org.texi 693 KB

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  1. \input texinfo
  2. @c %**start of header
  3. @setfilename ../../info/org
  4. @settitle The Org Manual
  5. @include org-version.inc
  6. @c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
  7. @c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
  8. @set txicodequoteundirected
  9. @set txicodequotebacktick
  10. @c Version and Contact Info
  11. @set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
  12. @set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
  13. @set MAINTAINER Bastien Guerry
  14. @set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{bzg at gnu dot org}
  15. @set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:bzg at gnu dot org,contact the maintainer}
  16. @c %**end of header
  17. @finalout
  18. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  19. @c Macro definitions for commands and keys
  20. @c =======================================
  21. @c The behavior of the key/command macros will depend on the flag cmdnames
  22. @c When set, commands names are shown. When clear, they are not shown.
  23. @set cmdnames
  24. @c Below we define the following macros for Org key tables:
  25. @c orgkey{key} A key item
  26. @c orgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name
  27. @c xorgcmd{key,cmd} Key with command name as @itemx
  28. @c orgcmdnki{key,cmd} Like orgcmd, but do not index the key
  29. @c orgcmdtkc{text,key,cmd} Like orgcmd,special text instead of key
  30. @c orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, use "or"
  31. @c orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,cmd} Two keys with one command name, but
  32. @c different functions, so format as @itemx
  33. @c orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as orgcmdkkc, but use "or short"
  34. @c xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,cmd} Same as previous, but use @itemx
  35. @c orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,cmd1,cmd2} Two keys and two commands
  36. @c a key but no command
  37. @c Inserts: @item key
  38. @macro orgkey{key}
  39. @kindex \key\
  40. @item @kbd{\key\}
  41. @end macro
  42. @macro xorgkey{key}
  43. @kindex \key\
  44. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  45. @end macro
  46. @c one key with a command
  47. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  48. @macro orgcmd{key,command}
  49. @ifset cmdnames
  50. @kindex \key\
  51. @findex \command\
  52. @iftex
  53. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  54. @end iftex
  55. @ifnottex
  56. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  57. @end ifnottex
  58. @end ifset
  59. @ifclear cmdnames
  60. @kindex \key\
  61. @item @kbd{\key\}
  62. @end ifclear
  63. @end macro
  64. @c One key with one command, formatted using @itemx
  65. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY COMMAND
  66. @macro xorgcmd{key,command}
  67. @ifset cmdnames
  68. @kindex \key\
  69. @findex \command\
  70. @iftex
  71. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  72. @end iftex
  73. @ifnottex
  74. @itemx @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  75. @end ifnottex
  76. @end ifset
  77. @ifclear cmdnames
  78. @kindex \key\
  79. @itemx @kbd{\key\}
  80. @end ifclear
  81. @end macro
  82. @c one key with a command, bit do not index the key
  83. @c Inserts: @item KEY COMMAND
  84. @macro orgcmdnki{key,command}
  85. @ifset cmdnames
  86. @findex \command\
  87. @iftex
  88. @item @kbd{\key\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  89. @end iftex
  90. @ifnottex
  91. @item @kbd{\key\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  92. @end ifnottex
  93. @end ifset
  94. @ifclear cmdnames
  95. @item @kbd{\key\}
  96. @end ifclear
  97. @end macro
  98. @c one key with a command, and special text to replace key in item
  99. @c Inserts: @item TEXT COMMAND
  100. @macro orgcmdtkc{text,key,command}
  101. @ifset cmdnames
  102. @kindex \key\
  103. @findex \command\
  104. @iftex
  105. @item @kbd{\text\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  106. @end iftex
  107. @ifnottex
  108. @item @kbd{\text\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  109. @end ifnottex
  110. @end ifset
  111. @ifclear cmdnames
  112. @kindex \key\
  113. @item @kbd{\text\}
  114. @end ifclear
  115. @end macro
  116. @c two keys with one command
  117. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or KEY2 COMMAND
  118. @macro orgcmdkkc{key1,key2,command}
  119. @ifset cmdnames
  120. @kindex \key1\
  121. @kindex \key2\
  122. @findex \command\
  123. @iftex
  124. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  125. @end iftex
  126. @ifnottex
  127. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  128. @end ifnottex
  129. @end ifset
  130. @ifclear cmdnames
  131. @kindex \key1\
  132. @kindex \key2\
  133. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  134. @end ifclear
  135. @end macro
  136. @c Two keys with one command name, but different functions, so format as
  137. @c @itemx
  138. @c Inserts: @item KEY1
  139. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND
  140. @macro orgcmdkxkc{key1,key2,command}
  141. @ifset cmdnames
  142. @kindex \key1\
  143. @kindex \key2\
  144. @findex \command\
  145. @iftex
  146. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  147. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  148. @end iftex
  149. @ifnottex
  150. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  151. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  152. @end ifnottex
  153. @end ifset
  154. @ifclear cmdnames
  155. @kindex \key1\
  156. @kindex \key2\
  157. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  158. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  159. @end ifclear
  160. @end macro
  161. @c Same as previous, but use "or short"
  162. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  163. @macro orgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  164. @ifset cmdnames
  165. @kindex \key1\
  166. @kindex \key2\
  167. @findex \command\
  168. @iftex
  169. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  170. @end iftex
  171. @ifnottex
  172. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  173. @end ifnottex
  174. @end ifset
  175. @ifclear cmdnames
  176. @kindex \key1\
  177. @kindex \key2\
  178. @item @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  179. @end ifclear
  180. @end macro
  181. @c Same as previous, but use @itemx
  182. @c Inserts: @itemx KEY1 or short KEY2 COMMAND
  183. @macro xorgcmdkskc{key1,key2,command}
  184. @ifset cmdnames
  185. @kindex \key1\
  186. @kindex \key2\
  187. @findex \command\
  188. @iftex
  189. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command\}
  190. @end iftex
  191. @ifnottex
  192. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command\})
  193. @end ifnottex
  194. @end ifset
  195. @ifclear cmdnames
  196. @kindex \key1\
  197. @kindex \key2\
  198. @itemx @kbd{\key1\} @ @r{or short} @ @kbd{\key2\}
  199. @end ifclear
  200. @end macro
  201. @c two keys with two commands
  202. @c Inserts: @item KEY1 COMMAND1
  203. @c @itemx KEY2 COMMAND2
  204. @macro orgcmdkkcc{key1,key2,command1,command2}
  205. @ifset cmdnames
  206. @kindex \key1\
  207. @kindex \key2\
  208. @findex \command1\
  209. @findex \command2\
  210. @iftex
  211. @item @kbd{\key1\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command1\}
  212. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @hskip 0pt plus 1filll @code{\command2\}
  213. @end iftex
  214. @ifnottex
  215. @item @kbd{\key1\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command1\})
  216. @itemx @kbd{\key2\} @tie{}@tie{}@tie{}@tie{}(@code{\command2\})
  217. @end ifnottex
  218. @end ifset
  219. @ifclear cmdnames
  220. @kindex \key1\
  221. @kindex \key2\
  222. @item @kbd{\key1\}
  223. @itemx @kbd{\key2\}
  224. @end ifclear
  225. @end macro
  226. @c -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  227. @iftex
  228. @c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
  229. @end iftex
  230. @c Subheadings inside a table.
  231. @macro tsubheading{text}
  232. @ifinfo
  233. @subsubheading \text\
  234. @end ifinfo
  235. @ifnotinfo
  236. @item @b{\text\}
  237. @end ifnotinfo
  238. @end macro
  239. @copying
  240. This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
  241. Copyright @copyright{} 2004--2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  242. @quotation
  243. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  244. under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
  245. any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
  246. Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
  247. and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below. A copy of the license
  248. is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
  249. (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
  250. modify this GNU manual.''
  251. @end quotation
  252. @end copying
  253. @dircategory Emacs editing modes
  254. @direntry
  255. * Org Mode: (org). Outline-based notes management and organizer
  256. @end direntry
  257. @titlepage
  258. @title The Org Manual
  259. @subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
  260. @author by Carsten Dominik
  261. with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, Thomas Dye and Jambunathan K.
  262. @c The following two commands start the copyright page.
  263. @page
  264. @vskip 0pt plus 1filll
  265. @insertcopying
  266. @end titlepage
  267. @c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
  268. @contents
  269. @ifnottex
  270. @c FIXME These hand-written next,prev,up node pointers make editing a lot
  271. @c harder. There should be no need for them, makeinfo can do it
  272. @c automatically for any document with a normal structure.
  273. @node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
  274. @top Org Mode Manual
  275. @insertcopying
  276. @end ifnottex
  277. @menu
  278. * Introduction:: Getting started
  279. * Document Structure:: A tree works like your brain
  280. * Tables:: Pure magic for quick formatting
  281. * Hyperlinks:: Notes in context
  282. * TODO Items:: Every tree branch can be a TODO item
  283. * Tags:: Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
  284. * Properties and Columns:: Storing information about an entry
  285. * Dates and Times:: Making items useful for planning
  286. * Capture - Refile - Archive:: The ins and outs for projects
  287. * Agenda Views:: Collecting information into views
  288. * Markup:: Prepare text for rich export
  289. * Exporting:: Sharing and publishing notes
  290. * Publishing:: Create a web site of linked Org files
  291. * Working With Source Code:: Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
  292. * Miscellaneous:: All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
  293. * Hacking:: How to hack your way around
  294. * MobileOrg:: Viewing and capture on a mobile device
  295. * History and Acknowledgments:: How Org came into being
  296. * GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
  297. * Main Index:: An index of Org's concepts and features
  298. * Key Index:: Key bindings and where they are described
  299. * Command and Function Index:: Command names and some internal functions
  300. * Variable Index:: Variables mentioned in the manual
  301. @detailmenu
  302. --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
  303. Introduction
  304. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  305. * Installation:: Installing Org
  306. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  307. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  308. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  309. Document structure
  310. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  311. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  312. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  313. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  314. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  315. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  316. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  317. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  318. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  319. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  320. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  321. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  322. Visibility cycling
  323. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  324. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  325. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  326. Global and local cycling
  327. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  328. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  329. Tables
  330. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  331. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  332. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  333. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  334. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  335. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  336. The spreadsheet
  337. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  338. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  339. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  340. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  341. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  342. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  343. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  344. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  345. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  346. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  347. Hyperlinks
  348. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  349. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  350. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  351. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  352. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  353. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  354. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  355. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  356. Internal links
  357. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  358. TODO items
  359. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  360. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  361. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  362. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  363. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  364. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  365. Extended use of TODO keywords
  366. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  367. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  368. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  369. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  370. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  371. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  372. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  373. Progress logging
  374. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  375. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  376. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  377. Tags
  378. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  379. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  380. * Tag groups:: Use one tag to search for several tags
  381. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  382. Properties and columns
  383. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  384. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  385. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  386. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  387. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  388. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  389. Column view
  390. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  391. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  392. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  393. Defining columns
  394. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  395. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  396. Dates and times
  397. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  398. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  399. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  400. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  401. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  402. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  403. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  404. Creating timestamps
  405. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  406. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  407. Deadlines and scheduling
  408. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  409. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  410. Clocking work time
  411. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  412. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  413. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  414. Capture - Refile - Archive
  415. * Capture:: Capturing new stuff
  416. * Attachments:: Add files to tasks
  417. * RSS Feeds:: Getting input from RSS feeds
  418. * Protocols:: External (e.g., Browser) access to Emacs and Org
  419. * Refile and copy:: Moving/copying a tree from one place to another
  420. * Archiving:: What to do with finished projects
  421. Capture
  422. * Setting up capture:: Where notes will be stored
  423. * Using capture:: Commands to invoke and terminate capture
  424. * Capture templates:: Define the outline of different note types
  425. Capture templates
  426. * Template elements:: What is needed for a complete template entry
  427. * Template expansion:: Filling in information about time and context
  428. * Templates in contexts:: Only show a template in a specific context
  429. Archiving
  430. * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file
  431. * Internal archiving:: Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
  432. Agenda views
  433. * Agenda files:: Files being searched for agenda information
  434. * Agenda dispatcher:: Keyboard access to agenda views
  435. * Built-in agenda views:: What is available out of the box?
  436. * Presentation and sorting:: How agenda items are prepared for display
  437. * Agenda commands:: Remote editing of Org trees
  438. * Custom agenda views:: Defining special searches and views
  439. * Exporting Agenda Views:: Writing a view to a file
  440. * Agenda column view:: Using column view for collected entries
  441. The built-in agenda views
  442. * Weekly/daily agenda:: The calendar page with current tasks
  443. * Global TODO list:: All unfinished action items
  444. * Matching tags and properties:: Structured information with fine-tuned search
  445. * Timeline:: Time-sorted view for single file
  446. * Search view:: Find entries by searching for text
  447. * Stuck projects:: Find projects you need to review
  448. Presentation and sorting
  449. * Categories:: Not all tasks are equal
  450. * Time-of-day specifications:: How the agenda knows the time
  451. * Sorting of agenda items:: The order of things
  452. Custom agenda views
  453. * Storing searches:: Type once, use often
  454. * Block agenda:: All the stuff you need in a single buffer
  455. * Setting Options:: Changing the rules
  456. Markup for rich export
  457. * Structural markup elements:: The basic structure as seen by the exporter
  458. * Images and tables:: Tables and Images will be included
  459. * Literal examples:: Source code examples with special formatting
  460. * Include files:: Include additional files into a document
  461. * Index entries:: Making an index
  462. * Macro replacement:: Use macros to create complex output
  463. * Embedded @LaTeX{}:: LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
  464. Structural markup elements
  465. * Document title:: Where the title is taken from
  466. * Headings and sections:: The document structure as seen by the exporter
  467. * Table of contents:: The if and where of the table of contents
  468. * Lists:: Lists
  469. * Paragraphs:: Paragraphs
  470. * Footnote markup:: Footnotes
  471. * Emphasis and monospace:: Bold, italic, etc.
  472. * Horizontal rules:: Make a line
  473. * Comment lines:: What will *not* be exported
  474. Embedded @LaTeX{}
  475. * Special symbols:: Greek letters and other symbols
  476. * Subscripts and superscripts:: Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
  477. * @LaTeX{} fragments:: Complex formulas made easy
  478. * Previewing @LaTeX{} fragments:: What will this snippet look like?
  479. * CDLaTeX mode:: Speed up entering of formulas
  480. Exporting
  481. * Selective export:: Using tags to select and exclude trees
  482. * Export options:: Per-file export settings
  483. * The export dispatcher:: How to access exporter commands
  484. * ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export:: Exporting to flat files with encoding
  485. * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML
  486. * @LaTeX{} and PDF export:: Exporting to @LaTeX{}, and processing to PDF
  487. * OpenDocument Text export:: Exporting to OpenDocument Text
  488. * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format
  489. HTML export
  490. * HTML Export commands:: How to invoke HTML export
  491. * HTML preamble and postamble:: How to insert a preamble and a postamble
  492. * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org mode
  493. * Links in HTML export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  494. * Tables in HTML export:: How to modify the formatting of tables
  495. * Images in HTML export:: How to insert figures into HTML output
  496. * Math formatting in HTML export:: Beautiful math also on the web
  497. * Text areas in HTML export:: An alternative way to show an example
  498. * CSS support:: Changing the appearance of the output
  499. * JavaScript support:: Info and Folding in a web browser
  500. @LaTeX{} and PDF export
  501. * @LaTeX{}/PDF export commands::
  502. * Header and sectioning:: Setting up the export file structure
  503. * Quoting @LaTeX{} code:: Incorporating literal @LaTeX{} code
  504. * Tables in @LaTeX{} export:: Options for exporting tables to @LaTeX{}
  505. * Images in @LaTeX{} export:: How to insert figures into @LaTeX{} output
  506. * Beamer class export:: Turning the file into a presentation
  507. OpenDocument Text export
  508. * Pre-requisites for ODT export:: What packages ODT exporter relies on
  509. * ODT export commands:: How to invoke ODT export
  510. * Extending ODT export:: How to produce @samp{doc}, @samp{pdf} files
  511. * Applying custom styles:: How to apply custom styles to the output
  512. * Links in ODT export:: How links will be interpreted and formatted
  513. * Tables in ODT export:: How Tables are exported
  514. * Images in ODT export:: How to insert images
  515. * Math formatting in ODT export:: How @LaTeX{} fragments are formatted
  516. * Labels and captions in ODT export:: How captions are rendered
  517. * Literal examples in ODT export:: How source and example blocks are formatted
  518. * Advanced topics in ODT export:: Read this if you are a power user
  519. Math formatting in ODT export
  520. * Working with @LaTeX{} math snippets:: How to embed @LaTeX{} math fragments
  521. * Working with MathML or OpenDocument formula files:: How to embed equations in native format
  522. Advanced topics in ODT export
  523. * Configuring a document converter:: How to register a document converter
  524. * Working with OpenDocument style files:: Explore the internals
  525. * Creating one-off styles:: How to produce custom highlighting etc
  526. * Customizing tables in ODT export:: How to define and use Table templates
  527. * Validating OpenDocument XML:: How to debug corrupt OpenDocument files
  528. Publishing
  529. * Configuration:: Defining projects
  530. * Uploading files:: How to get files up on the server
  531. * Sample configuration:: Example projects
  532. * Triggering publication:: Publication commands
  533. Configuration
  534. * Project alist:: The central configuration variable
  535. * Sources and destinations:: From here to there
  536. * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project?
  537. * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing
  538. * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML/@LaTeX{} export
  539. * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing?
  540. * Sitemap:: Generating a list of all pages
  541. * Generating an index:: An index that reaches across pages
  542. Sample configuration
  543. * Simple example:: One-component publishing
  544. * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example
  545. Working with source code
  546. * Structure of code blocks:: Code block syntax described
  547. * Editing source code:: Language major-mode editing
  548. * Exporting code blocks:: Export contents and/or results
  549. * Extracting source code:: Create pure source code files
  550. * Evaluating code blocks:: Place results of evaluation in the Org mode buffer
  551. * Library of Babel:: Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
  552. * Languages:: List of supported code block languages
  553. * Header arguments:: Configure code block functionality
  554. * Results of evaluation:: How evaluation results are handled
  555. * Noweb reference syntax:: Literate programming in Org mode
  556. * Key bindings and useful functions:: Work quickly with code blocks
  557. * Batch execution:: Call functions from the command line
  558. Header arguments
  559. * Using header arguments:: Different ways to set header arguments
  560. * Specific header arguments:: List of header arguments
  561. Using header arguments
  562. * System-wide header arguments:: Set global default values
  563. * Language-specific header arguments:: Set default values by language
  564. * Buffer-wide header arguments:: Set default values for a specific buffer
  565. * Header arguments in Org mode properties:: Set default values for a buffer or heading
  566. * Code block specific header arguments:: The most common way to set values
  567. * Header arguments in function calls:: The most specific level
  568. Specific header arguments
  569. * var:: Pass arguments to code blocks
  570. * results:: Specify the type of results and how they will
  571. be collected and handled
  572. * file:: Specify a path for file output
  573. * file-desc:: Specify a description for file results
  574. * dir:: Specify the default (possibly remote)
  575. directory for code block execution
  576. * exports:: Export code and/or results
  577. * tangle:: Toggle tangling and specify file name
  578. * mkdirp:: Toggle creation of parent directories of target
  579. files during tangling
  580. * comments:: Toggle insertion of comments in tangled
  581. code files
  582. * padline:: Control insertion of padding lines in tangled
  583. code files
  584. * no-expand:: Turn off variable assignment and noweb
  585. expansion during tangling
  586. * session:: Preserve the state of code evaluation
  587. * noweb:: Toggle expansion of noweb references
  588. * noweb-ref:: Specify block's noweb reference resolution target
  589. * noweb-sep:: String used to separate noweb references
  590. * cache:: Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
  591. * sep:: Delimiter for writing tabular results outside Org
  592. * hlines:: Handle horizontal lines in tables
  593. * colnames:: Handle column names in tables
  594. * rownames:: Handle row names in tables
  595. * shebang:: Make tangled files executable
  596. * eval:: Limit evaluation of specific code blocks
  597. * wrap:: Mark source block evaluation results
  598. Miscellaneous
  599. * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need
  600. * Easy Templates:: Quick insertion of structural elements
  601. * Speed keys:: Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
  602. * Code evaluation security:: Org mode files evaluate inline code
  603. * Customization:: Adapting Org to your taste
  604. * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
  605. * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c
  606. * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
  607. * TTY keys:: Using Org on a tty
  608. * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages
  609. * org-crypt.el:: Encrypting Org files
  610. Interaction with other packages
  611. * Cooperation:: Packages Org cooperates with
  612. * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts
  613. Hacking
  614. * Hooks:: How to reach into Org's internals
  615. * Add-on packages:: Available extensions
  616. * Adding hyperlink types:: New custom link types
  617. * Context-sensitive commands:: How to add functionality to such commands
  618. * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for @LaTeX{} and other programs
  619. * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks
  620. * Special agenda views:: Customized views
  621. * Speeding up your agendas:: Tips on how to speed up your agendas
  622. * Extracting agenda information:: Postprocessing of agenda information
  623. * Using the property API:: Writing programs that use entry properties
  624. * Using the mapping API:: Mapping over all or selected entries
  625. Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
  626. * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving radio tables
  627. * A @LaTeX{} example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial
  628. * Translator functions:: Copy and modify
  629. * Radio lists:: Doing the same for lists
  630. MobileOrg
  631. * Setting up the staging area:: Where to interact with the mobile device
  632. * Pushing to MobileOrg:: Uploading Org files and agendas
  633. * Pulling from MobileOrg:: Integrating captured and flagged items
  634. @end detailmenu
  635. @end menu
  636. @node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
  637. @chapter Introduction
  638. @cindex introduction
  639. @menu
  640. * Summary:: Brief summary of what Org does
  641. * Installation:: Installing Org
  642. * Activation:: How to activate Org for certain buffers
  643. * Feedback:: Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
  644. * Conventions:: Typesetting conventions in the manual
  645. @end menu
  646. @node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
  647. @section Summary
  648. @cindex summary
  649. Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
  650. project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
  651. Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
  652. lists or information about projects as plain text. Org is
  653. implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
  654. content of large files well structured. Visibility cycling and
  655. structure editing help to work with the tree. Tables are easily created
  656. with a built-in table editor. Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
  657. timestamps, and scheduling. It dynamically compiles entries into an
  658. agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
  659. and diary. Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
  660. Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
  661. For printing and sharing notes, an Org file can be exported as a
  662. structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
  663. iCalendar file. It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
  664. linked web pages.
  665. As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
  666. nodes. Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
  667. create dynamic @i{agenda views}.
  668. Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows you to work with
  669. embedded source code blocks in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
  670. documentation, and literate programming techniques.
  671. Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
  672. capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
  673. minor Orgtbl mode. Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
  674. tables in arbitrary file types, for example in @LaTeX{}. The structure
  675. editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
  676. the minor Orgstruct mode.
  677. Org keeps simple things simple. When first fired up, it should
  678. feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner. Complexity is not
  679. imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
  680. it. Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
  681. ends, for example:
  682. @example
  683. @r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
  684. @r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
  685. @r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
  686. @r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
  687. @pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
  688. @r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
  689. @r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and @LaTeX{} export}
  690. @r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
  691. @r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
  692. @end example
  693. @cindex FAQ
  694. There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
  695. version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
  696. questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc. This page is located at
  697. @uref{http://orgmode.org}.
  698. @cindex print edition
  699. The version 7.3 of this manual is available as a
  700. @uref{http://www.network-theory.co.uk/org/manual/, paperback book from Network
  701. Theory Ltd.}
  702. @page
  703. @node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
  704. @section Installation
  705. @cindex installation
  706. @cindex XEmacs
  707. Org is part of recent distributions of GNU Emacs, so you normally don't need
  708. to install it. If, for one reason or another, you want to install Org on top
  709. of this pre-packaged version, there are three ways to do it:
  710. @itemize @bullet
  711. @item By using Emacs package system.
  712. @item By downloading Org as an archive.
  713. @item By using Org's git repository.
  714. @end itemize
  715. We @b{strongly recommend} to stick to a single installation method.
  716. @subsubheading Using Emacs packaging system
  717. Recent Emacs distributions include a packaging system which lets you install
  718. Elisp libraries. You can install Org with @kbd{M-x package-install RET org}.
  719. You need to do this in a session where no @code{.org} file has been visited.
  720. Then, to make sure your Org configuration is taken into account, initialize
  721. the package system with @code{(package-initialize)} in your @file{.emacs}
  722. before setting any Org option. If you want to use Org's package repository,
  723. check out the @uref{http://orgmode.org/elpa.html, Org ELPA page}.
  724. @subsubheading Downloading Org as an archive
  725. You can download Org latest release from @uref{http://orgmode.org/, Org's
  726. website}. In this case, make sure you set the load-path correctly in your
  727. @file{.emacs}:
  728. @example
  729. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp")
  730. @end example
  731. The downloaded archive contains contributed libraries that are not included
  732. in Emacs. If you want to use them, add the @file{contrib} directory to your
  733. load-path:
  734. @example
  735. (add-to-list 'load-path "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" t)
  736. @end example
  737. Optionally, you can compile the files and/or install them in your system.
  738. Run @code{make help} to list compilation and installation options.
  739. @subsubheading Using Org's git repository
  740. You can clone Org's repository and install Org like this:
  741. @example
  742. $ cd ~/src/
  743. $ git clone git://orgmode.org/org-mode.git
  744. $ make autoloads
  745. @end example
  746. Note that in this case, @code{make autoloads} is mandatory: it defines Org's
  747. version in @file{org-version.el} and Org's autoloads in
  748. @file{org-loaddefs.el}.
  749. Remember to add the correct load-path as described in the method above.
  750. You can also compile with @code{make}, generate the documentation with
  751. @code{make doc}, create a local configuration with @code{make config} and
  752. install Org with @code{make install}. Please run @code{make help} to get
  753. the list of compilation/installation options.
  754. For more detailed explanations on Org's build system, please check the Org
  755. Build System page on @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-build-system.html,
  756. Worg}.
  757. @node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
  758. @section Activation
  759. @cindex activation
  760. @cindex autoload
  761. @cindex ELPA
  762. @cindex global key bindings
  763. @cindex key bindings, global
  764. @findex org-agenda
  765. @findex org-capture
  766. @findex org-store-link
  767. @findex org-iswitchb
  768. Since Emacs 22.2, files with the @file{.org} extension use Org mode by
  769. default. If you are using an earlier version of Emacs, add this line to your
  770. @file{.emacs} file:
  771. @lisp
  772. (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
  773. @end lisp
  774. Org mode buffers need font-lock to be turned on: this is the default in
  775. Emacs@footnote{If you don't use font-lock globally, turn it on in Org buffer
  776. with @code{(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)}}.
  777. There are compatibility issues between Org mode and some other Elisp
  778. packages, please take the time to check the list (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  779. The four Org commands @command{org-store-link}, @command{org-capture},
  780. @command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} should be accessible through
  781. global keys (i.e., anywhere in Emacs, not just in Org buffers). Here are
  782. suggested bindings for these keys, please modify the keys to your own
  783. liking.
  784. @lisp
  785. (global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
  786. (global-set-key "\C-cc" 'org-capture)
  787. (global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
  788. (global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
  789. @end lisp
  790. @cindex Org mode, turning on
  791. With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
  792. into Org mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
  793. like this:
  794. @example
  795. MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*-
  796. @end example
  797. @vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
  798. @noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
  799. the file's name is. See also the variable
  800. @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.
  801. Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}. To make
  802. use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
  803. (@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on. In Emacs 23 this is the default,
  804. in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
  805. @lisp
  806. (transient-mark-mode 1)
  807. @end lisp
  808. @noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
  809. active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
  810. @kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
  811. @node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
  812. @section Feedback
  813. @cindex feedback
  814. @cindex bug reports
  815. @cindex maintainer
  816. @cindex author
  817. If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
  818. about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
  819. If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
  820. list after a moderator has approved it@footnote{Please consider subscribing
  821. to the mailing list, in order to minimize the work the mailing list
  822. moderators have to do.}.
  823. For bug reports, please first try to reproduce the bug with the latest
  824. version of Org available---if you are running an outdated version, it is
  825. quite possible that the bug has been fixed already. If the bug persists,
  826. prepare a report and provide as much information as possible, including the
  827. version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
  828. (@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
  829. @file{.emacs}. The easiest way to do this is to use the command
  830. @example
  831. @kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
  832. @end example
  833. @noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
  834. that you only need to add your description. If you re not sending the Email
  835. from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.
  836. Sometimes you might face a problem due to an error in your Emacs or Org mode
  837. setup. Before reporting a bug, it is very helpful to start Emacs with minimal
  838. customizations and reproduce the problem. Doing so often helps you determine
  839. if the problem is with your customization or with Org mode itself. You can
  840. start a typical minimal session with a command like the example below.
  841. @example
  842. $ emacs -Q -l /path/to/minimal-org.el
  843. @end example
  844. However if you are using Org mode as distributed with Emacs, a minimal setup
  845. is not necessary. In that case it is sufficient to start Emacs as
  846. @code{emacs -Q}. The @code{minimal-org.el} setup file can have contents as
  847. shown below.
  848. @example
  849. ;;; Minimal setup to load latest `org-mode'
  850. ;; activate debugging
  851. (setq debug-on-error t
  852. debug-on-signal nil
  853. debug-on-quit nil)
  854. ;; add latest org-mode to load path
  855. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/lisp"))
  856. (add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "/path/to/org-mode/contrib/lisp" t))
  857. @end example
  858. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
  859. create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
  860. about:
  861. @enumerate
  862. @item What exactly did you do?
  863. @item What did you expect to happen?
  864. @item What happened instead?
  865. @end enumerate
  866. @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this program.
  867. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace
  868. @cindex backtrace of an error
  869. If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
  870. understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by
  871. providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
  872. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
  873. error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:
  874. @enumerate
  875. @item
  876. Reload uncompiled versions of all Org mode Lisp files. The backtrace
  877. contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
  878. To do this, use
  879. @example
  880. C-u M-x org-reload RET
  881. @end example
  882. @noindent
  883. or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
  884. menu.
  885. @item
  886. Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
  887. (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
  888. @item
  889. Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to
  890. document the steps you take.
  891. @item
  892. When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
  893. screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
  894. attach it to your bug report.
  895. @end enumerate
  896. @node Conventions, , Feedback, Introduction
  897. @section Typesetting conventions used in this manual
  898. @subsubheading TODO keywords, tags, properties, etc.
  899. Org mainly uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags and property
  900. names. In this manual we use the following conventions:
  901. @table @code
  902. @item TODO
  903. @itemx WAITING
  904. TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
  905. user-defined.
  906. @item boss
  907. @itemx ARCHIVE
  908. User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
  909. meaning are written with all capitals.
  910. @item Release
  911. @itemx PRIORITY
  912. User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
  913. special meaning are written with all capitals.
  914. @end table
  915. Moreover, Org uses @i{option keywords} (like @code{#+TITLE} to set the title)
  916. and @i{environment keywords} (like @code{#+BEGIN_HTML} to start a @code{HTML}
  917. environment). They are written in uppercase in the manual to enhance its
  918. readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org files@footnote{Easy
  919. templates insert lowercase keywords and Babel dynamically inserts
  920. @code{#+results}.}
  921. @subsubheading Keybindings and commands
  922. @kindex C-c a
  923. @findex org-agenda
  924. @kindex C-c c
  925. @findex org-capture
  926. The manual suggests two global keybindings: @kbd{C-c a} for @code{org-agenda}
  927. and @kbd{C-c c} for @code{org-capture}. These are only suggestions, but the
  928. rest of the manual assumes that you are using these keybindings.
  929. Also, the manual lists both the keys and the corresponding commands for
  930. accessing a functionality. Org mode often uses the same key for different
  931. functions, depending on context. The command that is bound to such keys has
  932. a generic name, like @code{org-metaright}. In the manual we will, wherever
  933. possible, give the function that is internally called by the generic command.
  934. For example, in the chapter on document structure, @kbd{M-@key{right}} will
  935. be listed to call @code{org-do-demote}, while in the chapter on tables, it
  936. will be listed to call @code{org-table-move-column-right}. If you prefer,
  937. you can compile the manual without the command names by unsetting the flag
  938. @code{cmdnames} in @file{org.texi}.
  939. @node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
  940. @chapter Document structure
  941. @cindex document structure
  942. @cindex structure of document
  943. Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
  944. edit the structure of the document.
  945. @menu
  946. * Outlines:: Org is based on Outline mode
  947. * Headlines:: How to typeset Org tree headlines
  948. * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified
  949. * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines
  950. * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines
  951. * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context
  952. * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry
  953. * Drawers:: Tucking stuff away
  954. * Blocks:: Folding blocks
  955. * Footnotes:: How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
  956. * Orgstruct mode:: Structure editing outside Org
  957. * Org syntax:: Formal description of Org's syntax
  958. @end menu
  959. @node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
  960. @section Outlines
  961. @cindex outlines
  962. @cindex Outline mode
  963. Org is implemented on top of Outline mode. Outlines allow a
  964. document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
  965. for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. An overview
  966. of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
  967. document to show only the general document structure and the parts
  968. currently being worked on. Org greatly simplifies the use of
  969. outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
  970. command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
  971. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
  972. @section Headlines
  973. @cindex headlines
  974. @cindex outline tree
  975. @vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
  976. @vindex org-special-ctrl-k
  977. @vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
  978. Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org
  979. start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
  980. @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
  981. @code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
  982. @kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.} @footnote{Clocking only works with
  983. headings indented less then 30 stars.}. For example:
  984. @example
  985. * Top level headline
  986. ** Second level
  987. *** 3rd level
  988. some text
  989. *** 3rd level
  990. more text
  991. * Another top level headline
  992. @end example
  993. @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
  994. outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
  995. starters. @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
  996. @vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
  997. An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
  998. will be hidden when the subtree is folded. However, if you leave at
  999. least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
  1000. the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view. See the
  1001. variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.
  1002. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
  1003. @section Visibility cycling
  1004. @cindex cycling, visibility
  1005. @cindex visibility cycling
  1006. @cindex trees, visibility
  1007. @cindex show hidden text
  1008. @cindex hide text
  1009. @menu
  1010. * Global and local cycling:: Cycling through various visibility states
  1011. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  1012. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  1013. @end menu
  1014. @node Global and local cycling, Initial visibility, Visibility cycling, Visibility cycling
  1015. @subsection Global and local cycling
  1016. Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
  1017. Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
  1018. @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.
  1019. @cindex subtree visibility states
  1020. @cindex subtree cycling
  1021. @cindex folded, subtree visibility state
  1022. @cindex children, subtree visibility state
  1023. @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
  1024. @table @asis
  1025. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1026. @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states
  1027. @example
  1028. ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
  1029. '-----------------------------------'
  1030. @end example
  1031. @vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
  1032. @vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
  1033. The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
  1034. the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the
  1035. beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
  1036. @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
  1037. option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix
  1038. argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.
  1039. @cindex global visibility states
  1040. @cindex global cycling
  1041. @cindex overview, global visibility state
  1042. @cindex contents, global visibility state
  1043. @cindex show all, global visibility state
  1044. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-global-cycle}
  1045. @itemx C-u @key{TAB}
  1046. @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states
  1047. @example
  1048. ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
  1049. '--------------------------------------'
  1050. @end example
  1051. When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
  1052. CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside
  1053. tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
  1054. @cindex show all, command
  1055. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB},show-all}
  1056. Show all, including drawers.
  1057. @cindex revealing context
  1058. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-reveal}
  1059. Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
  1060. and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location that has been
  1061. exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
  1062. (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With a prefix argument show, on each
  1063. level, all sibling headings. With a double prefix argument, also show the
  1064. entire subtree of the parent.
  1065. @cindex show branches, command
  1066. @orgcmd{C-c C-k,show-branches}
  1067. Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
  1068. @cindex show children, command
  1069. @orgcmd{C-c @key{TAB},show-children}
  1070. Expose all direct children of the subtree. With a numeric prefix argument N,
  1071. expose all children down to level N@.
  1072. @orgcmd{C-c C-x b,org-tree-to-indirect-buffer}
  1073. Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
  1074. buffer
  1075. @ifinfo
  1076. (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
  1077. @end ifinfo
  1078. @ifnotinfo
  1079. (see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
  1080. @end ifnotinfo
  1081. will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
  1082. tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
  1083. but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With a numeric
  1084. prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree. If N is
  1085. negative then go up that many levels. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
  1086. the previously used indirect buffer.
  1087. @orgcmd{C-c C-x v,org-copy-visible}
  1088. Copy the @i{visible} text in the region into the kill ring.
  1089. @end table
  1090. @menu
  1091. * Initial visibility:: Setting the initial visibility state
  1092. * Catching invisible edits:: Preventing mistakes when editing invisible parts
  1093. @end menu
  1094. @node Initial visibility, Catching invisible edits, Global and local cycling, Visibility cycling
  1095. @subsection Initial visibility
  1096. @cindex visibility, initialize
  1097. @vindex org-startup-folded
  1098. @vindex org-agenda-inhibit-startup
  1099. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
  1100. @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
  1101. @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
  1102. @cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
  1103. When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to OVERVIEW,
  1104. i.e., only the top level headlines are visible@footnote{When
  1105. @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} is non-nil, Org will not honor the default
  1106. visibility state when first opening a file for the agenda (@pxref{Speeding up
  1107. your agendas}).} This can be configured through the variable
  1108. @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a per-file basis by adding one of the
  1109. following lines anywhere in the buffer:
  1110. @example
  1111. #+STARTUP: overview
  1112. #+STARTUP: content
  1113. #+STARTUP: showall
  1114. #+STARTUP: showeverything
  1115. @end example
  1116. The startup visibility options are ignored when the file is open for the
  1117. first time during the agenda generation: if you want the agenda to honor
  1118. the startup visibility, set @code{org-agenda-inhibit-startup} to nil.
  1119. @cindex property, VISIBILITY
  1120. @noindent
  1121. Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
  1122. and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly. Allowed values
  1123. for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
  1124. @code{all}.
  1125. @table @asis
  1126. @orgcmd{C-u C-u @key{TAB},org-set-startup-visibility}
  1127. Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e., whatever is
  1128. requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
  1129. entries.
  1130. @end table
  1131. @node Catching invisible edits, , Initial visibility, Visibility cycling
  1132. @subsection Catching invisible edits
  1133. @vindex org-catch-invisible-edits
  1134. @cindex edits, catching invisible
  1135. Sometimes you may inadvertantly edit an invisible part of the buffer and be
  1136. confused on what as been edited and how to undo the mistake. Setting
  1137. @code{org-catch-invisible-edits} to non-nil will help prevent this. See the
  1138. docstring of this option on how Org should catch invisible edits and process
  1139. them.
  1140. @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
  1141. @section Motion
  1142. @cindex motion, between headlines
  1143. @cindex jumping, to headlines
  1144. @cindex headline navigation
  1145. The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.
  1146. @table @asis
  1147. @orgcmd{C-c C-n,outline-next-visible-heading}
  1148. Next heading.
  1149. @orgcmd{C-c C-p,outline-previous-visible-heading}
  1150. Previous heading.
  1151. @orgcmd{C-c C-f,org-forward-same-level}
  1152. Next heading same level.
  1153. @orgcmd{C-c C-b,org-backward-same-level}
  1154. Previous heading same level.
  1155. @orgcmd{C-c C-u,outline-up-heading}
  1156. Backward to higher level heading.
  1157. @orgcmd{C-c C-j,org-goto}
  1158. Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
  1159. visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
  1160. you can use the following keys to find your destination:
  1161. @vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
  1162. @example
  1163. @key{TAB} @r{Cycle visibility.}
  1164. @key{down} / @key{up} @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1165. @key{RET} @r{Select this location.}
  1166. @kbd{/} @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
  1167. @r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
  1168. n / p @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
  1169. f / b @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
  1170. u @r{One level up.}
  1171. 0-9 @r{Digit argument.}
  1172. q @r{Quit}
  1173. @end example
  1174. @vindex org-goto-interface
  1175. @noindent
  1176. See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
  1177. @end table
  1178. @node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
  1179. @section Structure editing
  1180. @cindex structure editing
  1181. @cindex headline, promotion and demotion
  1182. @cindex promotion, of subtrees
  1183. @cindex demotion, of subtrees
  1184. @cindex subtree, cut and paste
  1185. @cindex pasting, of subtrees
  1186. @cindex cutting, of subtrees
  1187. @cindex copying, of subtrees
  1188. @cindex sorting, of subtrees
  1189. @cindex subtrees, cut and paste
  1190. @table @asis
  1191. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1192. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1193. Insert a new heading/item with the same level than the one at point.
  1194. If the cursor is in a plain list item, a new item is created
  1195. (@pxref{Plain lists}). To prevent this behavior in lists, call the
  1196. command with a prefix argument. When this command is used in the
  1197. middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes
  1198. the new item or headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be
  1199. split, customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If
  1200. the command is used at the @emph{beginning} of a headline, the new
  1201. headline is created before the current line. If the command is used
  1202. at the @emph{end} of a folded subtree (i.e., behind the ellipses at
  1203. the end of a headline), then a headline like the current one will be
  1204. inserted after the end of the subtree. Calling this command with
  1205. @kbd{C-u C-u} will inconditionnally respect the headline's content and
  1206. create a new item at the end of the parent subtree.
  1207. @orgcmd{C-@key{RET},org-insert-heading-respect-content}
  1208. Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
  1209. current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
  1210. it. This command works from anywhere in the entry.
  1211. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  1212. @vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
  1213. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. See also the
  1214. variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
  1215. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading-respect-content}
  1216. Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. Like
  1217. @kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
  1218. subtree.
  1219. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1220. In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
  1221. become a child of the previous one. The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
  1222. and so on, all the way to top level. Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
  1223. to the initial level.
  1224. @orgcmd{M-@key{left},org-do-promote}
  1225. Promote current heading by one level.
  1226. @orgcmd{M-@key{right},org-do-demote}
  1227. Demote current heading by one level.
  1228. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-promote-subtree}
  1229. Promote the current subtree by one level.
  1230. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-demote-subtree}
  1231. Demote the current subtree by one level.
  1232. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-move-subtree-up}
  1233. Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
  1234. level).
  1235. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-move-subtree-down}
  1236. Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
  1237. @orgcmd{M-h,org-mark-element}
  1238. Mark the element at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent elements
  1239. of the one just marked. E.g., hitting @key{M-h} on a paragraph will mark it,
  1240. hitting @key{M-h} immediately again will mark the next one.
  1241. @orgcmd{C-c @@,org-mark-subtree}
  1242. Mark the subtree at point. Hitting repeatedly will mark subsequent subtrees
  1243. of the same level than the marked subtree.
  1244. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-cut-subtree}
  1245. Kill subtree, i.e., remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
  1246. With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
  1247. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-copy-subtree}
  1248. Copy subtree to kill ring. With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
  1249. sequential subtrees.
  1250. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-paste-subtree}
  1251. Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to
  1252. make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can
  1253. also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
  1254. headline marker like @samp{****}.
  1255. @orgcmd{C-y,org-yank}
  1256. @vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
  1257. @vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
  1258. Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
  1259. @code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
  1260. paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
  1261. C-x C-y}. With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
  1262. but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
  1263. previously visible. Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
  1264. @code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along. A good way to
  1265. force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}. If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
  1266. yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
  1267. folding.
  1268. @orgcmd{C-c C-x c,org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}
  1269. Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it. You will be
  1270. prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
  1271. timestamps in the entry should be shifted. This can be useful, for example,
  1272. to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare. For
  1273. more details, see the docstring of the command
  1274. @code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
  1275. @orgcmd{C-c C-w,org-refile}
  1276. Refile entry or region to a different location. @xref{Refile and copy}.
  1277. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-sort}
  1278. Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the
  1279. region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are
  1280. sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
  1281. alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
  1282. creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
  1283. (in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
  1284. of a property. Reverse sorting is possible as well. You can also supply
  1285. your own function to extract the sorting key. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
  1286. sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1287. @orgcmd{C-x n s,org-narrow-to-subtree}
  1288. Narrow buffer to current subtree.
  1289. @orgcmd{C-x n b,org-narrow-to-block}
  1290. Narrow buffer to current block.
  1291. @orgcmd{C-x n w,widen}
  1292. Widen buffer to remove narrowing.
  1293. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-toggle-heading}
  1294. Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a
  1295. subheading at its location). Also turn a headline into a normal line by
  1296. removing the stars. If there is an active region, turn all lines in the
  1297. region into headlines. If the first line in the region was an item, turn
  1298. only the item lines into headlines. Finally, if the first line is a
  1299. headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
  1300. @end table
  1301. @cindex region, active
  1302. @cindex active region
  1303. @cindex transient mark mode
  1304. When there is an active region (Transient Mark mode), promotion and
  1305. demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of
  1306. headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
  1307. line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
  1308. just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is
  1309. inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
  1310. functionality.
  1311. @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Structure editing, Document Structure
  1312. @section Sparse trees
  1313. @cindex sparse trees
  1314. @cindex trees, sparse
  1315. @cindex folding, sparse trees
  1316. @cindex occur, command
  1317. @vindex org-show-hierarchy-above
  1318. @vindex org-show-following-heading
  1319. @vindex org-show-siblings
  1320. @vindex org-show-entry-below
  1321. An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse
  1322. trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that the entire
  1323. document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made
  1324. visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the
  1325. variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading},
  1326. @code{org-show-siblings}, and @code{org-show-entry-below} for detailed
  1327. control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out
  1328. and you will see immediately how it works.
  1329. Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
  1330. commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
  1331. @table @asis
  1332. @orgcmd{C-c /,org-sparse-tree}
  1333. This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
  1334. @orgcmd{C-c / r,org-occur}
  1335. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  1336. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If
  1337. the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in
  1338. the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to
  1339. provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match
  1340. is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also
  1341. highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changed by an
  1342. editing command@footnote{This depends on the option
  1343. @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}}, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  1344. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept,
  1345. so several calls to this command can be stacked.
  1346. @orgcmdkkc{M-g n,M-g M-n,next-error}
  1347. Jump to the next sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1348. @orgcmdkkc{M-g p,M-g M-p,previous-error}
  1349. Jump to the previous sparse tree match in this buffer.
  1350. @end table
  1351. @noindent
  1352. @vindex org-agenda-custom-commands
  1353. For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
  1354. use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
  1355. keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be
  1356. accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
  1357. For example:
  1358. @lisp
  1359. (setq org-agenda-custom-commands
  1360. '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
  1361. @end lisp
  1362. @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
  1363. a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.
  1364. The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
  1365. tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
  1366. @kindex C-c C-e C-v
  1367. @cindex printing sparse trees
  1368. @cindex visible text, printing
  1369. To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
  1370. @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
  1371. of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
  1372. XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
  1373. Or you can use @kbd{C-c C-e C-v} to export only the visible part of
  1374. the document and print the resulting file.
  1375. @node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
  1376. @section Plain lists
  1377. @cindex plain lists
  1378. @cindex lists, plain
  1379. @cindex lists, ordered
  1380. @cindex ordered lists
  1381. Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
  1382. additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes
  1383. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org supports editing such lists, and every exporter
  1384. (@pxref{Exporting}) can parse and format them.
  1385. Org knows ordered lists, unordered lists, and description lists.
  1386. @itemize @bullet
  1387. @item
  1388. @emph{Unordered} list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or
  1389. @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or
  1390. they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading
  1391. stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star may
  1392. be hard to distinguish from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*}
  1393. is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
  1394. bullets.
  1395. @item
  1396. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1397. @vindex org-list-allow-alphabetical
  1398. @emph{Ordered} list items start with a numeral followed by either a period or
  1399. a right parenthesis@footnote{You can filter out any of them by configuring
  1400. @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}.}, such as @samp{1.} or
  1401. @samp{1)}@footnote{You can also get @samp{a.}, @samp{A.}, @samp{a)} and
  1402. @samp{A)} by configuring @code{org-list-allow-alphabetical}. To minimize
  1403. confusion with normal text, those are limited to one character only. Beyond
  1404. that limit, bullets will automatically fallback to numbers.}. If you want a
  1405. list to start with a different value (e.g., 20), start the text of the item
  1406. with @code{[@@20]}@footnote{If there's a checkbox in the item, the cookie
  1407. must be put @emph{before} the checkbox. If you have activated alphabetical
  1408. lists, you can also use counters like @code{[@@b]}.}. Those constructs can
  1409. be used in any item of the list in order to enforce a particular numbering.
  1410. @item
  1411. @emph{Description} list items are unordered list items, and contain the
  1412. separator @samp{ :: } to distinguish the description @emph{term} from the
  1413. description.
  1414. @end itemize
  1415. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
  1416. line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the
  1417. 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the
  1418. list. An item ends before the next line that is less or equally indented
  1419. than its bullet/number.
  1420. @vindex org-list-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists
  1421. A list ends whenever every item has ended, which means before any line less
  1422. or equally indented than items at top level. It also ends before two blank
  1423. lines@footnote{See also @code{org-list-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.}.
  1424. In that case, all items are closed. Here is an example:
  1425. @example
  1426. @group
  1427. ** Lord of the Rings
  1428. My favorite scenes are (in this order)
  1429. 1. The attack of the Rohirrim
  1430. 2. Eowyn's fight with the witch king
  1431. + this was already my favorite scene in the book
  1432. + I really like Miranda Otto.
  1433. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
  1434. - on DVD only
  1435. He makes a really funny face when it happens.
  1436. But in the end, no individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
  1437. Important actors in this film are:
  1438. - @b{Elijah Wood} :: He plays Frodo
  1439. - @b{Sean Austin} :: He plays Sam, Frodo's friend. I still remember
  1440. him very well from his role as Mikey Walsh in @i{The Goonies}.
  1441. @end group
  1442. @end example
  1443. Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with
  1444. them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For
  1445. XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on,
  1446. put into @file{.emacs}: @code{(require 'filladapt)}}, and by exporting them
  1447. properly (@pxref{Exporting}). Since indentation is what governs the
  1448. structure of these lists, many structural constructs like @code{#+BEGIN_...}
  1449. blocks can be indented to signal that they belong to a particular item.
  1450. @vindex org-list-demote-modify-bullet
  1451. @vindex org-list-indent-offset
  1452. If you find that using a different bullet for a sub-list (than that used for
  1453. the current list-level) improves readability, customize the variable
  1454. @code{org-list-demote-modify-bullet}. To get a greater difference of
  1455. indentation between items and theirs sub-items, customize
  1456. @code{org-list-indent-offset}.
  1457. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1458. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of
  1459. an item (the line with the bullet or number). Some of them imply the
  1460. application of automatic rules to keep list structure intact. If some of
  1461. these actions get in your way, configure @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  1462. to disable them individually.
  1463. @table @asis
  1464. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-cycle}
  1465. @cindex cycling, in plain lists
  1466. @vindex org-cycle-include-plain-lists
  1467. Items can be folded just like headline levels. Normally this works only if
  1468. the cursor is on a plain list item. For more details, see the variable
  1469. @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. If this variable is set to
  1470. @code{integrate}, plain list items will be treated like low-level
  1471. headlines. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the
  1472. bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the
  1473. hierarchies remain completely separated. In a new item with no text yet, the
  1474. first @key{TAB} demotes the item to become a child of the previous
  1475. one. Subsequent @key{TAB}s move the item to meaningful levels in the list
  1476. and eventually get it back to its initial position.
  1477. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-insert-heading}
  1478. @vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
  1479. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  1480. Insert new item at current level. With a prefix argument, force a new
  1481. heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle
  1482. of an item, that item is @emph{split} in two, and the second part becomes the
  1483. new item@footnote{If you do not want the item to be split, customize the
  1484. variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}. If this command is executed
  1485. @emph{before item's body}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current
  1486. one.
  1487. @end table
  1488. @table @kbd
  1489. @kindex M-S-@key{RET}
  1490. @item M-S-RET
  1491. Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  1492. @kindex S-@key{down}
  1493. @item S-up
  1494. @itemx S-down
  1495. @cindex shift-selection-mode
  1496. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1497. @vindex org-list-use-circular-motion
  1498. Jump to the previous/next item in the current list@footnote{If you want to
  1499. cycle around items that way, you may customize
  1500. @code{org-list-use-circular-motion}.}, but only if
  1501. @code{org-support-shift-select} is off. If not, you can still use paragraph
  1502. jumping commands like @kbd{C-@key{up}} and @kbd{C-@key{down}} to quite
  1503. similar effect.
  1504. @kindex M-@key{up}
  1505. @kindex M-@key{down}
  1506. @item M-up
  1507. @itemx M-down
  1508. Move the item including subitems up/down@footnote{See
  1509. @code{org-liste-use-circular-motion} for a cyclic behavior.} (swap with
  1510. previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering
  1511. is automatic.
  1512. @kindex M-@key{left}
  1513. @kindex M-@key{right}
  1514. @item M-left
  1515. @itemx M-right
  1516. Decrease/increase the indentation of an item, leaving children alone.
  1517. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  1518. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  1519. @item M-S-left
  1520. @itemx M-S-right
  1521. Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
  1522. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When
  1523. these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially
  1524. selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different
  1525. hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor
  1526. motion or so.
  1527. As a special case, using this command on the very first item of a list will
  1528. move the whole list. This behavior can be disabled by configuring
  1529. @code{org-list-automatic-rules}. The global indentation of a list has no
  1530. influence on the text @emph{after} the list.
  1531. @kindex C-c C-c
  1532. @item C-c C-c
  1533. If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
  1534. state of the checkbox. In any case, verify bullets and indentation
  1535. consistency in the whole list.
  1536. @kindex C-c -
  1537. @vindex org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator
  1538. @item C-c -
  1539. Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
  1540. (@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}) or a subset of them,
  1541. depending on @code{org-plain-list-ordered-item-terminator}, the type of list,
  1542. and its indentation. With a numeric prefix argument N, select the Nth bullet
  1543. from this list. If there is an active region when calling this, selected
  1544. text will be changed into an item. With a prefix argument, all lines will be
  1545. converted to list items. If the first line already was a list item, any item
  1546. marker will be removed from the list. Finally, even without an active
  1547. region, a normal line will be converted into a list item.
  1548. @kindex C-c *
  1549. @item C-c *
  1550. Turn a plain list item into a headline (so that it becomes a subheading at
  1551. its location). @xref{Structure editing}, for a detailed explanation.
  1552. @kindex C-c C-*
  1553. @item C-c C-*
  1554. Turn the whole plain list into a subtree of the current heading. Checkboxes
  1555. (@pxref{Checkboxes}) will become TODO (resp. DONE) keywords when unchecked
  1556. (resp. checked).
  1557. @kindex S-@key{left}
  1558. @kindex S-@key{right}
  1559. @item S-left/right
  1560. @vindex org-support-shift-select
  1561. This command also cycles bullet styles when the cursor in on the bullet or
  1562. anywhere in an item line, details depending on
  1563. @code{org-support-shift-select}.
  1564. @kindex C-c ^
  1565. @item C-c ^
  1566. Sort the plain list. You will be prompted for the sorting method:
  1567. numerically, alphabetically, by time, or by custom function.
  1568. @end table
  1569. @node Drawers, Blocks, Plain lists, Document Structure
  1570. @section Drawers
  1571. @cindex drawers
  1572. @cindex #+DRAWERS
  1573. @cindex visibility cycling, drawers
  1574. @vindex org-drawers
  1575. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  1576. @kindex C-c C-x d
  1577. Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
  1578. normally don't want to see it. For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
  1579. Drawers need to be configured with the variable
  1580. @code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define additional drawers on a
  1581. per-file basis with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN STATE}}. Drawers
  1582. look like this:
  1583. @example
  1584. ** This is a headline
  1585. Still outside the drawer
  1586. :DRAWERNAME:
  1587. This is inside the drawer.
  1588. :END:
  1589. After the drawer.
  1590. @end example
  1591. You can interactively insert drawers at point by calling
  1592. @code{org-insert-drawer}, which is bound to @key{C-c C-x d}. With an active
  1593. region, this command will put the region inside the drawer. With a prefix
  1594. argument, this command calls @code{org-insert-property-drawer} and add a
  1595. property drawer right below the current headline. Completion over drawer
  1596. keywords is also possible using @key{M-TAB}.
  1597. Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will hide and
  1598. show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line. In order to
  1599. look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the drawer line and
  1600. press @key{TAB} there. Org mode uses the @code{PROPERTIES} drawer for
  1601. storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}), and you can also arrange
  1602. for state change notes (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}) and clock times
  1603. (@pxref{Clocking work time}) to be stored in a drawer @code{LOGBOOK}. If you
  1604. want to store a quick note in the LOGBOOK drawer, in a similar way to state changes, use
  1605. @table @kbd
  1606. @kindex C-c C-z
  1607. @item C-c C-z
  1608. Add a time-stamped note to the LOGBOOK drawer.
  1609. @end table
  1610. @node Blocks, Footnotes, Drawers, Document Structure
  1611. @section Blocks
  1612. @vindex org-hide-block-startup
  1613. @cindex blocks, folding
  1614. Org mode uses begin...end blocks for various purposes from including source
  1615. code examples (@pxref{Literal examples}) to capturing time logging
  1616. information (@pxref{Clocking work time}). These blocks can be folded and
  1617. unfolded by pressing TAB in the begin line. You can also get all blocks
  1618. folded at startup by configuring the variable @code{org-hide-block-startup}
  1619. or on a per-file basis by using
  1620. @cindex @code{hideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1621. @cindex @code{nohideblocks}, STARTUP keyword
  1622. @example
  1623. #+STARTUP: hideblocks
  1624. #+STARTUP: nohideblocks
  1625. @end example
  1626. @node Footnotes, Orgstruct mode, Blocks, Document Structure
  1627. @section Footnotes
  1628. @cindex footnotes
  1629. Org mode supports the creation of footnotes. In contrast to the
  1630. @file{footnote.el} package, Org mode's footnotes are designed for work on
  1631. a larger document, not only for one-off documents like emails.
  1632. A footnote is started by a footnote marker in square brackets in column 0, no
  1633. indentation allowed. It ends at the next footnote definition, headline, or
  1634. after two consecutive empty lines. The footnote reference is simply the
  1635. marker in square brackets, inside text. For example:
  1636. @example
  1637. The Org homepage[fn:1] now looks a lot better than it used to.
  1638. ...
  1639. [fn:1] The link is: http://orgmode.org
  1640. @end example
  1641. Org mode extends the number-based syntax to @emph{named} footnotes and
  1642. optional inline definition. Using plain numbers as markers (as
  1643. @file{footnote.el} does) is supported for backward compatibility, but not
  1644. encouraged because of possible conflicts with @LaTeX{} snippets (@pxref{Embedded
  1645. @LaTeX{}}). Here are the valid references:
  1646. @table @code
  1647. @item [1]
  1648. A plain numeric footnote marker. Compatible with @file{footnote.el}, but not
  1649. recommended because something like @samp{[1]} could easily be part of a code
  1650. snippet.
  1651. @item [fn:name]
  1652. A named footnote reference, where @code{name} is a unique label word, or, for
  1653. simplicity of automatic creation, a number.
  1654. @item [fn:: This is the inline definition of this footnote]
  1655. A @LaTeX{}-like anonymous footnote where the definition is given directly at the
  1656. reference point.
  1657. @item [fn:name: a definition]
  1658. An inline definition of a footnote, which also specifies a name for the note.
  1659. Since Org allows multiple references to the same note, you can then use
  1660. @code{[fn:name]} to create additional references.
  1661. @end table
  1662. @vindex org-footnote-auto-label
  1663. Footnote labels can be created automatically, or you can create names yourself.
  1664. This is handled by the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-label} and its
  1665. corresponding @code{#+STARTUP} keywords. See the docstring of that variable
  1666. for details.
  1667. @noindent The following command handles footnotes:
  1668. @table @kbd
  1669. @kindex C-c C-x f
  1670. @item C-c C-x f
  1671. The footnote action command.
  1672. When the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. When it
  1673. is at a definition, jump to the (first) reference.
  1674. @vindex org-footnote-define-inline
  1675. @vindex org-footnote-section
  1676. @vindex org-footnote-auto-adjust
  1677. Otherwise, create a new footnote. Depending on the variable
  1678. @code{org-footnote-define-inline}@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
  1679. setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: fninline} or @code{#+STARTUP: nofninline}}, the
  1680. definition will be placed right into the text as part of the reference, or
  1681. separately into the location determined by the variable
  1682. @code{org-footnote-section}.
  1683. When this command is called with a prefix argument, a menu of additional
  1684. options is offered:
  1685. @example
  1686. s @r{Sort the footnote definitions by reference sequence. During editing,}
  1687. @r{Org makes no effort to sort footnote definitions into a particular}
  1688. @r{sequence. If you want them sorted, use this command, which will}
  1689. @r{also move entries according to @code{org-footnote-section}. Automatic}
  1690. @r{sorting after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the}
  1691. @r{variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1692. r @r{Renumber the simple @code{fn:N} footnotes. Automatic renumbering}
  1693. @r{after each insertion/deletion can be configured using the variable}
  1694. @r{@code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}.}
  1695. S @r{Short for first @code{r}, then @code{s} action.}
  1696. n @r{Normalize the footnotes by collecting all definitions (including}
  1697. @r{inline definitions) into a special section, and then numbering them}
  1698. @r{in sequence. The references will then also be numbers. This is}
  1699. @r{meant to be the final step before finishing a document (e.g., sending}
  1700. @r{off an email). The exporters do this automatically, and so could}
  1701. @r{something like @code{message-send-hook}.}
  1702. d @r{Delete the footnote at point, and all definitions of and references}
  1703. @r{to it.}
  1704. @end example
  1705. Depending on the variable @code{org-footnote-auto-adjust}@footnote{the
  1706. corresponding in-buffer options are @code{fnadjust} and @code{nofnadjust}.},
  1707. renumbering and sorting footnotes can be automatic after each insertion or
  1708. deletion.
  1709. @kindex C-c C-c
  1710. @item C-c C-c
  1711. If the cursor is on a footnote reference, jump to the definition. If it is a
  1712. the definition, jump back to the reference. When called at a footnote
  1713. location with a prefix argument, offer the same menu as @kbd{C-c C-x f}.
  1714. @kindex C-c C-o
  1715. @kindex mouse-1
  1716. @kindex mouse-2
  1717. @item C-c C-o @r{or} mouse-1/2
  1718. Footnote labels are also links to the corresponding definition/reference, and
  1719. you can use the usual commands to follow these links.
  1720. @end table
  1721. @node Orgstruct mode, Org syntax, Footnotes, Document Structure
  1722. @section The Orgstruct minor mode
  1723. @cindex Orgstruct mode
  1724. @cindex minor mode for structure editing
  1725. If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
  1726. formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes like
  1727. Text mode or Mail mode as well. The minor mode @code{orgstruct-mode} makes
  1728. this possible. Toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgstruct-mode}, or
  1729. turn it on by default, for example in Message mode, with one of:
  1730. @lisp
  1731. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
  1732. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct++)
  1733. @end lisp
  1734. When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to Org like a
  1735. headline or the first line of a list item, most structure editing commands
  1736. will work, even if the same keys normally have different functionality in the
  1737. major mode you are using. If the cursor is not in one of those special
  1738. lines, Orgstruct mode lurks silently in the shadows.
  1739. When you use @code{orgstruct++-mode}, Org will also export indentation and
  1740. autofill settings into that mode, and detect item context after the first
  1741. line of an item.
  1742. @vindex orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp
  1743. You can also use Org structure editing to fold and unfold headlines in
  1744. @emph{any} file, provided you defined @var{orgstruct-heading-prefix-regexp}:
  1745. the regular expression must match the local prefix to use before Org's
  1746. headlines. For example, if you set this variable to @code{"^;; "} in Emacs
  1747. Lisp files, you will be able to fold and unfold headlines in Emacs Lisp
  1748. commented lines. Some commands like @code{org-demote} are disabled when the
  1749. prefix is set, but folding/unfolding will work correctly.
  1750. @node Org syntax, , Orgstruct mode, Document Structure
  1751. @section Org syntax
  1752. @cindex Org syntax
  1753. A reference document providing a formal description of Org's syntax is
  1754. available as @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/dev/org-syntax.html, a draft on
  1755. Worg}, written and maintained by Nicolas Goaziou. It defines Org's core
  1756. internal concepts such as @code{headlines}, @code{sections}, @code{affiliated
  1757. keywords}, @code{(greater) elements} and @code{objects}. Each part of an Org
  1758. file falls into one of the categories above.
  1759. To explore the abstract structure of an Org buffer, run this in a buffer:
  1760. @lisp
  1761. M-: (org-element-parse-buffer) RET
  1762. @end lisp
  1763. It will output a list containing the buffer's content represented as an
  1764. abstract structure. The export engine relies on the information stored in
  1765. this list. Most interactive commands (e.g., for structure editing) also
  1766. rely on the syntactic meaning of the surrounding context.
  1767. @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
  1768. @chapter Tables
  1769. @cindex tables
  1770. @cindex editing tables
  1771. Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor. Spreadsheet-like
  1772. calculations are supported using the Emacs @file{calc} package
  1773. (@pxref{Top, Calc, , calc, Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
  1774. @menu
  1775. * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables
  1776. * Column width and alignment:: Overrule the automatic settings
  1777. * Column groups:: Grouping to trigger vertical lines
  1778. * Orgtbl mode:: The table editor as minor mode
  1779. * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
  1780. * Org-Plot:: Plotting from org tables
  1781. @end menu
  1782. @node Built-in table editor, Column width and alignment, Tables, Tables
  1783. @section The built-in table editor
  1784. @cindex table editor, built-in
  1785. Org makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII@. Any line with @samp{|} as
  1786. the first non-whitespace character is considered part of a table. @samp{|}
  1787. is also the column separator@footnote{To insert a vertical bar into a table
  1788. field, use @code{\vert} or, inside a word @code{abc\vert@{@}def}.}. A table
  1789. might look like this:
  1790. @example
  1791. | Name | Phone | Age |
  1792. |-------+-------+-----|
  1793. | Peter | 1234 | 17 |
  1794. | Anna | 4321 | 25 |
  1795. @end example
  1796. A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
  1797. @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to
  1798. the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
  1799. at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation
  1800. of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with
  1801. @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
  1802. expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to
  1803. create the above table, you would only type
  1804. @example
  1805. |Name|Phone|Age|
  1806. |-
  1807. @end example
  1808. @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
  1809. fields. Even faster would be to type @code{|Name|Phone|Age} followed by
  1810. @kbd{C-c @key{RET}}.
  1811. @vindex org-enable-table-editor
  1812. @vindex org-table-auto-blank-field
  1813. When typing text into a field, Org treats @key{DEL},
  1814. @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that
  1815. inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when
  1816. typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field
  1817. with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the
  1818. field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too
  1819. unpredictable for you, configure the variables
  1820. @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}.
  1821. @table @kbd
  1822. @tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
  1823. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1824. Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one
  1825. TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated.
  1826. If every line contains a comma, comma-separated values (CSV) are assumed.
  1827. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix
  1828. argument to force a specific separator: @kbd{C-u} forces CSV, @kbd{C-u
  1829. C-u} forces TAB, and a numeric argument N indicates that at least N
  1830. consecutive spaces, or alternatively a TAB will be the separator.
  1831. @*
  1832. If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org
  1833. table. But it is easier just to start typing, like
  1834. @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}.
  1835. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
  1836. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-table-align}
  1837. Re-align the table and don't move to another field.
  1838. @c
  1839. @orgcmd{<TAB>,org-table-next-field}
  1840. Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if
  1841. necessary.
  1842. @c
  1843. @orgcmd{S-@key{TAB},org-table-previous-field}
  1844. Re-align, move to previous field.
  1845. @c
  1846. @orgcmd{@key{RET},org-table-next-row}
  1847. Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if
  1848. necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
  1849. NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.
  1850. @c
  1851. @orgcmd{M-a,org-table-beginning-of-field}
  1852. Move to beginning of the current table field, or on to the previous field.
  1853. @orgcmd{M-e,org-table-end-of-field}
  1854. Move to end of the current table field, or on to the next field.
  1855. @tsubheading{Column and row editing}
  1856. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{left},M-@key{right},org-table-move-column-left,org-table-move-column-right}
  1857. Move the current column left/right.
  1858. @c
  1859. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{left},org-table-delete-column}
  1860. Kill the current column.
  1861. @c
  1862. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{right},org-table-insert-column}
  1863. Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.
  1864. @c
  1865. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-move-row-up,org-table-move-row-down}
  1866. Move the current row up/down.
  1867. @c
  1868. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{up},org-table-kill-row}
  1869. Kill the current row or horizontal line.
  1870. @c
  1871. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{down},org-table-insert-row}
  1872. Insert a new row above the current row. With a prefix argument, the line is
  1873. created below the current one.
  1874. @c
  1875. @orgcmd{C-c -,org-table-insert-hline}
  1876. Insert a horizontal line below current row. With a prefix argument, the line
  1877. is created above the current line.
  1878. @c
  1879. @orgcmd{C-c @key{RET},org-table-hline-and-move}
  1880. Insert a horizontal line below current row, and move the cursor into the row
  1881. below that line.
  1882. @c
  1883. @orgcmd{C-c ^,org-table-sort-lines}
  1884. Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the
  1885. column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range
  1886. between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If
  1887. point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting
  1888. column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line
  1889. and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be
  1890. included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type
  1891. (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix
  1892. argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive.
  1893. @tsubheading{Regions}
  1894. @orgcmd{C-c C-x M-w,org-table-copy-region}
  1895. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and
  1896. mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. If there is no active region,
  1897. copy just the current field. The process ignores horizontal separator lines.
  1898. @c
  1899. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-w,org-table-cut-region}
  1900. Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
  1901. blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the ``cut'' operation.
  1902. @c
  1903. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-y,org-table-paste-rectangle}
  1904. Paste a rectangular region into a table.
  1905. The upper left corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields
  1906. will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
  1907. the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator
  1908. lines.
  1909. @c
  1910. @orgcmd{M-@key{RET},org-table-wrap-region}
  1911. Split the current field at the cursor position and move the rest to the line
  1912. below. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same
  1913. column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given
  1914. number of lines. A numeric prefix argument may be used to change the number
  1915. of desired lines. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix argument,
  1916. the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field
  1917. above.
  1918. @tsubheading{Calculations}
  1919. @cindex formula, in tables
  1920. @cindex calculations, in tables
  1921. @cindex region, active
  1922. @cindex active region
  1923. @cindex transient mark mode
  1924. @orgcmd{C-c +,org-table-sum}
  1925. Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
  1926. the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can
  1927. be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.
  1928. @c
  1929. @orgcmd{S-@key{RET},org-table-copy-down}
  1930. @vindex org-table-copy-increment
  1931. When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not
  1932. empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it.
  1933. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field
  1934. values will be incremented during copy. Integers that are too large will not
  1935. be incremented. Also, a @code{0} prefix argument temporarily disables the
  1936. increment. This key is also used by shift-selection and related modes
  1937. (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  1938. @tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
  1939. @orgcmd{C-c `,org-table-edit-field}
  1940. Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that
  1941. are not fully visible (@pxref{Column width and alignment}). When called with
  1942. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be
  1943. edited in place. When called with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes, make the editor
  1944. window follow the cursor through the table and always show the current
  1945. field. The follow mode exits automatically when the cursor leaves the table,
  1946. or when you repeat this command with @kbd{C-u C-u C-c `}.
  1947. @c
  1948. @item M-x org-table-import
  1949. Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB or whitespace
  1950. separated. Use, for example, to import a spreadsheet table or data
  1951. from a database, because these programs generally can write
  1952. TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into
  1953. the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix
  1954. argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the
  1955. separator.
  1956. @orgcmd{C-c |,org-table-create-or-convert-from-region}
  1957. Tables can also be imported by pasting tabular text into the Org
  1958. buffer, selecting the pasted text with @kbd{C-x C-x} and then using the
  1959. @kbd{C-c |} command (see above under @i{Creation and conversion}).
  1960. @c
  1961. @item M-x org-table-export
  1962. @findex org-table-export
  1963. @vindex org-table-export-default-format
  1964. Export the table, by default as a TAB-separated file. Use for data
  1965. exchange with, for example, spreadsheet or database programs. The format
  1966. used to export the file can be configured in the variable
  1967. @code{org-table-export-default-format}. You may also use properties
  1968. @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FILE} and @code{TABLE_EXPORT_FORMAT} to specify the file
  1969. name and the format for table export in a subtree. Org supports quite
  1970. general formats for exported tables. The exporter format is the same as the
  1971. format used by Orgtbl radio tables, see @ref{Translator functions}, for a
  1972. detailed description.
  1973. @end table
  1974. If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your
  1975. way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
  1976. it off with
  1977. @lisp
  1978. (setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
  1979. @end lisp
  1980. @noindent Then the only table command that still works is
  1981. @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.
  1982. @node Column width and alignment, Column groups, Built-in table editor, Tables
  1983. @section Column width and alignment
  1984. @cindex narrow columns in tables
  1985. @cindex alignment in tables
  1986. The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. And
  1987. also the alignment of a column is determined automatically from the fraction
  1988. of number-like versus non-number fields in the column.
  1989. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to
  1990. inconveniently wide columns. Or maybe you want to make a table with several
  1991. columns having a fixed width, regardless of content. To set@footnote{This
  1992. feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere
  1993. in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an
  1994. integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align
  1995. will then set the width of this column to this value.
  1996. @example
  1997. @group
  1998. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  1999. | | | | | <6> |
  2000. | 1 | one | | 1 | one |
  2001. | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two |
  2002. | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> |
  2003. | 4 | four | | 4 | four |
  2004. |---+------------------------------| |---+--------|
  2005. @end group
  2006. @end example
  2007. @noindent
  2008. Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}.
  2009. Note that the full text is still in the buffer but is hidden.
  2010. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field---a tool-tip window
  2011. will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command
  2012. @kbd{C-c `} (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will
  2013. open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c
  2014. C-c}.
  2015. @vindex org-startup-align-all-tables
  2016. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the
  2017. necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to
  2018. be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option
  2019. @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file
  2020. upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option
  2021. on a per-file basis with:
  2022. @example
  2023. #+STARTUP: align
  2024. #+STARTUP: noalign
  2025. @end example
  2026. If you would like to overrule the automatic alignment of number-rich columns
  2027. to the right and of string-rich column to the left, you can use @samp{<r>},
  2028. @samp{<c>}@footnote{Centering does not work inside Emacs, but it does have an
  2029. effect when exporting to HTML.} or @samp{<l>} in a similar fashion. You may
  2030. also combine alignment and field width like this: @samp{<r10>}.
  2031. Lines which only contain these formatting cookies will be removed
  2032. automatically when exporting the document.
  2033. @node Column groups, Orgtbl mode, Column width and alignment, Tables
  2034. @section Column groups
  2035. @cindex grouping columns in tables
  2036. When Org exports tables, it does so by default without vertical
  2037. lines because that is visually more satisfying in general. Occasionally
  2038. however, vertical lines can be useful to structure a table into groups
  2039. of columns, much like horizontal lines can do for groups of rows. In
  2040. order to specify column groups, you can use a special row where the
  2041. first field contains only @samp{/}. The further fields can either
  2042. contain @samp{<} to indicate that this column should start a group,
  2043. @samp{>} to indicate the end of a column, or @samp{<>} (no space between @samp{<}
  2044. and @samp{>}) to make a column
  2045. a group of its own. Boundaries between column groups will upon export be
  2046. marked with vertical lines. Here is an example:
  2047. @example
  2048. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2049. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2050. | / | < | | > | < | > |
  2051. | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |
  2052. | 2 | 4 | 8 | 16 | 1.4142 | 1.1892 |
  2053. | 3 | 9 | 27 | 81 | 1.7321 | 1.3161 |
  2054. |---+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2055. #+TBLFM: $2=$1^2::$3=$1^3::$4=$1^4::$5=sqrt($1)::$6=sqrt(sqrt(($1)))
  2056. @end example
  2057. It is also sufficient to just insert the column group starters after
  2058. every vertical line you would like to have:
  2059. @example
  2060. | N | N^2 | N^3 | N^4 | sqrt(n) | sqrt[4](N) |
  2061. |----+-----+-----+-----+---------+------------|
  2062. | / | < | | | < | |
  2063. @end example
  2064. @node Orgtbl mode, The spreadsheet, Column groups, Tables
  2065. @section The Orgtbl minor mode
  2066. @cindex Orgtbl mode
  2067. @cindex minor mode for tables
  2068. If you like the intuitive way the Org table editor works, you
  2069. might also want to use it in other modes like Text mode or Mail mode.
  2070. The minor mode Orgtbl mode makes this possible. You can always toggle
  2071. the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for
  2072. example in Message mode, use
  2073. @lisp
  2074. (add-hook 'message-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
  2075. @end lisp
  2076. Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables
  2077. in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl mode. For example, it is possible to
  2078. construct @LaTeX{} tables with the underlying ease and power of
  2079. Orgtbl mode, including spreadsheet capabilities. For details, see
  2080. @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}.
  2081. @node The spreadsheet, Org-Plot, Orgtbl mode, Tables
  2082. @section The spreadsheet
  2083. @cindex calculations, in tables
  2084. @cindex spreadsheet capabilities
  2085. @cindex @file{calc} package
  2086. The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement
  2087. spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to
  2088. derive fields from other fields. While fully featured, Org's implementation
  2089. is not identical to other spreadsheets. For example, Org knows the concept
  2090. of a @emph{column formula} that will be applied to all non-header fields in a
  2091. column without having to copy the formula to each relevant field. There is
  2092. also a formula debugger, and a formula editor with features for highlighting
  2093. fields in the table corresponding to the references at the point in the
  2094. formula, moving these references by arrow keys
  2095. @menu
  2096. * References:: How to refer to another field or range
  2097. * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff
  2098. * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
  2099. * Durations and time values:: How to compute durations and time values
  2100. * Field and range formulas:: Formula for specific (ranges of) fields
  2101. * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column
  2102. * Lookup functions:: Lookup functions for searching tables
  2103. * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas
  2104. * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields
  2105. * Advanced features:: Field and column names, parameters and automatic recalc
  2106. @end menu
  2107. @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet
  2108. @subsection References
  2109. @cindex references
  2110. To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must
  2111. reference other fields or ranges. In Org, fields can be referenced
  2112. by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find
  2113. out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that
  2114. field, or press @kbd{C-c @}} to toggle the display of a grid.
  2115. @subsubheading Field references
  2116. @cindex field references
  2117. @cindex references, to fields
  2118. Formulas can reference the value of another field in two ways. Like in
  2119. any other spreadsheet, you may reference fields with a letter/number
  2120. combination like @code{B3}, meaning the 2nd field in the 3rd row.
  2121. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2122. However, Org prefers@footnote{Org will understand references typed by the
  2123. user as @samp{B4}, but it will not use this syntax when offering a formula
  2124. for editing. You can customize this behavior using the variable
  2125. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.} to use another, more general
  2126. representation that looks like this:
  2127. @example
  2128. @@@var{row}$@var{column}
  2129. @end example
  2130. Column specifications can be absolute like @code{$1},
  2131. @code{$2},...@code{$@var{N}}, or relative to the current column (i.e., the
  2132. column of the field which is being computed) like @code{$+1} or @code{$-2}.
  2133. @code{$<} and @code{$>} are immutable references to the first and last
  2134. column, respectively, and you can use @code{$>>>} to indicate the third
  2135. column from the right.
  2136. The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal separator
  2137. lines (hlines). Like with columns, you can use absolute row numbers
  2138. @code{@@1}, @code{@@2},...@code{@@@var{N}}, and row numbers relative to the
  2139. current row like @code{@@+3} or @code{@@-1}. @code{@@<} and @code{@@>} are
  2140. immutable references the first and last@footnote{For backward compatibility
  2141. you can also use special names like @code{$LR5} and @code{$LR12} to refer in
  2142. a stable way to the 5th and 12th field in the last row of the table.
  2143. However, this syntax is deprecated, it should not be used for new documents.
  2144. Use @code{@@>$} instead.} row in the table, respectively. You may also
  2145. specify the row relative to one of the hlines: @code{@@I} refers to the first
  2146. hline, @code{@@II} to the second, etc. @code{@@-I} refers to the first such
  2147. line above the current line, @code{@@+I} to the first such line below the
  2148. current line. You can also write @code{@@III+2} which is the second data line
  2149. after the third hline in the table.
  2150. @code{@@0} and @code{$0} refer to the current row and column, respectively,
  2151. i.e., to the row/column for the field being computed. Also, if you omit
  2152. either the column or the row part of the reference, the current row/column is
  2153. implied.
  2154. Org's references with @emph{unsigned} numbers are fixed references
  2155. in the sense that if you use the same reference in the formula for two
  2156. different fields, the same field will be referenced each time.
  2157. Org's references with @emph{signed} numbers are floating
  2158. references because the same reference operator can reference different
  2159. fields depending on the field being calculated by the formula.
  2160. Here are a few examples:
  2161. @example
  2162. @@2$3 @r{2nd row, 3rd column (same as @code{C2})}
  2163. $5 @r{column 5 in the current row (same as @code{E&})}
  2164. @@2 @r{current column, row 2}
  2165. @@-1$-3 @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
  2166. @@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2}
  2167. @@>$5 @r{field in the last row, in column 5}
  2168. @end example
  2169. @subsubheading Range references
  2170. @cindex range references
  2171. @cindex references, to ranges
  2172. You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field
  2173. references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the
  2174. current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field
  2175. is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
  2176. format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
  2177. @samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly). Examples:
  2178. @example
  2179. $1..$3 @r{first three fields in the current row}
  2180. $P..$Q @r{range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
  2181. $<<<..$>> @r{start in third column, continue to the one but last}
  2182. @@2$1..@@4$3 @r{6 fields between these two fields (same as @code{A2..C4})}
  2183. @@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 fields in the row above, starting from 2 columns on the left}
  2184. @@I..II @r{between first and second hline, short for @code{@@I..@@II}}
  2185. @end example
  2186. @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed
  2187. into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally
  2188. suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but
  2189. see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields,
  2190. @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas.
  2191. @subsubheading Field coordinates in formulas
  2192. @cindex field coordinates
  2193. @cindex coordinates, of field
  2194. @cindex row, of field coordinates
  2195. @cindex column, of field coordinates
  2196. For Calc formulas and Lisp formulas @code{@@#} and @code{$#} can be used to
  2197. get the row or column number of the field where the formula result goes.
  2198. The traditional Lisp formula equivalents are @code{org-table-current-dline}
  2199. and @code{org-table-current-column}. Examples:
  2200. @example
  2201. if(@@# % 2, $#, string("")) @r{column number on odd lines only}
  2202. $3 = remote(FOO, @@@@#$2) @r{copy column 2 from table FOO into}
  2203. @r{column 3 of the current table}
  2204. @end example
  2205. @noindent For the second example, table FOO must have at least as many rows
  2206. as the current table. Note that this is inefficient@footnote{The computation time scales as
  2207. O(N^2) because table FOO is parsed for each field to be copied.} for large
  2208. number of rows.
  2209. @subsubheading Named references
  2210. @cindex named references
  2211. @cindex references, named
  2212. @cindex name, of column or field
  2213. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2214. @cindex #+CONSTANTS
  2215. @vindex org-table-formula-constants
  2216. @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
  2217. constant. Constants are defined globally through the variable
  2218. @code{org-table-formula-constants}, and locally (for the file) through a
  2219. line like
  2220. @example
  2221. #+CONSTANTS: c=299792458. pi=3.14 eps=2.4e-6
  2222. @end example
  2223. @noindent
  2224. @vindex constants-unit-system
  2225. @pindex constants.el
  2226. Also properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}) can be used as
  2227. constants in table formulas: for a property @samp{:Xyz:} use the name
  2228. @samp{$PROP_Xyz}, and the property will be searched in the current
  2229. outline entry and in the hierarchy above it. If you have the
  2230. @file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve constants,
  2231. including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and
  2232. units like @samp{$km} for kilometers@footnote{@file{constants.el} can
  2233. supply the values of constants in two different unit systems, @code{SI}
  2234. and @code{cgs}. Which one is used depends on the value of the variable
  2235. @code{constants-unit-system}. You can use the @code{#+STARTUP} options
  2236. @code{constSI} and @code{constcgs} to set this value for the current
  2237. buffer.}. Column names and parameters can be specified in special table
  2238. lines. These are described below, see @ref{Advanced features}. All
  2239. names must start with a letter, and further consist of letters and
  2240. numbers.
  2241. @subsubheading Remote references
  2242. @cindex remote references
  2243. @cindex references, remote
  2244. @cindex references, to a different table
  2245. @cindex name, of column or field
  2246. @cindex constants, in calculations
  2247. @cindex #+TBLNAME
  2248. You may also reference constants, fields and ranges from a different table,
  2249. either in the current file or even in a different file. The syntax is
  2250. @example
  2251. remote(NAME-OR-ID,REF)
  2252. @end example
  2253. @noindent
  2254. where NAME can be the name of a table in the current file as set by a
  2255. @code{#+TBLNAME: NAME} line before the table. It can also be the ID of an
  2256. entry, even in a different file, and the reference then refers to the first
  2257. table in that entry. REF is an absolute field or range reference as
  2258. described above for example @code{@@3$3} or @code{$somename}, valid in the
  2259. referenced table.
  2260. @node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
  2261. @subsection Formula syntax for Calc
  2262. @cindex formula syntax, Calc
  2263. @cindex syntax, of formulas
  2264. A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
  2265. @file{Calc} package. @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
  2266. non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
  2267. @samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.} Before
  2268. evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
  2269. Your Programs, calc-eval, Calling Calc from Your Lisp Programs, calc, GNU
  2270. Emacs Calc Manual}),
  2271. variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
  2272. @cindex vectors, in table calculations
  2273. The range vectors can be directly fed into the Calc vector functions
  2274. like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.
  2275. @cindex format specifier
  2276. @cindex mode, for @file{calc}
  2277. @vindex org-calc-default-modes
  2278. A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon. This
  2279. string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
  2280. execution. By default, Org uses the standard Calc modes (precision
  2281. 12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off). The display
  2282. format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 8)} to keep tables
  2283. compact. The default settings can be configured using the variable
  2284. @code{org-calc-default-modes}.
  2285. @example
  2286. p20 @r{set the internal Calc calculation precision to 20 digits}
  2287. n3 s3 e2 f4 @r{Normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed}
  2288. @r{format of the result of Calc passed back to Org.}
  2289. @r{Calc formatting is unlimited in precision as}
  2290. @r{long as the Calc calculation precision is greater.}
  2291. D R @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
  2292. F S @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
  2293. E @r{keep empty fields in ranges and use nan (not a number)}
  2294. @r{in Calc formulas for empty fields in range references and}
  2295. @r{for empty field references; else suppress empty fields in}
  2296. @r{range references and use 0 for empty field references, see}
  2297. @r{also the notes for `Range references' in @pxref{References}}
  2298. N @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers;}
  2299. @r{N has higher precedence than E (for the value of the field)}
  2300. L @r{literal, for Lisp formulas only}
  2301. @end example
  2302. @noindent
  2303. Unless you use large integer numbers or high-precision-calculation
  2304. and -display for floating point numbers you may alternatively provide a
  2305. @code{printf} format specifier to reformat the Calc result after it has been
  2306. passed back to Org instead of letting Calc already do the
  2307. formatting@footnote{The @code{printf} reformatting is limited in precision
  2308. because the value passed to it is converted into an @code{integer} or
  2309. @code{double}. The @code{integer} is limited in size by truncating the
  2310. signed value to 32 bits. The @code{double} is limited in precision to 64
  2311. bits overall which leaves approximately 16 significant decimal digits.}.
  2312. A few examples:
  2313. @example
  2314. $1+$2 @r{Sum of first and second field}
  2315. $1+$2;%.2f @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  2316. exp($2)+exp($1) @r{Math functions can be used}
  2317. $0;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  2318. ($3-32)*5/9 @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
  2319. $c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  2320. tan($1);Dp3s1 @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  2321. sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display}
  2322. vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, suppress empty fields}
  2323. vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0}
  2324. taylor($3,x=7,2) @r{Taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
  2325. @end example
  2326. Calc also contains a complete set of logical operations. For example
  2327. @example
  2328. if($1 < 20, teen, string(""))
  2329. @r{"teen" if age $1 is less than 20, else empty}
  2330. if("$1" = "nan" || "$2" = "nan", string(""), $1 + $2); E
  2331. @r{sum of first two columns unless one or both empty}
  2332. @end example
  2333. Note that you can also use two org-specific flags @code{T} and @code{t} for
  2334. durations computations @ref{Durations and time values}.
  2335. You can add your own Calc functions defined in Emacs Lisp with @code{defmath}
  2336. and use them in formula syntax for Calc.
  2337. @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Durations and time values, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet
  2338. @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas
  2339. @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas
  2340. It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp. This can be useful
  2341. for string manipulation and control structures, if Calc's functionality is
  2342. not enough.
  2343. If a formula starts with a single-quote followed by an opening parenthesis,
  2344. then it is evaluated as a Lisp form. The evaluation should return either a
  2345. string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes
  2346. and a printf format after a semicolon.
  2347. With Emacs Lisp forms, you need to be conscious about the way field
  2348. references are interpolated into the form. By default, a reference will be
  2349. interpolated as a Lisp string (in double-quotes) containing the field. If
  2350. you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers
  2351. (non-number fields will be zero) and interpolated as Lisp numbers, without
  2352. quotes. If you provide the @samp{L} flag, all fields will be interpolated
  2353. literally, without quotes. I.e., if you want a reference to be interpreted
  2354. as a string by the Lisp form, enclose the reference operator itself in
  2355. double-quotes, like @code{"$3"}. Ranges are inserted as space-separated
  2356. fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax.
  2357. Here are a few examples---note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do
  2358. computations in Lisp:
  2359. @example
  2360. @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1}
  2361. '(concat (substring $1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring $1 2))
  2362. @r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
  2363. '(+ $1 $2);N
  2364. @r{Compute the sum of columns 1--4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
  2365. '(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
  2366. @end example
  2367. @node Durations and time values, Field and range formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
  2368. @subsection Durations and time values
  2369. @cindex Duration, computing
  2370. @cindex Time, computing
  2371. @vindex org-table-duration-custom-format
  2372. If you want to compute time values use the @code{T} flag, either in Calc
  2373. formulas or Elisp formulas:
  2374. @example
  2375. @group
  2376. | Task 1 | Task 2 | Total |
  2377. |---------+----------+----------|
  2378. | 2:12 | 1:47 | 03:59:00 |
  2379. | 3:02:20 | -2:07:00 | 0.92 |
  2380. #+TBLFM: @@2$3=$1+$2;T::@@3$3=$1+$2;t
  2381. @end group
  2382. @end example
  2383. Input duration values must be of the form @code{[HH:MM[:SS]}, where seconds
  2384. are optional. With the @code{T} flag, computed durations will be displayed
  2385. as @code{HH:MM:SS} (see the first formula above). With the @code{t} flag,
  2386. computed durations will be displayed according to the value of the variable
  2387. @code{org-table-duration-custom-format}, which defaults to @code{'hours} and
  2388. will display the result as a fraction of hours (see the second formula in the
  2389. example above).
  2390. Negative duration values can be manipulated as well, and integers will be
  2391. considered as seconds in addition and subtraction.
  2392. @node Field and range formulas, Column formulas, Durations and time values, The spreadsheet
  2393. @subsection Field and range formulas
  2394. @cindex field formula
  2395. @cindex range formula
  2396. @cindex formula, for individual table field
  2397. @cindex formula, for range of fields
  2398. To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the field,
  2399. preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=vsum(@@II..III)}. When you press
  2400. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2401. the formula will be stored as the formula for this field, evaluated, and the
  2402. current field will be replaced with the result.
  2403. @cindex #+TBLFM
  2404. Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:} directly
  2405. below the table. If you type the equation in the 4th field of the 3rd data
  2406. line in the table, the formula will look like @samp{@@3$4=$1+$2}. When
  2407. inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands,
  2408. @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are
  2409. modified in order to still reference the same field. To avoid this from
  2410. happening, in particular in range references, anchor ranges at the table
  2411. borders (using @code{@@<}, @code{@@>}, @code{$<}, @code{$>}), or at hlines
  2412. using the @code{@@I} notation. Automatic adaptation of field references does
  2413. of course not happen if you edit the table structure with normal editing
  2414. commands---then you must fix the equations yourself.
  2415. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following
  2416. command
  2417. @table @kbd
  2418. @orgcmd{C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2419. Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a
  2420. formula with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies
  2421. it to the current field, and stores it.
  2422. @end table
  2423. The left-hand side of a formula can also be a special expression in order to
  2424. assign the formula to a number of different fields. There is no keyboard
  2425. shortcut to enter such range formulas. To add them, use the formula editor
  2426. (@pxref{Editing and debugging formulas}) or edit the @code{#+TBLFM:} line
  2427. directly.
  2428. @table @code
  2429. @item $2=
  2430. Column formula, valid for the entire column. This is so common that Org
  2431. treats these formulas in a special way, see @ref{Column formulas}.
  2432. @item @@3=
  2433. Row formula, applies to all fields in the specified row. @code{@@>=} means
  2434. the last row.
  2435. @item @@1$2..@@4$3=
  2436. Range formula, applies to all fields in the given rectangular range. This
  2437. can also be used to assign a formula to some but not all fields in a row.
  2438. @item $name=
  2439. Named field, see @ref{Advanced features}.
  2440. @end table
  2441. @node Column formulas, Lookup functions, Field and range formulas, The spreadsheet
  2442. @subsection Column formulas
  2443. @cindex column formula
  2444. @cindex formula, for table column
  2445. When you assign a formula to a simple column reference like @code{$3=}, the
  2446. same formula will be used in all fields of that column, with the following
  2447. very convenient exceptions: (i) If the table contains horizontal separator
  2448. hlines with rows above and below, everything before the first such hline is
  2449. considered part of the table @emph{header} and will not be modified by column
  2450. formulas. Therefore a header is mandatory when you use column formulas and
  2451. want to add hlines to group rows, like for example to separate a total row at
  2452. the bottom from the summand rows above. (ii) Fields that already get a value
  2453. from a field/range formula will be left alone by column formulas. These
  2454. conditions make column formulas very easy to use.
  2455. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the
  2456. column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press
  2457. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field,
  2458. the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated
  2459. and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only
  2460. @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each
  2461. column, Org will only remember the most recently used formula. In the
  2462. @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}. The
  2463. left-hand side of a column formula can not be the name of column, it must be
  2464. the numeric column reference or @code{$>}.
  2465. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
  2466. following command:
  2467. @table @kbd
  2468. @orgcmd{C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2469. Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field with
  2470. the result of the formula. The command prompts for a formula, with default
  2471. taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current field and
  2472. stores it. With a numeric prefix argument(e.g., @kbd{C-5 C-c =}) the command
  2473. will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
  2474. @end table
  2475. @node Lookup functions, Editing and debugging formulas, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
  2476. @subsection Lookup functions
  2477. @cindex lookup functions in tables
  2478. @cindex table lookup functions
  2479. Org has three predefined Emacs Lisp functions for lookups in tables.
  2480. @table @code
  2481. @item (org-lookup-first VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2482. @findex org-lookup-first
  2483. Searches for the first element @code{S} in list @code{S-LIST} for which
  2484. @lisp
  2485. (PREDICATE VAL S)
  2486. @end lisp
  2487. is @code{t}; returns the value from the corresponding position in list
  2488. @code{R-LIST}. The default @code{PREDICATE} is @code{equal}. Note that the
  2489. parameters @code{VAL} and @code{S} are passed to @code{PREDICATE} in the same
  2490. order as the correspoding parameters are in the call to
  2491. @code{org-lookup-first}, where @code{VAL} precedes @code{S-LIST}. If
  2492. @code{R-LIST} is @code{nil}, the matching element @code{S} of @code{S-LIST}
  2493. is returned.
  2494. @item (org-lookup-last VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2495. @findex org-lookup-last
  2496. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first} above, but searches for the @i{last}
  2497. element for which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}.
  2498. @item (org-lookup-all VAL S-LIST R-LIST &optional PREDICATE)
  2499. @findex org-lookup-all
  2500. Similar to @code{org-lookup-first}, but searches for @i{all} elements for
  2501. which @code{PREDICATE} is @code{t}, and returns @i{all} corresponding
  2502. values. This function can not be used by itself in a formula, because it
  2503. returns a list of values. However, powerful lookups can be built when this
  2504. function is combined with other Emacs Lisp functions.
  2505. @end table
  2506. If the ranges used in these functions contain empty fields, the @code{E} mode
  2507. for the formula should usually be specified: otherwise empty fields will not be
  2508. included in @code{S-LIST} and/or @code{R-LIST} which can, for example, result
  2509. in an incorrect mapping from an element of @code{S-LIST} to the corresponding
  2510. element of @code{R-LIST}.
  2511. These three functions can be used to implement associative arrays, count
  2512. matching cells, rank results, group data etc. For practical examples
  2513. see @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-lookups.html, this
  2514. tutorial on Worg}.
  2515. @node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Lookup functions, The spreadsheet
  2516. @subsection Editing and debugging formulas
  2517. @cindex formula editing
  2518. @cindex editing, of table formulas
  2519. @vindex org-table-use-standard-references
  2520. You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
  2521. field. Org can also prepare a special buffer with all active
  2522. formulas of a table. When offering a formula for editing, Org
  2523. converts references to the standard format (like @code{B3} or @code{D&})
  2524. if possible. If you prefer to only work with the internal format (like
  2525. @code{@@3$2} or @code{$4}), configure the variable
  2526. @code{org-table-use-standard-references}.
  2527. @table @kbd
  2528. @orgcmdkkc{C-c =,C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2529. Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
  2530. minibuffer. See @ref{Column formulas}, and @ref{Field and range formulas}.
  2531. @orgcmd{C-u C-u C-c =,org-table-eval-formula}
  2532. Re-insert the active formula (either a
  2533. field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
  2534. can edit it directly in the field. The advantage over editing in the
  2535. minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
  2536. @orgcmd{C-c ?,org-table-field-info}
  2537. While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
  2538. referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
  2539. @kindex C-c @}
  2540. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2541. @item C-c @}
  2542. Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using overlays
  2543. (@command{org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays}). These are updated each
  2544. time the table is aligned; you can force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  2545. @kindex C-c @{
  2546. @findex org-table-toggle-formula-debugger
  2547. @item C-c @{
  2548. Toggle the formula debugger on and off
  2549. (@command{org-table-toggle-formula-debugger}). See below.
  2550. @orgcmd{C-c ',org-table-edit-formulas}
  2551. Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
  2552. formulas will be displayed one per line. If the current field has an
  2553. active formula, the cursor in the formula editor will mark it.
  2554. While inside the special buffer, Org will automatically highlight
  2555. any field or range reference at the cursor position. You may edit,
  2556. remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
  2557. @table @kbd
  2558. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-x C-s,org-table-fedit-finish}
  2559. Exit the formula editor and store the modified formulas. With @kbd{C-u}
  2560. prefix, also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
  2561. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-table-fedit-abort}
  2562. Exit the formula editor without installing changes.
  2563. @orgcmd{C-c C-r,org-table-fedit-toggle-ref-type}
  2564. Toggle all references in the formula editor between standard (like
  2565. @code{B3}) and internal (like @code{@@3$2}).
  2566. @orgcmd{@key{TAB},org-table-fedit-lisp-indent}
  2567. Pretty-print or indent Lisp formula at point. When in a line containing
  2568. a Lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
  2569. Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again. In the open
  2570. formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2571. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},lisp-complete-symbol}
  2572. Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs Lisp mode.
  2573. @kindex S-@key{up}
  2574. @kindex S-@key{down}
  2575. @kindex S-@key{left}
  2576. @kindex S-@key{right}
  2577. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-up
  2578. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-down
  2579. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-left
  2580. @findex org-table-fedit-ref-right
  2581. @item S-@key{up}/@key{down}/@key{left}/@key{right}
  2582. Shift the reference at point. For example, if the reference is
  2583. @code{B3} and you press @kbd{S-@key{right}}, it will become @code{C3}.
  2584. This also works for relative references and for hline references.
  2585. @orgcmdkkcc{M-S-@key{up},M-S-@key{down},org-table-fedit-line-up,org-table-fedit-line-down}
  2586. Move the test line for column formulas in the Org buffer up and
  2587. down.
  2588. @orgcmdkkcc{M-@key{up},M-@key{down},org-table-fedit-scroll-down,org-table-fedit-scroll-up}
  2589. Scroll the window displaying the table.
  2590. @kindex C-c @}
  2591. @findex org-table-toggle-coordinate-overlays
  2592. @item C-c @}
  2593. Turn the coordinate grid in the table on and off.
  2594. @end table
  2595. @end table
  2596. Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
  2597. the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{#+TBLFM}
  2598. line)---during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
  2599. To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
  2600. prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.
  2601. @kindex C-c C-c
  2602. You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
  2603. equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line or with the normal
  2604. recalculation commands in the table.
  2605. @subsubheading Debugging formulas
  2606. @cindex formula debugging
  2607. @cindex debugging, of table formulas
  2608. When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
  2609. becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}. If you would like see what is going
  2610. on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
  2611. turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
  2612. calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-u C-u C-c = @key{RET}} in a
  2613. field. Detailed information will be displayed.
  2614. @node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
  2615. @subsection Updating the table
  2616. @cindex recomputing table fields
  2617. @cindex updating, table
  2618. Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
  2619. triggered by a command. See @ref{Advanced features}, for a way to make
  2620. recalculation at least semi-automatic.
  2621. In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
  2622. following commands:
  2623. @table @kbd
  2624. @orgcmd{C-c *,org-table-recalculate}
  2625. Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
  2626. from left to right, and all field/range formulas in the current row.
  2627. @c
  2628. @kindex C-u C-c *
  2629. @item C-u C-c *
  2630. @kindex C-u C-c C-c
  2631. @itemx C-u C-c C-c
  2632. Recompute the entire table, line by line. Any lines before the first
  2633. hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.
  2634. @c
  2635. @orgcmdkkc{C-u C-u C-c *,C-u C-u C-c C-c,org-table-iterate}
  2636. Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
  2637. This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
  2638. fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
  2639. @item M-x org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2640. @findex org-table-recalculate-buffer-tables
  2641. Recompute all tables in the current buffer.
  2642. @item M-x org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2643. @findex org-table-iterate-buffer-tables
  2644. Iterate all tables in the current buffer, in order to converge table-to-table
  2645. dependencies.
  2646. @end table
  2647. @node Advanced features, , Updating the table, The spreadsheet
  2648. @subsection Advanced features
  2649. If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if you
  2650. want to be able to assign @i{names}@footnote{Such names must start by an
  2651. alphabetic character and use only alphanumeric/underscore characters.} to
  2652. fields and columns, you need to reserve the first column of the table for
  2653. special marking characters.
  2654. @table @kbd
  2655. @orgcmd{C-#,org-table-rotate-recalc-marks}
  2656. Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{ },
  2657. @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. When there is an active region,
  2658. change all marks in the region.
  2659. @end table
  2660. Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and
  2661. makes use of these features:
  2662. @example
  2663. @group
  2664. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2665. | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
  2666. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2667. | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | |
  2668. | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 |
  2669. | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | |
  2670. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2671. | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 |
  2672. | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 |
  2673. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2674. | | Average | | | | 25.0 | |
  2675. | ^ | | | | | at | |
  2676. | $ | max=50 | | | | | |
  2677. |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
  2678. #+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f
  2679. @end group
  2680. @end example
  2681. @noindent @b{Important}: please note that for these special tables,
  2682. recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that
  2683. are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned
  2684. to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with
  2685. empty first field.
  2686. @cindex marking characters, tables
  2687. The marking characters have the following meaning:
  2688. @table @samp
  2689. @item !
  2690. The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may
  2691. refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}.
  2692. @item ^
  2693. This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such
  2694. a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
  2695. the value @samp{10}. Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
  2696. will be stored as @samp{$name=...}.
  2697. @item _
  2698. Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row
  2699. @emph{below}.
  2700. @item $
  2701. Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas. For
  2702. example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then
  2703. formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
  2704. Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
  2705. a per-table basis.
  2706. @item #
  2707. Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
  2708. @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row. Also, this row
  2709. is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}. Unmarked
  2710. lines will be left alone by this command.
  2711. @item *
  2712. Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
  2713. not for automatic recalculation. Use this when automatic
  2714. recalculation slows down editing too much.
  2715. @item @w{ }
  2716. Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
  2717. All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
  2718. or @samp{*}.
  2719. @item /
  2720. Do not export this line. Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
  2721. @samp{<N>} markers or column group markers.
  2722. @end table
  2723. Finally, just to whet your appetite for what can be done with the
  2724. fantastic @file{calc.el} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
  2725. series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of
  2726. functions.
  2727. @example
  2728. @group
  2729. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2730. | | Func | n | x | Result |
  2731. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2732. | # | exp(x) | 1 | x | 1 + x |
  2733. | # | exp(x) | 2 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 |
  2734. | # | exp(x) | 3 | x | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6 |
  2735. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
  2736. | # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2 |
  2737. | * | tan(x) | 3 | x | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3 |
  2738. |---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
  2739. #+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
  2740. @end group
  2741. @end example
  2742. @node Org-Plot, , The spreadsheet, Tables
  2743. @section Org-Plot
  2744. @cindex graph, in tables
  2745. @cindex plot tables using Gnuplot
  2746. @cindex #+PLOT
  2747. Org-Plot can produce 2D and 3D graphs of information stored in org tables
  2748. using @file{Gnuplot} @uref{http://www.gnuplot.info/} and @file{gnuplot-mode}
  2749. @uref{http://xafs.org/BruceRavel/GnuplotMode}. To see this in action, ensure
  2750. that you have both Gnuplot and Gnuplot mode installed on your system, then
  2751. call @code{org-plot/gnuplot} on the following table.
  2752. @example
  2753. @group
  2754. #+PLOT: title:"Citas" ind:1 deps:(3) type:2d with:histograms set:"yrange [0:]"
  2755. | Sede | Max cites | H-index |
  2756. |-----------+-----------+---------|
  2757. | Chile | 257.72 | 21.39 |
  2758. | Leeds | 165.77 | 19.68 |
  2759. | Sao Paolo | 71.00 | 11.50 |
  2760. | Stockholm | 134.19 | 14.33 |
  2761. | Morelia | 257.56 | 17.67 |
  2762. @end group
  2763. @end example
  2764. Notice that Org Plot is smart enough to apply the table's headers as labels.
  2765. Further control over the labels, type, content, and appearance of plots can
  2766. be exercised through the @code{#+PLOT:} lines preceding a table. See below
  2767. for a complete list of Org-plot options. For more information and examples
  2768. see the Org-plot tutorial at
  2769. @uref{http://orgmode.org/worg/org-tutorials/org-plot.html}.
  2770. @subsubheading Plot Options
  2771. @table @code
  2772. @item set
  2773. Specify any @command{gnuplot} option to be set when graphing.
  2774. @item title
  2775. Specify the title of the plot.
  2776. @item ind
  2777. Specify which column of the table to use as the @code{x} axis.
  2778. @item deps
  2779. Specify the columns to graph as a Lisp style list, surrounded by parentheses
  2780. and separated by spaces for example @code{dep:(3 4)} to graph the third and
  2781. fourth columns (defaults to graphing all other columns aside from the @code{ind}
  2782. column).
  2783. @item type
  2784. Specify whether the plot will be @code{2d}, @code{3d}, or @code{grid}.
  2785. @item with
  2786. Specify a @code{with} option to be inserted for every col being plotted
  2787. (e.g., @code{lines}, @code{points}, @code{boxes}, @code{impulses}, etc...).
  2788. Defaults to @code{lines}.
  2789. @item file
  2790. If you want to plot to a file, specify @code{"@var{path/to/desired/output-file}"}.
  2791. @item labels
  2792. List of labels to be used for the @code{deps} (defaults to the column headers
  2793. if they exist).
  2794. @item line
  2795. Specify an entire line to be inserted in the Gnuplot script.
  2796. @item map
  2797. When plotting @code{3d} or @code{grid} types, set this to @code{t} to graph a
  2798. flat mapping rather than a @code{3d} slope.
  2799. @item timefmt
  2800. Specify format of Org mode timestamps as they will be parsed by Gnuplot.
  2801. Defaults to @samp{%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S}.
  2802. @item script
  2803. If you want total control, you can specify a script file (place the file name
  2804. between double-quotes) which will be used to plot. Before plotting, every
  2805. instance of @code{$datafile} in the specified script will be replaced with
  2806. the path to the generated data file. Note: even if you set this option, you
  2807. may still want to specify the plot type, as that can impact the content of
  2808. the data file.
  2809. @end table
  2810. @node Hyperlinks, TODO Items, Tables, Top
  2811. @chapter Hyperlinks
  2812. @cindex hyperlinks
  2813. Like HTML, Org provides links inside a file, external links to
  2814. other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.
  2815. @menu
  2816. * Link format:: How links in Org are formatted
  2817. * Internal links:: Links to other places in the current file
  2818. * External links:: URL-like links to the world
  2819. * Handling links:: Creating, inserting and following
  2820. * Using links outside Org:: Linking from my C source code?
  2821. * Link abbreviations:: Shortcuts for writing complex links
  2822. * Search options:: Linking to a specific location
  2823. * Custom searches:: When the default search is not enough
  2824. @end menu
  2825. @node Link format, Internal links, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
  2826. @section Link format
  2827. @cindex link format
  2828. @cindex format, of links
  2829. Org will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as
  2830. clickable links. The general link format, however, looks like this:
  2831. @example
  2832. [[link][description]] @r{or alternatively} [[link]]
  2833. @end example
  2834. @noindent
  2835. Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org
  2836. will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
  2837. of @samp{[[link][description]]} and @samp{link} is displayed instead of
  2838. @samp{[[link]]}. Links will be highlighted in the face @code{org-link},
  2839. which by default is an underlined face. You can directly edit the
  2840. visible part of a link. Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
  2841. part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part. To
  2842. edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the
  2843. cursor on the link.
  2844. If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
  2845. displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
  2846. (invisible) bracket at that location. This makes the link incomplete
  2847. and the internals are again displayed as plain text. Inserting the
  2848. missing bracket hides the link internals again. To show the
  2849. internal structure of all links, use the menu entry
  2850. @code{Org->Hyperlinks->Literal links}.
  2851. @node Internal links, External links, Link format, Hyperlinks
  2852. @section Internal links
  2853. @cindex internal links
  2854. @cindex links, internal
  2855. @cindex targets, for links
  2856. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  2857. If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in the
  2858. current file. The most important case is a link like
  2859. @samp{[[#my-custom-id]]} which will link to the entry with the
  2860. @code{CUSTOM_ID} property @samp{my-custom-id}. Such custom IDs are very good
  2861. for HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}) where they produce pretty section
  2862. links. You are responsible yourself to make sure these custom IDs are unique
  2863. in a file.
  2864. Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My Target][Find my target]]}
  2865. lead to a text search in the current file.
  2866. The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the link,
  2867. or with a mouse click (@pxref{Handling links}). Links to custom IDs will
  2868. point to the corresponding headline. The preferred match for a text link is
  2869. a @i{dedicated target}: the same string in double angular brackets. Targets
  2870. may be located anywhere; sometimes it is convenient to put them into a
  2871. comment line. For example
  2872. @example
  2873. # <<My Target>>
  2874. @end example
  2875. @noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
  2876. named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note that
  2877. text before the first headline is usually not exported, so the first such
  2878. target should be after the first headline, or in the line directly before the
  2879. first headline.}.
  2880. If no dedicated target exists, Org will search for a headline that is exactly
  2881. the link text but may also include a TODO keyword and tags@footnote{To insert
  2882. a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used. Just type a
  2883. star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and press
  2884. @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}. All headlines in the current buffer will be offered as
  2885. completions.}. In non-Org files, the search will look for the words in the
  2886. link text. In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
  2887. Following a link pushes a mark onto Org's own mark ring. You can
  2888. return to the previous position with @kbd{C-c &}. Using this command
  2889. several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
  2890. earlier.
  2891. @menu
  2892. * Radio targets:: Make targets trigger links in plain text
  2893. @end menu
  2894. @node Radio targets, , Internal links, Internal links
  2895. @subsection Radio targets
  2896. @cindex radio targets
  2897. @cindex targets, radio
  2898. @cindex links, radio targets
  2899. Org can automatically turn any occurrences of certain target names
  2900. in normal text into a link. So without explicitly creating a link, the
  2901. text connects to the target radioing its position. Radio targets are
  2902. enclosed by triple angular brackets. For example, a target @samp{<<<My
  2903. Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in normal text to
  2904. become activated as a link. The Org file is scanned automatically
  2905. for radio targets only when the file is first loaded into Emacs. To
  2906. update the target list during editing, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  2907. cursor on or at a target.
  2908. @node External links, Handling links, Internal links, Hyperlinks
  2909. @section External links
  2910. @cindex links, external
  2911. @cindex external links
  2912. @cindex links, external
  2913. @cindex Gnus links
  2914. @cindex BBDB links
  2915. @cindex IRC links
  2916. @cindex URL links
  2917. @cindex file links
  2918. @cindex VM links
  2919. @cindex RMAIL links
  2920. @cindex WANDERLUST links
  2921. @cindex MH-E links
  2922. @cindex USENET links
  2923. @cindex SHELL links
  2924. @cindex Info links
  2925. @cindex Elisp links
  2926. Org supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
  2927. BBDB database entries and links to both IRC conversations and their
  2928. logs. External links are URL-like locators. They start with a short
  2929. identifying string followed by a colon. There can be no space after
  2930. the colon. The following list shows examples for each link type.
  2931. @example
  2932. http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik @r{on the web}
  2933. doi:10.1000/182 @r{DOI for an electronic resource}
  2934. file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{file, absolute path}
  2935. /home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg @r{same as above}
  2936. file:papers/last.pdf @r{file, relative path}
  2937. ./papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2938. file:/myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{file, path on remote machine}
  2939. /myself@@some.where:papers/last.pdf @r{same as above}
  2940. file:sometextfile::NNN @r{file, jump to line number}
  2941. file:projects.org @r{another Org file}
  2942. file:projects.org::some words @r{text search in Org file}@footnote{
  2943. The actual behavior of the search will depend on the value of
  2944. the variable @code{org-link-search-must-match-exact-headline}. If its value
  2945. is nil, then a fuzzy text search will be done. If it is t, then only the
  2946. exact headline will be matched. If the value is @code{'query-to-create},
  2947. then an exact headline will be searched; if it is not found, then the user
  2948. will be queried to create it.}
  2949. file:projects.org::*task title @r{heading search in Org file}
  2950. file+sys:/path/to/file @r{open via OS, like double-click}
  2951. file+emacs:/path/to/file @r{force opening by Emacs}
  2952. docview:papers/last.pdf::NNN @r{open in doc-view mode at page}
  2953. id:B7423F4D-2E8A-471B-8810-C40F074717E9 @r{Link to heading by ID}
  2954. news:comp.emacs @r{Usenet link}
  2955. mailto:adent@@galaxy.net @r{Mail link}
  2956. vm:folder @r{VM folder link}
  2957. vm:folder#id @r{VM message link}
  2958. vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id @r{VM on remote machine}
  2959. vm-imap:account:folder @r{VM IMAP folder link}
  2960. vm-imap:account:folder#id @r{VM IMAP message link}
  2961. wl:folder @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
  2962. wl:folder#id @r{WANDERLUST message link}
  2963. mhe:folder @r{MH-E folder link}
  2964. mhe:folder#id @r{MH-E message link}
  2965. rmail:folder @r{RMAIL folder link}
  2966. rmail:folder#id @r{RMAIL message link}
  2967. gnus:group @r{Gnus group link}
  2968. gnus:group#id @r{Gnus article link}
  2969. bbdb:R.*Stallman @r{BBDB link (with regexp)}
  2970. irc:/irc.com/#emacs/bob @r{IRC link}
  2971. info:org#External links @r{Info node link}
  2972. shell:ls *.org @r{A shell command}
  2973. elisp:org-agenda @r{Interactive Elisp command}
  2974. elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{Elisp form to evaluate}
  2975. @end example
  2976. For customizing Org to add new link types @ref{Adding hyperlink types}.
  2977. A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
  2978. descriptive text to be displayed instead of the URL (@pxref{Link
  2979. format}), for example:
  2980. @example
  2981. [[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
  2982. @end example
  2983. @noindent
  2984. If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
  2985. export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
  2986. button. If there is no description at all and the link points to an
  2987. image,
  2988. that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.
  2989. @cindex square brackets, around links
  2990. @cindex plain text external links
  2991. Org also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
  2992. as links. If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
  2993. @samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities
  2994. about the end of the link, enclose them in square brackets.
  2995. @node Handling links, Using links outside Org, External links, Hyperlinks
  2996. @section Handling links
  2997. @cindex links, handling
  2998. Org provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to
  2999. insert it into an Org file, and to follow the link.
  3000. @table @kbd
  3001. @orgcmd{C-c l,org-store-link}
  3002. @cindex storing links
  3003. Store a link to the current location. This is a @emph{global} command (you
  3004. must create the key binding yourself) which can be used in any buffer to
  3005. create a link. The link will be stored for later insertion into an Org
  3006. buffer (see below). What kind of link will be created depends on the current
  3007. buffer:
  3008. @b{Org mode buffers}@*
  3009. For Org files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link points
  3010. to the target. Otherwise it points to the current headline, which will also
  3011. be the description@footnote{If the headline contains a timestamp, it will be
  3012. removed from the link and result in a wrong link---you should avoid putting
  3013. timestamp in the headline.}.
  3014. @vindex org-id-link-to-org-use-id
  3015. @cindex property, CUSTOM_ID
  3016. @cindex property, ID
  3017. If the headline has a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property, a link to this custom ID
  3018. will be stored. In addition or alternatively (depending on the value of
  3019. @code{org-id-link-to-org-use-id}), a globally unique @code{ID} property will
  3020. be created and/or used to construct a link@footnote{The library @code{org-id}
  3021. must first be loaded, either through @code{org-customize} by enabling
  3022. @code{id} in @code{org-modules} , or by adding @code{(require 'org-id)} in
  3023. your @file{.emacs}.}. So using this command in Org
  3024. buffers will potentially create two links: a human-readable from the custom
  3025. ID, and one that is globally unique and works even if the entry is moved from
  3026. file to file. Later, when inserting the link, you need to decide which one
  3027. to use.
  3028. @b{Email/News clients: VM, Rmail, Wanderlust, MH-E, Gnus}@*
  3029. Pretty much all Emacs mail clients are supported. The link will point to the
  3030. current article, or, in some GNUS buffers, to the group. The description is
  3031. constructed from the author and the subject.
  3032. @b{Web browsers: W3 and W3M}@*
  3033. Here the link will be the current URL, with the page title as description.
  3034. @b{Contacts: BBDB}@*
  3035. Links created in a BBDB buffer will point to the current entry.
  3036. @b{Chat: IRC}@*
  3037. @vindex org-irc-link-to-logs
  3038. For IRC links, if you set the variable @code{org-irc-link-to-logs} to
  3039. @code{t}, a @samp{file:/} style link to the relevant point in the logs for
  3040. the current conversation is created. Otherwise an @samp{irc:/} style link to
  3041. the user/channel/server under the point will be stored.
  3042. @b{Other files}@*
  3043. For any other files, the link will point to the file, with a search string
  3044. (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the contents of the current line. If
  3045. there is an active region, the selected words will form the basis of the
  3046. search string. If the automatically created link is not working correctly or
  3047. accurately enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string
  3048. and to do the search for particular file types---see @ref{Custom searches}.
  3049. The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion---see @ref{Installation}.
  3050. @b{Agenda view}@*
  3051. When the cursor is in an agenda view, the created link points to the
  3052. entry referenced by the current line.
  3053. @c
  3054. @orgcmd{C-c C-l,org-insert-link}
  3055. @cindex link completion
  3056. @cindex completion, of links
  3057. @cindex inserting links
  3058. @vindex org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion
  3059. Insert a link@footnote{ Note that you don't have to use this command to
  3060. insert a link. Links in Org are plain text, and you can type or paste them
  3061. straight into the buffer. By using this command, the links are automatically
  3062. enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for the optional
  3063. descriptive text.}. This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
  3064. You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the link
  3065. type prefixes mentioned in the examples above. The link will be inserted
  3066. into the buffer@footnote{After insertion of a stored link, the link will be
  3067. removed from the list of stored links. To keep it in the list later use, use
  3068. a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the option
  3069. @code{org-keep-stored-link-after-insertion}.}, along with a descriptive text.
  3070. If some text was selected when this command is called, the selected text
  3071. becomes the default description.
  3072. @b{Inserting stored links}@*
  3073. All links stored during the
  3074. current session are part of the history for this prompt, so you can access
  3075. them with @key{up} and @key{down} (or @kbd{M-p/n}).
  3076. @b{Completion support}@* Completion with @key{TAB} will help you to insert
  3077. valid link prefixes like @samp{http:} or @samp{ftp:}, including the prefixes
  3078. defined through link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). If you
  3079. press @key{RET} after inserting only the @var{prefix}, Org will offer
  3080. specific completion support for some link types@footnote{This works by
  3081. calling a special function @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link}.} For
  3082. example, if you type @kbd{file @key{RET}}, file name completion (alternative
  3083. access: @kbd{C-u C-c C-l}, see below) will be offered, and after @kbd{bbdb
  3084. @key{RET}} you can complete contact names.
  3085. @orgkey C-u C-c C-l
  3086. @cindex file name completion
  3087. @cindex completion, of file names
  3088. When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
  3089. a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
  3090. the name of the file. The path to the file is inserted relative to the
  3091. directory of the current Org file, if the linked file is in the current
  3092. directory or in a sub-directory of it, or if the path is written relative
  3093. to the current directory using @samp{../}. Otherwise an absolute path
  3094. is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory. You can
  3095. force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.
  3096. @c
  3097. @item C-c C-l @ @r{(with cursor on existing link)}
  3098. When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the
  3099. link and description parts of the link.
  3100. @c
  3101. @cindex following links
  3102. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  3103. @vindex org-file-apps
  3104. @vindex org-link-frame-setup
  3105. Open link at point. This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
  3106. @command{browse-url-at-point}), run VM/MH-E/Wanderlust/Rmail/Gnus/BBDB for
  3107. the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link. When the
  3108. cursor is on an internal link, this command runs the corresponding search.
  3109. When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline, it creates the corresponding
  3110. TAGS view. If the cursor is on a timestamp, it compiles the agenda for that
  3111. date. Furthermore, it will visit text and remote files in @samp{file:} links
  3112. with Emacs and select a suitable application for local non-text files.
  3113. Classification of files is based on file extension only. See option
  3114. @code{org-file-apps}. If you want to override the default application and
  3115. visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix. If you want to avoid
  3116. opening in Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u C-u} prefix.@*
  3117. If the cursor is on a headline, but not on a link, offer all links in the
  3118. headline and entry text. If you want to setup the frame configuration for
  3119. following links, customize @code{org-link-frame-setup}.
  3120. @orgkey @key{RET}
  3121. @vindex org-return-follows-link
  3122. When @code{org-return-follows-link} is set, @kbd{@key{RET}} will also follow
  3123. the link at point.
  3124. @c
  3125. @kindex mouse-2
  3126. @kindex mouse-1
  3127. @item mouse-2
  3128. @itemx mouse-1
  3129. On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just as @kbd{C-c C-o}
  3130. would. Under Emacs 22 and later, @kbd{mouse-1} will also follow a link.
  3131. @c
  3132. @kindex mouse-3
  3133. @item mouse-3
  3134. @vindex org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer
  3135. Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
  3136. internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the
  3137. variable @code{org-display-internal-link-with-indirect-buffer}}.
  3138. @c
  3139. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-v,org-toggle-inline-images}
  3140. @cindex inlining images
  3141. @cindex images, inlining
  3142. @vindex org-startup-with-inline-images
  3143. @cindex @code{inlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3144. @cindex @code{noinlineimages}, STARTUP keyword
  3145. Toggle the inline display of linked images. Normally this will only inline
  3146. images that have no description part in the link, i.e., images that will also
  3147. be inlined during export. When called with a prefix argument, also display
  3148. images that do have a link description. You can ask for inline images to be
  3149. displayed at startup by configuring the variable
  3150. @code{org-startup-with-inline-images}@footnote{with corresponding
  3151. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{inlineimages} and @code{inlineimages}}.
  3152. @orgcmd{C-c %,org-mark-ring-push}
  3153. @cindex mark ring
  3154. Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
  3155. easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.
  3156. @c
  3157. @orgcmd{C-c &,org-mark-ring-goto}
  3158. @cindex links, returning to
  3159. Jump back to a recorded position. A position is recorded by the
  3160. commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}. Using this
  3161. command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
  3162. previously recorded positions.
  3163. @c
  3164. @orgcmdkkcc{C-c C-x C-n,C-c C-x C-p,org-next-link,org-previous-link}
  3165. @cindex links, finding next/previous
  3166. Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer. At the limit of
  3167. the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around. The key
  3168. bindings for this are really too long; you might want to bind this also
  3169. to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
  3170. @lisp
  3171. (add-hook 'org-load-hook
  3172. (lambda ()
  3173. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-n" 'org-next-link)
  3174. (define-key org-mode-map "\C-p" 'org-previous-link)))
  3175. @end lisp
  3176. @end table
  3177. @node Using links outside Org, Link abbreviations, Handling links, Hyperlinks
  3178. @section Using links outside Org
  3179. You can insert and follow links that have Org syntax not only in
  3180. Org, but in any Emacs buffer. For this, you should create two
  3181. global commands, like this (please select suitable global keys
  3182. yourself):
  3183. @lisp
  3184. (global-set-key "\C-c L" 'org-insert-link-global)
  3185. (global-set-key "\C-c o" 'org-open-at-point-global)
  3186. @end lisp
  3187. @node Link abbreviations, Search options, Using links outside Org, Hyperlinks
  3188. @section Link abbreviations
  3189. @cindex link abbreviations
  3190. @cindex abbreviation, links
  3191. Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
  3192. needed in a document. For this you can use link abbreviations. An
  3193. abbreviated link looks like this
  3194. @example
  3195. [[linkword:tag][description]]
  3196. @end example
  3197. @noindent
  3198. @vindex org-link-abbrev-alist
  3199. where the tag is optional.
  3200. The @i{linkword} must be a word, starting with a letter, followed by
  3201. letters, numbers, @samp{-}, and @samp{_}. Abbreviations are resolved
  3202. according to the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}
  3203. that relates the linkwords to replacement text. Here is an example:
  3204. @smalllisp
  3205. @group
  3206. (setq org-link-abbrev-alist
  3207. '(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
  3208. ("url-to-ja" . "http://translate.google.fr/translate?sl=en&tl=ja&u=%h")
  3209. ("google" . "http://www.google.com/search?q=")
  3210. ("gmap" . "http://maps.google.com/maps?q=%s")
  3211. ("omap" . "http://nominatim.openstreetmap.org/search?q=%s&polygon=1")
  3212. ("ads" . "http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
  3213. @end group
  3214. @end smalllisp
  3215. If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
  3216. replaced with the tag. Using @samp{%h} instead of @samp{%s} will
  3217. url-encode the tag (see the example above, where we need to encode
  3218. the URL parameter.) Using @samp{%(my-function)} will pass the tag
  3219. to a custom function, and replace it by the resulting string.
  3220. If the replacement text don't contain any specifier, it will simply
  3221. be appended to the string in order to create the link.
  3222. Instead of a string, you may also specify a function that will be
  3223. called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.
  3224. With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
  3225. @code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
  3226. @code{[[google:OrgMode]]}, show the map location of the Free Software
  3227. Foundation @code{[[gmap:51 Franklin Street, Boston]]} or of Carsten office
  3228. @code{[[omap:Science Park 904, Amsterdam, The Netherlands]]} and find out
  3229. what the Org author is doing besides Emacs hacking with
  3230. @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.
  3231. If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org buffer, you
  3232. can define them in the file with
  3233. @cindex #+LINK
  3234. @example
  3235. #+LINK: bugzilla http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=
  3236. #+LINK: google http://www.google.com/search?q=%s
  3237. @end example
  3238. @noindent
  3239. In-buffer completion (@pxref{Completion}) can be used after @samp{[} to
  3240. complete link abbreviations. You may also define a function
  3241. @code{org-PREFIX-complete-link} that implements special (e.g., completion)
  3242. support for inserting such a link with @kbd{C-c C-l}. Such a function should
  3243. not accept any arguments, and return the full link with prefix.
  3244. @node Search options, Custom searches, Link abbreviations, Hyperlinks
  3245. @section Search options in file links
  3246. @cindex search option in file links
  3247. @cindex file links, searching
  3248. File links can contain additional information to make Emacs jump to a
  3249. particular location in the file when following a link. This can be a
  3250. line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
  3251. compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
  3252. example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
  3253. links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
  3254. string that can be used to find this line back later when following the
  3255. link with @kbd{C-c C-o}.
  3256. Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file
  3257. link, together with an explanation:
  3258. @example
  3259. [[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
  3260. [[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
  3261. [[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
  3262. [[file:~/xx.org::#my-custom-id]]
  3263. [[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
  3264. @end example
  3265. @table @code
  3266. @item 255
  3267. Jump to line 255.
  3268. @item My Target
  3269. Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
  3270. @samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
  3271. @ref{Internal links}. In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
  3272. link will become a HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
  3273. the linked file.
  3274. @item *My Target
  3275. In an Org file, restrict search to headlines.
  3276. @item #my-custom-id
  3277. Link to a heading with a @code{CUSTOM_ID} property
  3278. @item /regexp/
  3279. Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}. This uses the Emacs
  3280. command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window. If the
  3281. target file is in Org mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
  3282. sparse tree with the matches.
  3283. @c If the target file is a directory,
  3284. @c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
  3285. @end table
  3286. As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
  3287. to search the current file. For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
  3288. a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
  3289. @samp{[[find me]]} would.
  3290. @node Custom searches, , Search options, Hyperlinks
  3291. @section Custom Searches
  3292. @cindex custom search strings
  3293. @cindex search strings, custom
  3294. The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
  3295. actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
  3296. cases. For example, Bib@TeX{} database files have many entries like
  3297. @samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
  3298. because the only unique identification for a Bib@TeX{} entry is the
  3299. citation key.
  3300. @vindex org-create-file-search-functions
  3301. @vindex org-execute-file-search-functions
  3302. If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
  3303. the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
  3304. for the string in the file. Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
  3305. to be added to the hook variables
  3306. @code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
  3307. @code{org-execute-file-search-functions}. See the docstring for these
  3308. variables for more information. Org actually uses this mechanism
  3309. for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
  3310. an implementation example. See the file @file{org-bibtex.el}.
  3311. @node TODO Items, Tags, Hyperlinks, Top
  3312. @chapter TODO items
  3313. @cindex TODO items
  3314. Org mode does not maintain TODO lists as separate documents@footnote{Of
  3315. course, you can make a document that contains only long lists of TODO items,
  3316. but this is not required.}. Instead, TODO items are an integral part of the
  3317. notes file, because TODO items usually come up while taking notes! With Org
  3318. mode, simply mark any entry in a tree as being a TODO item. In this way,
  3319. information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the TODO
  3320. item emerged is always present.
  3321. Of course, this technique for managing TODO items scatters them
  3322. throughout your notes file. Org mode compensates for this by providing
  3323. methods to give you an overview of all the things that you have to do.
  3324. @menu
  3325. * TODO basics:: Marking and displaying TODO entries
  3326. * TODO extensions:: Workflow and assignments
  3327. * Progress logging:: Dates and notes for progress
  3328. * Priorities:: Some things are more important than others
  3329. * Breaking down tasks:: Splitting a task into manageable pieces
  3330. * Checkboxes:: Tick-off lists
  3331. @end menu
  3332. @node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO Items, TODO Items
  3333. @section Basic TODO functionality
  3334. Any headline becomes a TODO item when it starts with the word
  3335. @samp{TODO}, for example:
  3336. @example
  3337. *** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3338. @end example
  3339. @noindent
  3340. The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:
  3341. @table @kbd
  3342. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  3343. @cindex cycling, of TODO states
  3344. @vindex org-use-fast-todo-selection
  3345. Rotate the TODO state of the current item among
  3346. @example
  3347. ,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
  3348. '--------------------------------'
  3349. @end example
  3350. If TODO keywords have fast access keys (see @ref{Fast access to TODO
  3351. states}), you will be prompted for a TODO keyword through the fast selection
  3352. interface; this is the default behavior when
  3353. @var{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is non-nil.
  3354. The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and agenda
  3355. buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3356. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-t}
  3357. When TODO keywords have no selection keys, select a specific keyword using
  3358. completion; otherwise force cycling through TODO states with no prompt. When
  3359. @var{org-use-fast-todo-selection} is set to @code{prefix}, use the fast
  3360. selection interface.
  3361. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3362. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3363. @item S-@key{right} @ @r{/} @ S-@key{left}
  3364. @vindex org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change
  3365. Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling. Useful
  3366. mostly if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO
  3367. extensions}). See also @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction
  3368. with @code{shift-selection-mode}. See also the variable
  3369. @code{org-treat-S-cursor-todo-selection-as-state-change}.
  3370. @orgcmd{C-c / t,org-show-todo-tree}
  3371. @cindex sparse tree, for TODO
  3372. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3373. View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}). Folds the
  3374. entire buffer, but shows all TODO items (with not-DONE state) and the
  3375. headings hierarchy above them. With a prefix argument (or by using @kbd{C-c
  3376. / T}), search for a specific TODO@. You will be prompted for the keyword, and
  3377. you can also give a list of keywords like @code{KWD1|KWD2|...} to list
  3378. entries that match any one of these keywords. With a numeric prefix argument
  3379. N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
  3380. @code{org-todo-keywords}. With two prefix arguments, find all TODO states,
  3381. both un-done and done.
  3382. @orgcmd{C-c a t,org-todo-list}
  3383. Show the global TODO list. Collects the TODO items (with not-DONE states)
  3384. from all agenda files (@pxref{Agenda Views}) into a single buffer. The new
  3385. buffer will be in @code{agenda-mode}, which provides commands to examine and
  3386. manipulate the TODO entries from the new buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3387. @xref{Global TODO list}, for more information.
  3388. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  3389. Insert a new TODO entry below the current one.
  3390. @end table
  3391. @noindent
  3392. @vindex org-todo-state-tags-triggers
  3393. Changing a TODO state can also trigger tag changes. See the docstring of the
  3394. option @code{org-todo-state-tags-triggers} for details.
  3395. @node TODO extensions, Progress logging, TODO basics, TODO Items
  3396. @section Extended use of TODO keywords
  3397. @cindex extended TODO keywords
  3398. @vindex org-todo-keywords
  3399. By default, marked TODO entries have one of only two states: TODO and
  3400. DONE@. Org mode allows you to classify TODO items in more complex ways
  3401. with @emph{TODO keywords} (stored in @code{org-todo-keywords}). With
  3402. special setup, the TODO keyword system can work differently in different
  3403. files.
  3404. Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
  3405. TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).
  3406. @menu
  3407. * Workflow states:: From TODO to DONE in steps
  3408. * TODO types:: I do this, Fred does the rest
  3409. * Multiple sets in one file:: Mixing it all, and still finding your way
  3410. * Fast access to TODO states:: Single letter selection of a state
  3411. * Per-file keywords:: Different files, different requirements
  3412. * Faces for TODO keywords:: Highlighting states
  3413. * TODO dependencies:: When one task needs to wait for others
  3414. @end menu
  3415. @node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
  3416. @subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
  3417. @cindex TODO workflow
  3418. @cindex workflow states as TODO keywords
  3419. You can use TODO keywords to indicate different @emph{sequential} states
  3420. in the process of working on an item, for example@footnote{Changing
  3421. this variable only becomes effective after restarting Org mode in a
  3422. buffer.}:
  3423. @lisp
  3424. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3425. '((sequence "TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "|" "DONE" "DELEGATED")))
  3426. @end lisp
  3427. The vertical bar separates the TODO keywords (states that @emph{need
  3428. action}) from the DONE states (which need @emph{no further action}). If
  3429. you don't provide the separator bar, the last state is used as the DONE
  3430. state.
  3431. @cindex completion, of TODO keywords
  3432. With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from TODO
  3433. to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE and DELEGATED@. You may
  3434. also use a numeric prefix argument to quickly select a specific state. For
  3435. example @kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY@.
  3436. Or you can use @kbd{S-@key{left}} to go backward through the sequence. If you
  3437. define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion
  3438. (@pxref{Completion}) or even a special one-key selection scheme
  3439. (@pxref{Fast access to TODO states}) to insert these words into the
  3440. buffer. Changing a TODO state can be logged with a timestamp, see
  3441. @ref{Tracking TODO state changes}, for more information.
  3442. @node TODO types, Multiple sets in one file, Workflow states, TODO extensions
  3443. @subsection TODO keywords as types
  3444. @cindex TODO types
  3445. @cindex names as TODO keywords
  3446. @cindex types as TODO keywords
  3447. The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
  3448. @emph{types} of action items. For example, you might want to indicate
  3449. that items are for ``work'' or ``home''. Or, when you work with several
  3450. people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
  3451. directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords. This would
  3452. be set up like this:
  3453. @lisp
  3454. (setq org-todo-keywords '((type "Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "|" "DONE")))
  3455. @end lisp
  3456. In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but rather
  3457. different types. So the normal work flow would be to assign a task to a
  3458. person, and later to mark it DONE@. Org mode supports this style by adapting
  3459. the workings of the command @kbd{C-c C-t}@footnote{This is also true for the
  3460. @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}. When used several
  3461. times in succession, it will still cycle through all names, in order to first
  3462. select the right type for a task. But when you return to the item after some
  3463. time and execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from any name directly
  3464. to DONE@. Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
  3465. name. You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
  3466. by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c / t}. For example, to see all things
  3467. Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c / t}. To collect Lucy's items
  3468. from all agenda files into a single buffer, you would use the numeric prefix
  3469. argument as well when creating the global TODO list: @kbd{C-3 C-c a t}.
  3470. @node Multiple sets in one file, Fast access to TODO states, TODO types, TODO extensions
  3471. @subsection Multiple keyword sets in one file
  3472. @cindex TODO keyword sets
  3473. Sometimes you may want to use different sets of TODO keywords in
  3474. parallel. For example, you may want to have the basic
  3475. @code{TODO}/@code{DONE}, but also a workflow for bug fixing, and a
  3476. separate state indicating that an item has been canceled (so it is not
  3477. DONE, but also does not require action). Your setup would then look
  3478. like this:
  3479. @lisp
  3480. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3481. '((sequence "TODO" "|" "DONE")
  3482. (sequence "REPORT" "BUG" "KNOWNCAUSE" "|" "FIXED")
  3483. (sequence "|" "CANCELED")))
  3484. @end lisp
  3485. The keywords should all be different, this helps Org mode to keep track
  3486. of which subsequence should be used for a given entry. In this setup,
  3487. @kbd{C-c C-t} only operates within a subsequence, so it switches from
  3488. @code{DONE} to (nothing) to @code{TODO}, and from @code{FIXED} to
  3489. (nothing) to @code{REPORT}. Therefore you need a mechanism to initially
  3490. select the correct sequence. Besides the obvious ways like typing a
  3491. keyword or using completion, you may also apply the following commands:
  3492. @table @kbd
  3493. @kindex C-S-@key{right}
  3494. @kindex C-S-@key{left}
  3495. @kindex C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3496. @item C-u C-u C-c C-t
  3497. @itemx C-S-@key{right}
  3498. @itemx C-S-@key{left}
  3499. These keys jump from one TODO subset to the next. In the above example,
  3500. @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-t} or @kbd{C-S-@key{right}} would jump from @code{TODO} or
  3501. @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT}, and any of the words in the second row to
  3502. @code{CANCELED}. Note that the @kbd{C-S-} key binding conflict with
  3503. @code{shift-selection-mode} (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  3504. @kindex S-@key{right}
  3505. @kindex S-@key{left}
  3506. @item S-@key{right}
  3507. @itemx S-@key{left}
  3508. @kbd{S-@key{<left>}} and @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} and walk through @emph{all}
  3509. keywords from all sets, so for example @kbd{S-@key{<right>}} would switch
  3510. from @code{DONE} to @code{REPORT} in the example above. See also
  3511. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3512. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3513. @end table
  3514. @node Fast access to TODO states, Per-file keywords, Multiple sets in one file, TODO extensions
  3515. @subsection Fast access to TODO states
  3516. If you would like to quickly change an entry to an arbitrary TODO state
  3517. instead of cycling through the states, you can set up keys for single-letter
  3518. access to the states. This is done by adding the selection character after
  3519. each keyword, in parentheses@footnote{All characters are allowed except
  3520. @code{@@^!}, which have a special meaning here.}. For example:
  3521. @lisp
  3522. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3523. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "|" "DONE(d)")
  3524. (sequence "REPORT(r)" "BUG(b)" "KNOWNCAUSE(k)" "|" "FIXED(f)")
  3525. (sequence "|" "CANCELED(c)")))
  3526. @end lisp
  3527. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo
  3528. If you then press @kbd{C-c C-t} followed by the selection key, the entry
  3529. will be switched to this state. @kbd{SPC} can be used to remove any TODO
  3530. keyword from an entry.@footnote{Check also the variable
  3531. @code{org-fast-tag-selection-include-todo}, it allows you to change the TODO
  3532. state through the tags interface (@pxref{Setting tags}), in case you like to
  3533. mingle the two concepts. Note that this means you need to come up with
  3534. unique keys across both sets of keywords.}
  3535. @node Per-file keywords, Faces for TODO keywords, Fast access to TODO states, TODO extensions
  3536. @subsection Setting up keywords for individual files
  3537. @cindex keyword options
  3538. @cindex per-file keywords
  3539. @cindex #+TODO
  3540. @cindex #+TYP_TODO
  3541. @cindex #+SEQ_TODO
  3542. It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism in
  3543. different files. For file-local settings, you need to add special lines
  3544. to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that file
  3545. only. For example, to set one of the two examples discussed above, you
  3546. need one of the following lines, starting in column zero anywhere in the
  3547. file:
  3548. @example
  3549. #+TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY | DONE CANCELED
  3550. @end example
  3551. @noindent (you may also write @code{#+SEQ_TODO} to be explicit about the
  3552. interpretation, but it means the same as @code{#+TODO}), or
  3553. @example
  3554. #+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike | DONE
  3555. @end example
  3556. A setup for using several sets in parallel would be:
  3557. @example
  3558. #+TODO: TODO | DONE
  3559. #+TODO: REPORT BUG KNOWNCAUSE | FIXED
  3560. #+TODO: | CANCELED
  3561. @end example
  3562. @cindex completion, of option keywords
  3563. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  3564. @noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
  3565. @samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.
  3566. @cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
  3567. Remember that the keywords after the vertical bar (or the last keyword
  3568. if no bar is there) must always mean that the item is DONE (although you
  3569. may use a different word). After changing one of these lines, use
  3570. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to make the changes
  3571. known to Org mode@footnote{Org mode parses these lines only when
  3572. Org mode is activated after visiting a file. @kbd{C-c C-c} with the
  3573. cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+} is simply restarting Org mode
  3574. for the current buffer.}.
  3575. @node Faces for TODO keywords, TODO dependencies, Per-file keywords, TODO extensions
  3576. @subsection Faces for TODO keywords
  3577. @cindex faces, for TODO keywords
  3578. @vindex org-todo @r{(face)}
  3579. @vindex org-done @r{(face)}
  3580. @vindex org-todo-keyword-faces
  3581. Org mode highlights TODO keywords with special faces: @code{org-todo}
  3582. for keywords indicating that an item still has to be acted upon, and
  3583. @code{org-done} for keywords indicating that an item is finished. If
  3584. you are using more than 2 different states, you might want to use
  3585. special faces for some of them. This can be done using the variable
  3586. @code{org-todo-keyword-faces}. For example:
  3587. @lisp
  3588. @group
  3589. (setq org-todo-keyword-faces
  3590. '(("TODO" . org-warning) ("STARTED" . "yellow")
  3591. ("CANCELED" . (:foreground "blue" :weight bold))))
  3592. @end group
  3593. @end lisp
  3594. While using a list with face properties as shown for CANCELED @emph{should}
  3595. work, this does not always seem to be the case. If necessary, define a
  3596. special face and use that. A string is interpreted as a color. The variable
  3597. @code{org-faces-easy-properties} determines if that color is interpreted as a
  3598. foreground or a background color.
  3599. @node TODO dependencies, , Faces for TODO keywords, TODO extensions
  3600. @subsection TODO dependencies
  3601. @cindex TODO dependencies
  3602. @cindex dependencies, of TODO states
  3603. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3604. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3605. The structure of Org files (hierarchy and lists) makes it easy to define TODO
  3606. dependencies. Usually, a parent TODO task should not be marked DONE until
  3607. all subtasks (defined as children tasks) are marked as DONE@. And sometimes
  3608. there is a logical sequence to a number of (sub)tasks, so that one task
  3609. cannot be acted upon before all siblings above it are done. If you customize
  3610. the variable @code{org-enforce-todo-dependencies}, Org will block entries
  3611. from changing state to DONE while they have children that are not DONE@.
  3612. Furthermore, if an entry has a property @code{ORDERED}, each of its children
  3613. will be blocked until all earlier siblings are marked DONE@. Here is an
  3614. example:
  3615. @example
  3616. * TODO Blocked until (two) is done
  3617. ** DONE one
  3618. ** TODO two
  3619. * Parent
  3620. :PROPERTIES:
  3621. :ORDERED: t
  3622. :END:
  3623. ** TODO a
  3624. ** TODO b, needs to wait for (a)
  3625. ** TODO c, needs to wait for (a) and (b)
  3626. @end example
  3627. @table @kbd
  3628. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  3629. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  3630. @cindex property, ORDERED
  3631. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the current entry. A property is used
  3632. for this behavior because this should be local to the current entry, not
  3633. inherited like a tag. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of
  3634. this property with a tag for better visibility, customize the variable
  3635. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  3636. @orgkey{C-u C-u C-u C-c C-t}
  3637. Change TODO state, circumventing any state blocking.
  3638. @end table
  3639. @vindex org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks
  3640. If you set the variable @code{org-agenda-dim-blocked-tasks}, TODO entries
  3641. that cannot be closed because of such dependencies will be shown in a dimmed
  3642. font or even made invisible in agenda views (@pxref{Agenda Views}).
  3643. @cindex checkboxes and TODO dependencies
  3644. @vindex org-enforce-todo-dependencies
  3645. You can also block changes of TODO states by looking at checkboxes
  3646. (@pxref{Checkboxes}). If you set the variable
  3647. @code{org-enforce-todo-checkbox-dependencies}, an entry that has unchecked
  3648. checkboxes will be blocked from switching to DONE.
  3649. If you need more complex dependency structures, for example dependencies
  3650. between entries in different trees or files, check out the contributed
  3651. module @file{org-depend.el}.
  3652. @page
  3653. @node Progress logging, Priorities, TODO extensions, TODO Items
  3654. @section Progress logging
  3655. @cindex progress logging
  3656. @cindex logging, of progress
  3657. Org mode can automatically record a timestamp and possibly a note when
  3658. you mark a TODO item as DONE, or even each time you change the state of
  3659. a TODO item. This system is highly configurable; settings can be on a
  3660. per-keyword basis and can be localized to a file or even a subtree. For
  3661. information on how to clock working time for a task, see @ref{Clocking
  3662. work time}.
  3663. @menu
  3664. * Closing items:: When was this entry marked DONE?
  3665. * Tracking TODO state changes:: When did the status change?
  3666. * Tracking your habits:: How consistent have you been?
  3667. @end menu
  3668. @node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
  3669. @subsection Closing items
  3670. The most basic logging is to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO
  3671. item was finished. This is achieved with@footnote{The corresponding
  3672. in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}
  3673. @lisp
  3674. (setq org-log-done 'time)
  3675. @end lisp
  3676. @noindent
  3677. Then each time you turn an entry from a TODO (not-done) state into any
  3678. of the DONE states, a line @samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted
  3679. just after the headline. If you turn the entry back into a TODO item
  3680. through further state cycling, that line will be removed again. If you
  3681. want to record a note along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The
  3682. corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}
  3683. @lisp
  3684. (setq org-log-done 'note)
  3685. @end lisp
  3686. @noindent
  3687. You will then be prompted for a note, and that note will be stored below
  3688. the entry with a @samp{Closing Note} heading.
  3689. In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in the agenda
  3690. (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}), you can then use the @kbd{l} key to
  3691. display the TODO items with a @samp{CLOSED} timestamp on each day,
  3692. giving you an overview of what has been done.
  3693. @node Tracking TODO state changes, Tracking your habits, Closing items, Progress logging
  3694. @subsection Tracking TODO state changes
  3695. @cindex drawer, for state change recording
  3696. @vindex org-log-states-order-reversed
  3697. @vindex org-log-into-drawer
  3698. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  3699. When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow states}), you
  3700. might want to keep track of when a state change occurred and maybe take a
  3701. note about this change. You can either record just a timestamp, or a
  3702. time-stamped note for a change. These records will be inserted after the
  3703. headline as an itemized list, newest first@footnote{See the variable
  3704. @code{org-log-states-order-reversed}}. When taking a lot of notes, you might
  3705. want to get the notes out of the way into a drawer (@pxref{Drawers}).
  3706. Customize the variable @code{org-log-into-drawer} to get this behavior---the
  3707. recommended drawer for this is called @code{LOGBOOK}@footnote{Note that the
  3708. @code{LOGBOOK} drawer is unfolded when pressing @key{SPC} in the agenda to
  3709. show an entry---use @key{C-u SPC} to keep it folded here}. You can also
  3710. overrule the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  3711. @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  3712. Since it is normally too much to record a note for every state, Org mode
  3713. expects configuration on a per-keyword basis for this. This is achieved by
  3714. adding special markers @samp{!} (for a timestamp) or @samp{@@} (for a note
  3715. with timestamp) in parentheses after each keyword. For example, with the
  3716. setting
  3717. @lisp
  3718. (setq org-todo-keywords
  3719. '((sequence "TODO(t)" "WAIT(w@@/!)" "|" "DONE(d!)" "CANCELED(c@@)")))
  3720. @end lisp
  3721. To record a timestamp without a note for TODO keywords configured with
  3722. @samp{@@}, just type @kbd{C-c C-c} to enter a blank note when prompted.
  3723. @noindent
  3724. @vindex org-log-done
  3725. you not only define global TODO keywords and fast access keys, but also
  3726. request that a time is recorded when the entry is set to
  3727. DONE@footnote{It is possible that Org mode will record two timestamps
  3728. when you are using both @code{org-log-done} and state change logging.
  3729. However, it will never prompt for two notes---if you have configured
  3730. both, the state change recording note will take precedence and cancel
  3731. the @samp{Closing Note}.}, and that a note is recorded when switching to
  3732. WAIT or CANCELED@. The setting for WAIT is even more special: the
  3733. @samp{!} after the slash means that in addition to the note taken when
  3734. entering the state, a timestamp should be recorded when @i{leaving} the
  3735. WAIT state, if and only if the @i{target} state does not configure
  3736. logging for entering it. So it has no effect when switching from WAIT
  3737. to DONE, because DONE is configured to record a timestamp only. But
  3738. when switching from WAIT back to TODO, the @samp{/!} in the WAIT
  3739. setting now triggers a timestamp even though TODO has no logging
  3740. configured.
  3741. You can use the exact same syntax for setting logging preferences local
  3742. to a buffer:
  3743. @example
  3744. #+TODO: TODO(t) WAIT(w@@/!) | DONE(d!) CANCELED(c@@)
  3745. @end example
  3746. @cindex property, LOGGING
  3747. In order to define logging settings that are local to a subtree or a
  3748. single item, define a LOGGING property in this entry. Any non-empty
  3749. LOGGING property resets all logging settings to nil. You may then turn
  3750. on logging for this specific tree using STARTUP keywords like
  3751. @code{lognotedone} or @code{logrepeat}, as well as adding state specific
  3752. settings like @code{TODO(!)}. For example
  3753. @example
  3754. * TODO Log each state with only a time
  3755. :PROPERTIES:
  3756. :LOGGING: TODO(!) WAIT(!) DONE(!) CANCELED(!)
  3757. :END:
  3758. * TODO Only log when switching to WAIT, and when repeating
  3759. :PROPERTIES:
  3760. :LOGGING: WAIT(@@) logrepeat
  3761. :END:
  3762. * TODO No logging at all
  3763. :PROPERTIES:
  3764. :LOGGING: nil
  3765. :END:
  3766. @end example
  3767. @node Tracking your habits, , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
  3768. @subsection Tracking your habits
  3769. @cindex habits
  3770. Org has the ability to track the consistency of a special category of TODOs,
  3771. called ``habits''. A habit has the following properties:
  3772. @enumerate
  3773. @item
  3774. You have enabled the @code{habits} module by customizing the variable
  3775. @code{org-modules}.
  3776. @item
  3777. The habit is a TODO item, with a TODO keyword representing an open state.
  3778. @item
  3779. The property @code{STYLE} is set to the value @code{habit}.
  3780. @item
  3781. The TODO has a scheduled date, usually with a @code{.+} style repeat
  3782. interval. A @code{++} style may be appropriate for habits with time
  3783. constraints, e.g., must be done on weekends, or a @code{+} style for an
  3784. unusual habit that can have a backlog, e.g., weekly reports.
  3785. @item
  3786. The TODO may also have minimum and maximum ranges specified by using the
  3787. syntax @samp{.+2d/3d}, which says that you want to do the task at least every
  3788. three days, but at most every two days.
  3789. @item
  3790. You must also have state logging for the @code{DONE} state enabled
  3791. (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}), in order for historical data to be
  3792. represented in the consistency graph. If it is not enabled it is not an
  3793. error, but the consistency graphs will be largely meaningless.
  3794. @end enumerate
  3795. To give you an idea of what the above rules look like in action, here's an
  3796. actual habit with some history:
  3797. @example
  3798. ** TODO Shave
  3799. SCHEDULED: <2009-10-17 Sat .+2d/4d>
  3800. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-15 Thu]
  3801. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-12 Mon]
  3802. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-10 Sat]
  3803. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-04 Sun]
  3804. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-10-02 Fri]
  3805. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-29 Tue]
  3806. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-25 Fri]
  3807. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-19 Sat]
  3808. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-16 Wed]
  3809. - State "DONE" from "TODO" [2009-09-12 Sat]
  3810. :PROPERTIES:
  3811. :STYLE: habit
  3812. :LAST_REPEAT: [2009-10-19 Mon 00:36]
  3813. :END:
  3814. @end example
  3815. What this habit says is: I want to shave at most every 2 days (given by the
  3816. @code{SCHEDULED} date and repeat interval) and at least every 4 days. If
  3817. today is the 15th, then the habit first appears in the agenda on Oct 17,
  3818. after the minimum of 2 days has elapsed, and will appear overdue on Oct 19,
  3819. after four days have elapsed.
  3820. What's really useful about habits is that they are displayed along with a
  3821. consistency graph, to show how consistent you've been at getting that task
  3822. done in the past. This graph shows every day that the task was done over the
  3823. past three weeks, with colors for each day. The colors used are:
  3824. @table @code
  3825. @item Blue
  3826. If the task wasn't to be done yet on that day.
  3827. @item Green
  3828. If the task could have been done on that day.
  3829. @item Yellow
  3830. If the task was going to be overdue the next day.
  3831. @item Red
  3832. If the task was overdue on that day.
  3833. @end table
  3834. In addition to coloring each day, the day is also marked with an asterisk if
  3835. the task was actually done that day, and an exclamation mark to show where
  3836. the current day falls in the graph.
  3837. There are several configuration variables that can be used to change the way
  3838. habits are displayed in the agenda.
  3839. @table @code
  3840. @item org-habit-graph-column
  3841. The buffer column at which the consistency graph should be drawn. This will
  3842. overwrite any text in that column, so it is a good idea to keep your habits'
  3843. titles brief and to the point.
  3844. @item org-habit-preceding-days
  3845. The amount of history, in days before today, to appear in consistency graphs.
  3846. @item org-habit-following-days
  3847. The number of days after today that will appear in consistency graphs.
  3848. @item org-habit-show-habits-only-for-today
  3849. If non-nil, only show habits in today's agenda view. This is set to true by
  3850. default.
  3851. @end table
  3852. Lastly, pressing @kbd{K} in the agenda buffer will cause habits to
  3853. temporarily be disabled and they won't appear at all. Press @kbd{K} again to
  3854. bring them back. They are also subject to tag filtering, if you have habits
  3855. which should only be done in certain contexts, for example.
  3856. @node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, Progress logging, TODO Items
  3857. @section Priorities
  3858. @cindex priorities
  3859. If you use Org mode extensively, you may end up with enough TODO items that
  3860. it starts to make sense to prioritize them. Prioritizing can be done by
  3861. placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the headline of a TODO item, like this
  3862. @example
  3863. *** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
  3864. @end example
  3865. @noindent
  3866. @vindex org-priority-faces
  3867. By default, Org mode supports three priorities: @samp{A}, @samp{B}, and
  3868. @samp{C}. @samp{A} is the highest priority. An entry without a cookie is
  3869. treated just like priority @samp{B}. Priorities make a difference only for
  3870. sorting in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}); outside the agenda, they
  3871. have no inherent meaning to Org mode. The cookies can be highlighted with
  3872. special faces by customizing the variable @code{org-priority-faces}.
  3873. Priorities can be attached to any outline node; they do not need to be TODO
  3874. items.
  3875. @table @kbd
  3876. @item @kbd{C-c ,}
  3877. @kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
  3878. @findex org-priority
  3879. Set the priority of the current headline (@command{org-priority}). The
  3880. command prompts for a priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.
  3881. When you press @key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the
  3882. headline. The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline
  3883. and agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
  3884. @c
  3885. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-priority-up,org-priority-down}
  3886. @vindex org-priority-start-cycle-with-default
  3887. Increase/decrease priority of current headline@footnote{See also the option
  3888. @code{org-priority-start-cycle-with-default}.}. Note that these keys are
  3889. also used to modify timestamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}). See also
  3890. @ref{Conflicts}, for a discussion of the interaction with
  3891. @code{shift-selection-mode}.
  3892. @end table
  3893. @vindex org-highest-priority
  3894. @vindex org-lowest-priority
  3895. @vindex org-default-priority
  3896. You can change the range of allowed priorities by setting the variables
  3897. @code{org-highest-priority}, @code{org-lowest-priority}, and
  3898. @code{org-default-priority}. For an individual buffer, you may set
  3899. these values (highest, lowest, default) like this (please make sure that
  3900. the highest priority is earlier in the alphabet than the lowest
  3901. priority):
  3902. @cindex #+PRIORITIES
  3903. @example
  3904. #+PRIORITIES: A C B
  3905. @end example
  3906. @node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO Items
  3907. @section Breaking tasks down into subtasks
  3908. @cindex tasks, breaking down
  3909. @cindex statistics, for TODO items
  3910. @vindex org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels
  3911. It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, manageable
  3912. subtasks. You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO item,
  3913. with detailed subtasks on the tree@footnote{To keep subtasks out of the
  3914. global TODO list, see the @code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}. To keep
  3915. the overview over the fraction of subtasks that are already completed, insert
  3916. either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]} anywhere in the headline. These cookies will
  3917. be updated each time the TODO status of a child changes, or when pressing
  3918. @kbd{C-c C-c} on the cookie. For example:
  3919. @example
  3920. * Organize Party [33%]
  3921. ** TODO Call people [1/2]
  3922. *** TODO Peter
  3923. *** DONE Sarah
  3924. ** TODO Buy food
  3925. ** DONE Talk to neighbor
  3926. @end example
  3927. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3928. If a heading has both checkboxes and TODO children below it, the meaning of
  3929. the statistics cookie become ambiguous. Set the property
  3930. @code{COOKIE_DATA} to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve
  3931. this issue.
  3932. @vindex org-hierarchical-todo-statistics
  3933. If you would like to have the statistics cookie count any TODO entries in the
  3934. subtree (not just direct children), configure the variable
  3935. @code{org-hierarchical-todo-statistics}. To do this for a single subtree,
  3936. include the word @samp{recursive} into the value of the @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  3937. property.
  3938. @example
  3939. * Parent capturing statistics [2/20]
  3940. :PROPERTIES:
  3941. :COOKIE_DATA: todo recursive
  3942. :END:
  3943. @end example
  3944. If you would like a TODO entry to automatically change to DONE
  3945. when all children are done, you can use the following setup:
  3946. @example
  3947. (defun org-summary-todo (n-done n-not-done)
  3948. "Switch entry to DONE when all subentries are done, to TODO otherwise."
  3949. (let (org-log-done org-log-states) ; turn off logging
  3950. (org-todo (if (= n-not-done 0) "DONE" "TODO"))))
  3951. (add-hook 'org-after-todo-statistics-hook 'org-summary-todo)
  3952. @end example
  3953. Another possibility is the use of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a
  3954. large number of subtasks (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
  3955. @node Checkboxes, , Breaking down tasks, TODO Items
  3956. @section Checkboxes
  3957. @cindex checkboxes
  3958. @vindex org-list-automatic-rules
  3959. Every item in a plain list@footnote{With the exception of description
  3960. lists. But you can allow it by modifying @code{org-list-automatic-rules}
  3961. accordingly.} (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made into a checkbox by starting
  3962. it with the string @samp{[ ]}. This feature is similar to TODO items
  3963. (@pxref{TODO Items}), but is more lightweight. Checkboxes are not included
  3964. in the global TODO list, so they are often great to split a task into a
  3965. number of simple steps. Or you can use them in a shopping list. To toggle a
  3966. checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or use the mouse (thanks to Piotr Zielinski's
  3967. @file{org-mouse.el}).
  3968. Here is an example of a checkbox list.
  3969. @example
  3970. * TODO Organize party [2/4]
  3971. - [-] call people [1/3]
  3972. - [ ] Peter
  3973. - [X] Sarah
  3974. - [ ] Sam
  3975. - [X] order food
  3976. - [ ] think about what music to play
  3977. - [X] talk to the neighbors
  3978. @end example
  3979. Checkboxes work hierarchically, so if a checkbox item has children that
  3980. are checkboxes, toggling one of the children checkboxes will make the
  3981. parent checkbox reflect if none, some, or all of the children are
  3982. checked.
  3983. @cindex statistics, for checkboxes
  3984. @cindex checkbox statistics
  3985. @cindex property, COOKIE_DATA
  3986. @vindex org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics
  3987. The @samp{[2/4]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are cookies
  3988. indicating how many checkboxes present in this entry have been checked off,
  3989. and the total number of checkboxes present. This can give you an idea on how
  3990. many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry. The cookies can
  3991. be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a plain list item.
  3992. Each cookie covers checkboxes of direct children structurally below the
  3993. headline/item on which the cookie appears@footnote{Set the variable
  3994. @code{org-checkbox-hierarchical-statistics} if you want such cookies to
  3995. count all checkboxes below the cookie, not just those belonging to direct
  3996. children.}. You have to insert the cookie yourself by typing either
  3997. @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}. With @samp{[/]} you get an @samp{n out of m}
  3998. result, as in the examples above. With @samp{[%]} you get information about
  3999. the percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
  4000. @samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%]}, respectively). In a headline, a cookie can
  4001. count either checkboxes below the heading or TODO states of children, and it
  4002. will display whatever was changed last. Set the property @code{COOKIE_DATA}
  4003. to either @samp{checkbox} or @samp{todo} to resolve this issue.
  4004. @cindex blocking, of checkboxes
  4005. @cindex checkbox blocking
  4006. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4007. If the current outline node has an @code{ORDERED} property, checkboxes must
  4008. be checked off in sequence, and an error will be thrown if you try to check
  4009. off a box while there are unchecked boxes above it.
  4010. @noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:
  4011. @table @kbd
  4012. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4013. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point.
  4014. With a single prefix argument, add an empty checkbox or remove the current
  4015. one@footnote{@kbd{C-u C-c C-c} on the @emph{first} item of a list with no checkbox
  4016. will add checkboxes to the rest of the list.}. With a double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is
  4017. considered to be an intermediate state.
  4018. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-b,org-toggle-checkbox}
  4019. Toggle checkbox status or (with prefix arg) checkbox presence at point. With
  4020. double prefix argument, set it to @samp{[-]}, which is considered to be an
  4021. intermediate state.
  4022. @itemize @minus
  4023. @item
  4024. If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
  4025. and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first. With a prefix
  4026. arg, add or remove the checkbox for all items in the region.
  4027. @item
  4028. If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
  4029. this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
  4030. @item
  4031. If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
  4032. @end itemize
  4033. @orgcmd{M-S-@key{RET},org-insert-todo-heading}
  4034. Insert a new item with a checkbox. This works only if the cursor is already
  4035. in a plain list item (@pxref{Plain lists}).
  4036. @orgcmd{C-c C-x o,org-toggle-ordered-property}
  4037. @vindex org-track-ordered-property-with-tag
  4038. @cindex property, ORDERED
  4039. Toggle the @code{ORDERED} property of the entry, to toggle if checkboxes must
  4040. be checked off in sequence. A property is used for this behavior because
  4041. this should be local to the current entry, not inherited like a tag.
  4042. However, if you would like to @i{track} the value of this property with a tag
  4043. for better visibility, customize the variable
  4044. @code{org-track-ordered-property-with-tag}.
  4045. @orgcmd{C-c #,org-update-statistics-cookies}
  4046. Update the statistics cookie in the current outline entry. When called with
  4047. a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file. Checkbox statistic cookies are
  4048. updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make
  4049. new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}. TODO statistics cookies update when
  4050. changing TODO states. If you delete boxes/entries or add/change them by
  4051. hand, use this command to get things back into sync.
  4052. @end table
  4053. @node Tags, Properties and Columns, TODO Items, Top
  4054. @chapter Tags
  4055. @cindex tags
  4056. @cindex headline tagging
  4057. @cindex matching, tags
  4058. @cindex sparse tree, tag based
  4059. An excellent way to implement labels and contexts for cross-correlating
  4060. information is to assign @i{tags} to headlines. Org mode has extensive
  4061. support for tags.
  4062. @vindex org-tag-faces
  4063. Every headline can contain a list of tags; they occur at the end of the
  4064. headline. Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
  4065. @samp{@@}. Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon, e.g.,
  4066. @samp{:work:}. Several tags can be specified, as in @samp{:work:urgent:}.
  4067. Tags will by default be in bold face with the same color as the headline.
  4068. You may specify special faces for specific tags using the variable
  4069. @code{org-tag-faces}, in much the same way as you can for TODO keywords
  4070. (@pxref{Faces for TODO keywords}).
  4071. @menu
  4072. * Tag inheritance:: Tags use the tree structure of the outline
  4073. * Setting tags:: How to assign tags to a headline
  4074. * Tag groups:: Use one tag to search for several tags
  4075. * Tag searches:: Searching for combinations of tags
  4076. @end menu
  4077. @node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
  4078. @section Tag inheritance
  4079. @cindex tag inheritance
  4080. @cindex inheritance, of tags
  4081. @cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match
  4082. @i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees. If a
  4083. heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
  4084. well. For example, in the list
  4085. @example
  4086. * Meeting with the French group :work:
  4087. ** Summary by Frank :boss:notes:
  4088. *** TODO Prepare slides for him :action:
  4089. @end example
  4090. @noindent
  4091. the final heading will have the tags @samp{:work:}, @samp{:boss:},
  4092. @samp{:notes:}, and @samp{:action:} even though the final heading is not
  4093. explicitly marked with those tags. You can also set tags that all entries in
  4094. a file should inherit just as if these tags were defined in a hypothetical
  4095. level zero that surrounds the entire file. Use a line like this@footnote{As
  4096. with all these in-buffer settings, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} activates any
  4097. changes in the line.}:
  4098. @cindex #+FILETAGS
  4099. @example
  4100. #+FILETAGS: :Peter:Boss:Secret:
  4101. @end example
  4102. @noindent
  4103. @vindex org-use-tag-inheritance
  4104. @vindex org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance
  4105. To limit tag inheritance to specific tags, use @code{org-tags-exclude-from-inheritance}.
  4106. To turn it off entirely, use @code{org-use-tag-inheritance}.
  4107. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4108. When a headline matches during a tags search while tag inheritance is turned
  4109. on, all the sublevels in the same tree will (for a simple match form) match
  4110. as well@footnote{This is only true if the search does not involve more
  4111. complex tests including properties (@pxref{Property searches}).}. The list
  4112. of matches may then become very long. If you only want to see the first tags
  4113. match in a subtree, configure the variable
  4114. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels} (not recommended).
  4115. @vindex org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance
  4116. Tag inheritance is relevant when the agenda search tries to match a tag,
  4117. either in the @code{tags} or @code{tags-todo} agenda types. In other agenda
  4118. types, @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} has no effect. Still, you may want to
  4119. have your tags correctly set in the agenda, so that tag filtering works fine,
  4120. with inherited tags. Set @code{org-agenda-use-tag-inheritance} to control
  4121. this: the default value includes all agenda types, but setting this to nil
  4122. can really speed up agenda generation.
  4123. @node Setting tags, Tag groups, Tag inheritance, Tags
  4124. @section Setting tags
  4125. @cindex setting tags
  4126. @cindex tags, setting
  4127. @kindex M-@key{TAB}
  4128. Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
  4129. After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags. There is
  4130. also a special command for inserting tags:
  4131. @table @kbd
  4132. @orgcmd{C-c C-q,org-set-tags-command}
  4133. @cindex completion, of tags
  4134. @vindex org-tags-column
  4135. Enter new tags for the current headline. Org mode will either offer
  4136. completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
  4137. below. After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
  4138. to @code{org-tags-column}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
  4139. tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
  4140. things look nice. TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
  4141. demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
  4142. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-set-tags-command}
  4143. When the cursor is in a headline, this does the same as @kbd{C-c C-q}.
  4144. @end table
  4145. @vindex org-tag-alist
  4146. Org supports tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}. By
  4147. default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
  4148. currently used in the buffer. You may also globally specify a hard list
  4149. of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}. Finally you can set
  4150. the default tags for a given file with lines like
  4151. @cindex #+TAGS
  4152. @example
  4153. #+TAGS: @@work @@home @@tennisclub
  4154. #+TAGS: laptop car pc sailboat
  4155. @end example
  4156. If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
  4157. variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
  4158. in a specific file, add an empty TAGS option line to that file:
  4159. @example
  4160. #+TAGS:
  4161. @end example
  4162. @vindex org-tag-persistent-alist
  4163. If you have a preferred set of tags that you would like to use in every file,
  4164. in addition to those defined on a per-file basis by TAGS option lines, then
  4165. you may specify a list of tags with the variable
  4166. @code{org-tag-persistent-alist}. You may turn this off on a per-file basis
  4167. by adding a STARTUP option line to that file:
  4168. @example
  4169. #+STARTUP: noptag
  4170. @end example
  4171. By default Org mode uses the standard minibuffer completion facilities for
  4172. entering tags. However, it also implements another, quicker, tag selection
  4173. method called @emph{fast tag selection}. This allows you to select and
  4174. deselect tags with just a single key press. For this to work well you should
  4175. assign unique letters to most of your commonly used tags. You can do this
  4176. globally by configuring the variable @code{org-tag-alist} in your
  4177. @file{.emacs} file. For example, you may find the need to tag many items in
  4178. different files with @samp{:@@home:}. In this case you can set something
  4179. like:
  4180. @lisp
  4181. (setq org-tag-alist '(("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h) ("laptop" . ?l)))
  4182. @end lisp
  4183. @noindent If the tag is only relevant to the file you are working on, then you
  4184. can instead set the TAGS option line as:
  4185. @example
  4186. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) laptop(l) pc(p)
  4187. @end example
  4188. @noindent The tags interface will show the available tags in a splash
  4189. window. If you want to start a new line after a specific tag, insert
  4190. @samp{\n} into the tag list
  4191. @example
  4192. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) \n laptop(l) pc(p)
  4193. @end example
  4194. @noindent or write them in two lines:
  4195. @example
  4196. #+TAGS: @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t)
  4197. #+TAGS: laptop(l) pc(p)
  4198. @end example
  4199. @noindent
  4200. You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive by using
  4201. braces, as in:
  4202. @example
  4203. #+TAGS: @{ @@work(w) @@home(h) @@tennisclub(t) @} laptop(l) pc(p)
  4204. @end example
  4205. @noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@work}, @samp{@@home},
  4206. and @samp{@@tennisclub} should be selected. Multiple such groups are allowed.
  4207. @noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
  4208. these lines to activate any changes.
  4209. @noindent
  4210. To set these mutually exclusive groups in the variable @code{org-tags-alist},
  4211. you must use the dummy tags @code{:startgroup} and @code{:endgroup} instead
  4212. of the braces. Similarly, you can use @code{:newline} to indicate a line
  4213. break. The previous example would be set globally by the following
  4214. configuration:
  4215. @lisp
  4216. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4217. ("@@work" . ?w) ("@@home" . ?h)
  4218. ("@@tennisclub" . ?t)
  4219. (:endgroup . nil)
  4220. ("laptop" . ?l) ("pc" . ?p)))
  4221. @end lisp
  4222. If at least one tag has a selection key then pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
  4223. automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited tags,
  4224. the tags of the current headline, and a list of all valid tags with
  4225. corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to tags which
  4226. have no configured keys.}. In this interface, you can use the following
  4227. keys:
  4228. @table @kbd
  4229. @item a-z...
  4230. Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
  4231. tags in the current line. Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
  4232. exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
  4233. @kindex @key{TAB}
  4234. @item @key{TAB}
  4235. Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
  4236. list. You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
  4237. You can also add several tags: just separate them with a comma.
  4238. @kindex @key{SPC}
  4239. @item @key{SPC}
  4240. Clear all tags for this line.
  4241. @kindex @key{RET}
  4242. @item @key{RET}
  4243. Accept the modified set.
  4244. @item C-g
  4245. Abort without installing changes.
  4246. @item q
  4247. If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
  4248. @item !
  4249. Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags. Use this to (as an
  4250. exception) assign several tags from such a group.
  4251. @item C-c
  4252. Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
  4253. If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
  4254. selection window.
  4255. @end table
  4256. @noindent
  4257. This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys. With
  4258. the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@home},
  4259. @samp{laptop} and @samp{pc} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
  4260. C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}. Switching from @samp{@@home} to
  4261. @samp{@@work} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
  4262. alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}. Adding the non-predefined tag
  4263. @samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
  4264. @key{RET} @key{RET}}.
  4265. @vindex org-fast-tag-selection-single-key
  4266. If you find that most of the time you need only a single key press to
  4267. modify your list of tags, set @code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}.
  4268. Then you no longer have to press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection---it
  4269. will immediately exit after the first change. If you then occasionally
  4270. need more keys, press @kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag
  4271. selection process (in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c}
  4272. instead of @kbd{C-c C-c}). If you set the variable to the value
  4273. @code{expert}, the special window is not even shown for single-key tag
  4274. selection, it comes up only when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.
  4275. @node Tag groups, Tag searches, Setting tags, Tags
  4276. @section Tag groups
  4277. @cindex group tags
  4278. @cindex tags, groups
  4279. In a set of mutually exclusive tags, the first tag can be defined as a
  4280. @emph{group tag}. When you search for a group tag, it will return matches
  4281. for all members in the group. In an agenda view, filtering by a group tag
  4282. will display headlines tagged with at least one of the members of the
  4283. group. This makes tag searches and filters even more flexible.
  4284. You can set group tags by inserting a colon between the group tag and other
  4285. tags, like this:
  4286. @example
  4287. #+TAGS: @{ @@read : @@read_book @@read_ebook @}
  4288. @end example
  4289. In this example, @samp{@@read} is a @emph{group tag} for a set of three
  4290. tags: @samp{@@read}, @samp{@@read_book} and @samp{@@read_ebook}.
  4291. You can also use the @code{:grouptags} keyword directly when setting
  4292. @var{org-tag-alist}:
  4293. @lisp
  4294. (setq org-tag-alist '((:startgroup . nil)
  4295. ("@@read" . nil)
  4296. (:grouptags . nil)
  4297. ("@@read_book" . nil)
  4298. ("@@read_ebook" . nil)
  4299. (:endgroup . nil)))
  4300. @end lisp
  4301. @kindex C-c C-x q
  4302. @vindex org-group-tags
  4303. If you want to ignore group tags temporarily, toggle group tags support
  4304. with @command{org-toggle-tags-groups}, bound to @kbd{C-c C-x q}. If you
  4305. want to disable tag groups completely, set @var{org-group-tags} to nil.
  4306. @node Tag searches, , Tag groups, Tags
  4307. @section Tag searches
  4308. @cindex tag searches
  4309. @cindex searching for tags
  4310. Once a system of tags has been set up, it can be used to collect related
  4311. information into special lists.
  4312. @table @kbd
  4313. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4314. Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search. With a
  4315. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4316. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4317. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
  4318. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4319. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4320. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4321. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4322. only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
  4323. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4324. @end table
  4325. These commands all prompt for a match string which allows basic Boolean logic
  4326. like @samp{+boss+urgent-project1}, to find entries with tags @samp{boss} and
  4327. @samp{urgent}, but not @samp{project1}, or @samp{Kathy|Sally} to find entries
  4328. which are tagged, like @samp{Kathy} or @samp{Sally}. The full syntax of the search
  4329. string is rich and allows also matching against TODO keywords, entry levels
  4330. and properties. For a complete description with many examples, see
  4331. @ref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4332. @node Properties and Columns, Dates and Times, Tags, Top
  4333. @chapter Properties and columns
  4334. @cindex properties
  4335. A property is a key-value pair associated with an entry. Properties can be
  4336. set so they are associated with a single entry, with every entry in a tree,
  4337. or with every entry in an Org mode file.
  4338. There are two main applications for properties in Org mode. First,
  4339. properties are like tags, but with a value. Imagine maintaining a file where
  4340. you document bugs and plan releases for a piece of software. Instead of
  4341. using tags like @code{:release_1:}, @code{:release_2:}, you can use a
  4342. property, say @code{:Release:}, that in different subtrees has different
  4343. values, such as @code{1.0} or @code{2.0}. Second, you can use properties to
  4344. implement (very basic) database capabilities in an Org buffer. Imagine
  4345. keeping track of your music CDs, where properties could be things such as the
  4346. album, artist, date of release, number of tracks, and so on.
  4347. Properties can be conveniently edited and viewed in column view
  4348. (@pxref{Column view}).
  4349. @menu
  4350. * Property syntax:: How properties are spelled out
  4351. * Special properties:: Access to other Org mode features
  4352. * Property searches:: Matching property values
  4353. * Property inheritance:: Passing values down the tree
  4354. * Column view:: Tabular viewing and editing
  4355. * Property API:: Properties for Lisp programmers
  4356. @end menu
  4357. @node Property syntax, Special properties, Properties and Columns, Properties and Columns
  4358. @section Property syntax
  4359. @cindex property syntax
  4360. @cindex drawer, for properties
  4361. Properties are key-value pairs. When they are associated with a single entry
  4362. or with a tree they need to be inserted into a special
  4363. drawer (@pxref{Drawers}) with the name @code{PROPERTIES}. Each property
  4364. is specified on a single line, with the key (surrounded by colons)
  4365. first, and the value after it. Here is an example:
  4366. @example
  4367. * CD collection
  4368. ** Classic
  4369. *** Goldberg Variations
  4370. :PROPERTIES:
  4371. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4372. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4373. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4374. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4375. :NDisks: 1
  4376. :END:
  4377. @end example
  4378. Depending on the value of @code{org-use-property-inheritance}, a property set
  4379. this way will either be associated with a single entry, or the sub-tree
  4380. defined by the entry, see @ref{Property inheritance}.
  4381. You may define the allowed values for a particular property @samp{:Xyz:}
  4382. by setting a property @samp{:Xyz_ALL:}. This special property is
  4383. @emph{inherited}, so if you set it in a level 1 entry, it will apply to
  4384. the entire tree. When allowed values are defined, setting the
  4385. corresponding property becomes easier and is less prone to typing
  4386. errors. For the example with the CD collection, we can predefine
  4387. publishers and the number of disks in a box like this:
  4388. @example
  4389. * CD collection
  4390. :PROPERTIES:
  4391. :NDisks_ALL: 1 2 3 4
  4392. :Publisher_ALL: "Deutsche Grammophon" Philips EMI
  4393. :END:
  4394. @end example
  4395. If you want to set properties that can be inherited by any entry in a
  4396. file, use a line like
  4397. @cindex property, _ALL
  4398. @cindex #+PROPERTY
  4399. @example
  4400. #+PROPERTY: NDisks_ALL 1 2 3 4
  4401. @end example
  4402. Contrary to properties set from a special drawer, you have to refresh the
  4403. buffer with @kbd{C-c C-c} to activate this changes.
  4404. If you want to add to the value of an existing property, append a @code{+} to
  4405. the property name. The following results in the property @code{var} having
  4406. the value ``foo=1 bar=2''.
  4407. @cindex property, +
  4408. @example
  4409. #+PROPERTY: var foo=1
  4410. #+PROPERTY: var+ bar=2
  4411. @end example
  4412. It is also possible to add to the values of inherited properties. The
  4413. following results in the @code{genres} property having the value ``Classic
  4414. Baroque'' under the @code{Goldberg Variations} subtree.
  4415. @cindex property, +
  4416. @example
  4417. * CD collection
  4418. ** Classic
  4419. :PROPERTIES:
  4420. :GENRES: Classic
  4421. :END:
  4422. *** Goldberg Variations
  4423. :PROPERTIES:
  4424. :Title: Goldberg Variations
  4425. :Composer: J.S. Bach
  4426. :Artist: Glen Gould
  4427. :Publisher: Deutsche Grammophon
  4428. :NDisks: 1
  4429. :GENRES+: Baroque
  4430. :END:
  4431. @end example
  4432. Note that a property can only have one entry per Drawer.
  4433. @vindex org-global-properties
  4434. Property values set with the global variable
  4435. @code{org-global-properties} can be inherited by all entries in all
  4436. Org files.
  4437. @noindent
  4438. The following commands help to work with properties:
  4439. @table @kbd
  4440. @orgcmd{M-@key{TAB},pcomplete}
  4441. After an initial colon in a line, complete property keys. All keys used
  4442. in the current file will be offered as possible completions.
  4443. @orgcmd{C-c C-x p,org-set-property}
  4444. Set a property. This prompts for a property name and a value. If
  4445. necessary, the property drawer is created as well.
  4446. @item C-u M-x org-insert-drawer
  4447. @cindex org-insert-drawer
  4448. Insert a property drawer into the current entry. The drawer will be
  4449. inserted early in the entry, but after the lines with planning
  4450. information like deadlines.
  4451. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-property-action}
  4452. With the cursor in a property drawer, this executes property commands.
  4453. @orgcmd{C-c C-c s,org-set-property}
  4454. Set a property in the current entry. Both the property and the value
  4455. can be inserted using completion.
  4456. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{right},S-@key{left},org-property-next-allowed-value,org-property-previous-allowed-value}
  4457. Switch property at point to the next/previous allowed value.
  4458. @orgcmd{C-c C-c d,org-delete-property}
  4459. Remove a property from the current entry.
  4460. @orgcmd{C-c C-c D,org-delete-property-globally}
  4461. Globally remove a property, from all entries in the current file.
  4462. @orgcmd{C-c C-c c,org-compute-property-at-point}
  4463. Compute the property at point, using the operator and scope from the
  4464. nearest column format definition.
  4465. @end table
  4466. @node Special properties, Property searches, Property syntax, Properties and Columns
  4467. @section Special properties
  4468. @cindex properties, special
  4469. Special properties provide an alternative access method to Org mode features,
  4470. like the TODO state or the priority of an entry, discussed in the previous
  4471. chapters. This interface exists so that you can include these states in a
  4472. column view (@pxref{Column view}), or to use them in queries. The following
  4473. property names are special and (except for @code{:CATEGORY:}) should not be
  4474. used as keys in the properties drawer:
  4475. @cindex property, special, ID
  4476. @cindex property, special, TODO
  4477. @cindex property, special, TAGS
  4478. @cindex property, special, ALLTAGS
  4479. @cindex property, special, CATEGORY
  4480. @cindex property, special, PRIORITY
  4481. @cindex property, special, DEADLINE
  4482. @cindex property, special, SCHEDULED
  4483. @cindex property, special, CLOSED
  4484. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP
  4485. @cindex property, special, TIMESTAMP_IA
  4486. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM
  4487. @cindex property, special, CLOCKSUM_T
  4488. @cindex property, special, BLOCKED
  4489. @c guessing that ITEM is needed in this area; also, should this list be sorted?
  4490. @cindex property, special, ITEM
  4491. @cindex property, special, FILE
  4492. @example
  4493. ID @r{A globally unique ID used for synchronization during}
  4494. @r{iCalendar or MobileOrg export.}
  4495. TODO @r{The TODO keyword of the entry.}
  4496. TAGS @r{The tags defined directly in the headline.}
  4497. ALLTAGS @r{All tags, including inherited ones.}
  4498. CATEGORY @r{The category of an entry.}
  4499. PRIORITY @r{The priority of the entry, a string with a single letter.}
  4500. DEADLINE @r{The deadline time string, without the angular brackets.}
  4501. SCHEDULED @r{The scheduling timestamp, without the angular brackets.}
  4502. CLOSED @r{When was this entry closed?}
  4503. TIMESTAMP @r{The first keyword-less timestamp in the entry.}
  4504. TIMESTAMP_IA @r{The first inactive timestamp in the entry.}
  4505. CLOCKSUM @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree. @code{org-clock-sum}}
  4506. @r{must be run first to compute the values in the current buffer.}
  4507. CLOCKSUM_T @r{The sum of CLOCK intervals in the subtree for today.}
  4508. @r{@code{org-clock-sum-today} must be run first to compute the}
  4509. @r{values in the current buffer.}
  4510. BLOCKED @r{"t" if task is currently blocked by children or siblings}
  4511. ITEM @r{The headline of the entry.}
  4512. FILE @r{The filename the entry is located in.}
  4513. @end example
  4514. @node Property searches, Property inheritance, Special properties, Properties and Columns
  4515. @section Property searches
  4516. @cindex properties, searching
  4517. @cindex searching, of properties
  4518. To create sparse trees and special lists with selection based on properties,
  4519. the same commands are used as for tag searches (@pxref{Tag searches}).
  4520. @table @kbd
  4521. @orgcmdkkc{C-c / m,C-c \\,org-match-sparse-tree}
  4522. Create a sparse tree with all matching entries. With a
  4523. @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
  4524. @orgcmd{C-c a m,org-tags-view}
  4525. Create a global list of tag/property matches from all agenda files.
  4526. @xref{Matching tags and properties}.
  4527. @orgcmd{C-c a M,org-tags-view}
  4528. @vindex org-tags-match-list-sublevels
  4529. Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
  4530. only TODO items and force checking of subitems (see variable
  4531. @code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
  4532. @end table
  4533. The syntax for the search string is described in @ref{Matching tags and
  4534. properties}.
  4535. There is also a special command for creating sparse trees based on a
  4536. single property:
  4537. @table @kbd
  4538. @orgkey{C-c / p}
  4539. Create a sparse tree based on the value of a property. This first
  4540. prompts for the name of a property, and then for a value. A sparse tree
  4541. is created with all entries that define this property with the given
  4542. value. If you enclose the value in curly braces, it is interpreted as
  4543. a regular expression and matched against the property values.
  4544. @end table
  4545. @node Property inheritance, Column view, Property searches, Properties and Columns
  4546. @section Property Inheritance
  4547. @cindex properties, inheritance
  4548. @cindex inheritance, of properties
  4549. @vindex org-use-property-inheritance
  4550. The outline structure of Org mode documents lends itself to an
  4551. inheritance model of properties: if the parent in a tree has a certain
  4552. property, the children can inherit this property. Org mode does not
  4553. turn this on by default, because it can slow down property searches
  4554. significantly and is often not needed. However, if you find inheritance
  4555. useful, you can turn it on by setting the variable
  4556. @code{org-use-property-inheritance}. It may be set to @code{t} to make
  4557. all properties inherited from the parent, to a list of properties
  4558. that should be inherited, or to a regular expression that matches
  4559. inherited properties. If a property has the value @samp{nil}, this is
  4560. interpreted as an explicit undefine of the property, so that inheritance
  4561. search will stop at this value and return @code{nil}.
  4562. Org mode has a few properties for which inheritance is hard-coded, at
  4563. least for the special applications for which they are used:
  4564. @cindex property, COLUMNS
  4565. @table @code
  4566. @item COLUMNS
  4567. The @code{:COLUMNS:} property defines the format of column view
  4568. (@pxref{Column view}). It is inherited in the sense that the level
  4569. where a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is defined is used as the starting
  4570. point for a column view table, independently of the location in the
  4571. subtree from where columns view is turned on.
  4572. @item CATEGORY
  4573. @cindex property, CATEGORY
  4574. For agenda view, a category set through a @code{:CATEGORY:} property
  4575. applies to the entire subtree.
  4576. @item ARCHIVE
  4577. @cindex property, ARCHIVE
  4578. For archiving, the @code{:ARCHIVE:} property may define the archive
  4579. location for the entire subtree (@pxref{Moving subtrees}).
  4580. @item LOGGING
  4581. @cindex property, LOGGING
  4582. The LOGGING property may define logging settings for an entry or a
  4583. subtree (@pxref{Tracking TODO state changes}).
  4584. @end table
  4585. @node Column view, Property API, Property inheritance, Properties and Columns
  4586. @section Column view
  4587. A great way to view and edit properties in an outline tree is
  4588. @emph{column view}. In column view, each outline node is turned into a
  4589. table row. Columns in this table provide access to properties of the
  4590. entries. Org mode implements columns by overlaying a tabular structure
  4591. over the headline of each item. While the headlines have been turned
  4592. into a table row, you can still change the visibility of the outline
  4593. tree. For example, you get a compact table by switching to CONTENTS
  4594. view (@kbd{S-@key{TAB} S-@key{TAB}}, or simply @kbd{c} while column view
  4595. is active), but you can still open, read, and edit the entry below each
  4596. headline. Or, you can switch to column view after executing a sparse
  4597. tree command and in this way get a table only for the selected items.
  4598. Column view also works in agenda buffers (@pxref{Agenda Views}) where
  4599. queries have collected selected items, possibly from a number of files.
  4600. @menu
  4601. * Defining columns:: The COLUMNS format property
  4602. * Using column view:: How to create and use column view
  4603. * Capturing column view:: A dynamic block for column view
  4604. @end menu
  4605. @node Defining columns, Using column view, Column view, Column view
  4606. @subsection Defining columns
  4607. @cindex column view, for properties
  4608. @cindex properties, column view
  4609. Setting up a column view first requires defining the columns. This is
  4610. done by defining a column format line.
  4611. @menu
  4612. * Scope of column definitions:: Where defined, where valid?
  4613. * Column attributes:: Appearance and content of a column
  4614. @end menu
  4615. @node Scope of column definitions, Column attributes, Defining columns, Defining columns
  4616. @subsubsection Scope of column definitions
  4617. To define a column format for an entire file, use a line like
  4618. @cindex #+COLUMNS
  4619. @example
  4620. #+COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4621. @end example
  4622. To specify a format that only applies to a specific tree, add a
  4623. @code{:COLUMNS:} property to the top node of that tree, for example:
  4624. @example
  4625. ** Top node for columns view
  4626. :PROPERTIES:
  4627. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %TAGS %PRIORITY %TODO
  4628. :END:
  4629. @end example
  4630. If a @code{:COLUMNS:} property is present in an entry, it defines columns
  4631. for the entry itself, and for the entire subtree below it. Since the
  4632. column definition is part of the hierarchical structure of the document,
  4633. you can define columns on level 1 that are general enough for all
  4634. sublevels, and more specific columns further down, when you edit a
  4635. deeper part of the tree.
  4636. @node Column attributes, , Scope of column definitions, Defining columns
  4637. @subsubsection Column attributes
  4638. A column definition sets the attributes of a column. The general
  4639. definition looks like this:
  4640. @example
  4641. %[@var{width}]@var{property}[(@var{title})][@{@var{summary-type}@}]
  4642. @end example
  4643. @noindent
  4644. Except for the percent sign and the property name, all items are
  4645. optional. The individual parts have the following meaning:
  4646. @example
  4647. @var{width} @r{An integer specifying the width of the column in characters.}
  4648. @r{If omitted, the width will be determined automatically.}
  4649. @var{property} @r{The property that should be edited in this column.}
  4650. @r{Special properties representing meta data are allowed here}
  4651. @r{as well (@pxref{Special properties})}
  4652. @var{title} @r{The header text for the column. If omitted, the property}
  4653. @r{name is used.}
  4654. @{@var{summary-type}@} @r{The summary type. If specified, the column values for}
  4655. @r{parent nodes are computed from the children.}
  4656. @r{Supported summary types are:}
  4657. @{+@} @r{Sum numbers in this column.}
  4658. @{+;%.1f@} @r{Like @samp{+}, but format result with @samp{%.1f}.}
  4659. @{$@} @r{Currency, short for @samp{+;%.2f}.}
  4660. @{:@} @r{Sum times, HH:MM, plain numbers are hours.}
  4661. @{X@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[X]} if all children are @samp{[X]}.}
  4662. @{X/@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n/m]}.}
  4663. @{X%@} @r{Checkbox status, @samp{[n%]}.}
  4664. @{min@} @r{Smallest number in column.}
  4665. @{max@} @r{Largest number.}
  4666. @{mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of numbers.}
  4667. @{:min@} @r{Smallest time value in column.}
  4668. @{:max@} @r{Largest time value.}
  4669. @{:mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of time values.}
  4670. @{@@min@} @r{Minimum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4671. @{@@max@} @r{Maximum age (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4672. @{@@mean@} @r{Arithmetic mean of ages (in days/hours/mins/seconds).}
  4673. @{est+@} @r{Add low-high estimates.}
  4674. @end example
  4675. @noindent
  4676. Be aware that you can only have one summary type for any property you
  4677. include. Subsequent columns referencing the same property will all display the
  4678. same summary information.
  4679. The @code{est+} summary type requires further explanation. It is used for
  4680. combining estimates, expressed as low-high ranges. For example, instead
  4681. of estimating a particular task will take 5 days, you might estimate it as
  4682. 5--6 days if you're fairly confident you know how much work is required, or
  4683. 1--10 days if you don't really know what needs to be done. Both ranges
  4684. average at 5.5 days, but the first represents a more predictable delivery.
  4685. When combining a set of such estimates, simply adding the lows and highs
  4686. produces an unrealistically wide result. Instead, @code{est+} adds the
  4687. statistical mean and variance of the sub-tasks, generating a final estimate
  4688. from the sum. For example, suppose you had ten tasks, each of which was
  4689. estimated at 0.5 to 2 days of work. Straight addition produces an estimate
  4690. of 5 to 20 days, representing what to expect if everything goes either
  4691. extremely well or extremely poorly. In contrast, @code{est+} estimates the
  4692. full job more realistically, at 10--15 days.
  4693. Here is an example for a complete columns definition, along with allowed
  4694. values.
  4695. @example
  4696. :COLUMNS: %25ITEM %9Approved(Approved?)@{X@} %Owner %11Status \@footnote{Please note that the COLUMNS definition must be on a single line---it is wrapped here only because of formatting constraints.}
  4697. %10Time_Estimate@{:@} %CLOCKSUM %CLOCKSUM_T
  4698. :Owner_ALL: Tammy Mark Karl Lisa Don
  4699. :Status_ALL: "In progress" "Not started yet" "Finished" ""
  4700. :Approved_ALL: "[ ]" "[X]"
  4701. @end example
  4702. @noindent
  4703. The first column, @samp{%25ITEM}, means the first 25 characters of the
  4704. item itself, i.e., of the headline. You probably always should start the
  4705. column definition with the @samp{ITEM} specifier. The other specifiers
  4706. create columns @samp{Owner} with a list of names as allowed values, for
  4707. @samp{Status} with four different possible values, and for a checkbox
  4708. field @samp{Approved}. When no width is given after the @samp{%}
  4709. character, the column will be exactly as wide as it needs to be in order
  4710. to fully display all values. The @samp{Approved} column does have a
  4711. modified title (@samp{Approved?}, with a question mark). Summaries will
  4712. be created for the @samp{Time_Estimate} column by adding time duration
  4713. expressions like HH:MM, and for the @samp{Approved} column, by providing
  4714. an @samp{[X]} status if all children have been checked. The
  4715. @samp{CLOCKSUM} and @samp{CLOCKSUM_T} columns are special, they lists the
  4716. sums of CLOCK intervals in the subtree, either for all clocks or just for
  4717. today.
  4718. @node Using column view, Capturing column view, Defining columns, Column view
  4719. @subsection Using column view
  4720. @table @kbd
  4721. @tsubheading{Turning column view on and off}
  4722. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-c,org-columns}
  4723. @vindex org-columns-default-format
  4724. Turn on column view. If the cursor is before the first headline in the file,
  4725. column view is turned on for the entire file, using the @code{#+COLUMNS}
  4726. definition. If the cursor is somewhere inside the outline, this command
  4727. searches the hierarchy, up from point, for a @code{:COLUMNS:} property that
  4728. defines a format. When one is found, the column view table is established
  4729. for the tree starting at the entry that contains the @code{:COLUMNS:}
  4730. property. If no such property is found, the format is taken from the
  4731. @code{#+COLUMNS} line or from the variable @code{org-columns-default-format},
  4732. and column view is established for the current entry and its subtree.
  4733. @orgcmd{r,org-columns-redo}
  4734. Recreate the column view, to include recent changes made in the buffer.
  4735. @orgcmd{g,org-columns-redo}
  4736. Same as @kbd{r}.
  4737. @orgcmd{q,org-columns-quit}
  4738. Exit column view.
  4739. @tsubheading{Editing values}
  4740. @item @key{left} @key{right} @key{up} @key{down}
  4741. Move through the column view from field to field.
  4742. @kindex S-@key{left}
  4743. @kindex S-@key{right}
  4744. @item S-@key{left}/@key{right}
  4745. Switch to the next/previous allowed value of the field. For this, you
  4746. have to have specified allowed values for a property.
  4747. @item 1..9,0
  4748. Directly select the Nth allowed value, @kbd{0} selects the 10th value.
  4749. @orgcmdkkcc{n,p,org-columns-next-allowed-value,org-columns-previous-allowed-value}
  4750. Same as @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}
  4751. @orgcmd{e,org-columns-edit-value}
  4752. Edit the property at point. For the special properties, this will
  4753. invoke the same interface that you normally use to change that
  4754. property. For example, when editing a TAGS property, the tag completion
  4755. or fast selection interface will pop up.
  4756. @orgcmd{C-c C-c,org-columns-set-tags-or-toggle}
  4757. When there is a checkbox at point, toggle it.
  4758. @orgcmd{v,org-columns-show-value}
  4759. View the full value of this property. This is useful if the width of
  4760. the column is smaller than that of the value.
  4761. @orgcmd{a,org-columns-edit-allowed}
  4762. Edit the list of allowed values for this property. If the list is found
  4763. in the hierarchy, the modified values is stored there. If no list is
  4764. found, the new value is stored in the first entry that is part of the
  4765. current column view.
  4766. @tsubheading{Modifying the table structure}
  4767. @orgcmdkkcc{<,>,org-columns-narrow,org-columns-widen}
  4768. Make the column narrower/wider by one character.
  4769. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{right},org-columns-new}
  4770. Insert a new column, to the left of the current column.
  4771. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{left},org-columns-delete}
  4772. Delete the current column.
  4773. @end table
  4774. @node Capturing column view, , Using column view, Column view
  4775. @subsection Capturing column view
  4776. Since column view is just an overlay over a buffer, it cannot be
  4777. exported or printed directly. If you want to capture a column view, use
  4778. a @code{columnview} dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). The frame
  4779. of this block looks like this:
  4780. @cindex #+BEGIN, columnview
  4781. @example
  4782. * The column view
  4783. #+BEGIN: columnview :hlines 1 :id "label"
  4784. #+END:
  4785. @end example
  4786. @noindent This dynamic block has the following parameters:
  4787. @table @code
  4788. @item :id
  4789. This is the most important parameter. Column view is a feature that is
  4790. often localized to a certain (sub)tree, and the capture block might be
  4791. at a different location in the file. To identify the tree whose view to
  4792. capture, you can use 4 values:
  4793. @cindex property, ID
  4794. @example
  4795. local @r{use the tree in which the capture block is located}
  4796. global @r{make a global view, including all headings in the file}
  4797. "file:@var{path-to-file}"
  4798. @r{run column view at the top of this file}
  4799. "@var{ID}" @r{call column view in the tree that has an @code{:ID:}}
  4800. @r{property with the value @i{label}. You can use}
  4801. @r{@kbd{M-x org-id-copy} to create a globally unique ID for}
  4802. @r{the current entry and copy it to the kill-ring.}
  4803. @end example
  4804. @item :hlines
  4805. When @code{t}, insert an hline after every line. When a number @var{N}, insert
  4806. an hline before each headline with level @code{<= @var{N}}.
  4807. @item :vlines
  4808. When set to @code{t}, force column groups to get vertical lines.
  4809. @item :maxlevel
  4810. When set to a number, don't capture entries below this level.
  4811. @item :skip-empty-rows
  4812. When set to @code{t}, skip rows where the only non-empty specifier of the
  4813. column view is @code{ITEM}.
  4814. @end table
  4815. @noindent
  4816. The following commands insert or update the dynamic block:
  4817. @table @kbd
  4818. @orgcmd{C-c C-x i,org-insert-columns-dblock}
  4819. Insert a dynamic block capturing a column view. You will be prompted
  4820. for the scope or ID of the view.
  4821. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  4822. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  4823. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  4824. @orgcmd{C-u C-c C-x C-u,org-update-all-dblocks}
  4825. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  4826. you have several clock table blocks, column-capturing blocks or other dynamic
  4827. blocks in a buffer.
  4828. @end table
  4829. You can add formulas to the column view table and you may add plotting
  4830. instructions in front of the table---these will survive an update of the
  4831. block. If there is a @code{#+TBLFM:} after the table, the table will
  4832. actually be recalculated automatically after an update.
  4833. An alternative way to capture and process property values into a table is
  4834. provided by Eric Schulte's @file{org-collector.el} which is a contributed
  4835. package@footnote{Contributed packages are not part of Emacs, but are
  4836. distributed with the main distribution of Org (visit
  4837. @uref{http://orgmode.org}).}. It provides a general API to collect
  4838. properties from entries in a certain scope, and arbitrary Lisp expressions to
  4839. process these values before inserting them into a table or a dynamic block.
  4840. @node Property API, , Column view, Properties and Columns
  4841. @section The Property API
  4842. @cindex properties, API
  4843. @cindex API, for properties
  4844. There is a full API for accessing and changing properties. This API can
  4845. be used by Emacs Lisp programs to work with properties and to implement
  4846. features based on them. For more information see @ref{Using the
  4847. property API}.
  4848. @node Dates and Times, Capture - Refile - Archive, Properties and Columns, Top
  4849. @chapter Dates and times
  4850. @cindex dates
  4851. @cindex times
  4852. @cindex timestamp
  4853. @cindex date stamp
  4854. To assist project planning, TODO items can be labeled with a date and/or
  4855. a time. The specially formatted string carrying the date and time
  4856. information is called a @emph{timestamp} in Org mode. This may be a
  4857. little confusing because timestamp is often used as indicating when
  4858. something was created or last changed. However, in Org mode this term
  4859. is used in a much wider sense.
  4860. @menu
  4861. * Timestamps:: Assigning a time to a tree entry
  4862. * Creating timestamps:: Commands which insert timestamps
  4863. * Deadlines and scheduling:: Planning your work
  4864. * Clocking work time:: Tracking how long you spend on a task
  4865. * Effort estimates:: Planning work effort in advance
  4866. * Relative timer:: Notes with a running timer
  4867. * Countdown timer:: Starting a countdown timer for a task
  4868. @end menu
  4869. @node Timestamps, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times, Dates and Times
  4870. @section Timestamps, deadlines, and scheduling
  4871. @cindex timestamps
  4872. @cindex ranges, time
  4873. @cindex date stamps
  4874. @cindex deadlines
  4875. @cindex scheduling
  4876. A timestamp is a specification of a date (possibly with a time or a range of
  4877. times) in a special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>}@footnote{In this
  4878. simplest form, the day name is optional when you type the date yourself.
  4879. However, any dates inserted or modified by Org will add that day name, for
  4880. reading convenience.} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue 09:39>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
  4881. Tue 12:00-12:30>}@footnote{This is inspired by the standard ISO 8601
  4882. date/time format. To use an alternative format, see @ref{Custom time
  4883. format}.}. A timestamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an Org
  4884. tree entry. Its presence causes entries to be shown on specific dates in the
  4885. agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}). We distinguish:
  4886. @table @var
  4887. @item Plain timestamp; Event; Appointment
  4888. @cindex timestamp
  4889. @cindex appointment
  4890. A simple timestamp just assigns a date/time to an item. This is just
  4891. like writing down an appointment or event in a paper agenda. In the
  4892. timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry associated with a
  4893. plain timestamp will be shown exactly on that date.
  4894. @example
  4895. * Meet Peter at the movies
  4896. <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
  4897. * Discussion on climate change
  4898. <2006-11-02 Thu 20:00-22:00>
  4899. @end example
  4900. @item Timestamp with repeater interval
  4901. @cindex timestamp, with repeater interval
  4902. A timestamp may contain a @emph{repeater interval}, indicating that it
  4903. applies not only on the given date, but again and again after a certain
  4904. interval of N days (d), weeks (w), months (m), or years (y). The
  4905. following will show up in the agenda every Wednesday:
  4906. @example
  4907. * Pick up Sam at school
  4908. <2007-05-16 Wed 12:30 +1w>
  4909. @end example
  4910. @item Diary-style sexp entries
  4911. For more complex date specifications, Org mode supports using the special
  4912. sexp diary entries implemented in the Emacs calendar/diary
  4913. package@footnote{When working with the standard diary sexp functions, you
  4914. need to be very careful with the order of the arguments. That order depend
  4915. evilly on the variable @code{calendar-date-style} (or, for older Emacs
  4916. versions, @code{european-calendar-style}). For example, to specify a date
  4917. December 12, 2005, the call might look like @code{(diary-date 12 1 2005)} or
  4918. @code{(diary-date 1 12 2005)} or @code{(diary-date 2005 12 1)}, depending on
  4919. the settings. This has been the source of much confusion. Org mode users
  4920. can resort to special versions of these functions like @code{org-date} or
  4921. @code{org-anniversary}. These work just like the corresponding @code{diary-}
  4922. functions, but with stable ISO order of arguments (year, month, day) wherever
  4923. applicable, independent of the value of @code{calendar-date-style}.}. For
  4924. example with optional time
  4925. @example
  4926. * 22:00-23:00 The nerd meeting on every 2nd Thursday of the month
  4927. <%%(diary-float t 4 2)>
  4928. @end example
  4929. @item Time/Date range
  4930. @cindex timerange
  4931. @cindex date range
  4932. Two timestamps connected by @samp{--} denote a range. The headline
  4933. will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on any dates
  4934. that are displayed and fall in the range. Here is an example:
  4935. @example
  4936. ** Meeting in Amsterdam
  4937. <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
  4938. @end example
  4939. @item Inactive timestamp
  4940. @cindex timestamp, inactive
  4941. @cindex inactive timestamp
  4942. Just like a plain timestamp, but with square brackets instead of
  4943. angular ones. These timestamps are inactive in the sense that they do
  4944. @emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.
  4945. @example
  4946. * Gillian comes late for the fifth time
  4947. [2006-11-01 Wed]
  4948. @end example
  4949. @end table
  4950. @node Creating timestamps, Deadlines and scheduling, Timestamps, Dates and Times
  4951. @section Creating timestamps
  4952. @cindex creating timestamps
  4953. @cindex timestamps, creating
  4954. For Org mode to recognize timestamps, they need to be in the specific
  4955. format. All commands listed below produce timestamps in the correct
  4956. format.
  4957. @table @kbd
  4958. @orgcmd{C-c .,org-time-stamp}
  4959. Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding timestamp. When the cursor is
  4960. at an existing timestamp in the buffer, the command is used to modify this
  4961. timestamp instead of inserting a new one. When this command is used twice in
  4962. succession, a time range is inserted.
  4963. @c
  4964. @orgcmd{C-c !,org-time-stamp-inactive}
  4965. Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive timestamp that will not cause
  4966. an agenda entry.
  4967. @c
  4968. @kindex C-u C-c .
  4969. @kindex C-u C-c !
  4970. @item C-u C-c .
  4971. @itemx C-u C-c !
  4972. @vindex org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes
  4973. Like @kbd{C-c .} and @kbd{C-c !}, but use the alternative format which
  4974. contains date and time. The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5
  4975. minutes, see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.
  4976. @c
  4977. @orgkey{C-c C-c}
  4978. Normalize timestamp, insert/fix day name if missing or wrong.
  4979. @c
  4980. @orgcmd{C-c <,org-date-from-calendar}
  4981. Insert a timestamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.
  4982. @c
  4983. @orgcmd{C-c >,org-goto-calendar}
  4984. Access the Emacs calendar for the current date. If there is a
  4985. timestamp in the current line, go to the corresponding date
  4986. instead.
  4987. @c
  4988. @orgcmd{C-c C-o,org-open-at-point}
  4989. Access the agenda for the date given by the timestamp or -range at
  4990. point (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}).
  4991. @c
  4992. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-timestamp-down-day,org-timestamp-up-day}
  4993. Change date at cursor by one day. These key bindings conflict with
  4994. shift-selection and related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  4995. @c
  4996. @orgcmdkkcc{S-@key{up},S-@key{down},org-timestamp-up,org-timestamp-down-down}
  4997. Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp. The cursor can be on a
  4998. year, month, day, hour or minute. When the timestamp contains a time range
  4999. like @samp{15:30-16:30}, modifying the first time will also shift the second,
  5000. shifting the time block with constant length. To change the length, modify
  5001. the second time. Note that if the cursor is in a headline and not at a
  5002. timestamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
  5003. (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with shift-selection and
  5004. related modes (@pxref{Conflicts}).
  5005. @c
  5006. @orgcmd{C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5007. @cindex evaluate time range
  5008. Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and end.
  5009. With a prefix argument, insert result after the time range (in a table: into
  5010. the following column).
  5011. @end table
  5012. @menu
  5013. * The date/time prompt:: How Org mode helps you entering date and time
  5014. * Custom time format:: Making dates look different
  5015. @end menu
  5016. @node The date/time prompt, Custom time format, Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
  5017. @subsection The date/time prompt
  5018. @cindex date, reading in minibuffer
  5019. @cindex time, reading in minibuffer
  5020. @vindex org-read-date-prefer-future
  5021. When Org mode prompts for a date/time, the default is shown in default
  5022. date/time format, and the prompt therefore seems to ask for a specific
  5023. format. But it will in fact accept date/time information in a variety of
  5024. formats. Generally, the information should start at the beginning of the
  5025. string. Org mode will find whatever information is in
  5026. there and derive anything you have not specified from the @emph{default date
  5027. and time}. The default is usually the current date and time, but when
  5028. modifying an existing timestamp, or when entering the second stamp of a
  5029. range, it is taken from the stamp in the buffer. When filling in
  5030. information, Org mode assumes that most of the time you will want to enter a
  5031. date in the future: if you omit the month/year and the given day/month is
  5032. @i{before} today, it will assume that you mean a future date@footnote{See the
  5033. variable @code{org-read-date-prefer-future}. You may set that variable to
  5034. the symbol @code{time} to even make a time before now shift the date to
  5035. tomorrow.}. If the date has been automatically shifted into the future, the
  5036. time prompt will show this with @samp{(=>F).}
  5037. For example, let's assume that today is @b{June 13, 2006}. Here is how
  5038. various inputs will be interpreted, the items filled in by Org mode are
  5039. in @b{bold}.
  5040. @example
  5041. 3-2-5 @result{} 2003-02-05
  5042. 2/5/3 @result{} 2003-02-05
  5043. 14 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-14
  5044. 12 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{07}-12
  5045. 2/5 @result{} @b{2007}-02-05
  5046. Fri @result{} nearest Friday (default date or later)
  5047. sep 15 @result{} @b{2006}-09-15
  5048. feb 15 @result{} @b{2007}-02-15
  5049. sep 12 9 @result{} 2009-09-12
  5050. 12:45 @result{} @b{2006}-@b{06}-@b{13} 12:45
  5051. 22 sept 0:34 @result{} @b{2006}-09-22 0:34
  5052. w4 @result{} ISO week for of the current year @b{2006}
  5053. 2012 w4 fri @result{} Friday of ISO week 4 in 2012
  5054. 2012-w04-5 @result{} Same as above
  5055. @end example
  5056. Furthermore you can specify a relative date by giving, as the
  5057. @emph{first} thing in the input: a plus/minus sign, a number and a
  5058. letter ([dwmy]) to indicate change in days, weeks, months, or years. With a
  5059. single plus or minus, the date is always relative to today. With a
  5060. double plus or minus, it is relative to the default date. If instead of
  5061. a single letter, you use the abbreviation of day name, the date will be
  5062. the Nth such day, e.g.:
  5063. @example
  5064. +0 @result{} today
  5065. . @result{} today
  5066. +4d @result{} four days from today
  5067. +4 @result{} same as above
  5068. +2w @result{} two weeks from today
  5069. ++5 @result{} five days from default date
  5070. +2tue @result{} second Tuesday from now.
  5071. @end example
  5072. @vindex parse-time-months
  5073. @vindex parse-time-weekdays
  5074. The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations. If
  5075. you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
  5076. the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.
  5077. @vindex org-read-date-force-compatible-dates
  5078. Not all dates can be represented in a given Emacs implementation. By default
  5079. Org mode forces dates into the compatibility range 1970--2037 which works on
  5080. all Emacs implementations. If you want to use dates outside of this range,
  5081. read the docstring of the variable
  5082. @code{org-read-date-force-compatible-dates}.
  5083. You can specify a time range by giving start and end times or by giving a
  5084. start time and a duration (in HH:MM format). Use one or two dash(es) as the
  5085. separator in the former case and use '+' as the separator in the latter
  5086. case, e.g.:
  5087. @example
  5088. 11am-1:15pm @result{} 11:00-13:15
  5089. 11am--1:15pm @result{} same as above
  5090. 11am+2:15 @result{} same as above
  5091. @end example
  5092. @cindex calendar, for selecting date
  5093. @vindex org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt
  5094. Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
  5095. you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
  5096. @code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}. When you exit the date
  5097. prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
  5098. @key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
  5099. information entered at the prompt. You can control the calendar fully
  5100. from the minibuffer:
  5101. @kindex <
  5102. @kindex >
  5103. @kindex M-v
  5104. @kindex C-v
  5105. @kindex mouse-1
  5106. @kindex S-@key{right}
  5107. @kindex S-@key{left}
  5108. @kindex S-@key{down}
  5109. @kindex S-@key{up}
  5110. @kindex M-S-@key{right}
  5111. @kindex M-S-@key{left}
  5112. @kindex @key{RET}
  5113. @example
  5114. @key{RET} @r{Choose date at cursor in calendar.}
  5115. mouse-1 @r{Select date by clicking on it.}
  5116. S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One day forward/backward.}
  5117. S-@key{down}/@key{up} @r{One week forward/backward.}
  5118. M-S-@key{right}/@key{left} @r{One month forward/backward.}
  5119. > / < @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by one month.}
  5120. M-v / C-v @r{Scroll calendar forward/backward by 3 months.}
  5121. @end example
  5122. @vindex org-read-date-display-live
  5123. The actions of the date/time prompt may seem complex, but I assure you they
  5124. will grow on you, and you will start getting annoyed by pretty much any other
  5125. way of entering a date/time out there. To help you understand what is going
  5126. on, the current interpretation of your input will be displayed live in the
  5127. minibuffer@footnote{If you find this distracting, turn the display of with
  5128. @code{org-read-date-display-live}.}.
  5129. @node Custom time format, , The date/time prompt, Creating timestamps
  5130. @subsection Custom time format
  5131. @cindex custom date/time format
  5132. @cindex time format, custom
  5133. @cindex date format, custom
  5134. @vindex org-display-custom-times
  5135. @vindex org-time-stamp-custom-formats
  5136. Org mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
  5137. defined in ISO 8601. If you cannot get used to this and require another
  5138. representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
  5139. customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
  5140. @code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.
  5141. @table @kbd
  5142. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-t,org-toggle-time-stamp-overlays}
  5143. Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
  5144. @end table
  5145. @noindent
  5146. Org mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
  5147. format does not @emph{replace} the default format---instead it is put
  5148. @emph{over} the default format using text properties. This has the
  5149. following consequences:
  5150. @itemize @bullet
  5151. @item
  5152. You cannot place the cursor onto a timestamp anymore, only before or
  5153. after.
  5154. @item
  5155. The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
  5156. each component of a timestamp. If the cursor is at the beginning of
  5157. the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
  5158. just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}. At the end of the stamp, the
  5159. time will be changed by one minute.
  5160. @item
  5161. If the timestamp contains a range of clock times or a repeater, these
  5162. will not be overlaid, but remain in the buffer as they were.
  5163. @item
  5164. When you delete a timestamp character-by-character, it will only
  5165. disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
  5166. belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
  5167. @item
  5168. If the custom timestamp format is longer than the default and you are
  5169. using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up. If the custom
  5170. format is shorter, things do work as expected.
  5171. @end itemize
  5172. @node Deadlines and scheduling, Clocking work time, Creating timestamps, Dates and Times
  5173. @section Deadlines and scheduling
  5174. A timestamp may be preceded by special keywords to facilitate planning:
  5175. @table @var
  5176. @item DEADLINE
  5177. @cindex DEADLINE keyword
  5178. Meaning: the task (most likely a TODO item, though not necessarily) is supposed
  5179. to be finished on that date.
  5180. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5181. @vindex org-agenda-skip-deadline-prewarning-if-scheduled
  5182. On the deadline date, the task will be listed in the agenda. In
  5183. addition, the agenda for @emph{today} will carry a warning about the
  5184. approaching or missed deadline, starting
  5185. @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and continuing
  5186. until the entry is marked DONE@. An example:
  5187. @example
  5188. *** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
  5189. DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
  5190. The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
  5191. @end example
  5192. You can specify a different lead time for warnings for a specific
  5193. deadlines using the following syntax. Here is an example with a warning
  5194. period of 5 days @code{DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun -5d>}. This warning is
  5195. deactivated if the task get scheduled and you set
  5196. @code{org-agenda-skip-deadline-prewarning-if-scheduled} to @code{t}.
  5197. @item SCHEDULED
  5198. @cindex SCHEDULED keyword
  5199. Meaning: you are planning to start working on that task on the given
  5200. date.
  5201. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done
  5202. The headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still
  5203. be listed on that date after it has been marked DONE@. If you don't like
  5204. this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}. In
  5205. addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
  5206. in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE, i.e.,
  5207. the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.
  5208. @example
  5209. *** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
  5210. SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
  5211. @end example
  5212. @vindex org-scheduled-delay-days
  5213. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-delay-if-deadline
  5214. If you want to @emph{delay} the display of this task in the agenda, use
  5215. @code{SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat -2d>}: the task is still scheduled on the
  5216. 25th but will appear two days later. In case the task contains a repeater,
  5217. the delay is considered to affect all occurrences; if you want it to affect
  5218. only the first scheduled occurrence of the task, use @code{--2d} instead.
  5219. See @code{org-scheduled-delay-days} and
  5220. @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-delay-if-deadline} for details on how to
  5221. control this globally or per agenda.
  5222. @noindent
  5223. @b{Important:} Scheduling an item in Org mode should @i{not} be
  5224. understood in the same way that we understand @i{scheduling a meeting}.
  5225. Setting a date for a meeting is just a simple appointment, you should
  5226. mark this entry with a simple plain timestamp, to get this item shown
  5227. on the date where it applies. This is a frequent misunderstanding by
  5228. Org users. In Org mode, @i{scheduling} means setting a date when you
  5229. want to start working on an action item.
  5230. @end table
  5231. You may use timestamps with repeaters in scheduling and deadline
  5232. entries. Org mode will issue early and late warnings based on the
  5233. assumption that the timestamp represents the @i{nearest instance} of
  5234. the repeater. However, the use of diary sexp entries like
  5235. @c
  5236. @code{<%%(diary-float t 42)>}
  5237. @c
  5238. in scheduling and deadline timestamps is limited. Org mode does not
  5239. know enough about the internals of each sexp function to issue early and
  5240. late warnings. However, it will show the item on each day where the
  5241. sexp entry matches.
  5242. @menu
  5243. * Inserting deadline/schedule:: Planning items
  5244. * Repeated tasks:: Items that show up again and again
  5245. @end menu
  5246. @node Inserting deadline/schedule, Repeated tasks, Deadlines and scheduling, Deadlines and scheduling
  5247. @subsection Inserting deadlines or schedules
  5248. The following commands allow you to quickly insert@footnote{The @samp{SCHEDULED} and
  5249. @samp{DEADLINE} dates are inserted on the line right below the headline. Don't put
  5250. any text between this line and the headline.} a deadline or to schedule
  5251. an item:
  5252. @table @kbd
  5253. @c
  5254. @orgcmd{C-c C-d,org-deadline}
  5255. Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will happen
  5256. in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp will be
  5257. removed. When called with a prefix arg, an existing deadline will be removed
  5258. from the entry. Depending on the variable @code{org-log-redeadline}@footnote{with corresponding
  5259. @code{#+STARTUP} keywords @code{logredeadline}, @code{lognoteredeadline},
  5260. and @code{nologredeadline}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5261. deadline.
  5262. @orgcmd{C-c C-s,org-schedule}
  5263. Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp. The insertion will
  5264. happen in the line directly following the headline. Any CLOSED timestamp
  5265. will be removed. When called with a prefix argument, remove the scheduling
  5266. date from the entry. Depending on the variable
  5267. @code{org-log-reschedule}@footnote{with corresponding @code{#+STARTUP}
  5268. keywords @code{logreschedule}, @code{lognotereschedule}, and
  5269. @code{nologreschedule}}, a note will be taken when changing an existing
  5270. scheduling time.
  5271. @c
  5272. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-k,org-mark-entry-for-agenda-action}
  5273. @kindex k a
  5274. @kindex k s
  5275. Mark the current entry for agenda action. After you have marked the entry
  5276. like this, you can open the agenda or the calendar to find an appropriate
  5277. date. With the cursor on the selected date, press @kbd{k s} or @kbd{k d} to
  5278. schedule the marked item.
  5279. @c
  5280. @orgcmd{C-c / d,org-check-deadlines}
  5281. @cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
  5282. @vindex org-deadline-warning-days
  5283. Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
  5284. which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
  5285. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file. With a numeric
  5286. prefix, check that many days. For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c / d} shows
  5287. all deadlines due tomorrow.
  5288. @c
  5289. @orgcmd{C-c / b,org-check-before-date}
  5290. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items before a given date.
  5291. @c
  5292. @orgcmd{C-c / a,org-check-after-date}
  5293. Sparse tree for deadlines and scheduled items after a given date.
  5294. @end table
  5295. Note that @code{org-schedule} and @code{org-deadline} supports
  5296. setting the date by indicating a relative time: e.g., +1d will set
  5297. the date to the next day after today, and --1w will set the date
  5298. to the previous week before any current timestamp.
  5299. @node Repeated tasks, , Inserting deadline/schedule, Deadlines and scheduling
  5300. @subsection Repeated tasks
  5301. @cindex tasks, repeated
  5302. @cindex repeated tasks
  5303. Some tasks need to be repeated again and again. Org mode helps to
  5304. organize such tasks using a so-called repeater in a DEADLINE, SCHEDULED,
  5305. or plain timestamp. In the following example
  5306. @example
  5307. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5308. DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m>
  5309. @end example
  5310. @noindent
  5311. the @code{+1m} is a repeater; the intended interpretation is that the task
  5312. has a deadline on <2005-10-01> and repeats itself every (one) month starting
  5313. from that time. You can use yearly, monthly, weekly, daily and hourly repeat
  5314. cookies by using the @code{y/w/m/d/h} letters. If you need both a repeater
  5315. and a special warning period in a deadline entry, the repeater should come
  5316. first and the warning period last: @code{DEADLINE: <2005-10-01 Sat +1m -3d>}.
  5317. @vindex org-todo-repeat-to-state
  5318. Deadlines and scheduled items produce entries in the agenda when they are
  5319. over-due, so it is important to be able to mark such an entry as completed
  5320. once you have done so. When you mark a DEADLINE or a SCHEDULE with the TODO
  5321. keyword DONE, it will no longer produce entries in the agenda. The problem
  5322. with this is, however, that then also the @emph{next} instance of the
  5323. repeated entry will not be active. Org mode deals with this in the following
  5324. way: When you try to mark such an entry DONE (using @kbd{C-c C-t}), it will
  5325. shift the base date of the repeating timestamp by the repeater interval, and
  5326. immediately set the entry state back to TODO@footnote{In fact, the target
  5327. state is taken from, in this sequence, the @code{REPEAT_TO_STATE} property or
  5328. the variable @code{org-todo-repeat-to-state}. If neither of these is
  5329. specified, the target state defaults to the first state of the TODO state
  5330. sequence.}. In the example above, setting the state to DONE would actually
  5331. switch the date like this:
  5332. @example
  5333. ** TODO Pay the rent
  5334. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue +1m>
  5335. @end example
  5336. @vindex org-log-repeat
  5337. A timestamp@footnote{You can change this using the option
  5338. @code{org-log-repeat}, or the @code{#+STARTUP} options @code{logrepeat},
  5339. @code{lognoterepeat}, and @code{nologrepeat}. With @code{lognoterepeat}, you
  5340. will also be prompted for a note.} will be added under the deadline, to keep
  5341. a record that you actually acted on the previous instance of this deadline.
  5342. As a consequence of shifting the base date, this entry will no longer be
  5343. visible in the agenda when checking past dates, but all future instances
  5344. will be visible.
  5345. With the @samp{+1m} cookie, the date shift will always be exactly one
  5346. month. So if you have not paid the rent for three months, marking this
  5347. entry DONE will still keep it as an overdue deadline. Depending on the
  5348. task, this may not be the best way to handle it. For example, if you
  5349. forgot to call your father for 3 weeks, it does not make sense to call
  5350. him 3 times in a single day to make up for it. Finally, there are tasks
  5351. like changing batteries which should always repeat a certain time
  5352. @i{after} the last time you did it. For these tasks, Org mode has
  5353. special repeaters @samp{++} and @samp{.+}. For example:
  5354. @example
  5355. ** TODO Call Father
  5356. DEADLINE: <2008-02-10 Sun ++1w>
  5357. Marking this DONE will shift the date by at least one week,
  5358. but also by as many weeks as it takes to get this date into
  5359. the future. However, it stays on a Sunday, even if you called
  5360. and marked it done on Saturday.
  5361. ** TODO Check the batteries in the smoke detectors
  5362. DEADLINE: <2005-11-01 Tue .+1m>
  5363. Marking this DONE will shift the date to one month after
  5364. today.
  5365. @end example
  5366. @vindex org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-deadline-is-shown
  5367. You may have both scheduling and deadline information for a specific task.
  5368. If the repeater is set for the scheduling information only, you probably want
  5369. the repeater to be ignored after the deadline. If so, set the variable
  5370. @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-deadline-is-shown} to
  5371. @code{repeated-after-deadline}. If you want both scheduling and deadline
  5372. information to repeat after the same interval, set the same repeater for both
  5373. timestamps.
  5374. An alternative to using a repeater is to create a number of copies of a task
  5375. subtree, with dates shifted in each copy. The command @kbd{C-c C-x c} was
  5376. created for this purpose, it is described in @ref{Structure editing}.
  5377. @node Clocking work time, Effort estimates, Deadlines and scheduling, Dates and Times
  5378. @section Clocking work time
  5379. @cindex clocking time
  5380. @cindex time clocking
  5381. Org mode allows you to clock the time you spend on specific tasks in a
  5382. project. When you start working on an item, you can start the clock. When
  5383. you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the clock is
  5384. stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded. It also computes
  5385. the total time spent on each subtree@footnote{Clocking only works if all
  5386. headings are indented with less than 30 stars. This is a hardcoded
  5387. limitation of `lmax' in `org-clock-sum'.} of a project. And it remembers a
  5388. history or tasks recently clocked, to that you can jump quickly between a
  5389. number of tasks absorbing your time.
  5390. To save the clock history across Emacs sessions, use
  5391. @lisp
  5392. (setq org-clock-persist 'history)
  5393. (org-clock-persistence-insinuate)
  5394. @end lisp
  5395. When you clock into a new task after resuming Emacs, the incomplete
  5396. clock@footnote{To resume the clock under the assumption that you have worked
  5397. on this task while outside Emacs, use @code{(setq org-clock-persist t)}.}
  5398. will be found (@pxref{Resolving idle time}) and you will be prompted about
  5399. what to do with it.
  5400. @menu
  5401. * Clocking commands:: Starting and stopping a clock
  5402. * The clock table:: Detailed reports
  5403. * Resolving idle time:: Resolving time when you've been idle
  5404. @end menu
  5405. @node Clocking commands, The clock table, Clocking work time, Clocking work time
  5406. @subsection Clocking commands
  5407. @table @kbd
  5408. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-i,org-clock-in}
  5409. @vindex org-clock-into-drawer
  5410. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5411. @cindex property, LOG_INTO_DRAWER
  5412. Start the clock on the current item (clock-in). This inserts the CLOCK
  5413. keyword together with a timestamp. If this is not the first clocking of
  5414. this item, the multiple CLOCK lines will be wrapped into a
  5415. @code{:LOGBOOK:} drawer (see also the variable
  5416. @code{org-clock-into-drawer}). You can also overrule
  5417. the setting of this variable for a subtree by setting a
  5418. @code{CLOCK_INTO_DRAWER} or @code{LOG_INTO_DRAWER} property.
  5419. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5420. select the task from a list of recently clocked tasks. With two @kbd{C-u
  5421. C-u} prefixes, clock into the task at point and mark it as the default task;
  5422. the default task will then always be available with letter @kbd{d} when
  5423. selecting a clocking task. With three @kbd{C-u C-u C-u} prefixes, force
  5424. continuous clocking by starting the clock when the last clock stopped.@*
  5425. @cindex property: CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL
  5426. @cindex property: LAST_REPEAT
  5427. @vindex org-clock-modeline-total
  5428. While the clock is running, the current clocking time is shown in the mode
  5429. line, along with the title of the task. The clock time shown will be all
  5430. time ever clocked for this task and its children. If the task has an effort
  5431. estimate (@pxref{Effort estimates}), the mode line displays the current
  5432. clocking time against it@footnote{To add an effort estimate ``on the fly'',
  5433. hook a function doing this to @code{org-clock-in-prepare-hook}.} If the task
  5434. is a repeating one (@pxref{Repeated tasks}), only the time since the last
  5435. reset of the task @footnote{as recorded by the @code{LAST_REPEAT} property}
  5436. will be shown. More control over what time is shown can be exercised with
  5437. the @code{CLOCK_MODELINE_TOTAL} property. It may have the values
  5438. @code{current} to show only the current clocking instance, @code{today} to
  5439. show all time clocked on this tasks today (see also the variable
  5440. @code{org-extend-today-until}), @code{all} to include all time, or
  5441. @code{auto} which is the default@footnote{See also the variable
  5442. @code{org-clock-modeline-total}.}.@* Clicking with @kbd{mouse-1} onto the
  5443. mode line entry will pop up a menu with clocking options.
  5444. @c
  5445. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-o,org-clock-out}
  5446. @vindex org-log-note-clock-out
  5447. Stop the clock (clock-out). This inserts another timestamp at the same
  5448. location where the clock was last started. It also directly computes
  5449. the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
  5450. HH:MM}. See the variable @code{org-log-note-clock-out} for the
  5451. possibility to record an additional note together with the clock-out
  5452. timestamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is:
  5453. @code{#+STARTUP: lognoteclock-out}}.
  5454. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-x,org-clock-in-last}
  5455. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5456. Reclock the last clocked task. With one @kbd{C-u} prefix argument,
  5457. select the task from the clock history. With two @kbd{C-u} prefixes,
  5458. force continuous clocking by starting the clock when the last clock
  5459. stopped.
  5460. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-e,org-clock-modify-effort-estimate}
  5461. Update the effort estimate for the current clock task.
  5462. @kindex C-c C-y
  5463. @kindex C-c C-c
  5464. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-y,org-evaluate-time-range}
  5465. Recompute the time interval after changing one of the timestamps. This
  5466. is only necessary if you edit the timestamps directly. If you change
  5467. them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
  5468. @orgcmd{C-S-@key{up/down},org-clock-timestamps-up/down}
  5469. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease both timestamps so that the
  5470. clock duration keeps the same.
  5471. @orgcmd{S-M-@key{up/down},org-timestamp-up/down}
  5472. On @code{CLOCK} log lines, increase/decrease the timestamp at point and
  5473. the one of the previous (or the next clock) timestamp by the same duration.
  5474. For example, if you hit @kbd{S-M-@key{up}} to increase a clocked-out timestamp
  5475. by five minutes, then the clocked-in timestamp of the next clock will be
  5476. increased by five minutes.
  5477. @orgcmd{C-c C-t,org-todo}
  5478. Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
  5479. if it is running in this same item.
  5480. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-q,org-clock-cancel}
  5481. Cancel the current clock. This is useful if a clock was started by
  5482. mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
  5483. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-j,org-clock-goto}
  5484. Jump to the headline of the currently clocked in task. With a @kbd{C-u}
  5485. prefix arg, select the target task from a list of recently clocked tasks.
  5486. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-d,org-clock-display}
  5487. @vindex org-remove-highlights-with-change
  5488. Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer. This puts
  5489. overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time recorded under
  5490. that heading, including the time of any subheadings. You can use visibility
  5491. cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear when you change the
  5492. buffer (see variable @code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press
  5493. @kbd{C-c C-c}.
  5494. @end table
  5495. The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
  5496. the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
  5497. worked on or closed during a day.
  5498. @strong{Important:} note that both @code{org-clock-out} and
  5499. @code{org-clock-in-last} can have a global keybinding and will not
  5500. modify the window disposition.
  5501. @node The clock table, Resolving idle time, Clocking commands, Clocking work time
  5502. @subsection The clock table
  5503. @cindex clocktable, dynamic block
  5504. @cindex report, of clocked time
  5505. Org mode can produce quite complex reports based on the time clocking
  5506. information. Such a report is called a @emph{clock table}, because it is
  5507. formatted as one or several Org tables.
  5508. @table @kbd
  5509. @orgcmd{C-c C-x C-r,org-clock-report}
  5510. Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
  5511. report as an Org mode table into the current file. When the cursor is
  5512. at an existing clock table, just update it. When called with a prefix
  5513. argument, jump to the first clock report in the current document and
  5514. update it. The clock table always includes also trees with
  5515. @code{:ARCHIVE:} tag.
  5516. @orgcmdkkc{C-c C-c,C-c C-x C-u,org-dblock-update}
  5517. Update dynamic block at point. The cursor needs to be in the
  5518. @code{#+BEGIN} line of the dynamic block.
  5519. @orgkey{C-u C-c C-x C-u}
  5520. Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}). This is useful if
  5521. you have several clock table blocks in a buffer.
  5522. @orgcmdkxkc{S-@key{left},S-@key{right},org-clocktable-try-shift}
  5523. Shift the current @code{:block} interval and update the table. The cursor
  5524. needs to be in the @code{#+BEGIN: clocktable} line for this command. If
  5525. @code{:block} is @code{today}, it will be shifted to @code{today-1} etc.
  5526. @end table
  5527. Here is an example of the frame for a clock table as it is inserted into the
  5528. buffer with the @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} command:
  5529. @cindex #+BEGIN, clocktable
  5530. @example
  5531. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil :scope file
  5532. #+END: clocktable
  5533. @end example
  5534. @noindent
  5535. @vindex org-clocktable-defaults
  5536. The @samp{BEGIN} line and specify a number of options to define the scope,
  5537. structure, and formatting of the report. Defaults for all these options can
  5538. be configured in the variable @code{org-clocktable-defaults}.
  5539. @noindent First there are options that determine which clock entries are to
  5540. be selected:
  5541. @example
  5542. :maxlevel @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
  5543. @r{Clocks at deeper levels will be summed into the upper level.}
  5544. :scope @r{The scope to consider. This can be any of the following:}
  5545. nil @r{the current buffer or narrowed region}
  5546. file @r{the full current buffer}
  5547. subtree @r{the subtree where the clocktable is located}
  5548. tree@var{N} @r{the surrounding level @var{N} tree, for example @code{tree3}}
  5549. tree @r{the surrounding level 1 tree}
  5550. agenda @r{all agenda files}
  5551. ("file"..) @r{scan these files}
  5552. file-with-archives @r{current file and its archives}
  5553. agenda-with-archives @r{all agenda files, including archives}
  5554. :block @r{The time block to consider. This block is specified either}
  5555. @r{absolute, or relative to the current time and may be any of}
  5556. @r{these formats:}
  5557. 2007-12-31 @r{New year eve 2007}
  5558. 2007-12 @r{December 2007}
  5559. 2007-W50 @r{ISO-week 50 in 2007}
  5560. 2007-Q2 @r{2nd quarter in 2007}
  5561. 2007 @r{the year 2007}
  5562. today, yesterday, today-@var{N} @r{a relative day}
  5563. thisweek, lastweek, thisweek-@var{N} @r{a relative week}
  5564. thismonth, lastmonth, thismonth-@var{N} @r{a relative month}
  5565. thisyear, lastyear, thisyear-@var{N} @r{a relative year}
  5566. @r{Use @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}} keys to shift the time interval.}
  5567. :tstart @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times.}
  5568. @r{Relative times like @code{"<-2w>"} can also be used. See}
  5569. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for relative time syntax.}
  5570. :tend @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times.}
  5571. @r{Relative times like @code{"<now>"} can also be used. See}
  5572. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for relative time syntax.}
  5573. :wstart @r{The starting day of the week. The default is 1 for monday.}
  5574. :mstart @r{The starting day of the month. The default 1 is for the first}
  5575. @r{day of the month.}
  5576. :step @r{@code{week} or @code{day}, to split the table into chunks.}
  5577. @r{To use this, @code{:block} or @code{:tstart}, @code{:tend} are needed.}
  5578. :stepskip0 @r{Do not show steps that have zero time.}
  5579. :fileskip0 @r{Do not show table sections from files which did not contribute.}
  5580. :tags @r{A tags match to select entries that should contribute. See}
  5581. @r{@ref{Matching tags and properties} for the match syntax.}
  5582. @end example
  5583. Then there are options which determine the formatting of the table. There
  5584. options are interpreted by the function @code{org-clocktable-write-default},
  5585. but you can specify your own function using the @code{:formatter} parameter.
  5586. @example
  5587. :emphasize @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items.}
  5588. :lang @r{Language@footnote{Language terms can be set through the variable @code{org-clock-clocktable-language-setup}.} to use for descriptive cells like "Task".}
  5589. :link @r{Link the item headlines in the table to their origins.}
  5590. :narrow @r{An integer to limit the width of the headline column in}
  5591. @r{the org table. If you write it like @samp{50!}, then the}
  5592. @r{headline will also be shortened in export.}
  5593. :indent @r{Indent each headline field according to its level.}
  5594. :tcolumns @r{Number of columns to be used for times. If this is smaller}
  5595. @r{than @code{:maxlevel}, lower levels will be lumped into one column.}
  5596. :level @r{Should a level number column be included?}
  5597. :compact @r{Abbreviation for @code{:level nil :indent t :narrow 40! :tcolumns 1}}
  5598. @r{All are overwritten except if there is an explicit @code{:narrow}}
  5599. :timestamp @r{A timestamp for the entry, when available. Look for SCHEDULED,}
  5600. @r{DEADLINE, TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMP_IA, in this order.}
  5601. :properties @r{List of properties that should be shown in the table. Each}
  5602. @r{property will get its own column.}
  5603. :inherit-props @r{When this flag is @code{t}, the values for @code{:properties} will be inherited.}
  5604. :formula @r{Content of a @code{#+TBLFM} line to be added and evaluated.}
  5605. @r{As a special case, @samp{:formula %} adds a column with % time.}
  5606. @r{If you do not specify a formula here, any existing formula}
  5607. @r{below the clock table will survive updates and be evaluated.}
  5608. :formatter @r{A function to format clock data and insert it into the buffer.}
  5609. @end example
  5610. To get a clock summary of the current level 1 tree, for the current
  5611. day, you could write
  5612. @example
  5613. #+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today :scope tree1 :link t
  5614. #+END: clocktable
  5615. @end example
  5616. @noindent
  5617. and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
  5618. parameters must be specified in a single line---the line is broken here
  5619. only to fit it into the manual.}
  5620. @example
  5621. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
  5622. :tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"
  5623. #+END: clocktable
  5624. @end example
  5625. A range starting a week ago and ending right now could be written as
  5626. @example
  5627. #+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<-1w>" :tend "<now>"
  5628. #+END: clocktable
  5629. @end example
  5630. A summary of the current subtree with % times would be
  5631. @example
  5632. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope subtree :link t :formula %
  5633. #+END: clocktable
  5634. @end example
  5635. A horizontally compact representation of everything clocked during last week
  5636. would be
  5637. @example
  5638. #+BEGIN: clocktable :scope agenda :block lastweek :compact t
  5639. #+END: clocktable
  5640. @end example
  5641. @node Resolving idle time, , The clock table, Clocking work time
  5642. @subsection Resolving idle time and continuous clocking
  5643. @subsubheading Resolving idle time
  5644. @cindex resolve idle time
  5645. @vindex org-clock-x11idle-program-name
  5646. @cindex idle, resolve, dangling
  5647. If you clock in on a work item, and then walk away from your
  5648. computer---perhaps to take a phone call---you often need to ``resolve'' the
  5649. time you were away by either subtracting it from the current clock, or
  5650. applying it to another one.
  5651. @vindex org-clock-idle-time
  5652. By customizing the variable @code{org-clock-idle-time} to some integer, such
  5653. as 10 or 15, Emacs can alert you when you get back to your computer after
  5654. being idle for that many minutes@footnote{On computers using Mac OS X,
  5655. idleness is based on actual user idleness, not just Emacs' idle time. For
  5656. X11, you can install a utility program @file{x11idle.c}, available in the
  5657. @code{contrib/scripts} directory of the Org git distribution, or install the
  5658. @file{xprintidle} package and set it to the variable
  5659. @code{org-clock-x11idle-program-name} if you are running Debian, to get the
  5660. same general treatment of idleness. On other systems, idle time refers to
  5661. Emacs idle time only.}, and ask what you want to do with the idle time.
  5662. There will be a question waiting for you when you get back, indicating how
  5663. much idle time has passed (constantly updated with the current amount), as
  5664. well as a set of choices to correct the discrepancy:
  5665. @table @kbd
  5666. @item k
  5667. To keep some or all of the minutes and stay clocked in, press @kbd{k}. Org
  5668. will ask how many of the minutes to keep. Press @key{RET} to keep them all,
  5669. effectively changing nothing, or enter a number to keep that many minutes.
  5670. @item K
  5671. If you use the shift key and press @kbd{K}, it will keep however many minutes
  5672. you request and then immediately clock out of that task. If you keep all of
  5673. the minutes, this is the same as just clocking out of the current task.
  5674. @item s
  5675. To keep none of the minutes, use @kbd{s} to subtract all the away time from
  5676. the clock, and then check back in from the moment you returned.
  5677. @item S
  5678. To keep none of the minutes and just clock out at the start of the away time,
  5679. use the shift key and press @kbd{S}. Remember that using shift will always
  5680. leave you clocked out, no matter which option you choose.
  5681. @item C
  5682. To cancel the clock altogether, use @kbd{C}. Note that if instead of
  5683. canceling you subtract the away time, and the resulting clock amount is less
  5684. than a minute, the clock will still be canceled rather than clutter up the
  5685. log with an empty entry.
  5686. @end table
  5687. What if you subtracted those away minutes from the current clock, and now
  5688. want to apply them to a new clock? Simply clock in to any task immediately
  5689. after the subtraction. Org will notice that you have subtracted time ``on
  5690. the books'', so to speak, and will ask if you want to apply those minutes to
  5691. the next task you clock in on.
  5692. There is one other instance when this clock resolution magic occurs. Say you
  5693. were clocked in and hacking away, and suddenly your cat chased a mouse who
  5694. scared a hamster that crashed into your UPS's power button! You suddenly
  5695. lose all your buffers, but thanks to auto-save you still have your recent Org
  5696. mode changes, including your last clock in.
  5697. If you restart Emacs and clock into any task, Org will notice that you have a
  5698. dangling clock which was never clocked out from your last session. Using
  5699. that clock's starting time as the beginning of the unaccounted-for period,
  5700. Org will ask how you want to resolve that time. The logic and behavior is
  5701. identical to dealing with away time due to idleness; it is just happening due
  5702. to a recovery event rather than a set amount of idle time.
  5703. You can also check all the files visited by your Org agenda for dangling
  5704. clocks at any time using @kbd{M-x org-resolve-clocks RET} (or @kbd{C-c C-x C-z}).
  5705. @subsubheading Continuous clocking
  5706. @cindex continuous clocking
  5707. @vindex org-clock-continuously
  5708. You may want to start clocking from the time when you clocked out the
  5709. previous task. To enable this systematically, set @code{org-clock-continuously}
  5710. to @code{t}. Each time you clock in, Org retrieves the clock-out time of the
  5711. last clocked entry for this session, and start the new clock from there.
  5712. If you only want this from time to time, use three universal prefix arguments
  5713. with @code{org-clock-in} and two @kbd{C-u C-u} with @code{org-clock-in-last}.
  5714. @node Effort estimates, Relative timer, Clocking work time, Dates and Times
  5715. @section Effort estimates
  5716. @cindex effort estimates
  5717. @cindex property, Effort
  5718. @vindex org-effort-property
  5719. If you want to plan your work in a very detailed way, or if you need to
  5720. produce offers with quotations of the estimated work effort, you may want to
  5721. assign effort estimates to entries. If you are also clo