. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2244. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2245. referenced table.
  2246. Indirection of NAME-OR-ID: When NAME-OR-ID has the format @code{@@ROW$COLUMN}
  2247. it will be substituted with the name or ID found in this field of the current
  2248. table. For example @code{remote($1, @@>$2)} => @code{remote(year_2013,
  2249. @@>$1)}. The format @code{B3} is not supported because it can not be
  2250. distinguished from a plain table name or ID.
  2251. @node Formula syntax for Calc
  2252. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2253. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2254. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2255. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs @file{Calc}
  2256. package. Note that @file{calc} has the non-standard convention that @samp{/}
  2257. has lower precedence than @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as
  2258. @samp{a/(b*c)}. Before evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc
  2259. from Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc,
  2260. GNU Emacs Calc Manual}), variable substitution takes place according to the
  2261. rules described above.
  2262. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2263. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2264. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2265. @cindex format specifier
  2266. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2267. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2268. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2269. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2270. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2271. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2272. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2273. compact. The default settings can be configured using the option
  2274. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2275. @noindent List of modes:
  2276. @table @asis
  2277. @item @code{p20}
  2278. Set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits.
  2279. @item @code{n3}, @code{s3}, @code{e2}, @code{f4}
  2280. Normal, scientific, engineering or fixed format of the result of Calc passed
  2281. back to Org. Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as long as the Calc
  2282. calculation precision is greater.
  2283. @item @code{D}, @code{R}
  2284. Degree and radian angle modes of Calc.
  2285. @item @code{F}, @code{S}
  2286. Fraction and symbolic modes of Calc.
  2287. @item @code{T}, @code{t}, @code{U}
  2288. Duration computations in Calc or Lisp, @pxref{Durations and time values}.
  2289. @item @code{E}
  2290. If and how to consider empty fields. Without @samp{E} empty fields in range
  2291. references are suppressed so that the Calc vector or Lisp list contains only
  2292. the non-empty fields. With @samp{E} the empty fields are kept. For empty
  2293. fields in ranges or empty field references the value @samp{nan} (not a
  2294. number) is used in Calc formulas and the empty string is used for Lisp
  2295. formulas. Add @samp{N} to use 0 instead for both formula types. For the
  2296. value of a field the mode @samp{N} has higher precedence than @samp{E}.
  2297. @item @code{N}
  2298. Interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers. See the next section
  2299. to see how this is essential for computations with Lisp formulas. In Calc
  2300. formulas it is used only occasionally because there number strings are
  2301. already interpreted as numbers without @samp{N}.
  2302. @item @code{L}
  2303. Literal, for Lisp formulas only. See the next section.
  2304. @end table
  2305. @noindent
  2306. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation and
  2307. -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2308. @samp{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2309. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2310. formatting@footnote{The @samp{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2311. because the value passed to it is converted into an @samp{integer} or
  2312. @samp{double}. The @samp{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2313. signed value to 32 bits. The @samp{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2314. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}. A
  2315. few examples:
  2316. @example
  2317. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2318. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2319. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2320. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2321. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2322. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2323. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2324. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2325. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2326. @end example
  2327. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations, (@pxref{Logical
  2328. Operations, , Logical Operations, calc, GNU Emacs Calc Manual}). For example
  2329. @table @code
  2330. @item if($1 < 20, teen, string(""))
  2331. "teen" if age $1 is less than 20, else the Org table result field is set to
  2332. empty with the empty string.
  2333. @item if("$1" == "nan" || "$2" == "nan", string(""), $1 + $2); E f-1
  2334. Sum of the first two columns. When at least one of the input fields is empty
  2335. the Org table result field is set to empty. @samp{E} is required to not
  2336. convert empty fields to 0. @samp{f-1} is an optional Calc format string
  2337. similar to @samp{%.1f} but leaves empty results empty.
  2338. @item if(typeof(vmean($1..$7)) == 12, string(""), vmean($1..$7); E
  2339. Mean value of a range unless there is any empty field. Every field in the
  2340. range that is empty is replaced by @samp{nan} which lets @samp{vmean} result
  2341. in @samp{nan}. Then @samp{typeof == 12} detects the @samp{nan} from
  2342. @samp{vmean} and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use this when
  2343. the sample set is expected to never have missing values.
  2344. @item if("$1..$7" == "[]", string(""), vmean($1..$7))
  2345. Mean value of a range with empty fields skipped. Every field in the range
  2346. that is empty is skipped. When all fields in the range are empty the mean
  2347. value is not defined and the Org table result field is set to empty. Use
  2348. this when the sample set can have a variable size.
  2349. @item vmean($1..$7); EN
  2350. To complete the example before: Mean value of a range with empty fields
  2351. counting as samples with value 0. Use this only when incomplete sample sets
  2352. should be padded with 0 to the full size.
  2353. @end table
  2354. You can add your own Calc functions defined in Emacs Lisp with @code{defmath}
  2355. and use them in formula syntax for Calc.
  2356. @node Formula syntax for Lisp
  2357. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2358. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2359. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be useful
  2360. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is
  2361. not enough.
  2362. If a formula starts with an apostrophe followed by an opening parenthesis,
  2363. then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a
  2364. string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes
  2365. and a printf format after a semicolon.
  2366. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2367. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be
  2368. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If
  2369. you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers
  2370. (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without
  2371. quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated
  2372. literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted
  2373. as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in
  2374. double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated
  2375. fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax.
  2376. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2377. computations in Lisp:
  2378. @table @code
  2379. @item '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2380. Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1.
  2381. @item '(+ $1 $2);N
  2382. Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}.
  2383. @item '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2384. Compute the sum of columns 1 to 4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}.
  2385. @end table
  2386. @node Durations and time values
  2387. @subsection Durations and time values
  2388. @cindex Duration, computing
  2389. @cindex Time, computing
  2390. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2391. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T}, @code{t}, or @code{U}
  2392. flag, either in Calc formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2393. @example
  2394. @group
  2395. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2396. |---------+----------+----------|
  2397. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2398. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59 |
  2399. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2400. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;U::@@4$3=$1+$2;t
  2401. @end group
  2402. @end example
  2403. Input duration values must be of the form @code{HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2404. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2405. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{U} flag,
  2406. seconds will be omitted so that the result will be only @code{HH:MM} (see
  2407. second formula above). Zero-padding of the hours field will depend upon the
  2408. value of the variable @code{org-table-duration-hour-zero-padding}.
  2409. With the @code{t} flag, computed durations will be displayed according to the
  2410. value of the option @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults
  2411. to @code{'hours} and will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the
  2412. third formula in the example above).
  2413. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2414. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2415. @node Field and range formulas
  2416. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2417. @cindex field formula
  2418. @cindex range formula
  2419. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2420. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2421. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2422. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2423. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2424. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2425. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2426. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2427. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2428. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2429. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2430. inserting/deleting/swapping columns and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2431. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2432. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this, in
  2433. particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table borders (using
  2434. @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines using the
  2435. @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does of course
  2436. not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2437. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2438. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2439. command
  2440. @table @kbd
  2441. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2442. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2443. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2444. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2445. @end table
  2446. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2447. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2448. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2449. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2450. directly.
  2451. @table @code
  2452. @item $2=
  2453. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2454. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2455. @item @@3=
  2456. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2457. the last row.
  2458. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2459. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2460. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2461. @item $name=
  2462. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2463. @end table
  2464. @node Column formulas
  2465. @subsection Column formulas
  2466. @cindex column formula
  2467. @cindex formula, for table column
  2468. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2469. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2470. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2471. hlines with rows above and below, everything before the first such hline is
  2472. considered part of the table @emph{header} and will not be modified by column
  2473. formulas. Therefore a header is mandatory when you use column formulas and
  2474. want to add hlines to group rows, like for example to separate a total row at
  2475. the bottom from the summand rows above. (ii) Fields that already get a value
  2476. from a field/range formula will be left alone by column formulas. These
  2477. conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2478. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2479. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2480. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2481. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2482. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2483. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2484. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2485. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2486. left-hand side of a column formula cannot be the name of column, it must be
  2487. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2488. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2489. following command:
  2490. @table @kbd
  2491. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2492. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2493. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2494. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2495. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g., @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2496. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2497. @end table
  2498. @node Lookup functions
  2499. @subsection Lookup functions
  2500. @cindex lookup functions in tables
  2501. @cindex table lookup functions
  2502. Org has three predefined Emacs Lisp functions for lookups in tables.
  2503. @table @code
  2504. @item (org-lookup-first VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2505. @findex org-lookup-first
  2506. Searches for the first element @code{S} in list @code{S-LIST} for which
  2507. @lisp
  2508. (PREDICATE VAL S)
  2509. @end lisp
  2510. is @code{t}; returns the value from the corresponding position in list
  2511. @code{R-LIST}. The default @code{PREDICATE} is @code{equal}. Note that the
  2512. parameters @code{VAL} and @code{S} are passed to @code{PREDICATE} in the same
  2513. order as the corresponding parameters are in the call to
  2514. @code{org-lookup-first}, where @code{VAL} precedes @code{S-LIST}. If
  2515. @code{R-LIST} is @code{nil}, the matching element @code{S} of @code{S-LIST}
  2516. is returned.
  2517. @item (org-lookup-last VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2518. @findex org-lookup-last
  2519. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first} above, but searches for the @i{last}
  2520. element for which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}.
  2521. @item (org-lookup-all VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2522. @findex org-lookup-all
  2523. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first}, but searches for @i{all} elements for
  2524. which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}, and returns @i{all} corresponding
  2525. values. This function can not be used by itself in a formula, because it
  2526. returns a list of values. However, powerful lookups can be built when this
  2527. function is combined with other Emacs Lisp functions.
  2528. @end table
  2529. If the ranges used in these functions contain empty fields, the @code{E} mode
  2530. for the formula should usually be specified: otherwise empty fields will not be
  2531. included in @code{S-LIST} and/or @code{R-LIST} which can, for example, result
  2532. in an incorrect mapping from an element of @code{S-LIST} to the corresponding
  2533. element of @code{R-LIST}.
  2534. These three functions can be used to implement associative arrays, count
  2535. matching cells, rank results, group data etc. For practical examples
  2536. see @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-lookups.html, this
  2537. tutorial on Worg}.
  2538. @node Editing and debugging formulas
  2539. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2540. @cindex formula editing
  2541. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2542. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2543. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the field.
  2544. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active formulas of a table.
  2545. When offering a formula for editing, Org converts references to the standard
  2546. format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&}) if possible. If you prefer to only work
  2547. with the internal format (like @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the
  2548. option @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2549. @table @kbd
  2550. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2551. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2552. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2553. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2554. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2555. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2556. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2557. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2558. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2559. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2560. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2561. @kindex C-c @}
  2562. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2563. @item C-c @}
  2564. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2565. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2566. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2567. @kindex C-c @{
  2568. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2569. @item C-c @{
  2570. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2571. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2572. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2573. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2574. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2575. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2576. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2577. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2578. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2579. @table @kbd
  2580. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2581. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2582. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2583. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2584. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2585. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2586. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2587. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2588. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2589. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2590. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2591. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2592. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2593. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2594. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.@footnote{Many desktops
  2595. intercept @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows. Use @kbd{C-M-i} or
  2596. @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} instead for completion (@pxref{Completion}).}
  2597. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2598. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2599. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2600. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2601. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2602. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2603. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2604. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2605. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2606. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2607. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2608. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2609. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2610. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2611. down.
  2612. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2613. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2614. @kindex C-c @}
  2615. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2616. @item C-c @}
  2617. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2618. @end table
  2619. @end table
  2620. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2621. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2622. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2623. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2624. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2625. @kindex C-c C-c
  2626. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2627. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2628. recalculation commands in the table.
  2629. @anchor{Using multiple #+TBLFM lines}
  2630. @subsubheading Using multiple #+TBLFM lines
  2631. @cindex #+TBLFM line, multiple
  2632. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2633. @cindex #+TBLFM, switching
  2634. @kindex C-c C-c
  2635. You may apply the formula temporarily. This is useful when you
  2636. switch the formula. Place multiple @samp{#+TBLFM} lines right
  2637. after the table, and then press @kbd{C-c C-c} on the formula to
  2638. apply. Here is an example:
  2639. @example
  2640. | x | y |
  2641. |---+---|
  2642. | 1 | |
  2643. | 2 | |
  2644. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2645. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2646. @end example
  2647. @noindent
  2648. Pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} in the line of @samp{#+TBLFM: $2=$1*2} yields:
  2649. @example
  2650. | x | y |
  2651. |---+---|
  2652. | 1 | 2 |
  2653. | 2 | 4 |
  2654. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2655. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2656. @end example
  2657. @noindent
  2658. Note: If you recalculate this table (with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, for example), you
  2659. will get the following result of applying only the first @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2660. @example
  2661. | x | y |
  2662. |---+---|
  2663. | 1 | 1 |
  2664. | 2 | 2 |
  2665. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*1
  2666. #+TBLFM: $2=$1*2
  2667. @end example
  2668. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2669. @cindex formula debugging
  2670. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2671. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2672. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2673. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2674. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2675. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2676. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2677. @node Updating the table
  2678. @subsection Updating the table
  2679. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2680. @cindex updating, table
  2681. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2682. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2683. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2684. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2685. following commands:
  2686. @table @kbd
  2687. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2688. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2689. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2690. @c
  2691. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2692. @item C-u C-c *
  2693. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2694. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2695. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2696. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2697. @c
  2698. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2699. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2700. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2701. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2702. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables RET
  2703. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2704. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2705. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables RET
  2706. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2707. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2708. dependencies.
  2709. @end table
  2710. @node Advanced features
  2711. @subsection Advanced features
  2712. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2713. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2714. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2715. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2716. special marking characters.
  2717. @table @kbd
  2718. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2719. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2720. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2721. change all marks in the region.
  2722. @end table
  2723. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2724. makes use of these features:
  2725. @example
  2726. @group
  2727. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2728. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2729. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2730. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2731. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2732. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2733. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2734. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2735. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2736. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2737. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2738. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2739. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2740. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2741. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2742. @end group
  2743. @end example
  2744. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2745. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2746. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2747. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2748. empty first field.
  2749. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2750. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2751. @table @samp
  2752. @item !
  2753. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2754. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2755. @item ^
  2756. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2757. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2758. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2759. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2760. @item _
  2761. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2762. @emph{below}.
  2763. @item $
  2764. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2765. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2766. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2767. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2768. a per-table basis.
  2769. @item #
  2770. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2771. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2772. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2773. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2774. @item *
  2775. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2776. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2777. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2778. @item @w{ }
  2779. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2780. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2781. or @samp{*}.
  2782. @item /
  2783. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2784. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2785. @end table
  2786. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2787. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2788. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2789. functions.
  2790. @example
  2791. @group
  2792. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2793. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2794. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2795. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2796. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2797. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2798. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2799. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2800. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2801. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2802. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2803. @end group
  2804. @end example
  2805. @node Org-Plot
  2806. @section Org-Plot
  2807. @cindex graph, in tables
  2808. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2809. @cindex #+PLOT
  2810. Org-Plot can produce graphs of information stored in org tables, either
  2811. graphically or in ASCII-art.
  2812. @subheading Graphical plots using @file{Gnuplot}
  2813. Org-Plot produces 2D and 3D graphs using @file{Gnuplot}
  2814. @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2815. @uref{http://xafs.org/BruceRavel/GnuplotMode}. To see this in action, ensure
  2816. that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed on your system, then
  2817. call @kbd{C-c " g} or @kbd{M-x org-plot/gnuplot @key{RET}} on the following
  2818. table.
  2819. @example
  2820. @group
  2821. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2822. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2823. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2824. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2825. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2826. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2827. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2828. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2829. @end group
  2830. @end example
  2831. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2832. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2833. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2834. for a complete list of Org-plot options. The @code{#+PLOT:} lines are
  2835. optional. For more information and examples see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2836. @uref{https://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2837. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2838. @table @code
  2839. @item set
  2840. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2841. @item title
  2842. Specify the title of the plot.
  2843. @item ind
  2844. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2845. @item deps
  2846. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2847. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2848. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2849. column).
  2850. @item type
  2851. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2852. @item with
  2853. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2854. (e.g., @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2855. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2856. @item file
  2857. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2858. @item labels
  2859. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2860. if they exist).
  2861. @item line
  2862. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2863. @item map
  2864. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2865. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2866. @item timefmt
  2867. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2868. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2869. @item script
  2870. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2871. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2872. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2873. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2874. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2875. the data file.
  2876. @end table
  2877. @subheading ASCII bar plots
  2878. While the cursor is on a column, typing @kbd{C-c " a} or
  2879. @kbd{M-x orgtbl-ascii-plot @key{RET}} create a new column containing an
  2880. ASCII-art bars plot. The plot is implemented through a regular column
  2881. formula. When the source column changes, the bar plot may be updated by
  2882. refreshing the table, for example typing @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2883. @example
  2884. @group
  2885. | Sede | Max cites | |
  2886. |---------------+-----------+--------------|
  2887. | Chile | 257.72 | WWWWWWWWWWWW |
  2888. | Leeds | 165.77 | WWWWWWWh |
  2889. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | WWW; |
  2890. | Stockholm | 134.19 | WWWWWW: |
  2891. | Morelia | 257.56 | WWWWWWWWWWWH |
  2892. | Rochefourchat | 0.00 | |
  2893. #+TBLFM: $3='(orgtbl-ascii-draw $2 0.0 257.72 12)
  2894. @end group
  2895. @end example
  2896. The formula is an elisp call:
  2897. @lisp
  2898. (orgtbl-ascii-draw COLUMN MIN MAX WIDTH)
  2899. @end lisp
  2900. @table @code
  2901. @item COLUMN
  2902. is a reference to the source column.
  2903. @item MIN MAX
  2904. are the minimal and maximal values displayed. Sources values
  2905. outside this range are displayed as @samp{too small}
  2906. or @samp{too large}.
  2907. @item WIDTH
  2908. is the width in characters of the bar-plot. It defaults to @samp{12}.
  2909. @end table
  2910. @node Hyperlinks
  2911. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2912. @cindex hyperlinks
  2913. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2914. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2915. @menu
  2916. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2917. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2918. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2919. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2920. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2921. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2922. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2923. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2924. @end menu
  2925. @node Link format
  2926. @section Link format
  2927. @cindex link format
  2928. @cindex format, of links
  2929. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2930. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2931. @example
  2932. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2933. @end example
  2934. @noindent
  2935. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2936. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2937. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2938. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2939. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2940. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2941. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2942. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2943. cursor on the link.
  2944. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2945. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2946. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2947. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2948. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2949. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2950. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2951. @node Internal links
  2952. @section Internal links
  2953. @cindex internal links
  2954. @cindex links, internal
  2955. @cindex targets, for links
  2956. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2957. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2958. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2959. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2960. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. You are responsible yourself
  2961. to make sure these custom IDs are unique in a file.
  2962. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2963. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2964. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2965. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2966. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2967. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets, like
  2968. @samp{<<My Target>>}.
  2969. @cindex #+NAME
  2970. If no dedicated target exists, the link will then try to match the exact name
  2971. of an element within the buffer. Naming is done with the @code{#+NAME}
  2972. keyword, which has to be put in the line before the element it refers to, as
  2973. in the following example
  2974. @example
  2975. #+NAME: My Target
  2976. | a | table |
  2977. |----+------------|
  2978. | of | four cells |
  2979. @end example
  2980. If none of the above succeeds, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2981. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2982. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type
  2983. a star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2984. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2985. completions.}.
  2986. During export, internal links will be used to mark objects and assign them
  2987. a number. Marked objects will then be referenced by links pointing to them.
  2988. In particular, links without a description will appear as the number assigned
  2989. to the marked object@footnote{When targeting a @code{#+NAME} keyword,
  2990. @code{#+CAPTION} keyword is mandatory in order to get proper numbering
  2991. (@pxref{Images and tables}).}. In the following excerpt from an Org buffer
  2992. @example
  2993. - one item
  2994. - <<target>>another item
  2995. Here we refer to item [[target]].
  2996. @end example
  2997. @noindent
  2998. The last sentence will appear as @samp{Here we refer to item 2} when
  2999. exported.
  3000. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the link text. In
  3001. the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  3002. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  3003. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  3004. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  3005. earlier.
  3006. @menu
  3007. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  3008. @end menu
  3009. @node Radio targets
  3010. @subsection Radio targets
  3011. @cindex radio targets
  3012. @cindex targets, radio
  3013. @cindex links, radio targets
  3014. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  3015. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  3016. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  3017. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  3018. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  3019. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  3020. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  3021. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3022. cursor on or at a target.
  3023. @node External links
  3024. @section External links
  3025. @cindex links, external
  3026. @cindex external links
  3027. @cindex Gnus links
  3028. @cindex BBDB links
  3029. @cindex IRC links
  3030. @cindex URL links
  3031. @cindex file links
  3032. @cindex RMAIL links
  3033. @cindex MH-E links
  3034. @cindex USENET links
  3035. @cindex SHELL links
  3036. @cindex Info links
  3037. @cindex Elisp links
  3038. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages, BBDB
  3039. database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their logs.
  3040. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short identifying
  3041. string followed by a colon. There can be no space after the colon. The
  3042. following list shows examples for each link type.
  3043. @example
  3044. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  3045. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  3046. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  3047. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  3048. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  3049. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3050. file:/ssh:myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  3051. /ssh:myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  3052. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  3053. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  3054. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  3055. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  3056. the option @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  3057. is @code{nil}, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is @code{t}, then only
  3058. the exact headline will be matched, ignoring spaces and cookies. If the
  3059. value is @code{query-to-create}, then an exact headline will be searched; if
  3060. it is not found, then the user will be queried to create it.}
  3061. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}@footnote{
  3062. Headline searches always match the exact headline, ignoring
  3063. spaces and cookies. If the headline is not found and the value of the option
  3064. @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline} is @code{query-to-create},
  3065. then the user will be queried to create it.}
  3066. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  3067. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  3068. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  3069. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  3070. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  3071. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  3072. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  3073. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  3074. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  3075. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  3076. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  3077. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  3078. info:org#External links @r{Info node or index link}
  3079. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  3080. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  3081. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  3082. @end example
  3083. @cindex VM links
  3084. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  3085. On top of these built-in link types, some are available through the
  3086. @code{contrib/} directory (@pxref{Installation}). For example, these links
  3087. to VM or Wanderlust messages are available when you load the corresponding
  3088. libraries from the @code{contrib/} directory:
  3089. @example
  3090. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  3091. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  3092. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  3093. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  3094. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  3095. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  3096. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  3097. @end example
  3098. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  3099. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a descriptive
  3100. text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link format}), for example:
  3101. @example
  3102. [[https://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  3103. @end example
  3104. @noindent
  3105. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  3106. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  3107. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  3108. image,
  3109. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  3110. @cindex square brackets, around links
  3111. @cindex plain text external links
  3112. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  3113. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  3114. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  3115. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  3116. @node Handling links
  3117. @section Handling links
  3118. @cindex links, handling
  3119. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  3120. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  3121. @table @kbd
  3122. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  3123. @cindex storing links
  3124. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  3125. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  3126. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  3127. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  3128. buffer:
  3129. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  3130. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  3131. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  3132. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  3133. removed from the link and result in a wrong link---you should avoid putting
  3134. timestamp in the headline.}.
  3135. @vindex org-id-link-to-org-use-id
  3136. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  3137. @cindex property, ID
  3138. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  3139. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  3140. @code{org-id-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will
  3141. be created and/or used to construct a link@footnote{The library
  3142. @file{org-id.el} must first be loaded, either through @code{org-customize} by
  3143. enabling @code{org-id} in @code{org-modules}, or by adding @code{(require
  3144. 'org-id)} in your Emacs init file.}. So using this command in Org buffers
  3145. will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom ID, and
  3146. one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from file to
  3147. file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one to use.
  3148. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  3149. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  3150. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  3151. constructed from the author and the subject.
  3152. @b{Web browsers: Eww, W3 and W3M}@*
  3153. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  3154. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  3155. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  3156. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  3157. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  3158. For IRC links, if you set the option @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to @code{t},
  3159. a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for the current
  3160. conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to the
  3161. user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  3162. @b{Other files}@*
  3163. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  3164. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  3165. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  3166. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  3167. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  3168. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  3169. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  3170. @b{Agenda view}@*
  3171. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  3172. entry referenced by the current line.
  3173. @c
  3174. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  3175. @cindex link completion
  3176. @cindex completion, of links
  3177. @cindex inserting links
  3178. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  3179. @vindex org-link-parameters
  3180. Insert a link@footnote{Note that you don't have to use this command to
  3181. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  3182. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  3183. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  3184. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  3185. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  3186. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  3187. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  3188. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  3189. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  3190. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  3191. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  3192. becomes the default description.
  3193. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  3194. All links stored during the
  3195. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  3196. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  3197. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  3198. valid link prefixes like @samp{https:}, including the prefixes
  3199. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  3200. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  3201. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works if
  3202. a completion function is defined in the @samp{:complete} property of a link
  3203. in @code{org-link-parameters}.} For example, if you type @kbd{file
  3204. @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see
  3205. below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb @key{RET}} you can complete
  3206. contact names.
  3207. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  3208. @cindex file name completion
  3209. @cindex completion, of file names
  3210. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  3211. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  3212. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  3213. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  3214. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  3215. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  3216. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  3217. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3218. @c
  3219. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  3220. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  3221. link and description parts of the link.
  3222. @c
  3223. @cindex following links
  3224. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  3225. @vindex org-file-apps
  3226. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3227. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  3228. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  3229. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  3230. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  3231. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  3232. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  3233. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  3234. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3235. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3236. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3237. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3238. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3239. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3240. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3241. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3242. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3243. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3244. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3245. the link at point.
  3246. @c
  3247. @kindex mouse-2
  3248. @kindex mouse-1
  3249. @item mouse-2
  3250. @itemx mouse-1
  3251. On links, @kbd{mouse-1} and @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c
  3252. C-o} would.
  3253. @c
  3254. @kindex mouse-3
  3255. @item mouse-3
  3256. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3257. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3258. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3259. option @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3260. @c
  3261. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3262. @cindex inlining images
  3263. @cindex images, inlining
  3264. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3265. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3266. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3267. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3268. images that have no description part in the link, i.e., images that will also
  3269. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3270. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3271. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3272. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3273. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{noinlineimages}}.
  3274. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3275. @cindex mark ring
  3276. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3277. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3278. @c
  3279. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3280. @cindex links, returning to
  3281. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3282. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3283. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3284. previously recorded positions.
  3285. @c
  3286. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3287. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3288. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3289. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3290. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3291. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3292. @lisp
  3293. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3294. (lambda ()
  3295. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3296. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3297. @end lisp
  3298. @end table
  3299. @node Using links outside Org
  3300. @section Using links outside Org
  3301. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3302. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3303. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3304. yourself):
  3305. @lisp
  3306. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3307. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3308. @end lisp
  3309. @node Link abbreviations
  3310. @section Link abbreviations
  3311. @cindex link abbreviations
  3312. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3313. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3314. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3315. abbreviated link looks like this
  3316. @example
  3317. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3318. @end example
  3319. @noindent
  3320. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3321. where the tag is optional.
  3322. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3323. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3324. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3325. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3326. @smalllisp
  3327. @group
  3328. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3329. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3330. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3331. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3332. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3333. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3334. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3335. @end group
  3336. @end smalllisp
  3337. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3338. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3339. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3340. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3341. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3342. If the replacement text doesn't contain any specifier, the tag will simply be
  3343. appended in order to create the link.
  3344. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3345. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3346. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3347. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3348. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3349. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3350. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3351. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3352. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3353. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3354. can define them in the file with
  3355. @cindex #+LINK
  3356. @example
  3357. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3358. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3359. @end example
  3360. @noindent
  3361. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3362. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function that implements
  3363. special (e.g., completion) support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c
  3364. C-l}. Such a function should not accept any arguments, and return the full
  3365. link with prefix. You can add a completion function to a link like this:
  3366. @lisp
  3367. (org-link-set-parameters ``type'' :complete #'some-function)
  3368. @end lisp
  3369. @node Search options
  3370. @section Search options in file links
  3371. @cindex search option in file links
  3372. @cindex file links, searching
  3373. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3374. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3375. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3376. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3377. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3378. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3379. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3380. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3381. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3382. link, together with an explanation:
  3383. @example
  3384. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3385. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3386. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3387. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3388. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3389. @end example
  3390. @table @code
  3391. @item 255
  3392. Jump to line 255.
  3393. @item My Target
  3394. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3395. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3396. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3397. link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3398. the linked file.
  3399. @item *My Target
  3400. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3401. @item #my-custom-id
  3402. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3403. @item /regexp/
  3404. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3405. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3406. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3407. sparse tree with the matches.
  3408. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3409. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3410. @end table
  3411. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3412. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3413. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3414. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3415. @node Custom searches
  3416. @section Custom Searches
  3417. @cindex custom search strings
  3418. @cindex search strings, custom
  3419. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3420. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3421. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3422. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3423. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3424. citation key.
  3425. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3426. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3427. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3428. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3429. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3430. to be added to the hook variables
  3431. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3432. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3433. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3434. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3435. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3436. @node TODO items
  3437. @chapter TODO items
  3438. @cindex TODO items
  3439. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3440. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3441. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3442. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3443. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3444. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3445. item emerged is always present.
  3446. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3447. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3448. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3449. @menu
  3450. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3451. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3452. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3453. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3454. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3455. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3456. @end menu
  3457. @node TODO basics
  3458. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3459. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3460. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3461. @example
  3462. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3463. @end example
  3464. @noindent
  3465. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3466. @table @kbd
  3467. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3468. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3469. @vindex org-use-fast-todo-selection
  3470. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3471. @example
  3472. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3473. '--------------------------------'
  3474. @end example
  3475. If TODO keywords have fast access keys (see @ref{Fast access to TODO
  3476. states}), you will be prompted for a TODO keyword through the fast selection
  3477. interface; this is the default behavior when
  3478. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is non-@code{nil}.
  3479. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from agenda buffers with the
  3480. @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3481. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3482. When TODO keywords have no selection keys, select a specific keyword using
  3483. completion; otherwise force cycling through TODO states with no prompt. When
  3484. @code{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is set to @code{prefix}, use the fast
  3485. selection interface.
  3486. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3487. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3488. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3489. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3490. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3491. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3492. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3493. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3494. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3495. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-tree}
  3496. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3497. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3498. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3499. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3500. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3501. / T}), search for a specific TODO@. You will be prompted for the keyword,
  3502. and you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3503. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3504. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the option @code{org-todo-keywords}.
  3505. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states, both un-done and done.
  3506. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3507. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3508. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3509. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3510. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3511. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3512. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3513. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3514. @end table
  3515. @noindent
  3516. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3517. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3518. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3519. @node TODO extensions
  3520. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3521. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3522. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3523. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3524. DONE@. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3525. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3526. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3527. files.
  3528. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3529. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3530. @menu
  3531. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3532. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3533. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3534. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3535. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3536. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3537. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3538. @end menu
  3539. @node Workflow states
  3540. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3541. @cindex TODO workflow
  3542. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3543. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3544. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3545. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3546. buffer.}:
  3547. @lisp
  3548. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3549. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3550. @end lisp
  3551. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3552. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3553. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3554. state.
  3555. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3556. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3557. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED@. You may
  3558. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3559. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY@.
  3560. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3561. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3562. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3563. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3564. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3565. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3566. @node TODO types
  3567. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3568. @cindex TODO types
  3569. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3570. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3571. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3572. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3573. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3574. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3575. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3576. be set up like this:
  3577. @lisp
  3578. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3579. @end lisp
  3580. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3581. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to
  3582. a person, and later to mark it DONE@. Org mode supports this style by
  3583. adapting the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true
  3584. for the @kbd{t} command in the agenda buffers.}. When used several times in
  3585. succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first select
  3586. the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some time
  3587. and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly to
  3588. DONE@. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific name.
  3589. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree by
  3590. using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things Lucy
  3591. has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items from all
  3592. agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix argument
  3593. as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3594. @node Multiple sets in one file
  3595. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3596. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3597. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3598. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3599. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3600. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3601. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3602. like this:
  3603. @lisp
  3604. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3605. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3606. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3607. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3608. @end lisp
  3609. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3610. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3611. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3612. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3613. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3614. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3615. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3616. @table @kbd
  3617. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3618. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3619. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3620. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3621. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3622. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3623. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3624. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3625. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3626. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3627. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3628. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3629. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3630. @item S-@key{right}
  3631. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3632. @kbd{S-@key{left}} and @kbd{S-@key{right}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3633. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{right}} would switch
  3634. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3635. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3636. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3637. @end table
  3638. @node Fast access to TODO states
  3639. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3640. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3641. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3642. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection character after
  3643. each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except
  3644. @code{@@^!}, which have a special meaning here.}. For example:
  3645. @lisp
  3646. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3647. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3648. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3649. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3650. @end lisp
  3651. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3652. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3653. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3654. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the option
  3655. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3656. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3657. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3658. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3659. @node Per-file keywords
  3660. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3661. @cindex keyword options
  3662. @cindex per-file keywords
  3663. @cindex #+TODO
  3664. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3665. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3666. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3667. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines to
  3668. the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file only. For
  3669. example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you need one of the
  3670. following lines anywhere in the file:
  3671. @example
  3672. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3673. @end example
  3674. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3675. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3676. @example
  3677. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3678. @end example
  3679. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3680. @example
  3681. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3682. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3683. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3684. @end example
  3685. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3686. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3687. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3688. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3689. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3690. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3691. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3692. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3693. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3694. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3695. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3696. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3697. for the current buffer.}.
  3698. @node Faces for TODO keywords
  3699. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3700. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3701. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3702. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3703. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3704. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3705. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3706. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3707. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3708. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the option
  3709. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3710. @lisp
  3711. @group
  3712. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3713. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3714. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3715. @end group
  3716. @end lisp
  3717. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3718. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3719. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The option
  3720. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3721. foreground or a background color.
  3722. @node TODO dependencies
  3723. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3724. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3725. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3726. @cindex TODO dependencies, NOBLOCKING
  3727. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3728. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3729. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3730. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3731. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE@. And sometimes
  3732. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3733. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3734. the option @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3735. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE@.
  3736. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3737. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE@. Here is an
  3738. example:
  3739. @example
  3740. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3741. ** DONE one
  3742. ** TODO two
  3743. * Parent
  3744. :PROPERTIES:
  3745. :ORDERED: t
  3746. :END:
  3747. ** TODO a
  3748. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3749. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3750. @end example
  3751. You can ensure an entry is never blocked by using the @code{NOBLOCKING}
  3752. property:
  3753. @example
  3754. * This entry is never blocked
  3755. :PROPERTIES:
  3756. :NOBLOCKING: t
  3757. :END:
  3758. @end example
  3759. @table @kbd
  3760. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3761. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3762. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3763. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3764. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3765. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3766. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the option
  3767. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3768. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3769. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3770. @end table
  3771. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3772. If you set the option @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3773. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3774. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda views}).
  3775. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3776. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3777. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3778. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the option
  3779. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3780. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3781. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3782. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3783. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3784. @page
  3785. @node Progress logging
  3786. @section Progress logging
  3787. @cindex progress logging
  3788. @cindex logging, of progress
  3789. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3790. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3791. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable; settings can be on a
  3792. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3793. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3794. work time}.
  3795. @menu
  3796. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3797. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3798. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3799. @end menu
  3800. @node Closing items
  3801. @subsection Closing items
  3802. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3803. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3804. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3805. @lisp
  3806. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3807. @end lisp
  3808. @vindex org-closed-keep-when-no-todo
  3809. @noindent
  3810. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any of the
  3811. DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after
  3812. the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item through further
  3813. state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you turn the entry back
  3814. to a non-TODO state (by pressing @key{C-c C-t SPC} for example), that line
  3815. will also be removed, unless you set @code{org-closed-keep-when-no-todo} to
  3816. non-@code{nil}. If you want to record a note along with the timestamp,
  3817. use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP:
  3818. lognotedone}.}
  3819. @lisp
  3820. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3821. @end lisp
  3822. @noindent
  3823. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3824. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3825. @node Tracking TODO state changes
  3826. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3827. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3828. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3829. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3830. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3831. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3832. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3833. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3834. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3835. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the option
  3836. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3837. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3838. Customize @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the recommended
  3839. drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3840. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3841. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3842. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3843. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3844. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3845. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3846. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3847. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3848. setting
  3849. @lisp
  3850. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3851. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3852. @end lisp
  3853. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3854. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3855. @noindent
  3856. @vindex org-log-done
  3857. You not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3858. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3859. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3860. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3861. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3862. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3863. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3864. WAIT or CANCELED@. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3865. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3866. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3867. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3868. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3869. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3870. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3871. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3872. configured.
  3873. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3874. to a buffer:
  3875. @example
  3876. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3877. @end example
  3878. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3879. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3880. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3881. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to @code{nil}. You may then turn
  3882. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3883. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3884. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3885. @example
  3886. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3887. :PROPERTIES:
  3888. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3889. :END:
  3890. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3891. :PROPERTIES:
  3892. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3893. :END:
  3894. * TODO No logging at all
  3895. :PROPERTIES:
  3896. :LOGGING: nil
  3897. :END:
  3898. @end example
  3899. @node Tracking your habits
  3900. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3901. @cindex habits
  3902. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3903. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3904. @enumerate
  3905. @item
  3906. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing @code{org-modules}.
  3907. @item
  3908. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3909. @item
  3910. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3911. @item
  3912. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3913. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3914. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3915. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3916. @item
  3917. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3918. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3919. three days, but at most every two days.
  3920. @item
  3921. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled
  3922. (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3923. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an
  3924. error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless.
  3925. @end enumerate
  3926. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3927. actual habit with some history:
  3928. @example
  3929. ** TODO Shave
  3930. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3931. :PROPERTIES:
  3932. :STYLE: habit
  3933. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3934. :END:
  3935. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3936. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3937. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3938. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3939. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3940. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3941. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3942. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3943. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3944. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3945. @end example
  3946. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3947. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3948. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3949. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3950. after four days have elapsed.
  3951. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3952. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3953. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3954. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3955. @table @code
  3956. @item Blue
  3957. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3958. @item Green
  3959. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3960. @item Yellow
  3961. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3962. @item Red
  3963. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3964. @end table
  3965. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3966. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3967. the current day falls in the graph.
  3968. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3969. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3970. @table @code
  3971. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3972. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3973. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3974. titles brief and to the point.
  3975. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3976. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3977. @item org-habit-following-days
  3978. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3979. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3980. If non-@code{nil}, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3981. default.
  3982. @end table
  3983. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3984. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3985. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3986. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3987. @node Priorities
  3988. @section Priorities
  3989. @cindex priorities
  3990. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3991. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3992. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3993. @example
  3994. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3995. @end example
  3996. @noindent
  3997. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3998. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3999. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  4000. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  4001. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  4002. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  4003. special faces by customizing @code{org-priority-faces}.
  4004. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  4005. items.
  4006. @table @kbd
  4007. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  4008. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  4009. @findex org-priority
  4010. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  4011. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  4012. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  4013. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the agenda
  4014. buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  4015. @c
  4016. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  4017. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  4018. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  4019. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  4020. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  4021. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  4022. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  4023. @end table
  4024. @vindex org-highest-priority
  4025. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  4026. @vindex org-default-priority
  4027. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the options
  4028. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  4029. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  4030. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  4031. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  4032. priority):
  4033. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  4034. @example
  4035. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  4036. @end example
  4037. @node Breaking down tasks
  4038. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  4039. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  4040. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  4041. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  4042. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  4043. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  4044. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  4045. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  4046. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  4047. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  4048. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  4049. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  4050. @example
  4051. * Organize Party [33%]
  4052. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  4053. *** TODO Peter
  4054. *** DONE Sarah
  4055. ** TODO Buy food
  4056. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  4057. @end example
  4058. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  4059. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  4060. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  4061. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  4062. this issue.
  4063. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  4064. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  4065. subtree (not just direct children), configure
  4066. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  4067. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4068. property.
  4069. @example
  4070. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  4071. :PROPERTIES:
  4072. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  4073. :END:
  4074. @end example
  4075. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  4076. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  4077. @example
  4078. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  4079. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  4080. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  4081. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  4082. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  4083. @end example
  4084. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  4085. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  4086. @node Checkboxes
  4087. @section Checkboxes
  4088. @cindex checkboxes
  4089. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  4090. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  4091. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  4092. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  4093. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  4094. (@pxref{TODO items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  4095. in the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  4096. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  4097. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  4098. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  4099. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  4100. @example
  4101. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  4102. - [-] call people [1/3]
  4103. - [ ] Peter
  4104. - [X] Sarah
  4105. - [ ] Sam
  4106. - [X] order food
  4107. - [ ] think about what music to play
  4108. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  4109. @end example
  4110. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  4111. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  4112. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  4113. checked.
  4114. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  4115. @cindex checkbox statistics
  4116. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  4117. @vindex org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics
  4118. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  4119. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  4120. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  4121. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  4122. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  4123. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  4124. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the option
  4125. @code{org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  4126. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  4127. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  4128. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  4129. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  4130. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  4131. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  4132. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  4133. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4134. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  4135. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  4136. @cindex checkbox blocking
  4137. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4138. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  4139. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  4140. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  4141. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  4142. @table @kbd
  4143. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4144. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4145. a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  4146. one@footnote{@kbd{C-u C-c C-c} before the @emph{first} bullet in a list with
  4147. no checkbox will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double
  4148. prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4149. intermediate state.
  4150. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4151. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4152. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4153. intermediate state.
  4154. @itemize @minus
  4155. @item
  4156. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  4157. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  4158. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  4159. @item
  4160. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle the state of the first checkbox in the
  4161. region between this headline and the next---so @emph{not} the entire
  4162. subtree---and propagate this new state to all other checkboxes in the same
  4163. area.
  4164. @item
  4165. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  4166. @end itemize
  4167. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  4168. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  4169. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  4170. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  4171. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  4172. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4173. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  4174. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  4175. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  4176. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  4177. for better visibility, customize @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  4178. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  4179. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  4180. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  4181. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  4182. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  4183. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  4184. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  4185. @end table
  4186. @node Tags
  4187. @chapter Tags
  4188. @cindex tags
  4189. @cindex headline tagging
  4190. @cindex matching, tags
  4191. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  4192. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  4193. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  4194. support for tags.
  4195. @vindex org-tag-faces
  4196. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  4197. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  4198. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  4199. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  4200. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  4201. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the option
  4202. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  4203. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  4204. @menu
  4205. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  4206. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  4207. * Tag hierarchy:: Create a hierarchy of tags
  4208. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  4209. @end menu
  4210. @node Tag inheritance
  4211. @section Tag inheritance
  4212. @cindex tag inheritance
  4213. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  4214. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  4215. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  4216. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  4217. well. For example, in the list
  4218. @example
  4219. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  4220. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  4221. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  4222. @end example
  4223. @noindent
  4224. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  4225. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  4226. explicitly marked with all those tags. You can also set tags that all
  4227. entries in a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in
  4228. a hypothetical level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like
  4229. this@footnote{As with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}
  4230. activates any changes in the line.}:
  4231. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  4232. @example
  4233. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  4234. @end example
  4235. @noindent
  4236. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  4237. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  4238. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, use @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  4239. To turn it off entirely, use @code{org-use-tag-inheritance}.
  4240. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4241. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  4242. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  4243. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  4244. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  4245. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  4246. match in a subtree, configure @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not
  4247. recommended).
  4248. @vindex org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance
  4249. Tag inheritance is relevant when the agenda search tries to match a tag,
  4250. either in the @code{tags} or @code{tags-todo} agenda types. In other agenda
  4251. types, @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} has no effect. Still, you may want to
  4252. have your tags correctly set in the agenda, so that tag filtering works fine,
  4253. with inherited tags. Set @code{org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance} to control
  4254. this: the default value includes all agenda types, but setting this to @code{nil}
  4255. can really speed up agenda generation.
  4256. @node Setting tags
  4257. @section Setting tags
  4258. @cindex setting tags
  4259. @cindex tags, setting
  4260. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  4261. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4262. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4263. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4264. @table @kbd
  4265. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4266. @cindex completion, of tags
  4267. @vindex org-tags-column
  4268. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4269. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4270. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4271. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4272. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4273. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4274. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4275. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4276. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4277. @end table
  4278. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4279. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4280. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4281. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4282. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4283. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4284. @cindex #+TAGS
  4285. @example
  4286. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4287. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4288. @end example
  4289. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4290. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4291. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4292. @example
  4293. #+TAGS:
  4294. @end example
  4295. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4296. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4297. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4298. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4299. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4300. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4301. @example
  4302. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4303. @end example
  4304. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4305. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4306. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4307. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4308. assign unique, case-sensitive, letters to most of your commonly used tags.
  4309. You can do this globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in
  4310. your Emacs init file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items
  4311. in different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4312. like:
  4313. @lisp
  4314. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4315. @end lisp
  4316. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4317. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4318. @example
  4319. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4320. @end example
  4321. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4322. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4323. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4324. @example
  4325. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4326. @end example
  4327. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4328. @example
  4329. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4330. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4331. @end example
  4332. @noindent
  4333. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4334. braces, as in:
  4335. @example
  4336. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4337. @end example
  4338. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4339. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4340. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4341. these lines to activate any changes.
  4342. @noindent
  4343. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tag-alist},
  4344. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4345. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4346. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4347. configuration:
  4348. @lisp
  4349. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4350. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4351. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4352. (:endgroup . nil)
  4353. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4354. @end lisp
  4355. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4356. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4357. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4358. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4359. have no configured keys.}.
  4360. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of tags
  4361. in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually exclusive tags
  4362. will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4363. In this interface, you can also use the following special keys:
  4364. @table @kbd
  4365. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4366. @item @key{TAB}
  4367. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4368. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4369. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4370. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4371. @item @key{SPC}
  4372. Clear all tags for this line.
  4373. @kindex @key{RET}
  4374. @item @key{RET}
  4375. Accept the modified set.
  4376. @item C-g
  4377. Abort without installing changes.
  4378. @item q
  4379. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4380. @item !
  4381. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4382. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4383. @item C-c
  4384. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4385. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4386. selection window.
  4387. @end table
  4388. @noindent
  4389. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4390. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4391. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4392. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4393. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4394. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4395. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4396. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4397. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4398. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4399. modify your list of tags, set @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}.
  4400. Then you no longer have to press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it
  4401. will immediately exit after the first change. If you then occasionally
  4402. need more keys, press @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag
  4403. selection process (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c}
  4404. instead of @kbd{C-c C-c}). If you set the variable to the value
  4405. @code{expert}, the special window is not even shown for single-key tag
  4406. selection, it comes up only when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4407. @node Tag hierarchy
  4408. @section Tag hierarchy
  4409. @cindex group tags
  4410. @cindex tags, groups
  4411. @cindex tag hierarchy
  4412. Tags can be defined in hierarchies. A tag can be defined as a @emph{group
  4413. tag} for a set of other tags. The group tag can be seen as the ``broader
  4414. term'' for its set of tags. Defining multiple @emph{group tags} and nesting
  4415. them creates a tag hierarchy.
  4416. One use-case is to create a taxonomy of terms (tags) that can be used to
  4417. classify nodes in a document or set of documents.
  4418. When you search for a group tag, it will return matches for all members in
  4419. the group and its subgroups. In an agenda view, filtering by a group tag
  4420. will display or hide headlines tagged with at least one of the members of the
  4421. group or any of its subgroups. This makes tag searches and filters even more
  4422. flexible.
  4423. You can set group tags by using brackets and inserting a colon between the
  4424. group tag and its related tags---beware that all whitespaces are mandatory so
  4425. that Org can parse this line correctly:
  4426. @example
  4427. #+TAGS: [ GTD : Control Persp ]
  4428. @end example
  4429. In this example, @samp{GTD} is the @emph{group tag} and it is related to two
  4430. other tags: @samp{Control}, @samp{Persp}. Defining @samp{Control} and
  4431. @samp{Persp} as group tags creates an hierarchy of tags:
  4432. @example
  4433. #+TAGS: [ Control : Context Task ]
  4434. #+TAGS: [ Persp : Vision Goal AOF Project ]
  4435. @end example
  4436. That can conceptually be seen as a hierarchy of tags:
  4437. @example
  4438. - GTD
  4439. - Persp
  4440. - Vision
  4441. - Goal
  4442. - AOF
  4443. - Project
  4444. - Control
  4445. - Context
  4446. - Task
  4447. @end example
  4448. You can use the @code{:startgrouptag}, @code{:grouptags} and
  4449. @code{:endgrouptag} keyword directly when setting @code{org-tag-alist}
  4450. directly:
  4451. @lisp
  4452. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgrouptag)
  4453. ("GTD")
  4454. (:grouptags)
  4455. ("Control")
  4456. ("Persp")
  4457. (:endgrouptag)
  4458. (:startgrouptag)
  4459. ("Control")
  4460. (:grouptags)
  4461. ("Context")
  4462. ("Task")
  4463. (:endgrouptag)))
  4464. @end lisp
  4465. The tags in a group can be mutually exclusive if using the same group syntax
  4466. as is used for grouping mutually exclusive tags together; using curly
  4467. brackets.
  4468. @example
  4469. #+TAGS: @{ Context : @@Home @@Work @@Call @}
  4470. @end example
  4471. When setting @code{org-tag-alist} you can use @code{:startgroup} &
  4472. @code{:endgroup} instead of @code{:startgrouptag} & @code{:endgrouptag} to
  4473. make the tags mutually exclusive.
  4474. Furthermore, the members of a @emph{group tag} can also be regular
  4475. expressions, creating the possibility of a more dynamic and rule-based
  4476. tag structure. The regular expressions in the group must be specified
  4477. within @{ @}. Here is an expanded example:
  4478. @example
  4479. #+TAGS: [ Vision : @{V@@@.+@} ]
  4480. #+TAGS: [ Goal : @{G@@@.+@} ]
  4481. #+TAGS: [ AOF : @{AOF@@@.+@} ]
  4482. #+TAGS: [ Project : @{P@@@.+@} ]
  4483. @end example
  4484. Searching for the tag @samp{Project} will now list all tags also including
  4485. regular expression matches for @samp{P@@@.+}, and similarly for tag searches on
  4486. @samp{Vision}, @samp{Goal} and @samp{AOF}. For example, this would work well
  4487. for a project tagged with a common project-identifier, e.g. @samp{P@@2014_OrgTags}.
  4488. @kindex C-c C-x q
  4489. @vindex org-group-tags
  4490. If you want to ignore group tags temporarily, toggle group tags support
  4491. with @command{org-toggle-tags-groups}, bound to @kbd{C-c C-x q}. If you
  4492. want to disable tag groups completely, set @code{org-group-tags} to @code{nil}.
  4493. @node Tag searches
  4494. @section Tag searches
  4495. @cindex tag searches
  4496. @cindex searching for tags
  4497. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4498. information into special lists.
  4499. @table @kbd
  4500. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4501. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags/property/TODO search.
  4502. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4503. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4504. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4505. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files. @xref{Matching
  4506. tags and properties}.
  4507. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4508. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4509. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4510. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see the option
  4511. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4512. @end table
  4513. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4514. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4515. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4516. tagged as @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search string
  4517. is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels and
  4518. properties. For a complete description with many examples, see @ref{Matching
  4519. tags and properties}.
  4520. @node Properties and columns
  4521. @chapter Properties and columns
  4522. @cindex properties
  4523. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4524. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4525. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4526. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4527. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4528. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4529. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4530. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4531. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4532. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4533. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4534. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4535. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4536. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4537. @menu
  4538. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4539. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4540. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4541. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4542. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4543. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4544. @end menu
  4545. @node Property syntax
  4546. @section Property syntax
  4547. @cindex property syntax
  4548. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4549. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4550. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special drawer
  4551. (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}, which has to be located
  4552. right below a headline, and its planning line (@pxref{Deadlines and
  4553. scheduling}) when applicable. Each property is specified on a single line,
  4554. with the key (surrounded by colons) first, and the value after it. Keys are
  4555. case-insensitive. Here is an example:
  4556. @example
  4557. * CD collection
  4558. ** Classic
  4559. *** Goldberg Variations
  4560. :PROPERTIES:
  4561. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4562. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4563. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4564. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4565. :NDisks: 1
  4566. :END:
  4567. @end example
  4568. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4569. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the subtree
  4570. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4571. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4572. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4573. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4574. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4575. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4576. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4577. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4578. @example
  4579. * CD collection
  4580. :PROPERTIES:
  4581. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4582. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4583. :END:
  4584. @end example
  4585. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4586. file, use a line like
  4587. @cindex property, _ALL
  4588. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4589. @example
  4590. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4591. @end example
  4592. Contrary to properties set from a special drawer, you have to refresh the
  4593. buffer with @kbd{C-c C-c} to activate this change.
  4594. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4595. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4596. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4597. @cindex property, +
  4598. @example
  4599. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4600. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4601. @end example
  4602. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4603. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4604. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4605. @cindex property, +
  4606. @example
  4607. * CD collection
  4608. ** Classic
  4609. :PROPERTIES:
  4610. :GENRES: Classic
  4611. :END:
  4612. *** Goldberg Variations
  4613. :PROPERTIES:
  4614. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4615. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4616. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4617. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4618. :NDisks: 1
  4619. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4620. :END:
  4621. @end example
  4622. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4623. @vindex org-global-properties
  4624. Property values set with the global variable
  4625. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4626. Org files.
  4627. @noindent
  4628. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4629. @table @kbd
  4630. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4631. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4632. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4633. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4634. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4635. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4636. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer RET
  4637. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  4638. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4639. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4640. information like deadlines.
  4641. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4642. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4643. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4644. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4645. can be inserted using completion.
  4646. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4647. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4648. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4649. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4650. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4651. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4652. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4653. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4654. nearest column format definition.
  4655. @end table
  4656. @node Special properties
  4657. @section Special properties
  4658. @cindex properties, special
  4659. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4660. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4661. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in
  4662. a column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The
  4663. following property names are special and should not be used as keys in the
  4664. properties drawer:
  4665. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4666. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4667. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4668. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM_T
  4669. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4670. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4671. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4672. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4673. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4674. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4675. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4676. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4677. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4678. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4679. @example
  4680. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4681. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings.}
  4682. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4683. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4684. CLOCKSUM_T @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree for today.}
  4685. @r{@code{org-clock-sum-today} must be run first to compute the}
  4686. @r{values in the current buffer.}
  4687. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4688. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4689. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4690. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4691. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4692. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4693. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4694. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4695. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4696. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4697. @end example
  4698. @node Property searches
  4699. @section Property searches
  4700. @cindex properties, searching
  4701. @cindex searching, of properties
  4702. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4703. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4704. @table @kbd
  4705. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4706. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4707. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4708. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4709. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4710. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4711. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4712. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4713. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4714. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see the option
  4715. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4716. @end table
  4717. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4718. properties}.
  4719. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4720. single property:
  4721. @table @kbd
  4722. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4723. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4724. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4725. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4726. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4727. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4728. @end table
  4729. @node Property inheritance
  4730. @section Property Inheritance
  4731. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4732. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4733. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4734. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4735. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4736. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4737. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4738. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4739. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4740. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4741. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4742. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4743. inherited properties. If a property has the value @code{nil}, this is
  4744. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4745. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4746. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4747. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4748. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4749. @table @code
  4750. @item COLUMNS
  4751. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4752. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4753. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4754. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4755. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4756. @item CATEGORY
  4757. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4758. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4759. applies to the entire subtree.
  4760. @item ARCHIVE
  4761. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4762. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4763. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4764. @item LOGGING
  4765. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4766. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4767. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4768. @end table
  4769. @node Column view
  4770. @section Column view
  4771. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4772. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4773. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4774. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4775. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4776. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4777. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4778. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4779. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4780. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4781. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4782. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda views}) where
  4783. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4784. @menu
  4785. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4786. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4787. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4788. @end menu
  4789. @node Defining columns
  4790. @subsection Defining columns
  4791. @cindex column view, for properties
  4792. @cindex properties, column view
  4793. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4794. done by defining a column format line.
  4795. @menu
  4796. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4797. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4798. @end menu
  4799. @node Scope of column definitions
  4800. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4801. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4802. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4803. @example
  4804. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4805. @end example
  4806. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4807. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4808. @example
  4809. ** Top node for columns view
  4810. :PROPERTIES:
  4811. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4812. :END:
  4813. @end example
  4814. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4815. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4816. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4817. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4818. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4819. deeper part of the tree.
  4820. @node Column attributes
  4821. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4822. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4823. definition looks like this:
  4824. @example
  4825. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4826. @end example
  4827. @noindent
  4828. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4829. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4830. @example
  4831. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4832. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4833. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4834. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4835. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4836. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4837. @r{name is used.}
  4838. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4839. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children@footnote{If
  4840. more than one summary type apply to the property, the parent
  4841. values are computed according to the first of them.}.}
  4842. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4843. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4844. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4845. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4846. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4847. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4848. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4849. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4850. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4851. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4852. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are
  4853. hours@footnote{A time can also be a duration, using effort
  4854. modifiers defined in @code{org-effort-durations}, e.g.,
  4855. @samp{3d 1h}. If any value in the column is as such, the
  4856. summary will also be an effort duration.}.}
  4857. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4858. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4859. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4860. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age@footnote{An age is defined as
  4861. a duration since a given time-stamp (@pxref{Timestamps}). It
  4862. can also be expressed as days, hours, minutes and seconds,
  4863. identified by @samp{d}, @samp{h}, @samp{m} and @samp{s}
  4864. suffixes, all mandatory, e.g., @samp{0d 13h 0m 10s}.} (in
  4865. days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4866. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4867. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4868. @{est+@} @r{Add @samp{low-high} estimates.}
  4869. @end example
  4870. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4871. combining estimates, expressed as @samp{low-high} ranges or plain numbers.
  4872. For example, instead of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you
  4873. might estimate it as 5--6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much
  4874. work is required, or 1--10 days if you don't really know what needs to be